Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Clinical and Pathological Findings in SARS-CoV-2 Disease Outbreaks in Farmed Mink (Neovison vison)
    Molenaar, Robert Jan ; Vreman, Sandra ; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate W. ; Zwart, Rob ; Rond, Jan de; Weesendorp, Eefke ; Smit, Lidwien A.M. ; Koopmans, Marion ; Bouwstra, Ruth ; Stegeman, Arjan ; Poel, Wim H.M. van der - \ 2020
    Veterinary Pathology 57 (2020)5. - ISSN 0300-9858 - p. 653 - 657.
    COVID-19 - mink - pneumonia - respiratory disease - severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 - zoonoses

    SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, caused respiratory disease outbreaks with increased mortality in 4 mink farms in the Netherlands. The most striking postmortem finding was an acute interstitial pneumonia, which was found in nearly all examined mink that died at the peak of the outbreaks. Acute alveolar damage was a consistent histopathological finding in mink that died with pneumonia. SARS-CoV-2 infections were confirmed by detection of viral RNA in throat swabs and by immunohistochemical detection of viral antigen in nasal conchae, trachea, and lung. Clinically, the outbreaks lasted for about 4 weeks but some animals were still polymerase chain reaction–positive for SARS-CoV-2 in throat swabs after clinical signs had disappeared. This is the first report of the clinical and pathological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in mink farms.

    Wild rodents and insectivores as carriers of pathogenic Leptospira and Toxoplasma gondii in The Netherlands
    Krijger, Inge M. ; Ahmed, Ahmed A.A. ; Goris, Maria G.A. ; Cornelissen, Jan B.W.J. ; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W.G. ; Meerburg, Bastiaan G. - \ 2020
    Veterinary Medicine and Science 6 (2020)3. - ISSN 2053-1095 - p. 623 - 630.
    leptospirosis - mice - pathogen–host relationship - rats - reservoir - zoonoses

    Small mammals such as rodents can to carry zoonotic pathogens. Currently, there is impaired knowledge on zoonotic pathogens in rodents and insectivores in the Netherlands. This limits opportunities for preventive measures and complicates risk-assessments for zoonotic transmission to humans. Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are present on a list of prioritized emerging pathogens in the Netherlands and were therefore the focus of this study. Both pathogens have the ability to survive under moist environmental conditions. In total, a group of 379 small mammals (rodents & insectivores) were tested on pathogenic Leptospira spp., and 312 on T. gondii. Rodents and insectivores were trapped at various sites, but mostly on pig and dairy farms throughout the country. Over five percent of the animals (5.3%, n = 379) tested positive for Leptospira DNA, and five of the animals (1.6%, n = 312) tested were positive for T. gondii DNA. The animals positive for T.gondii were all brown rats and the ones for Leptospira spp. were various species. Our results show that insectivores and rodents might be used as an indicator for the environmental contamination and/or the contamination in wildlife for Leptospira spp.

    Characterization of Coxiella burnetii outbreak strains
    Kuley, Runa - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): M.A. Smits; J.M. Wells, co-promotor(en): A. Bossers. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431514 - 226
    coxiella burnetii - q fever - outbreaks - strains - characterization - pathogenesis - zoonoses - virulence - dna sequencing - polymerase chain reaction - livestock farming - netherlands - coxiella burnetii - q-koorts - uitbraken (ziekten) - stammen (biologisch) - karakterisering - pathogenese - zoönosen - virulentie - dna-sequencing - polymerase-kettingreactie - veehouderij - nederland

    Q fever is a worldwide zoonotic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. During 2007-2010, the largest Q fever outbreak was reported in The Netherlands, where more than 4000 human cases were registered showing a serious burden of the disease. During this outbreak, goats harboring predominantly the CbNL01 genotype strain were identified as the major source of disease in humans and drastic measures such as mass culling of infected goats were implemented to reduce the spread of the pathogen and control the disease. In order to minimize such complications in the future, it is crucial to have a thorough understanding of the disease causing pathogen and to develop effective Q fever vaccines. The causes of the large Dutch outbreak are not well-understood and one of the main reasons speculated were the hyper-virulent behavior of the circulating C. burnetii isolates. The research described in this thesis focuses on the characterization of C. burnetii outbreak strains isolated from infected goats, cattle, sheep and human clinical materials. Our studies were initiated to better understand the bacterial pathogenesis, virulence, evolution, adaptations in various environments, host immune responses and to identify pathogen related factors that have modulated the disease outbreak. We specifically aimed to identify the virulence factors and mechanisms that contributed to the increased zoonotic potential of the strain associated with the Dutch Q fever outbreak.

    The studies presented in this thesis majorly applied Pathogenomic approaches at the genome and transcriptome level to decipher host-pathogen interactions and to develop new tools to study C. burnetii infections. A transcriptome analysis of the outbreak C. burnetii strain of the CbNL01 genotype grown under in vivo and in vitro conditions resulted in the identification of distinct metabolic adaptations and virulence mechanisms of the bacterium. Detailed comparative analysis of complete genome sequences of C. burnetii strains showed a high similarity between strains of the same genotype. Genome sequences of the Dutch outbreak CbNL01 genotype strains were more divergent than the genome sequences of the less prevalent CbNL12 genotype strains and the NM reference strain. The analysis also showed that the high virulence of the outbreak strains was not associated with acquiring novel virulence-related genes arguing against the idea that the Dutch outbreak was due to emergence of hyper-virulent strains though horizontal gene transfer. Among the prominent genetic differences in the CbNL01 outbreak strains compared to CbNL12 and NM, were the presence of several point mutations and increased transposon mediated genome plasticity, which might have contributed to its epidemic potential. Point mutations, especially in a large number of membrane proteins, could also have contributed to the increased zoonotic potential of CbNL01 strains allowing this clone to escape the host immune responses in goats and humans. In addition, mutations in critical genes involved in virulence and evasion of the host immune system could be potentially involved in the increased virulence of the CbNL01 outbreak strains. On the contrary, studies on host immune responses in an in vivo (experimental infections in mice) and an in vitro (human PBMC’s stimulation) model did not show any difference associated with the strain genotype. However, differences in immune responses were found to be associated with the host-origin of the C. burnetii strains. Among different host-origin strains, strains derived from goats and humans generated significantly lower innate and adaptive immune responses than strains derived from cattle, whereas no differences in immune responses were observed when strains were grouped based upon their genotype. These observations support immune evasions as a major virulence strategy of goat and human strains in hosts and further suggest that bacteria originating from goats have a greater potential to cause outbreaks in humans. This indicates that for Q fever prevention purposes goats should be efficiently monitored for the presence of C. burnetii. Taken together, the results described in this thesis suggest that the virulence potential of C. burnetii strains is not only based on genetic differences, but also on other host-adaptation mechanisms such as transposition of genomic elements and/or differential regulation of gene expression. Finally, the results from this thesis provide a framework for future studies in the development of vaccines and diagnostic tools for Q fever.

    Wageningen Livestock Research, ; Groen Kennisnet, - \ 2017
    Wageningen UR Livestock Research
    dierenwelzijn - gezelschapsdieren - huisdieren - huisvesting, dieren - diergedrag - diervoeding - diergezondheid - zoönosen - wetgeving - animal welfare - pets - domestic animals - animal housing - animal behaviour - animal nutrition - animal health - zoonoses - legislation
    Per 1 juli 2017 is de Positieflijst van kracht. Op de Positieflijst zijn alle diersoorten opgenomen die zijn beoordeeld in het kader van artikel 2.2 eerste en tweede lid van de Wet dieren. Deze website geeft informatie over de Positieflijst.
    Health and health-related quality of life in pig farmers carrying livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    Cleef, B.A.G.L. van; Benthem, B.H.B. van; Verkade, E.J.M. ; Rijen, M.M.L. van; Kluytmans-van den Bergh, M.F.Q. ; Graveland, H. ; Bosch, T. ; Verstappen, K.M.H.W. ; WAGENAAR, J.A. ; Heederik, D. ; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W. - \ 2016
    Epidemiology and Infection (2016). - ISSN 0950-2688 - p. 1774 - 1783.
    Infectious disease epidemiology - methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) - public health - zoonoses

    There is limited knowledge about the effect of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) carriage on health-related quality of life (QoL). With this study, we explored whether LA-MRSA causes infections or affects health-related QoL in pig farmers. This prospective cohort study surveyed persons working on 49 farrowing pig farms in The Netherlands for 1 year (2010–2011). On six sampling moments, nasal swabs, environmental samples and questionnaires on activities and infections were collected. At the end of the study year, persons were asked about their QoL using the validated SF-36 and EQ-5D questionnaires. Of 120 persons, 44 (37%) were persistent MRSA carriers. MRSA carriage was not associated with infections, use of antimicrobials, healthcare contact and health-related QoL items in univariate or multivariate analysis, most likely due to the ‘healthy worker effect’. Despite high carriage rates, the impact of LA-MRSA carriage in this population of relatively healthy pig farmers on health and health-related QoL appears limited; more research is needed for confirmation.

    Managing a cluster outbreak of psittacosis in Belgium linked to a pet shop visit in The Netherlands
    Boeck, C. De; DeHollogne, C. ; Dumont, A. ; Spierenburg, M. ; Heijne, M. ; Gyssens, I. ; Hilst, J. Van der; Vanrompay, D. - \ 2016
    Epidemiology and Infection (2016). - ISSN 0950-2688 - p. 1710 - 1716.
    Chlamydia psittaci - outbreak - psittacosis - zoonoses

    In July 2013, a Belgian couple were admitted to hospital because of pneumonia. Medical history revealed contact with birds. Eleven days earlier, they had purchased a lovebird in a pet shop in The Netherlands. The bird became ill, with respiratory symptoms. The couple's daughter who accompanied them to the pet shop, reported similar symptoms, but was travelling abroad. On the suspicion of psittacosis, pharyngeal swabs from the couple were taken and sent to the Belgian reference laboratory for psittacosis. Culture and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests were positive for the presence of Chlamydia psittaci, and ompA genotyping indicated genotype A in both patients. The patients were treated with doxycycline and the daughter started quinolone therapy; all three recovered promptly. Psittacosis is a notifiable disease in Belgium and therefore local healthcare authorities were informed. They contacted their Dutch colleagues, who visited the pet shop. Seven pooled faecal samples were taken and analysed using PCR by the Dutch national reference laboratory for notifiable animal diseases for the presence of Chlamydia psittaci. Four (57%) samples tested positive, genotyping revealed genotype A. Enquiring about exposure to pet birds is essential when patients present with pneumonia. Reporting to health authorities, even across borders, is warranted to prevent further spread.

    Naar gezonde kalveren en kippen
    Ruis, Markus - \ 2015
    calves - fowls - animal welfare - animal health - zoonoses - care of animals - animal production - poultry - cattle - animal housing
    'Nederland is een veterinair voorbeeldland'
    Vermaas, M. ; Hellebrekers, L.J. - \ 2015
    Boerderij 100 (2015)38. - ISSN 0006-5617 - p. 16 - 18.
    dierziekten - diergezondheid - infectieziekten - onderzoek - zoönosen - volksgezondheid - animal diseases - animal health - infectious diseases - research - zoonoses - public health
    Ludo Hellebrekers is sinds 1 juni directeur van het Centraal Veterinair Instituut. Goede samenwerking met alle ketenpartijen en kennisgebieden is volgens hem essentieel.
    Transmissie van Mycobacterium bovis tussen mens en dier
    Vries, G. de; Beer, J. de; Bakker, D. ; Soolingen, D. - \ 2015
    Infectieziekten bulletin 26 (2015)5. - ISSN 0925-711X - p. 103 - 106.
    mycobacterium bovis - rundveeziekten - rundveehouderij - volksgezondheid - mycobacterium tuberculosis - tuberculose - zoönosen - diergezondheid - mycobacterium bovis - cattle diseases - cattle husbandry - public health - mycobacterium tuberculosis - tuberculosis - zoonoses - animal health
    Nederland is officieel vrij van rundertuberculose. Toch komt af en toe nog Mycobacterium bovis-tuberculose voor bij relatief jonge autochtone Nederlanders. Ook zijn er recent nog wel boviene-uitbraken geweest. Dat roept de vraag op of er ook nu nog transmissie is van M.bovis tussen mens en dier. Daarom zijn in een studie de DNA fingerprints van patiënten met M.bovis en van dieren met rundertuberculose met elkaar vergeleken.
    Dierenlab beschermt mensen
    Sikkema, A. ; Bianchi, A.T.J. - \ 2015
    WageningenWorld (2015)1. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 24 - 27.
    dierziekten - infectieziekten - zoönosen - virusziekten - onderzoek - diergezondheid - vaccins - aviaire influenza - q-koorts - animal diseases - infectious diseases - zoonoses - viral diseases - research - animal health - vaccines - avian influenza - q fever
    Nederland krijgt steeds meer te maken met besmettelijke dierziektes die ook mensen ziek kunnen maken, zoals vogelgriep. Om daar goed onderzoek naar te doen is een lab gebouwd waarin levende, besmette landbouwhuisdieren gehouden worden. Geen virus kan eruit ontsnappen. ‘Zelfs het DNA wordt vernietigd.’
    Inventarisatie zoönosen bij het paard in Nederland
    Swanenburg, M. ; Vos, C.J. de; Visser, E.K. ; Nodelijk, G. - \ 2014
    Lelystad : CVI Wageningen UR (CVI report 14/CVI0155) - 62
    dierenwelzijn - paarden - ziekten - diergezondheid - zoönosen - volksgezondheid - risicoschatting - inventarisaties - ziekteoverdracht - animal welfare - horses - diseases - animal health - zoonoses - public health - risk assessment - inventories - disease transmission
    Het ministerie van EZ heeft laten onderzoeken of het paard in Nederland een rol speelt bij het ontstaan van infectieziekten die kunnen worden overgedragen van dieren op mensen (zoönosen).
    Multifunctionele landbouw, publieksactiviteiten en dierziekten; kan bedrijfssplitsing de gevolgen beperken?
    Alebeek, F.A.N. van; Ferwerda, R.T. ; Jong, D. de; Spliethoff, B.G. - \ 2013
    Lelystad : PPO AGV (PPO publicatie 554) - 28
    multifunctionele landbouw - zoönosen - volksgezondheid - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - agrarisch recht - Nederland - multifunctional agriculture - zoonoses - public health - farm management - agricultural law - Netherlands
    In deze deelrapportage wordt één probleem centraal gesteld: Welke belemmeringen ontstaan er op een multifunctioneel agrarisch bedrijf met publieksactiviteiten wanneer er een uitbraak is van een aangifteplichtige dierziekte? En in het bijzonder: In hoeverre biedt het fysiek, juridisch en/of fiscaal splitsen van een multifunctioneel agrarisch bedrijf in een productie-deel en een publieksdeel daarvoor een oplossing?
    Transmission and control of Fish-borne Zoonotic Trematodes in aquaculture
    Boerlage, A.S. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Mart de Jong; Johan Verreth, co-promotor(en): Lisette Graat. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736284 - 150
    trematoda - karper - vissen - zoönosen - ziekteoverdracht - ziektebestrijding - ziektemodellen - viskwekerijen - visteelt - aquacultuur - parasitologie - trematoda - carp - fishes - zoonoses - disease transmission - disease control - disease models - fish farms - fish culture - aquaculture - parasitology

    Fish-borne Zoonotic Trematodes (FZTs) affect the health of millions of humans worldwide. For persistence, the life cycle of FZTs depends on aquatic snails, fish, and definitive hosts like humans, pigs or chickens. Definitive hosts can become infected by eating raw or undercooked fish. Integrated Agriculture Aquaculture (IAA) systems improve the livelihood of small scale farmers, but may enhance transmission of FZTs because all types of hosts and all transmission routes can be present on a single farm. This thesiscombines experiments, statistical analyses and mathematical modelling to gain insight into transmission mechanisms of FZTs to fish in aquaculture and to use this insight to compare and discuss control measures against FZTs. Currently, medication of humans is the main strategy to control FZTs. Modelling indicated that this does not lead to elimination of FZTs because both humans and definitive hosts other than humans will maintain the life cycle of FZTs independently. Treatment of (a part of) these host types may eliminate FZTs, e.g. treating all humans and 54% of definitive hosts other than humans. Aquaculture may provide opportunities for control of FZTs by adapting management measures. Experiments showed that smaller fish get more often and more heavily infected with FZTs than larger fish; common carp (Cyprinus carpio) of more than 50 g rarely acquire new infections. Once carp are infected, FZTs persist for at least 27 weeks, implying that harvestable fish still contain FZTs and, therefore, are a risk to human health. In most IAA systems, fish are kept FZT free until 0.5 g before being stocked into a fish pond where they are very likely to be exposed to FZTs. Stocking fish at more than 25 g, or at more than 14 g in combination with treating all humans with anthelmintics, may lead to elimination of FZTs. Also, control of snails by either decreasing density or increasing mortality of snails may lead to elimination of FZTs in aquaculture. Farmers and policy makers should evaluate which combination of control measures is attractive to them.

    Improvement of goat TSE discriminative diagnosis and susceptibility based assessment of BSE infectivity in goat milk and meat
    Bossers, A. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. - \ 2012
    Lelystad : Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen UR (CVI) - 102
    geitenhouderij - geitenziekten - bovine spongiforme encefalopatie - zoönosen - ziekteoverdracht - scrapie - risicofactoren - geitenmelk - voedselveiligheid - overdraagbare spongiforme encefalopathie - goat keeping - goat diseases - bovine spongiform encephalopathy - zoonoses - disease transmission - scrapie - risk factors - goat milk - food safety - transmissible spongiform encephalopathy
    In light of the known ability of the BSE agent to cross the animal/human species barrier, the evidence establishing the presence of BSE in goat is especially alarming, as it represents a potential risk of food-born contamination to human consumers of goat milk and meat products. The main objective has been to determine the tissue distribution of BSE after oral exposure of goats while simultaneously generating in dispensable data on genetic susceptibility in the most commonly used production breeds. Our approach integrates the predicted influence of PrP gene polymorphisms on scrapie and BSE susceptibility so that it could potentially be used for the control of field TSE outbreaks in goats. This proposal aims: - at providing data to allow evaluation of human risk associated with BSE passaged in goat; - at providing pathogenesis data and biologic al material from first and second passage BSE in goats; - at evaluating the possibility of BSE self-maintenance in goats by maternal/horizontal transmission; - at validating and improving our ability to detect and discriminate caprine BSE from goat scrapie.
    Het Dutch Wildlife Health Centre – kennis over wildziekten in Nederland
    Rijks, J.M. ; Giessen, J. van der; Roest, H.I.J. ; Kuiken, T. ; Grone, A. - \ 2012
    Infectieziekten bulletin 23 (2012)10. - ISSN 0925-711X - p. 339 - 342.
    dierziekten - wilde dieren - zoönosen - volksgezondheid - diergezondheid - animal diseases - wild animals - zoonoses - public health - animal health
    Veel dierziekten inclusief zoönosen hebben wilde dieren als reservoir. Kennis over ziekten onder wilde dieren is van belang voor zowel de dier- en volksgezondheid, en vormt een essentieel onderdeel van het One health-concept. Een expertisecentrum wildziekten, waar dergelijke kennis vermeerderd en gebundeld wordt, ontbrak in Nederland. Mede daarom is het Dutch Wildlife Health Centre (DWHC) opgericht.
    Het Centraal Veterinair Instituut versterkt het onderzoek naar opkomende zoönosen
    Poel, W.H.M. van der - \ 2012
    Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 137 (2012)12. - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 796 - 802.
    zoönosen - dierziektepreventie - ziektebestrijding - infectieziekten - volksgezondheid - onderzoek - zoonoses - animal disease prevention - disease control - infectious diseases - public health - research - toxoplasma-gondii infection - avian influenza-virus - valley fever virus - west-nile-virus - streptococcus-suis - epidemiology - pathogenesis - netherlands - responses
    Een zoönose is een infectieziekte die overgedragen kan worden van gewervelde dieren naar mensen of omgekeerd. Ruim 60 procent van de ziekteverwekkers bij mensen heeft een zoönotisch karakter. Het verkleinen van het risico van zoönosen voor de mens is één van de taken van het CVI. Samen met diverse partners richt het CVI zich op het vroegtijdig opsporen van deze ziekteverwekkers in het dierlijk reservoir en op het ontwikkelen van bestrijdingsmethoden. Het CVI is referentiecentrum voor aangifteplichtige dierziekten inclusief zoönosen en voert onderzoeksprojecten uit op het gebied van dierziektebestrijding voor zowel de overheid als in opdracht van externe partijen en in (inter)nationale samenwerkingsverbanden. Onderzoek aan zoönosen is daar een belangrijk onderdeel van. Ten behoeve van een betere preventie, opsporing en bestrijding van zoönosen wil het CVI het onderzoek naar opkomende zoönosen versterken. Een aantal voorbeelden van zoönosen waar het CVI aan werkt, wordt kort besproken.
    Monitoring infecties and zoönosen in de biologische varkenshouderij
    Groot, M.J. ; Kluivers-Poodt, M. ; Mul, M.F. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (Rapport / RIKILT 2012.015) - 39
    varkenshouderij - veehouderij - biologische landbouw - dierziekten - varkensziekten - zoönosen - varkens - monitoring - pig farming - livestock farming - organic farming - animal diseases - swine diseases - zoonoses - pigs - monitoring
    Op verzoek van de productwerkgroep Varkensvlees van Biologica is een overzicht gemaakt van infecties in de biologische en gangbare varkenshouderij. Er is speciaal gekeken welke infecties vaker voorkomen bij bij biologisch gehouden dieren. Daarnaast zijn de bestaande monitoringssystemen in kaart gebracht en is gekeken naar mogelijke lacunes hierin. Ook is aandacht besteed aan zoönosen.
    Zoönosen : uit de ziekenboeg
    Haenen, O.L.M. ; Beurden, S.J. van; Engelsma, M.Y. - \ 2012
    Aquacultuur 27 (2012)1. - ISSN 1382-2764 - p. 24 - 28.
    zoönosen - volksgezondheid - aquacultuur - kweekvis - infectieziekten - bedrijfshygiëne - zoonoses - public health - aquaculture - farmed fish - infectious diseases - industrial hygiene
    Zoönosen zijn infectieziekten die overdraagbaar van dier op mens, zowel vanuit koudbloedige als warmbloedige dieren Ook bij contacten met aquacultuur- en visserijdieren is er een klein risico voor de mens op het oplopen van een ziekte. In de Nederlandse aquacultuur komen af en toe zoönotische bacteriën voor, die contactzoönose kunnen veroorzaken. Met voldoende hygiëne op aquacultuurbedrijven ontwikkelen deze bacteriën zich meestal niet tot een zoönose. Toch is het belangrijk, dat men op de hoogte is van risico's en mee helpt aan een goede diagnose van een aquatische zoönose, omdat deze in eerste instantie door de huisarts vaak niet als zodanig herkend wordt.
    Infectierisico’s van de veehouderij voor omwonenden
    Maassen, C.B.M. ; Duijkeren, E. van; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van; Dusseldorp, A. ; Geenen, P. ; Koeijer, A.A. de; Koopmans, M.P.G. ; Loos, F. ; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F. ; Jonge, M. de; Giessen, A.W. van de - \ 2012
    Bilthoven : RIVM - 65
    veehouderij - zoönosen - q-koorts - volksgezondheid - infectieziekten - livestock farming - zoonoses - q fever - public health - infectious diseases
    Momenteel kunnen er geen wetenschappelijk onderbouwde uitspraken worden gedaan over het infectierisico van omwonenden van veehouderijen, met uitzondering van Q-koorts. Het is aangetoond dat omwonenden van melkgeitenbedrijven met Q-koorts, een verhoogd risico hebben om deze infectieziekte te krijgen. Voor de overige zoönosen (infectieziekten die van dier op mens worden overgedragen) zijn onvoldoende gegevens beschikbaar over het risico in relatie tot de afstand tot veehouderijen, het bedrijfstype en de bedrijfsgrootte. Wel is bekend dat veehouders, medewerkers op veehouderijen en dierenartsen een verhoogd risico hebben om bepaalde zoönosen op te lopen. Direct contact met dieren is daarbij vaak een risicofactor.
    Een risicoprofiel voor MRSA en ESBL
    Mevius, D.J. - \ 2012
    Kennis Online 9 (2012)april. - p. 18 - 18.
    antibioticaresistentie - volksgezondheid - diergezondheid - staphylococcus aureus - zoönosen - bacteriën - antibiotic resistance - public health - animal health - staphylococcus aureus - zoonoses - bacteria
    Het Centraal Veterinair Instituut (CVI) van Wageningen UR, onderzoekt de ontwikkeling van de antibioticaresistente MRSA-bacterie en ESBL-vormende bacteriën en de gevaren voor de volksgezondheid. Want de resistentie bacteriën kunnen zich op vele manieren verspreiden.
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