Forest-grassland transitions : How livestock and fire shape grassy biomes
Bernardi, Rafael E. - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): M. Scheffer, co-promotor(en): M. Holmgren; Matías Arim. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436212 - 129
forests - grasslands - fire - cattle - livestock - subtropics - south america - trees - bossen - graslanden - brand - rundvee - vee - subtropen - zuid-amerika - bomen
Plant associations are determined by complex interactions with their environment depending on resource availability, landscape features, and periodic disturbances that shape the structure and functions of these communities. Forests, savannas and grasslands extend across the global land surface, contribute to planetary processes and provide ecosystems services sustaining local production. However, the factors that explain the distribution of trees and determine these biomes are still not well understood. In this thesis, long-standing questions about the origins and distribution of these ecosystems are discussed in light of new evidence suggesting that a feedback of fire and grasses may maintain forests, savannas and grasslands as alternative tree cover states. I also address how anthropogenic land use, including the introduction of livestock, may be affecting these dynamics, particularly in the neotropics, with consequences in terms of potential transitions in tree cover regimes.
I analyze the distribution of trees in the grasslands of subtropical South America, looking at what may determine current tree cover and change dynamics (Chapters 2 & 3). The results suggest that, in non-cultivated areas, the expansion of trees into grasslands is likely limited by fire, livestock and precipitation, and that livestock likely reduces fire frequency (Chapter 2). The analyses also suggest that in the Uruguayan Campos of southeastern South America, where fire frequency is low and livestock densities are high, a release in livestock density may cause a moderate expansion of forests into grasslands (Chapter 3). To understand the consequences of a potential transition to higher tree cover by increasing precipitation, I looked at the effects of tree cover in subtropical rangelands (Chapter 5). The results indicated that isolated trees can improve the forage quality and abundance of these rangelands, with potential benefits in terms of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Lastly, I analyzed correlational patterns relating livestock density to vegetation structure across the global tropics and subtropics (Chapter 4), in an attempt to generalize the findings of Chapter 2. The results indicate that extensive livestock systems reduce fire frequency and impact vegetation structure, maintaining savannas and grasslands with low tree cover, low fire frequency and a higher presence of shrubs and dwarf trees.
Diversity of coordination mechanisms to support transactions : farmer - buyer relationships and farmer performance in the Brazilian pork chain
Müller Martins, Franco - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): S.W.F. Omta; J.H. Trienekens. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436366 - 146
supply chain management - pigmeat - pig farmers - farmers - piglets - buying groups - consumers - brazil - south america - ketenmanagement - varkensvlees - varkensboeren - boeren - biggen - inkoopcombinaties - consumenten - brazilië - zuid-amerika
In the last decades consumers preferences have continuously triggered changes in quality regulations and the implementation of various private quality standards. New quality demands also imply new coordination arrangements to support transactions between food companies and their suppliers. To coordinate these transactions, food companies (i.e. buyers) use different types of governance structures (GSs) made up of different coordination mechanisms (CMs). These mechanisms are used to coordinate aspects such prices, quality, and allocation of resources (e.g. services, inputs). The general goal of this thesis is to analyse the complexity behind the GSs used to support transactions in the Brazilian Pork Chain (BPC). Furthermore, this thesis examines how these GSs impact on farmer performance and farmer investment. Brazil is the fourth world producer and exporter of pork. The quality standards and GSs used in this supply chain offer an interesting background to be examined with implications for theory and management. Chapter 1 presents a general introduction depicting the research problem, the research questions and the theoretical framework used in this thesis hich is grounded on Transaction Costs Economics, Supply Chain Management and Networks Theory. Chapter 2 examines, through an exploratory approach, the relationships between quality requirements and CMs. This study allows us to demonstrate that, in the BPC, chain actors use a wide array of CMs to support a non-diverse set of quality requirements. Quality requirements are based on public regulations and on a few specific requirements set by specific customers. The differences in CMs regard aspects such as base prices, criteria for bonuses, control on inputs and processes and resource allocation. Chapter 3 addresses the complexity of CMs embedded in a GS and the use of plural forms of coordination by individual buyers. A framework setting values of CMs on price, volume, quality and resource allocation, was used to demonstrate that a single GS (e.g. a contract) may include CMs on distinct positions within the market-hierarchy continuum. In addition, this framework is used, in four case studies, to support analyses on how and why individual buyers use plural CMs to support similar transactions. The main explanations that were found were the need to handle market fluctuations, the implementation of new and specific quality requirements, to adopt to CMs used by competitors, and to deal with bargaining power of specific groups of farmers. Chapter 4 applies structural equation modelling (SEM) to analyse influences of vertical (buyer-farmer) and horizontal relationships (farmer-farmer) on performance of pig farmers. Data were obtained through a survey questionnaire applied to 269 pig farmers. The results demonstrate that vertical and horizontal relationships improve performance and that horizontal relationships improve information exchange. In addition, the findings suggest that the context in which transactions take place (i.e. spot market, contracting), may affect these relationships. Chapter 5 analyses, based on the farmer survey, influences of buyer support on famer performance and farmer investments. A SEM analysis was applied to 199 farmers that deliver pigs through contracts. The results demonstrate positive influences of buyer support on farmer performance and farmer investment capacity. Chapter 6 provides a general discussion including theoretical, policy and management implications.
Answering the "Call of the Mountain" : co-creating sustainability through networks of change in Colombia
Chaves Villegas, Martha - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arjen Wals, co-promotor(en): Gerard Verschoor. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577251 - 152
sustainable development - sustainability - social networks - networks - communities - rural communities - change - social change - learning - colombia - south america - duurzame ontwikkeling - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - sociale netwerken - netwerken - gemeenschappen - plattelandsgemeenschappen - verandering - sociale verandering - leren - colombia - zuid-amerika
In response to the age of the ‘anthropocene,’ as some authors are calling this epoch in which one single species is disrupting major natural systems (Steffen et al 2011), there are calls for more radical, learning-based sustainability that generates deep transformations in individuals and communities so as to transition towards a more reflexive and process-oriented society (Wals 2009, Sterling 2009). The principal contention of this thesis is that new social movements (NSM) of the network society (Castells 2012, Buechler 2016), based on integrated visions of sustainability, can provide platforms for bringing about transformative learning. This thesis is based on empirical research (2012-2016) into a fraction of such NSM named the Council of Sustainable Settlements of Latin America (C.A.S.A.). Comprising a diversity of members from Indigenous pueblos, afro-colombian communities, neo-rural settlements (ecovillages), Hare Krishna communities, campesino farmers, NGOs and urban peoples and initiatives, the C.A.S.A. network organizes intercultural exchanges where transformative learning can be traced. Through new forms of collective action centered on a plurality of ideas and practices, and with a strong focus on reflection and personal development, in such encounters through ‘ontological politics’, ‘optimal dissonance’ and ‘deep reflexivity and flexibility’ members are articulating new paradigms of alternative development and creating spaces for transformation. Yet, such learning processes are incredibly complex, and the value-action gap remains substantial in many cases. What this thesis has shown, however, is that by putting into practice principles of buen vivir and the pluriverse such as reconnecting to ancestral wisdom, acknowledging the other, questioning values of competition and consumerism, and forming new relations to place and territory, one begins to question one's own set of norms, and those of society. Ultimately, the C.A.S.A. network’s struggles, negotiations and learning processes remind us that global sustainability entails more than 'menus' of good practices but a plurality of solutions which include humans and non-humans, different ontologies, and even a multiplicity of worlds, in what is a tough but rewarding aula.
Improving the effectiveness of rural development policy in Chile
Carter Leal, L.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink; Helmut Saatkamp. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578173 - 171
business economics - rural development - development policy - agricultural development - regional development - livestock farming - farmers - chile - south america - bedrijfseconomie - plattelandsontwikkeling - ontwikkelingsbeleid - landbouwontwikkeling - regionale ontwikkeling - veehouderij - boeren - chili - zuid-amerika
Costs and benefits of a more sustainable production of tropical timber
Arets, E.J.M.M. ; Veeneklaas, F.R. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 10) - 57
houtkap - houtproductie - kosten-batenanalyse - bosbeheer - tropische bossen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - tropisch hout - ecosysteemdiensten - biobased economy - zuid-amerika - zuidoost-azië - logging - timber production - cost benefit analysis - forest administration - tropical forests - sustainability - tropical timbers - ecosystem services - biobased economy - south america - south east asia
This study is part of the TEEB (The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity) study of trade chains, and assessed the impact of harvesting tropical timber on ecosystem services and the costs and benefits of more sustainable production. The costs of implementation and the benefits from increased ecosystem services levels were assessed for two alternatives to conventional selective logging (CL), sustainable forest management (SFM) and forest plantation. The SFM alternative involves certified forest management implementing reduced impact logging techniques. The forest plantation alternative involves high-yield plantations that have a larger impact on ecosystem services than CL on the actual plantation area, but require only an equivalent of 11-42% of the CL area due to the higher yields per unit of area, and thus allows a larger area of primary forest to be conserved. The majority of Dutch imports of tropical timbers are from South America and South East Asia. We conducted separate analyses for South America and South East Asia to account for regional differences in terms of logging practices, timber yields and the extent and value of ecosystem services
Non-governmental organizations and the sustainability of small and medium-sized enterprises in Peru : an analysis of networks and discourses
Castro Aponte, W.V. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol, co-promotor(en): Kris van Koppen. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461735805 - 296
niet-gouvernementele organisaties - ondernemingen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - samenwerking - peru - ontwikkelingslanden - zuid-amerika - non-governmental organizations - enterprises - sustainability - cooperation - peru - developing countries - south america
The importance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in terms of employment and income generation has been recognized worldwide. In Peru, SMEs are responsible for 85% of the employment at the national level and they represent 98% of the total companies registered. Around 12% of SMEs, organized in associations, clusters, and cooperatives or as single companies, are dedicated to productive actives; the others are engaged in commercial and services activities. However, next to their positive economic role, SMEs are also responsible for significant disturbances of nature, environmental degradation and threats to human health. Environmental pollution related to the increase of productive activities has become evident in Peru and the entire region of Latin America.
The thesis aims to provide a better understanding of the changing roles of NGOs in promoting sustainability of SMEs in Peru, using the perspectives of networks and discourses. It focuses on three domains, which together are characteristic for promoting of SME sustainability in Peru: organic production (the first case study), business social responsibility (the second cases study) and sustainable production (the third case study). Three research questions have been outlined for this research: First, what are the networks of NGOs promoting sustainability of SMEs involved in the domains of organic production, business social responsibility and sustainable production in Peru, and what are the main changes in time in these networks? Second, what are the main discourses fostering sustainability that prevail and are articulated in these networks of NGOs and what are the main changes in time in these discourses? And finally, how to understand and assess the actual, new and potential roles of NGOs in promoting sustainability of SMEs in terms of network society theory and ecological modernization theory?
In this study the universe of NGOs is narrowed to NGOs operating in Peru that provide support (a) to medium and small scale producers and producer associations to bring organic products to local and global markets, (b) to urban and rural small scale enterprises to adopt cleaner production and appropriate technologies, and/or (c) to SMEs to upgrade social and environmental standards within value chains involving large companies. Some SMEs are concentrated in the main cities of Peru such as Trujillo, Arequipa and Lima, while other SMEs, such as organic food producers, are spread all over the country. In any case, SMEs under this research have collaboration ties with the NGOs to be studied. The research questions were investigated by means of more than 28 interviews with representatives of local NGOs, international NGOs, local SMEs and the national government, carried out in the period of 2006 to 2010. Additionally, documents and internet sources were consulted.
The networks involved in promoting the sustainability of SMEs are: the agro-ecological network, the organic market network and the ecological farming network in the first case study; the social justice network and the business network in the second case study; and the eco-efficiency network, the appropriate technology network, the cleaner technology network, the technological innovation network and the urban cleaner production network in the third case study.
The main actors identified in the networks of the organic production domain are: the Ecological Agriculture Network of Peru (RAE Peru), Grupo Ecologica Peru and the National Ecological Producers Association (ANPE). RAE Peru consists of 16 individual NGOs operating throughout Peru and has led several initiatives (i.e. Biocanastas, Bioferias, Biostores) to develop the organic market in Peru. Grupo Ecologica Peru consists of 5 NGOs and 24 producers, including associations and individual producers, and it commercializes organic products at local competitive markets (i.e. the Bioferia Miraflores farmers’ market) and provides the supply of organic food to supermarkets. ANPE Peru consists of 22 organic small scale producer associations (including small food processers and family small-scale enterprises). ANPE’s constituencies produce and commercialize organic food in 13 farmers’ markets throughout the country.
The main actors identified in the business social responsibility networks are: the Labor Advisory Council of Peru (CEDAL), the Center of Studies for Development and Participation (CEDEP) and Peru 2021. CEDAL and CEDEP promote business social responsibility for urban and rural small enterprises in Peru in order to meet national regulation and international standards on labor rights and good environmental practices. CEDAL has been collaborating with 60 small enterprises of garment and handy craft makers, organized in clusters, who commercialize their products directly to consumers or business intermediaries oriented at domestic and foreign markets. CEDEP collaborates with small and medium-sized agri-industries, small garment workshops, shoemakers, metal workshops and bakeries to adopt business social responsibility principles by improving working conditions for their employees and sustainable production practices. Peru 2021 collaborates only with SMEs that are providers of larger companies in value chains promoting social and environmental standards.
The main actors involved in the sustainable production networks are: the Eco-efficiency and Social Responsibility Center (CER), the Institute for the Transfer of Technology for Marginal Sectors (ITACAB), the National Council of Science and Technology (CONCYTEC), the Centers of Technological Innovation (CITEs) and the Peruvian Institute of Social Economy (IPES). While CER, IPES and most of CITEs are NGOs, ITACAB and CONCYTEC are (inter)governmental agencies. CER provides consultancy for small scale suppliers of larger domestic companies and single SMEs exporting to international markets. Through the projects EcoADEX, EcoHotels and EcoParks CER aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, increase eco-efficiency, optimize production and services processes and reduce operation costs in SMEs. ITACAB promotes technological transfer to small scale rural enterprises through the Center for Technological Transferring Resources. CONCYTEC promotes technological transfer for SMEs but it is currently dispersed into several institutional programmes. CITEs provide production technologies services to SMEs. In total there are 13 CITEs throughout Peru, each one specialized in particular type of products (i.e. leather and shoemaking, wood and furniture, wine and horticulture, tropical fruits and medicinal plants, garment, agro-industry, textile, logistic and tracing, software and forest wood). Finally, IPES promotes cleaner technologies in small scale industries and workshops located in urban areas. During the last year, IPES is focusing on the establishing of recycling SMEs of electronic waste. As this overview shows, in the sustainable production domain, not only NGOs perform central roles but also governmental agencies. In some cases, quite close cooperation occurs between NGOs and governmental agencies.
In all three cases, networks of sustainability of SMEs are structured as interlinked platforms operating at local, national, Latin American and global level. For instance, in the organic production networks the Bioferias are at the local level, the Peruvian Agroecological Consortium at the national level, MAELA and GALCI at Latin American level and IFOAM at global level. Platforms include civil society, market and state actors. For instance, in the business social responsibility networks the civil society actors are CEDEP and CEDAL, in the organic production networks the market actors are the small scale enterprises affiliated with ANPE and Grupo Ecologica Peru, and in the sustainable production networks the state actors are CONCYTEC (governmental agency), ITACAB (inter-governmental agency) and the CITEs central office (OTCIT). Coordination and channeling of resources in the network platforms are performed by key actors, such as RAE Peru, Grupo Ecologica Peru, ANPE, Peru 2021, CEDAL, CEDEP, CER, CONCYTEC, ITACAB, OTCIT and IPES.
The ten networks are composed by diverse types of NGOs. Next to conventional NGOs as key actors, producer NGOs, market NGOs, business NGOs, technocratic NGOs and government organized NGOs (GONGOs) have emerged. Although NGOs are central in most networks, (inter)governmental agencies (GONGOs) are also central in the cleaner technology network, the appropriate technology network and the technological innovation network. CONCYTEC, ITACAB and the CITES’ central office (OTCIT) are agencies that are part of the governmental structure, but they operate in practice pretty much as NGOs. Hence, NGOs and these (inter) governmental agencies perform similar roles in the networks, compete for funding and operate projects funded by international cooperation agencies. Therefore, the (inter)governmental agencies (GONGOs) that are part of these networks of sustainability of SMEs has been found out to be less effective in promoting sustainability of SMEs than more typical NGOs. As a result of this diversification of NGOs the struggle for leading positions in the network platforms and the competition for scarce funding and operate projects of international cooperation agencies have also intensified. This diversification of NGOs and, above all, the increasing of service-like NGOs aim to fulfill the business growth and market demands of SMEs in collaborating with market actors. Hence, new types of NGOs emerge to fulfill market demands.
The discourses that NGOs and SMEs endorse in the networks of sustainability of SMEs are: market adaptation, market access or market democratization in the first case study; business upgrading and corporate responsibility in the second case study; and cleaner production and appropriate technology in the third case study. NGOs and SMEs involved in the networks of organic production endorse one of the following three discourses: market adaptation, market access or market democratization. The main storyline of the first discourse is that NGOs and small scale producers are forced to get new capacities and to adapt to the free market. Small scale producers do not have the competences to adapt to the free market by themselves, and NGOs play a crucial role in assisting them. The main storyline of the second discourse is that small scale producers are eager to move to competitive markets. Support is needed from specialized agents in managerial and technological issues to organize supply to competitive local and international organic markets. The main storyline of the last discourse is the prioritization of making the organic market also interesting for low and medium income consumers. Rather than adapt or access to the free market, small scale producers intend to build up a fair relationship with the market by making organic products available to all income groups.
NGOs and SMEs in the business social responsibility networks endorse one of the following two discourses: business upgrading or corporate responsibility. In the first discourse, business social responsibility is seen as a strategy to match economic and social rights with sustainability of small scale enterprises. Connecting small scale enterprises with larger companies and influencing them to become sustainable is central in the discourse. In the second discourse, business social responsibility is seen as a business strategy that contributes to sustainability of larger companies and their supply value chains. Only small providers of large profitable value chains have the capacity to adopt social and environmental standards.
NGOs and SMEs involved in the networks of sustainable production endorse one of the following two discourses: cleaner production or appropriate technology. In the first discourse, cleaner production is seen as a business strategy to make SME production more efficient and sustainable. Allocating the most up-to-date modern technology is considered as the best way to reduce environmental impacts and increase competitiveness. The discourse focuses on SMEs that are well established in the local market and have the capacities to reach international markets. In the second discourse, appropriate technology is seen as tailor-made technology adjusted to the needs of SMEs, particularly of micro and small enterprises. Low capital, small scale and suitable technology for the local social, economic and cultural setting are central in the discourse. The discourse highlights the use of renewable energy, development of local markets and poverty fighting.
The seven discourses emphasize either market justice or sustainable market. This means that the discourses are different in their position towards social movement and the market. The discourses of sustainability of SMEs have evolved from long-standing antagonist discourses: the liberal market discourse on one hand and the social movement discourse on the other hand, which can be considered as the ‘mother’ discourses of the discourses of sustainability of SMEs. While the cleaner production discourse and the corporate responsibility discourse have their origins in the liberal market discourse, the market democratization discourse, the market adaptation discourse, the market access discourse, the business upgrading discourse and the appropriate technology discourse have their origins in the social movement discourse. Hence, the discourses of sustainability of SMEs share views with their mother discourses. Only, the market access discourse strongly diverges from its origins. The difference between market justice discourses and sustainable market discourses has to do with their interpretation of environmental reform and sustainability.
In sum, the identified changes are expressed in new roles for NGOs. Next to the usual ‘watchdog’ roles, NGOs are developing roles of ‘helper’ in order to answer to the market needs of SMEs. The new roles are performed not only by new types of NGOs but also by ‘reoriented’ conventional NGOs. Consequently, NGOs have become market agents as a result of their new roles. Finally, the findings contribute to the theoretical debates on network society theory and ecological modernization theory. The analysis of networks promoting sustainability of SMEs helps to understand more deeply the way non-state actors cooperate, and challenges Castells’ scheme of space of flows versus space of place. Both spaces are connected and integrated in aiming for sustainability. Actors use rationalities, logics and power resources related to both spaces. Amending ecological modernization theory, the analysis suggests that it is needed to consider both ecological rationality and social rationality in order to advance environmental reform of SMEs in developing countries. The research also sheds light of issues of power. NGOs are becoming more collaborative and less confrontational, more conciliatory and less dogmatic towards market actors, but they remain rather conflictive and competitive towards fellow NGOs. Power of SMEs is not acknowledged in most discourses. However, SMEs show their power either by accepting or denying engage to the networks, either by collaborating or pressuring key actors and either by subscribing or being indifferent to the discourses. This power of SMEs pushes the networks to become more inclusive, participatory and valuable for SMEs. It rests on the capacity to be anchored within local social networks.
Mallas y flujos : acción colectiva, cambio social, quinua y desarrollo regional indígena en los Andes Bolivianos
Laguna, P. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leontine Visser, co-promotor(en): Alberto Arce. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085859604 - 522
chenopodium quinoa - inheemse volkeren - producentengroepen - antropologie - sociale verandering - modernisering - economische ontwikkeling - sociale ontwikkeling - coöperatieve verenigingen - bolivia - andes - ontwikkeling - zuid-amerika - chenopodium quinoa - indigenous people - producer groups - anthropology - social change - modernization - economic development - social development - cooperative societies - bolivia - andes - development - south america
This thesis studies collective action and social change in indigenous rural organisations (IRO) in the Bolivian Andes. I focus on the effects and importance that these organisations have in the historical process of regional development as social spaces that encapsulate different projects of social, political and economic modernity. I reconstruct the practices and situations that turn rural indigenous organisations into significant spaces in which individuals and groups of people put into practice their life projects and their aspirations of modernity. The main question of this thesis is: what are indigenous rural organisations in the Bolivian Andes and what are their contributions to regional development?
To answer this question, I argue that we need to leave aside social constructivism and rational action present in current studies of indigenous rural organisations in the Andes that use the concept social capital. These organisations are not essences, totalities, nor are they are stable. Also, they are a more complex process than mere rational and technocratic action. IRO are contextual and situational spaces of social life that contain significant elements or objects, which are material and immaterial. These spaces are heterogeneities of humans and objects united by shared significant objects that are emergent, original and intensive. In this sense this organisations represent meshworks that interweave the changeable relationships between entities (humans and objects) and practices, and encompass the possibility of social change. These meshworks have different dimensions (economical, social, cultural, political). In each one of those, the flow of practices, interactions and experiences of individuals and groups of individuals simultaneously unify and break meaning, identity, affect, materiality and also regulation.
I study three kindsof indigenous rural organisations fromthe Perisalar (the Bolivian Southern highlands): communities which are based on kinship relationships, ayllus which are ethnic groups and quinoa producer organisations. Communities are social spaces that contain significant elements of modernity, such as the desire for access to State education and to enjoy citizens’ rights, the wish for agricultural machinery and to produce for the global market, the diversity of livelihoods and the affirmation of racial and class identity. Ayllus are made by community assemblages and many comunarios belong to quinoa Producer Organisations. In this sense ayllus and producer organisations are important social spaces as they contain significant elements present in the communities. I present the social life of IRO starting from the intersection of local development practices and experiences with other social spaces: the market, migratory destinations, education, social movements and institutional intervention. In order to better understand the effects of social change and IRO, I chose a long-term historical vision, considering the emerging effects of the intersection of local and external practices and experiences, before and during the quinoa commoditisation process.
The study concludes that IRO in the Bolivian Andes, are meshworks made by vibrant humans and objects with social vitality and intensity. They have the capacity to actualise significant elements of an economic, social, cultural and political character, in interaction with the Nation-State and the global market. These organisations increase through global market the vibrant character of significant elements such as quinoa, and by their recognition by the State they provide semi-autonomy to their members, and a space to make recognised their citizenship and their trade union, racial and class identities, and to locally redesign the State. Memory, identity and affect reveal the potential of IRO in repositioning past reminiscences and ancestral properties, and at the same time claim for a future that does not contain the same substance of that which is “the Andean”, “the Aymara” or “the Quechua”, rather incorporates new elements that lead to multiple “(neo)Andeans”, “(neo)Aymaras” and “(neo)Quechuas” forms, present in each and every one of the partial connections.
These organisations contain a variety of symbols, discourses and practices that correspond to heterogeneous knowledge and forms of socialisation and thinking of modernity that sometimes result in tension, fissure and conflict without however being fragmented. That is why structuralism, institutionalism and rationalism partially explain the agency in ambiguous and eclectic social spacessuch areIRO, whose limitsare constantly redefined by the flow of experience of its members. Development through these organisations is a social process, experiential and unpredictable, reflexive and corporeal, cognitive and performative, that contains both cohesion and tear. For understanding IRO contribution to rural development we must describe the relational and the imaginative in the wishes and processes of social change and regional developmentand grasp the relevance of its individual members’ experiences and practices in the creation of social ties. Methodologically this leads us to dissolve analytical categories and to follow and observe individuals past and present practices and their intersections with other individuals, groups, structures and significant objects. Our study underlines the significance of human-object relation as a starting point for generating new analytical frameworks in indigenous Andean organizations.
Kaartlezen, CCD, varroa en nosema
Blacquiere, T. - \ 2011
Bijenhouden 5 (2011)11. - ISSN 1877-9786 - p. 4 - 6.
apidae - honingbijen - conferenties - bijenziekten - varroa - professionele bijenhouderij - diergezondheid - nosema - zuid-amerika - apidae - honey bees - conferences - bee diseases - varroa - commercial beekeeping - animal health - nosema - south america
Twee symposia achter elkaar in Buenos Aires, dat was nog eens een marathon. Maar ook wei weer efficient. Gekoppeld aan het tweejaarlijkse Apimondia-wereldcongres van 21-24 september werd vooraf het driejaarlijkse OlE-symposium over bijenziekten gehouden, op 19 en 20 september. OlE staat voor Organisation International des Epizooties, de wereldorganisatie voor diergezondheid. Oat betekent dat naast 'bijologen' ook veel diergeneesheren en -dames aanwezig waren. Dus de eerste twee dagen diep de ziekten en problemen in, om dan op Apimondia te zien hoe leuk allerlei onderzoek aan bijen is
Credit constraints in rural financial markets in Chile: determinants and consequences
Reyes, A. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arie Kuyvenhoven; Robert Lensink, co-promotor(en): Henk Moll. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730398 - 185
ontwikkelingseconomie - plattelandsontwikkeling - boeren - krediet - landbouwkrediet - toegang - financiële instellingen - financieel landbouwbeleid - informele sector - markteconomieën - groenteteelt - fruitteelt - chili - zuid-amerika - development economics - rural development - farmers - credit - agricultural credit - access - financial institutions - agricultural financial policy - informal sector - market economies - vegetable growing - fruit growing - chile - south america
Using data from two surveys carried out in 2006 and 2008 on 177 farmers in Chile, this study measures access to credit and empirically determine the effects of credit constraints on investment and production for market-oriented farmers in central Chile. More specifically, four issues are dealt with: (1) to identify the main factors that influence access to credit for market-oriented farmers, (2) to determine whether informal financial institutions act as complements to or substitutes for farmers’ strategies for funding, (3) to determine the effect of credit constraint by formal financial institutions on farm productivity, and (4) to identify the factors limiting investment in farms.
In approaching these objectives two innovative methods are used throughout. First, qualitative information collected in interviews is used to identify three categories of credit constraints from both the demand and supply side of the credit market, namely, quantity, risk, and transaction-cost constraints. Second, a panel-data structure is used in all econometric analysis in this study, which allows us to obtain estimators that are more efficient than those based on cross-sectional analysis only.
Results show that 16.4% and 13.6% of the sample felt credit constrained in 2006 and 2008, respectively, with most farmers being quantity rationed (10.7% and 9.6%, respectively). A much lower share of farmers is constrained by risk (2.8% and 3.4%, respectively) and transaction cost (2.8% and 0.6%, respectively). Despite of its low level, credit constraint status has a significant effect on investment decision. In contrast, credit constraints do not have an impact on farm productivity. These outcomes reveals long term market imperfections, most probably because the only providers of long-term credit are commercial banks for whom long-term lending is considerable risky.
Peasants, potatoes and pesticides : heterogentiy in the context of agricultural modernization in the Highland Andes of Ecuador
Paredes Chauca, M.C. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jandouwe van der Ploeg, co-promotor(en): Paul Hebinck; D. Cole. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789085858102 - 344
ontwikkeling - sociologie - akkerbouw - bedrijfssystemen - modernisering - aardappelen - stijlen (plant) - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - pesticiden - ecuador - zuid-amerika - plattelandsontwikkeling - andes - development - sociology - arable farming - farming systems - modernization - potatoes - styles - farm management - pesticides - ecuador - south america - rural development - andes
Based on community-level research carried out between 2002 and 2009, this dissertation examines agricultural modernization in Ecuador as a combination of agrarian reform accompanied by fundamental policy shift towards intensification through large-scale promotion of agro-industrial technologies tied with commercial production and market integration. In particular, the study explores how different actors struggle to modify, counteract and maintain modernization policies in order to advance local interests, thereby leading to distinct modes of production or “farming styles”. Concentrating on pesticide use and risks associated with peasant farming patterns, the dissertation employs qualitative and quantitative methods in describing and explaining heterogeneity, leading to the identification of four prominent styles: Tradicionales, Seguros, Arriesgados and Experimentadores. In terms of productivity, human health and the environment, the production patterns of the Tradicionales and Seguros out perform production modes based largely on externally based knowledge and technology, thereby representing a promising positive-sum scenario for policy reform.
Effects of climate on size structure and functioning of aquatic food webs
Lacerot, G. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Marten Scheffer, co-promotor(en): Miguel Lurling. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085856160 - 98
aquatisch milieu - voedselwebben - klimaatfactoren - vissen - zoöplankton - lichaamsafmetingen - modellen - meren - zuid-amerika - aquatische ecologie - aquatic environment - food webs - climatic factors - fishes - zooplankton - body measurements - models - lakes - south america - aquatic ecology
In aquatic food webs, the role of body size is notoriously strong. It is also well known that temperature has an effect on body size. For instance, Bergmann’s rule states that body size increases from warm to cold climates. This thesis addresses the question how climate shapes the size structure of fish and zooplankton communities, and how this affects the strength of the trophic cascade from fish to plankton. I combine three different approaches: a space-for-time substitution study of data from the 83 shallow lakes distributed along a latitudinal gradient in South America, simple mathematical models to explore climate effects on the dynamics of trophic interactions, and an experimental analysis of trophic interactions using outdoor mesocosms.
Effects of submerged vegetation on water clarity across climates
Kosten, S. ; Lacerot, G. ; Jeppesen, E. ; Motta Marques, D.M.L. ; Nes, E.H. van; Mazzeo, N. ; Scheffer, M. - \ 2009
Ecosystems 12 (2009)7. - ISSN 1432-9840 - p. 1117 - 1129.
meren - waterkwaliteit - waterplanten - troebelheid - vegetatie - zuid-amerika - lakes - water quality - aquatic plants - turbidity - vegetation - south america - shallow lake restoration - plant biomass - aquatic macrophytes - planktivorous fish - temperate lakes - eutrophic lake - florida lakes - zooplankton - phytoplankton - biomanipulation
A positive feedback between submerged vegetation and water clarity forms the backbone of the alternative state theory in shallow lakes. The water clearing effect of aquatic vegetation may be caused by different physical, chemical, and biological mechanisms and has been studied mainly in temperate lakes. Recent work suggests differences in biotic interactions between (sub)tropical and cooler lakes might result in a less pronounced clearing effect in the (sub)tropics. To assess whether the effect of submerged vegetation changes with climate, we sampled 83 lakes over a gradient ranging from the tundra to the tropics in South America. Judged from a comparison of water clarity inside and outside vegetation beds, the vegetation appeared to have a similar positive effect on the water clarity across all climatic regions studied. However, the local clearing effect of vegetation decreased steeply with the contribution of humic substances to the underwater light attenuation. Looking at turbidity on a whole-lake scale, results were more difficult to interpret. Although lakes with abundant vegetation (>30%) were generally clear, sparsely vegetated lakes differed widely in clarity. Overall, the effect of vegetation on water clarity in our lakes appears to be smaller than that found in various Northern hemisphere studies. This might be explained by differences in fish communities and their relation to vegetation. For instance, unlike in Northern hemisphere studies, we find no clear relation between vegetation coverage and fish abundance or their diet preference. High densities of omnivorous fish and coinciding low grazing pressures on phytoplankton in the (sub)tropics may, furthermore, weaken the effect of vegetation on water clarity.
Lake and watershed characteristics rather than climate influence nutrient limitation in shallow lakes
Kosten, S. ; Huszar, V.M. ; Mazzeo, N. ; Scheffer, M. ; Sternberg, L.S.L. ; Jeppesen, E. - \ 2009
Ecological Applications 19 (2009)7. - ISSN 1051-0761 - p. 1791 - 1804.
waterkwaliteit - voedingsstoffen - meren - stikstof - fosfor - cyanobacteriën - eutrofiëring - herstel - klimaat - zuid-amerika - primaire productie - water quality - nutrients - lakes - nitrogen - phosphorus - cyanobacteria - eutrophication - rehabilitation - climate - south america - primary production - phytoplankton community structure - fresh-water - meteoric precipitation - nitrogen-retention - subtropical lakes - trophic state - danish lakes - n-p - denitrification
Both nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) can limit primary production in shallow lakes, but it is still debated how the importance of N and P varies in time and space. We sampled 83 shallow lakes along a latitudinal gradient (5°–55° S) in South America and assessed the potential nutrient limitation using different methods including nutrient ratios in sediment, water, and seston, dissolved nutrient concentrations, and occurrence of N-fixing cyanobacteria. We found that local characteristics such as soil type and associated land use in the catchment, hydrology, and also the presence of abundant submerged macrophyte growth influenced N and P limitation. We found neither a consistent variation in nutrient limitation nor indications for a steady change in denitrification along the latitudinal gradient. Contrary to findings in other regions, we did not find a relationship between the occurrence of (N-fixing and non-N-fixing) cyanobacteria and the TN:TP ratio. We found N-fixing cyanobacteria (those with heterocysts) exclusively in lakes with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations of
Climate-related differences in the dominance of submerged macrophytes in shallow lakes
Kosten, S. ; Kamarainen, A. ; Jeppesen, E. ; Nes, E.H. van; Peeters, E.T.H.M. ; Lacerot, G. ; Scheffer, M. - \ 2009
Global Change Biology 15 (2009)10. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 2503 - 2517.
meren - waterkwaliteit - klimaat - stikstof - troebelheid - voedingsstoffen - diepte - waterplanten - zuid-amerika - europa - noord-amerika - fosfor - temperatuur - fytoplankton - vegetatie - lakes - water quality - climate - nitrogen - turbidity - nutrients - depth - aquatic plants - south america - europe - north america - phosphorus - temperature - phytoplankton - vegetation - phosphorus concentrations - aquatic macrophytes - eutrophic lakes - fish - restoration - communities - nutrient - growth
It has been suggested that shallow lakes in warm climates have a higher probability of being turbid, rather than macrophyte dominated, compared with lakes in cooler climates, but little field evidence exists to evaluate this hypothesis. We analyzed data from 782 lake years in different climate zones in North America, South America, and Europe. We tested if systematic differences exist in the relationship between the abundance of submerged macrophytes and environmental factors such as lake depth and nutrient levels. In the pooled dataset the proportion of lakes with substantial submerged macrophyte coverage (> 30% of the lake area) decreased in a sigmoidal way with increasing total phosphorus (TP) concentration, falling most steeply between 0.05 and 0.2 mg L-1. Substantial submerged macrophyte coverage was also rare in lakes with total nitrogen (TN) concentrations above 1–2 mg L-1, except for lakes with very low TP concentrations where macrophytes remain abundant until higher TN concentrations. The deviance reduction of logistic regression models predicting macrophyte coverage from nutrients and water depth was generally low, and notably lowest in tropical and subtropical regions (Brazil, Uruguay, and Florida), suggesting that macrophyte coverage was strongly influenced by other factors. The maximum TP concentration allowing substantial submerged macrophyte coverage was clearly higher in cold regions with more frost days. This is in agreement with other studies which found a large influence of ice cover duration on shallow lakes' ecology through partial fish kills that may improve light conditions for submerged macrophytes by cascading effects on periphyton and phytoplankton. Our findings suggest that, in regions where climatic warming is projected to lead to fewer frost days, macrophyte cover will decrease unless the nutrient levels are lowered
From the Amazon to the Supermarket: Innovation and the integration of small-scale Amazonian chilli-pepper producers in green markets (Leticia, Colombia)
Verschoor, G.M. ; Boliívar, E. ; Ochoa, G. ; Muradian, R. - \ 2008
London : Sustainable Markets Group, International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) (Regovering Markets : Small-scale producers in modern agrifood markets ) - 33
kleine landbouwbedrijven - innovaties - markten - spaanse pepers - specerijen - colombia - zuid-amerika - ontwikkelingseconomie - small farms - innovations - markets - chillies - spices - colombia - south america - development economics
Tropical alpine treelines : how ecological processes control vegetation patterning and dynamics
Bader, M. - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arnold Bregt, co-promotor(en): M. Rietkerk. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085045953 - 192
boomgrenzen - vegetatie - plantenecologie - plantengemeenschappen - alpine planten - alpine vegetatie - klimaat - klimaatverandering - soorten - ecosystemen - zonnestraling - zuid-amerika - andes - treelines - vegetation - plant ecology - plant communities - alpine plants - alpine vegetation - climate - climatic change - species - ecosystems - solar radiation - south america - andes
De alpiene boomgrens, gedefinieerd als de overgangszone tussen bergbos en alpiene vegetatie, kan een geleidelijke overgang zijn, een abrupte grens, of een mozaïek van plantengemeenschappen. De positie van de boomgrens in het landschap verschilt ook per regio. Deze verschillende ruimtelijke patronen worden veroorzaakt door processen die ook bepalend zijn voor de dynamische eigenschappen van de boomgrens, zoals de reactie op klimaat- of landgebruikveranderingen. Ruimtelijke patronen kunnen daarom een aanwijzing geven voor de te verwachten temporele dynamiek van een boomgrens, mits de onderliggende processen goed begrepen worden. Het doel van dit onderzoek is te begrijpen hoe ecologische processen de ruimtelijke patroonvorming en de vegetatiedynamiek van tropische alpiene boomgrenzen bepalen
|Neotropical Plant Families : A Concise Guide to Families of Vascular Plants in the Neotropics, 3rd edition
Maas, P.J.M. ; Westra, L.I.T. ; Chatrou, L.W. ; Farjon, A. - \ 2005
Koenigstein, Germany : Koeltz Scientific Books - ISBN 9783906166278 - 289
planten - taxa - klassen - taxonomie - identificatie - neotropisch gebied - centraal-amerika - zuid-amerika - vaatplanten - plants - taxa - genera - taxonomy - identification - neotropical region - central america - south america - vascular plants
|The Connection between Gender and Water management
Zwarteveen, M.Z. ; Bennett, V. - \ 2005
In: Opposing Currents. The Politics of Water and Gender in Latin America / Bennett, V., Dávila-Poblete, S., Nieves Rico, M., Pittsburgh : University of Pittsburgh Press (Pitt Latin American series ) - ISBN 9780822958543 - p. 13 - 29.
irrigatie - waterbeheer - vrouwen - zuid-amerika - waterrechten - geslacht (gender) - irrigation - water management - women - south america - water rights - gender
The right to water; gender and household water; gender and irrigation; irrigation as masculine identity and culture
|Water rights and empowerment
Boelens, R.A. ; Hoogendam, P. - \ 2002
Assen : Koninklijke Van Gorcum BV - ISBN 9789023237648 - 255
irrigatie - waterverdeling - waterbeheer - waterbeleid - boerenorganisaties - plattelandssamenleving - zuid-amerika - waterrechten - andes - irrigation - water distribution - water management - water policy - farmers' associations - rural society - south america - water rights - andes
Effects of mapped variation in soil conditions on estimates of soil carbon and nitrogen stocks for South America
Batjes, N.H. - \ 2000
Geoderma 97 (2000)1-2. - ISSN 0016-7061 - p. 135 - 144.
bodemchemie - bodemstructuur - zuid-amerika - stikstof - koolstof - geostatistiek - soil chemistry - carbon - nitrogen - soil structure - south america - geostatistics - world
Organic carbon and total nitrogen stocks for South America are computed using four 1:5,000,000 scale soil data sets of different spatial resolution. These are the 60' by 60' resolution Zobler soil data file, the 30' by 30' resolution World Inventory of Soil Emission Potentials (WISE) database, a 5' by 5' raster version of the Digital Soil Map of the World (DSMW), and a vector-based Soil and Terrain Database (SOTER). Estimates for total, regional stocks of organic carbon (SOC) range from 146.1 Pg C (Zobler) to 159.7 Pg C (SOTER) for the first 1 m of soil. More pronounced differences are observed among the four data sets when values for SOC stocks are compared at the level of the major soil grouping and their component soil units. In the case of Ferralsols, for example, the estimates for SOC stocks are 31.1 Pg C (SOTER), 41.4 Pg C (DSMW), 41.6 Pg C (WISE), and 58.3 Pg C (Zobler), respectively. In the case of Xanthic Ferralsols (Fx), the SOC stocks estimated with the Zobler and DSMW sets differ by about 14 Pg C (˜157%). By and large, the observed differences are due to varying areal estimates for the various soil units for the data sets under consideration, and the selection of soil profile data used. This study illustrates (a) the importance of the aggregation procedure used to account for the mapped spatial variation in soil conditions and (b) the need for updating the soil geographic and attribute data for the world in SOTER, so as to provide modelers with up-to-date soil data for studying interactions of human and natural systems at the regional and continental level within the context of global change.