Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    An exploration of potential effects on fisheries and exploited stocks of a network of marine protected areas in the North Sea
    Kooten, T. van; Deerenberg, C.M. ; Jak, R.G. ; Hal, R. van; Machiels, M.A.M. - \ 2015
    IJmuiden : IMARES Wageningen UR (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C093/14) - 52
    visserijbeleid - zeevisserij - zeereservaten - noordzee - visserijbeheer - fishery policy - marine fisheries - marine protected areas - north sea - fishery management
    WWF Netherlands has developed a proposal for a network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in the North Sea. Most of the MPAs in this network are already protected under the Natura 2000 framework and/or the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. WWF Netherlands aims to engage with stakeholders and build support for this proposed MPA network. One of the most prominent of these stakeholders is the fishing industry. To provide input for the discussion with stakeholders, the current study investigates potential fishery effects of a total fishery ban in each of the marine protected areas. This represents a hypothetical choice to facilitate comparison with existing scientific literature and calculations of quantity and value of catches and does not reflect a proposal for a total fishery closure of the entire network by either IMARES or WWF Netherlands.
    Pilot study on behaviour of sharks around Saba using acoustic telemetry - Progress report 2014
    Winter, H.V. ; Vink, D. ; Beek, I.J.M. van - \ 2015
    IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C026/15) - 21
    haaien - saba - zeereservaten - telemetrie - migratie - verspreiding - universitair onderzoek - sharks - saba - marine protected areas - telemetry - migration - dispersal - university research
    Worldwide many shark populations are in strong decline mainly due to fisheries. Population status of sharks in the Caribbean is still poorly known. In order to be able to take effective measures to protect sharks, insight in their spatial behaviour during different life stages is required. Do marine parks enhance shark populations and if so at what scale? This pilot study mainly aims at determining the feasibility of using telemetry around Saba and at a later stage at the Saba Bank and surrounding islands, e.g. what logistics and which co-operation, catching and deployment methods are required to set-up telemetric experiments for target shark species, and to get a first insight of the scale of movement patterns of the target shark species.
    Sea@shore: informational governance in marine spatial conflicts at the North Sea
    Toonen, H.M. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol; Jan van Tatenhove; Han Lindeboom. - Wageningen UR : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461737748 - 199
    aquatische ecosystemen - mariene gebieden - natuurbescherming - zeereservaten - governance - noordzee - windenergie - zeevisserij - milieubeleid - aquatic ecosystems - marine areas - nature conservation - marine protected areas - governance - north sea - wind power - marine fisheries - environmental policy

    Oceans and seas seem to be an empty space and untouched wilderness, but are in fact heavily used and exploited by different economic activities which have, to greater or lesser extent, environmental impacts. Attention for marine environmental challenges has grown, and is nowadays captured by views on ecosystem-based management. This builds on the notion that the way forward in marine ecosystem protection is an integrated approach that is place- or area-based (so-called spatial turn) and should use the best available scientific information. This research focuses on this spatial turn in marine governance at the North Sea, one of the busiest seas in the world. More specifically, the emphasis on the informational governance of spatial tensions between nature conservation and economic activities at the North Sea.

    Informational governance points to the growing centrality of informational processes in decision-making around environmental challenges. Information is seen as an indispensable resource to use in resolving such challenges and serves as steering tool in governing sustainability. Information provision through all kind of (online) media means is deliberately aimed at influencing decision-making and fostering change of behaviour. In the marine context, informational governance seems to be a new and promising mode of governance. Facilitated by information and communication technologies, information can connect spatially distant environmental issues to people’s daily lives. However, information is not seen as an unproblematic and neutral object, it is at the centre of struggles and debates in decision-making on resolving spatial and environmental challenges at sea.

    This study analyzes how public and private actors through informational governance (try to) resolve spatial conflicts between economic activities and nature conservation at the North Sea, in order to better understand the centripetal force of information in marine governance. Three research questions are guiding the research:

    How can the centrality of information in the spatial turn in marine governance be conceptualized and analyzed? Which actors are involved in informational governance on marine ecosystem protection and use at the North Sea, and how do they (inter-) act in informational processes? How does informational governance contribute to the solving of spatial conflicts between economic activities and nature conservation at the North Sea?

    Chapter 2 gives an account of the research methodology that underpins the research. It explains that the study draws on a non-radical constructivist and critical realist perspective, and presents the research design used in the study: a qualitative case study approach. The selection of the cases has been based on two different rationales. Two cases were selected as they highlight the role of three main actor groups in informational governance at sea. Two other cases explore informational processes in governance arrangements with regard to a specific spatial conflict between marine ecosystem conservation and use(fisheries and offshore wind power development) . In the study, triangulated data gathering served to strengthen the validity and reliability of the research. The mix of methods employed included document review of research reports, policy documents and online information; semi-structured interviews; and participatory observation in several meetings and conferences. In data analysis, an iterative approach following the theoretical propositions of the research was used.

    In Chapter 3, the marine scaping framework is presented to analyse informational governance on marine ecosystem protection and use. Marine scaping through information follows the morphogenetic approach and combines a focus on conditions structuring informational processes with an agency-based approach. The framework distinguishes three scapes that together form the structure-side: seascape, humanscape and mindscape. Seascape represents the connection between the biophysical specifics of the marine ecosystem and the material features of economic activities that are emplaced in this ecosystem. Humanscape points to human organization in social, political and economic terms. Mindscape brings in the ideational dimension, and refers to discourses, ideas, norms, values and perceptions. In the interplay of humanscape with seascape and mindscape, the connection with agency is made, pointing to the initiatives and interactions between actors who, by means of information, strive for sustainability at the North Sea. To assess whether conditions have changed over time, so- called elaboration is added to the framework. In marine governance, the explicit aim is to strive for a balance between ecosystem protection and use, hence to foster elaboration.

    Chapter 3 illustrates the application of the marine scaping framework by a case study about informational initiatives of eNGO officials who want to push the development of a network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) at the North Sea forward, in order to achieve “ecological coherence” in marine conservation on the North Sea. It is indicated how and why officials from environmental non-gouvernmental organizations (eNGOs) carried out extensive science-based studies to inform policy-making. This information remains however footloose, because there was no institutional setting where the specific need for a MPA network was (high) on the agenda, and as such, eNGOs had no opportunity to tap their reports into existing informational processes. At the same time, this case study shows how eNGOs build up their so-called “informational capital”.

    The case study presented in Chapter 4 provides a historical understanding of informational interactions between science and policy in the Dutch MPA site selection. By establishing MPAs, nature conservation gains literally a place on the North Sea map. Following international regulations and treaties, North Sea countries are obliged to take the leading role in the designation process, and to use scientific criteria only, based on biological and ecological information. The chapter shows that information about vulnerable and pristine habitats and sea life that needs to be protected was merely lacking or contested. It becomes evident that ecological , socio-economic and political considerations cannot be easily separated. Scientists and policy-makers dealt with the entanglement of interests by sharing tasks in the informational processes, being both information providers and users. It is found that especially in cases of uncertainties and data gaps, judgment by scientists is best characterized as expert judgment and sometimes even gut feeling. However, it is also highlighted that it is necessary to keep science as impartial as possible, and to overtly communicate what and whose information is used.

    Chapter 5 analyses the role of information in incorporating the habitat impact of bottom touching gear in the certification scheme of the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC). This represents a spatial conflict between one of the oldest maritime activities at the North Sea, (plaice) fisheries, and marine conservation. The global MSC labeling program is probably the most famous example of informational governance on marine ecosystem protection and use, as it is almost 20 years old. It fits in neatly with the ideas of informational governance: scientific information to assess the environmental performance of a fishery clash with information derived from the fishery itself and stakeholders. And at the same time, information about the fisheries' performance (through the logo on a fish product) is brought to consumers who in turn can reward sustainable fisheries through their buying power. This case study indicates how eNGOs use informational capital in the informational struggles . This role became especially evident during the assessment of the first North Sea plaice fishery, when WWF started to negotiate information with fishermen beyond the formal MSC assessment procedure in order to creating so-called ‘no take-zones’. The eNGO made sure that informal interactions were not totally disconnected from the assessment process. According to this case study, the two fisheries who agreed on the spatial measure also tried to get most out of the additional spatial measure that became part of their certification. They took the spatial measure up in their message towards (potential) clients, stating their fisheries go even beyond the high sustainability standards of MSC.

    The case study in Chapter 6 concerns informational processes related to the ecological impacts of an economic newcomer at the North Sea, that is offshore wind energy. The chapter highlights how the sustainability promise of this renewable source appears to be ‘dark green’: offshore wind farms (OWFs) contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and to the protection of certain marine life (benthos, fish and some bird species). Remarkably, the ecological differentiation towards offshore wind power remains unexploited. Powerful actors related to this pro-wind discourse, such as the wind sector and large eNGOs, are hesitant to use the dark green message of offshore wind power. In onshore wind debates, their emphasis is on the dominant ‘pro-wind’ discourse about combating climate change which leaves no room for (nuanced) spatial and ecological concerns. It is however stated that including the ecological merits of OWFs in an (existing) informational governance design would not be very complicated, and allows actors to commonly strive for further differentiation in the European electricity market.

    The last chapter recapitulates the general findings of the research. The conclusions suggest that a broad array of actors is involved in informational processes that relate to marine governance and push for more sustainability at the North Sea. These actors can take up five distinctive roles in informational processes, that of information negotiator, information authority, information manager, information verifier and information mediator. This role division might be established in a formal way, although often there is room for actors to take up different roles, sometimes only temporally or informally. The conclusions also point to the theoretical contribution of this research to the theoretical development of informational governance, most notably the lessons learnt from its application to the marine context. The methodological reflections indicate the generalizability of the findings, which are in this research linked to the development of the marine scaping framework and the empirically informed distinction between the five roles of actors in informational governance. Finally, the concluding chapter highlights opportunities for future research, such as studies of informational governance related to other economic activities at the North Sea or in other parts of the world.


    Oceans and seas seem to be an empty space and untouched wilderness, but are in fact heavily used and exploited by different economic activities which have, to greater or lesser extent, environmental impacts. Attention for marine environmental challenges has grown, and is nowadays captured by views on ecosystem-based management. This builds on the notion that the way forward in marine ecosystem protection is an integrated approach that is place- or area-based (so-called spatial turn) and should use the best available scientific information. This research focuses on this spatial turn in marine governance at the North Sea, one of the busiest seas in the world. More specifically, the emphasis on the informational governance of spatial tensions between nature conservation and economic activities at the North Sea.

    Informational governance points to the growing centrality of informational processes in decision-making around environmental challenges. Information is seen as an indispensable resource to use in resolving such challenges and serves as steering tool in governing sustainability. Information provision through all kind of (online) media means is deliberately aimed at influencing decision-making and fostering change of behaviour. In the marine context, informational governance seems to be a new and promising mode of governance. Facilitated by information and communication technologies, information can connect spatially distant environmental issues to people’s daily lives. However, information is not seen as an unproblematic and neutral object, it is at the centre of struggles and debates in decision-making on resolving spatial and environmental challenges at sea.

    This study analyzes how public and private actors through informational governance (try to) resolve spatial conflicts between economic activities and nature conservation at the North Sea, in order to better understand the centripetal force of information in marine governance. Three research questions are guiding the research:

    How can the centrality of information in the spatial turn in marine governance be conceptualized and analyzed? Which actors are involved in informational governance on marine ecosystem protection and use at the North Sea, and how do they (inter-) act in informational processes? How does informational governance contribute to the solving of spatial conflicts between economic activities and nature conservation at the North Sea?

    Chapter 2 gives an account of the research methodology that underpins the research. It explains that the study draws on a non-radical constructivist and critical realist perspective, and presents the research design used in the study: a qualitative case study approach. The selection of the cases has been based on two different rationales. Two cases were selected as they highlight the role of three main actor groups in informational governance at sea. Two other cases explore informational processes in governance arrangements with regard to a specific spatial conflict between marine ecosystem conservation and use(fisheries and offshore wind power development) . In the study, triangulated data gathering served to strengthen the validity and reliability of the research. The mix of methods employed included document review of research reports, policy documents and online information; semi-structured interviews; and participatory observation in several meetings and conferences. In data analysis, an iterative approach following the theoretical propositions of the research was used.

    In Chapter 3, the marine scaping framework is presented to analyse informational governance on marine ecosystem protection and use. Marine scaping through information follows the morphogenetic approach and combines a focus on conditions structuring informational processes with an agency-based approach. The framework distinguishes three scapes that together form the structure-side: seascape, humanscape and mindscape. Seascape represents the connection between the biophysical specifics of the marine ecosystem and the material features of economic activities that are emplaced in this ecosystem. Humanscape points to human organization in social, political and economic terms. Mindscape brings in the ideational dimension, and refers to discourses, ideas, norms, values and perceptions. In the interplay of humanscape with seascape and mindscape, the connection with agency is made, pointing to the initiatives and interactions between actors who, by means of information, strive for sustainability at the North Sea. To assess whether conditions have changed over time, so- called elaboration is added to the framework. In marine governance, the explicit aim is to strive for a balance between ecosystem protection and use, hence to foster elaboration.

    Chapter 3 illustrates the application of the marine scaping framework by a case study about informational initiatives of eNGO officials who want to push the development of a network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) at the North Sea forward, in order to achieve “ecological coherence” in marine conservation on the North Sea. It is indicated how and why officials from environmental non-gouvernmental organizations (eNGOs) carried out extensive science-based studies to inform policy-making. This information remains however footloose, because there was no institutional setting where the specific need for a MPA network was (high) on the agenda, and as such, eNGOs had no opportunity to tap their reports into existing informational processes. At the same time, this case study shows how eNGOs build up their so-called “informational capital”.

    The case study presented in Chapter 4 provides a historical understanding of informational interactions between science and policy in the Dutch MPA site selection. By establishing MPAs, nature conservation gains literally a place on the North Sea map. Following international regulations and treaties, North Sea countries are obliged to take the leading role in the designation process, and to use scientific criteria only, based on biological and ecological information. The chapter shows that information about vulnerable and pristine habitats and sea life that needs to be protected was merely lacking or contested. It becomes evident that ecological , socio-economic and political considerations cannot be easily separated. Scientists and policy-makers dealt with the entanglement of interests by sharing tasks in the informational processes, being both information providers and users. It is found that especially in cases of uncertainties and data gaps, judgment by scientists is best characterized as expert judgment and sometimes even gut feeling. However, it is also highlighted that it is necessary to keep science as impartial as possible, and to overtly communicate what and whose information is used.

    Chapter 5 analyses the role of information in incorporating the habitat impact of bottom touching gear in the certification scheme of the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC). This represents a spatial conflict between one of the oldest maritime activities at the North Sea, (plaice) fisheries, and marine conservation. The global MSC labeling program is probably the most famous example of informational governance on marine ecosystem protection and use, as it is almost 20 years old. It fits in neatly with the ideas of informational governance: scientific information to assess the environmental performance of a fishery clash with information derived from the fishery itself and stakeholders. And at the same time, information about the fisheries' performance (through the logo on a fish product) is brought to consumers who in turn can reward sustainable fisheries through their buying power. This case study indicates how eNGOs use informational capital in the informational struggles . This role became especially evident during the assessment of the first North Sea plaice fishery, when WWF started to negotiate information with fishermen beyond the formal MSC assessment procedure in order to creating so-called ‘no take-zones’. The eNGO made sure that informal interactions were not totally disconnected from the assessment process. According to this case study, the two fisheries who agreed on the spatial measure also tried to get most out of the additional spatial measure that became part of their certification. They took the spatial measure up in their message towards (potential) clients, stating their fisheries go even beyond the high sustainability standards of MSC.

    The case study in Chapter 6 concerns informational processes related to the ecological impacts of an economic newcomer at the North Sea, that is offshore wind energy. The chapter highlights how the sustainability promise of this renewable source appears to be ‘dark green’: offshore wind farms (OWFs) contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and to the protection of certain marine life (benthos, fish and some bird species). Remarkably, the ecological differentiation towards offshore wind power remains unexploited. Powerful actors related to this pro-wind discourse, such as the wind sector and large eNGOs, are hesitant to use the dark green message of offshore wind power. In onshore wind debates, their emphasis is on the dominant ‘pro-wind’ discourse about combating climate change which leaves no room for (nuanced) spatial and ecological concerns. It is however stated that including the ecological merits of OWFs in an (existing) informational governance design would not be very complicated, and allows actors to commonly strive for further differentiation in the European electricity market.

    The last chapter recapitulates the general findings of the research. The conclusions suggest that a broad array of actors is involved in informational processes that relate to marine governance and push for more sustainability at the North Sea. These actors can take up five distinctive roles in informational processes, that of information negotiator, information authority, information manager, information verifier and information mediator. This role division might be established in a formal way, although often there is room for actors to take up different roles, sometimes only temporally or informally. The conclusions also point to the theoretical contribution of this research to the theoretical development of informational governance, most notably the lessons learnt from its application to the marine context. The methodological reflections indicate the generalizability of the findings, which are in this research linked to the development of the marine scaping framework and the empirically informed distinction between the five roles of actors in informational governance. Finally, the concluding chapter highlights opportunities for future research, such as studies of informational governance related to other economic activities at the North Sea or in other parts of the world.

    Multifunctionele Platforms: Perspectief voor de toekomst?
    Stuiver, M. ; Gerritsen, A.L. ; Fontein, R.J. ; Agricola, H.J. - \ 2012
    Aquacultuur 27 (2012)5. - ISSN 1382-2764 - p. 6 - 12.
    mariene gebieden - mariene ecologie - zeeaquacultuur - zeereservaten - visserij - windmolenpark - innovaties - ecosystemen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - biomassa - mariene parken - noordzee - marine areas - marine ecology - marine aquaculture - marine protected areas - fisheries - wind farms - innovations - ecosystems - sustainability - biomass - marine parks - north sea
    Anno 2012 bestaan ze in de verbeelding, op papier en als experiment: Multifunctionele platforms op zee of Multi Use Platforms on Sea (MUPS), waarop maritieme activiteiten met elkaar zijn geclusterd. De kern van het concept is om op een locatie op zee meerdere economische activiteiten te combineren en wel zo dat het ecosysteem en de mens er optimaal van kunnen profiteren zonder elkaar wederzijds te belemmeren.
    Baseline survey of anthropogenic pressures for the Lac Bay ecosystem, Bonaire
    Debrot, A.O. - \ 2012
    Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C092/12) - 71
    natuurbescherming - ecosysteembeheer - menselijke invloed - verontreiniging - recreatieactiviteiten - zeereservaten - bonaire - nature conservation - ecosystem management - human impact - pollution - recreational activities - marine protected areas - bonaire
    Lac Bay of Bonaire is a shallow non-estuarine lagoon of about 700 hectares, separated from the open sea by a shallow coral barrier-reef. It possesses the only major concentration of seagrass beds and mangroves of the island. It is a designated Ramsar wetland of international significance, an Birdlife International IBA (Important Bird Area) and also fulfills a critical fish nursery function for the reefs of the island. The bay has consequently been designated as a protected area and is managed by Stinapa-Bonaire. The bay has been losing effective seagrass nursery habitat surface and quality as a consequence of mangrove-driven land acclamation. This in-turn is potentially being exacerbated by human-mediated eutrophication and erosion caused by agricultural and animal husbandry in the wider watershed, as well as other factors. The number of visitors to Bonaire and to Lac has been increasing dramatically over the last decades particularly from cruise ships. Yet little has been done to document and map the various types of human use that occur on and in the vicinity of the bay which might affect the ecological carrying capacity of the bay and the critical roles it plays. In this survey we do preliminary mapping and analysis of the level and distribution of human activity in and around Lac and discuss what possible threats these may entail for the environment of the bay.
    Optimal management of marine resources: spatial planning of multiple uses by multiple actors
    Punt, M.J. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ekko van Ierland; J.H. Stel, co-promotor(en): Hans-Peter Weikard. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730268 - 168
    economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - oceanen - marien milieu - ruimtelijke ordening - zeereservaten - windmolens - natural resource economics - natural resources - resource management - oceans - marine environment - physical planning - marine protected areas - windmills

    Ocean space supplies mankind with a multitude of goods and services and yet it is under severe pressure of pollution and over-extraction of resources. To extract goods and services sustainably and to protect vulnerable ecosystems, we need to manage human activities in the marine domain.

    Three essential elements characterize the management of marine resources. First we are dealing with multiple uses. These uses can be conflicting, neutral or complimentary and therefore when we manage one use we should also address the effects on other uses. Second these uses are inherently spatial. Conflicts can at least partly be avoided and complementarities can be improved with careful spatial planning. Therefore we should address the spatial effects of the multiple uses when managing these activities. Third we are dealing with multiple actors. Depending on the spatial scale we look at these actors can be representatives of the several user groups that have conflicting interests, or they can be countries trying to reach agreements over the use of shared resources.

    In this thesis I investigate how Marine Spatial Planning and one of its tools, Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), can assist us with the management of ocean space. These instruments and their associated incentives are highly influenced by the regulatory framework, and this framework in turn depends on the spatial scale. I investigate three scale levels: the local level, defined as the Exclusive Economic Zone of a single country, the regional level, defined as a regional sea that is fully claimed by a number of countries, and the global level defined as the High Seas where all countries have access within the limits of the UN Law of the Sea.

    On the local level I investigate the spatial planning of offshore wind farms with an optimization model that allocates offshore wind farms under ecological constraints. The model results show that space is an essential element to derive an optimal management plan of the EEZ, because the allocation of offshore wind farms is highly dependent on both spatial economic factors such as location costs and ecological restrictions. The results show that Marine Spatial Planning is necessary, because only in this way can possible synergies between e.g. offshore wind farms and environmental protection be identified and eventually realized. The model can assist with the first steps in Marine Spatial Planning of offshore wind farms; its results can be used as a basis for conversation and consultation with stakeholders.

    On the regional scale I investigate how the multiple use nature of MPAs affects the incentives of countries to assign these MPAs. To this end, I develop a game theoretic model in which two specific uses, fisheries and nature conservation, by multiple countries are considered in a strategic framework. The results of the paper suggest that EU marine policy may help to secure the highest possible benefits from these MPAs, but only if policies force countries to cooperate and consider all possible benefits of MPAs. In fact cooperation on a single issue may give a worse outcome than the non-cooperative equilibrium. The results also indicate that cooperation may be hard to achieve because of defector incentives, and therefore policy measures should be strict in enforcing cooperation on all possible uses of MPAs.

    At the same scale level I study how species distributions and different ways of accounting for the contributions of others affects MPA assignment as a tool for biodiversity conservation. With a spatial game theoretic model I investigate three different conservation regimes: full cooperation, strategic non-cooperation, and conservation autarky. Under strategic non-cooperation countries anticipate protection by the other, under conservation autarky they ignore these contributions. The main results show that unique species occurring in a single ecosystem are relatively well protected, even when countries are free-riding. Species that occur in multiple ecosystems on both sides of the border in contrast are under non-cooperation under-protected, compared to full cooperation. This is in part caused by location leakage, i.e. protecting a number of species less because they are protected by others. On the one hand conservation autarky eliminates location leakage and generates larger MPAs at the border. On the other hand these MPA sizes are often too high from a global perspective. From this we can conclude that international conservation efforts should mainly focus on transboundary occurring species. Also, although conservation autarky is not a first-best solution, if it occurs, e.g. through social norms, it is certainly better than strategic non-cooperation.

    At the third level I study the effect of the assignment of internationally recognized MPAs in the High Seas on the formation of Regional Fisheries Management Organisations (RFMO) with a game theoretic model. MPAs are assigned through a weakest-link game: because everyone has to agree on an MPA before it actually can be protected, it can only be as large as the strongest opposing player wants it to be. I find that if countries have equal costs and benefits MPAs of optimal size are implemented but these have no effect on stability of RFMOs; the only stable coalition is the coalition where everyone acts alone. In the case where countries face different fishing costs, MPAs stabilize a number of extra coalitions such that more and larger coalitions are stable when an MPA is present compared to the no MPA case. Full cooperation, however, is not necessarily reached. A general conclusion is therefore that the assignment of MPAs in the High Seas can not only improve the fisheries through direct effects such as insurance and possible increases in catches, but also indirect by contributing in a positive way to the formation of RFMOs.

    Three important conclusions can be drawn from this thesis as a whole. First Marine Spatial Planning and Marine Protected Areas can contribute in a positive way to the management of human activities in ocean space. Second, neither of them is a silver bullet. Both need careful implementation, where all uses are accounted for, and especially the public good aspects of MPAs needs to be addressed. Third the success of MPAs (and as such of Marine Spatial Planning) is not only highly dependent on the incentives and social norms but also on the implementation scale.

    Biodiversity of the Saba Bank supports status of Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA)
    Meesters, H.W.G. - \ 2010
    IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR no. C014/10) - 17
    natuurbescherming - saba - biodiversiteit - atollen - larven - zeereservaten - nature conservation - saba - biodiversity - atolls - larvae - marine protected areas
    This report contains a study regarding the biodiversity of the Saba Bank, one of the three largest atolls in the world. All scientific and anecdotic evidence suggests that the area is a hot spot of biodiversity and one of the few areas in the Caribbean that is still in a relatively pristine condition. The atoll is likely also important as a source of larvae for other areas in the region because of its enormous dimensions and diverse habitats. Major damage however may already be inflicted by the anchoring of large oil tankers. More scientific research is necessary with regards to the damage inflicted by anchoring and to the sustainability of current fishing practices, but to date there is already sufficient data to call for strong protection of the Saba Bank as soon as possible. Therefore, an application to the International Maritime Organization (IMO) to designate the Saba Bank as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA) in order to prevent possibly irreversible damage to the ecosystem and to enable sustainable protection of it’s vulnerable resources seems crucial and urgent.
    Noordzeereservaten
    Lindeboom, H.J. - \ 2009
    Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 6 (2009)5. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 10 - 11.
    habitats - ecologie - geomorfologie - noordzee - aquatische ecologie - zeereservaten - habitats - ecology - geomorphology - north sea - aquatic ecology - marine protected areas
    De afgelopen decennia begint het besef door te dringen dat het groeiende menselijke gebruik van de zee grote effecten heeft op het mariene milieu. Ongebreideld doorgaan met visserij en ander grootschalig gebruik leidt tot de teloorgang van unieke en waardevolle zeesystemen. In de EU-Kaderrichtlijn Mariene Strategie van vorig jaar juni staat als uitgangspunt: ¿Het mariene milieu is een kostbaar erfgoed dat moet worden beschermd, behouden en waar mogelijk hersteld¿.¿ Ook Nederland zal zich hieraan moeten houden. Daarom heeft het ministerie van LNV verschillende gebieden aangewezen als zeereservaten: Natura2000-gebieden in de Noordzee. Waarschijnlijk zal vooral de visserij in die gebieden moeten veranderen. Meer valt er te lezen in: "Ecologische atlas Noordzee ten behoeve van gebiedsbescherming"
    Marine Protected Areas and commercial fisheries: the existing fishery in potential protected areas, and a modelling study of the impact of protected areas on North Sea Plaice
    Dekker, W. ; Deerenberg, C.M. ; Daan, N. ; Storbeck, F. ; Brinkman, A.G. - \ 2009
    IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / Wageningen IMARES C066/09) - 50
    natuurbeleid - eu regelingen - zeereservaten - habitatrichtlijn - visserij-ecologie - visserij - scenario-analyse - noordzee - nature conservation policy - eu regulations - marine protected areas - habitats directive - fisheries ecology - fisheries - scenario analysis - north sea
    Dit rapport presenteert resultaten van onderzoek, dat in 2005/2006 is uitgevoerd. In het kader van de Europese Vogel en Habitat Richtlijnen dienen lidstaten te beschermen gebieden op zee aan te wijzen, wat mogelijk zou leiden tot beperkingen van visserijactiviteiten in deze gebieden. De vraag was, welke invloed dit zou hebben op de vis en visserij. In dit onderzoek is enerzijds een statische beschrijving opgesteld van de visserijinspanning en de vangsten in de voorgestelde gebieden, en is anderzijds een eerste analyse (simulatie-model) opgezet van het lange-termijn effect op migrerende vis (schol). Dit onderzoek werd eind 2006 afgerond met een concept-rapport.
    Handkokkelactiviteiten in de Waddenzee : antwoord op een aantal vragen van de Provincie Fryslân
    Brinkman, A.G. ; Ens, B.J. ; Jansen, J.M. ; Leopold, M.F. - \ 2008
    Den Burg : IMARES (Rapport / Wageningen IMARES nr. C047/08) - 63
    natuurbescherming - eu regelingen - zeereservaten - waddenzee - natuurgebieden - ecologisch herstel - nature conservation - eu regulations - marine protected areas - wadden sea - natural areas - ecological restoration
    De Waddenzee is aangewezen als Natura2000:gebied waarvoor zowel de Europese Habitatrichtlijn als de Vogelrichtlijn geldt. Voor het Natura2000:gebied zijn in het Natura2000:gebiedendocument (Ministerie LNV, maart 2007 1) instandhoudingsdoelen geformuleerd, waaronder die voor de Scholekster. De omschrijving voor Scholeksters luidt “het behoud van de omvang en de verbetering van de kwaliteit van het leefgebied met een draagkracht voor een populatie van 140.000:160.000 vogels (seizoensgemiddelde)”. Ook is in het Natura:2000 gebiedendocument aangegeven dat de Staat van Instandhouding van de Scholekster zeer slecht is, dat het belang van het gebied voor de populatie zeer groot is en dat de hersteldoelstelling (herstelopgave) een toename van het aantal is. Het is binnen deze context dat een zestal vragen gesteld is door de Provincie Fryslân aan Wageningen IMARES dat betrekking heeft op het belang van kokkelbestanden in de Waddenzee voor voedselzoekende vogels, met name Scholeksters, en op de verenigbaarheid dan wel onverenigbaarheid van handkokkelvisserij in delen van het Waddengebied met de functie van datzelfde gebied als voedselleverancier voor deze vogels. Zowel de voedselsituatie zelf als een eventueel optredende verstoring door de visserijactiviteit is daarbij van belang.
    Economische effecten van sluiting van het beoogde zeereservaat in de Voordelta voor het viscluster
    Oostenbrugge, J.A.E. van; Powell, J.P. ; Smit, J.G.P. ; Taal, C. ; Vos, B.I. de; Poppe, K.J. - \ 2006
    Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 1, Wettelijke en dienstverlenende taken ) - ISBN 9789086151004 - 77
    visserij - ecologie - nadelige gevolgen - nederland - visverwerkende industrie - vergoeding - handel - economische analyse - natuurcompensatie - rijnmondgebied - voordelta - aquatische ecologie - zeereservaten - fisheries - ecology - adverse effects - netherlands - fish industry - compensation - trade - economic analysis - nature compensation - rijnmondgebied - voordelta - aquatic ecology - marine protected areas
    In deze studie zijn de privaat-economische effecten van de aanleg van de Maasvlakte II en de bijkomende natuurcompensatie in een deel van de Voordelta geschat voor de visserijsector. In de analyse zijn zowel de visserij als de handel en verwerkende industrie en de toeleverende bedrijven meegenomen. De effecten zijn bepaald aan de hand van informatie over de visserijactiviteiten over de periode 2001-2005, voor het geval de visserijactiviteiten moeten worden verplaatst of beëindigd. Op basis van de afhankelijkheid van de verschillende typen visserijen van de gebieden wordt een schatting gemaakt van het totale effect van de maatregelen. This study estimates the private-economic effects of the construction of the Maasvlakte II and the accompanying ecological compensation in part of the Voordelta will have on the fishing sector. The analysis reviews the effects on the fishing industry, the fish trade, and the fish-processing and supply industries. The effects of the relocation or termination of the fishing operations are determined on the basis of information about fishing operations during the period 2001-2005. An estimate of the total effect of the measures is made on the basis of the dependency of the various fishing sub-sectors on these regions.
    Ruimtelijke verschillen en temporele fluctuaties in het voorkomen van een aantal schelpdieren in de Voordelta
    Craeymeersch, J.A.M. ; Wijsman, J.W.M. - \ 2006
    IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / Wageningen IMARES nr. C013/06) - 27
    schaaldieren - inventarisaties - zeedieren - noordzee - havens - natuurcompensatie - voordelta - zeereservaten - shellfish - inventories - marine animals - north sea - harbours - nature compensation - voordelta - marine protected areas
    In de Voordelta wordt een zeereservaat ontwikkeld als compensatie voor het verlies aan natuur door de aanleg van de tweede maasvlakte. gepland is, het gebied waar de landaanwinning zal gebeuren, en twee referentiegebieden. In voorliggend rapport zijn ten behoeve van een evaluatie van de nulmetingen gegevens uit het verleden (1993-2004) geanalyseerd. De studie is gericht op potentiële voedselbronnen (schelpdieren) voor zee-eenden. Het voornaamste doel is om inzicht te verkrijgen in ruimtelijke en temporele gelijkenissen en verschillen tussen de referentiegebieden en gebieden in het zeereservaat
    Institutional analysis of marine reserves and fisheries governance policy experiments : a case study of Nassau grouper conservation in the Turks and Caicos Islands
    Rudd, M.A. - \ 2003
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Henk Folmer; Kees van Kooten. - Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - ISBN 9789058088994 - 274
    visserijbeheer - ecosystemen - milieubescherming - turks- en caicoseilanden - natuurreservaten - mariene gebieden - beschermingsgebieden - economische analyse - zeevisserij - ecosysteemdiensten - zeereservaten - fishery management - ecosystems - economic analysis - nature conservation - environmental protection - turks and caicos islands - marine areas - conservation areas - marine fisheries - ecosystem services - marine protected areas
    Keywords: Ecosystem-based fisheries management; marine reserves; marine protected areas; social capital; institutional analysis; Turks and Caicos Islands; Nassau grouper Many tropical fisheries around the world are in crisis because of the depletion of valuable reef species and the destruction of habitat upon which they depend. The complexity of reef fisheries and lack of management resources in southern nations limit the potential effectiveness of policies that focus on single species. As a result, ecosystem-based fisheries management is increasingly viewed as the only real alternative for managing these tropical reef fisheries. There is a widely held view that the devolution of management power from central government managers to local communities is central to the ecosystem-based fisheries management process and that marine reserves are the primary tool by which to implement ecosystem-based fisheries management. Marine reserves can protect or enhance multiple ecosystem services simultaneously and arguments are often made that they are more cost-effective than other management options because they are easy to monitor and enforce. The first theoretically-oriented part of this research emphasizes the role that social capital - the norms, networks and governance infrastructure that facilitates mutually advantageous collective action - plays in ecosystem-based fisheries management. In the second part of the research, I illustrate the utility of taking an institutional analysis approach to ecosystem-based fisheries management policy by examining the case of Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus) conservation and fisheries management in the Turks and Caicos Islands. While the focus of this case study is a single, small island nation, I believe that the results - that there are substantial incentives for private sector and government actors to oppose implementation of marine reserves - have broader relevance in the debate over the use of marine reserves for tropical fisheries management and conservation. Marine reserves are widely viewed as cost-effective, all-purpose tools for fisheries enhancement and conservation, yet my results suggest that there are policy alternatives - in this case, a commercial trade ban on Nassau grouper in tourist-oriented restaurants - that are much more likely to be effectively implemented and that should be substantially more cost-effective than marine reserves. Market-oriented policy tools should not be under-emphasized in ecosystem-based fisheries management. In instances where local social capital is lacking, they may actually have a higher likelihood of achieving conservation objectives and be more cost-effective than poorly supported marine reserves or `paper parks`.
    Een zeereservaat in de Voordelta als marienecompensatie voor Maasvlakte II
    Lindeboom, H.J. ; Leopold, M.F. ; Dankers, N.M.J.A. ; Brasseur, S.M.J.M. ; Bezemer, V. ; Bervaes, J.C.A.M. - \ 2002
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 443) - 77
    ontwerp - havens - natuurreservaten - delta's - nederland - ecologische hoofdstructuur - habitatrichtlijn - natuurcompensatie - rijnmondgebied - voordelta - zeereservaten - design - harbours - nature reserves - deltas - netherlands - ecological network - habitats directive - nature compensation - rijnmondgebied - voordelta - marine protected areas
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