Climate Change in Southern Africa: Farmers’ Perceptions and Responses
Kuivanen, K. ; Alvarez, S. ; Langeveld, C.A. - \ 2015
Wageningen UR - 46
climatic change - farmers - attitudes - knowledge systems - adaptation - rural communities - southern africa - klimaatverandering - boeren - attitudes - kennissystemen - adaptatie - plattelandsgemeenschappen - zuidelijk afrika
Southern Africa is characterized by natural climate variability onto which human-induced climate change is being superimposed. Rural communities that depend heavily on rain-fed agriculture for their livelihood are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate-related change. This report takes stock of existing perceptions of- and responses to climate change among smallholder farmers in the region, in the hope of contributing to a better understanding of the complexities of local knowledge- and adaptation systems.
Transfrontier Conservation Areas: people living on the edge
Andersson, J.A. ; Garine-Wichatitsky, M. de; Cumming, D.H.M. ; Dzingirai, V. ; Giller, K.E. - \ 2013
Oxon, UK : Routledge - ISBN 9781849712088 - 216
beschermingsgebieden - grensgebieden - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - samenleving - sociologie - toerisme - wild - wildbescherming - mensen - zuidelijk afrika - conservation areas - frontier areas - natural resources - sustainability - society - sociology - tourism - wildlife - wildlife conservation - people - southern africa
This book focuses on the forgotten people displaced by, or living on the edge of, protected wildlife areas. It moves beyond the grand 'enchanting promise' of conservation and development across frontiers, and unfounded notions of TFCAs as integrated social-ecological systems. Peoples' dependency on natural resources – the specific combination of crop cultivation, livestock keeping and natural resource harvesting activities – varies enormously along the conservation frontier, as does their reliance on resources on the other side of the conservation boundary. Hence, the studies in this book move from the dream of eco-tourism-fuelled development supporting nature conservation and people towards the local realities facing marginalized people, living adjacent to protected areas in environments often poorly suited to agriculture.
Nuances and nuisances : Crop production intensification options for smallholder farming systems of southern Africa
Rusinamhodzi, L. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ken Giller, co-promotor(en): M. Corbeels. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461735737 - 222
bedrijfssystemen - intensivering - kleine landbouwbedrijven - boeren - gewasproductie - zuidelijk afrika - farming systems - intensification - small farms - farmers - crop production - southern africa
Key words: crop production, intensification, extensification, farming systems, tradeoff analysis, maize, legume, manure, fertiliser, southern Africa
Soil fertility decline and erratic rainfall are major constraints to crop productivity on smallholder farms in southern Africa. Crop production intensification along with efficient use of chemical fertiliser is required to produce more food per unit area of land, while rebuilding soil fertility. The objective of this thesis was to identify appropriate crop production intensification options that are suitable to the socio-economic and biophysical conditions of selected smallholder maize-based farming systems in southern Africa. Three sites that formed a gradient of intensity of crop and livestock production were selected for the study. Murehwa in Zimbabwe is characterised by the largest intensity followed by Ruaca and lastly Vunduzi both in central Mozambique. In all three sites, maize is a key staple and cash crop.A literature review, field methods based on participatory research, and modelling tools were combined in analysing potential crop production options across an agricultural intensification gradient. A meta-analysis on maize grain yieldunder rain-fed conditions revealed thatconservation agriculture required legume rotations and high nitrogen input use especially in the early years.Reduced tillage without mulch cover leads to lower yields than with conventional agriculture in low rainfall environments. Mulch cover in high rainfall areas leads to smaller yields than conventional tillage due to waterlogging, and improved yields under CA are likely on well drained soils. Crop productivity underconservation agriculture depends on the ability of farmers to achieve correct fertiliser application, timely weeding, and the availability of crop residues for mulching and systematic crop rotations which are currently lacking in southern Africa. Anadditive design of within-row intercropping was compared to a substitutive design with distinct alternating rows of maize and legume (local practice) under no-tillin the Ruaca and Vunduzi communities of central Mozambique. Intercropping increased productivity compared to the corresponding sole crops with land equivalent ratios (LER) of between 1.0 and 2.4. Maize yield loss was only 6-8% in within-row intercropping but 25-50% in the distinct-row option. Relay planting of maize and cowpea intercropping ensured cowpea yield when maize failed thus reduced the negative effects of dry spells. The residual benefits of maize-pigeonpea intercropping were large (5.6 t ha-1) whereas continuous maize (0.7 t ha-1) was severely infested by striga(Striga asiatica). The accumulation of biomass which provided mulch combined with no tillageincreased rainfall infiltration. Intensification through legume intercropping is a feasible option to increase crop productivity and farm income while reducing the risk of crop failureespecially where land limitation. Cattle manure in combination with chemical fertiliser that included N, P, Ca, Zn, Mn were evaluated for their potential to recover degraded soils and to support sustainable high crop productivity in Murehwa, Zimbabwe over nine years. The experiment was established on sandy and clay soils in two field types. Homefields were close to the homestead and relatively more fertile than the outfields due to previous preferential allocation of nutrients. Maize grain yields in sandy soils did not respond to the sole application of fertiliser N (remained less than 1 t ha-1); manure application had immediate and incremental benefits on crop yields in the sandy soils. A combination of 25 t ha-1 manure and 100 kg N gave the largest treatment yield of 9.3 t ha-1 on the homefield clay soils, 6.1 t ha-1 on clay outfield, 7.6 t ha-1 on sandy homefield and 3.4 t ha-1 in the eighth season. Despite the large manure applications of up to 25 t ha-1, crop productivity and soil organic carbon build-up in the outfield sandy soils was small highlighting the difficulty to recover the fertility of degraded soils. Manure can be used more efficiently if targeted to fields closest to homesteads but this exacerbates land degradation in the outfields and increases soil fertility gradients. The NUANCES-FARMSIM model for simulating crop and animal productivity in mixed crop-livestock farming systems was used to perform trade-off analysis with respect to crop residue management, animal and crop productivity in Murehwa, Zimbabwe. Retaining all maize residues in the field led to severe losses in animal productivity but significant gains in crop productivity in the long-term. Yield increased 4 to 5.6 t farm-1 for RG1, and from 2.8 to 3.5 t farm-1 for RG2. Body weight loss was on average 67 kg per animal per year for RG1 and 93 kg per animal per year for RG2. Retention of all crop residues reduced farm income by US37 and US38 per year for RG1 and RG2 respectively.Farmers who own cattle have no scope of retaining crop residues in the field as it results in significant loss of animal productivity. Non-livestock farmers (60% of the farmers) do not face trade-offs in crop residue allocation but have poor productivity compared to livestock owners and have a greater scope of retaining their crop residues if they invest in more labour to keep their residues during the dry season. This study has revealed that crop production intensification options developed without considering the biophysical conditions as well as socio-economic circumstances of farmers are nuisances. External ideas should be used to stimulate local innovations to push the envelope of crop production without creating new constraints on resource use.
Impact of farm dams on river flows; A case study in the Limpopo River basin, Southern Africa
Meijer, E. ; Querner, E.P. ; Boesveld, H. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2394) - 62
dammen - landbouw - rivieren - regenwateropvang - irrigatiebehoeften - zuidelijk afrika - dams - agriculture - rivers - water harvesting - irrigation requirements - southern africa
The study analysed the impact of a farm dam on the river flow in the Limpopo River basin. Two methods are used to calculate the water inflow: one uses the runoff component from the catchment water balance; the other uses the drainage output of the SIMFLOW model. The impact on the flow in a sub-catchment with and without the presence of a farm dam, has been analysed. Different farm dam storage capacities and infiltration rates of the soil were considered. In general, the change in natural flow is decreasing when the farm dam capacity becomes higher. On the other hand, the Remaining Natural Flow is increasing when the catchment area becomes larger. The Crop Water Availability was expressed as the relative difference between the crop water requirements and the amount of water supplied by precipitation and irrigation from the farm dam. For a given storage capacity of the farm dam the change in natural flow is calculated when the farm dam covers 90% of the potential evapotranspiration of maize.
Living and care arrangements of non-urban households in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, in the context of HIV and AIDS
Preez, C.J. du - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof, co-promotor(en): Gerda Casimir. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789085859321 - 199
landbouwhuishoudens - platteland - hiv-infecties - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - ziekte - sociologie - zorg - geslacht (gender) - middelen van bestaan - zuid-afrika - zuidelijk afrika - agricultural households - rural areas - hiv infections - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - illness - sociology - care - gender - livelihoods - south africa - southern africa
In non-urban KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, very few households escape the impacts of HIV and AIDS, either the direct impacts as a result of illness and death, or the indirect impacts through providing care and support to family, friends and neighbours. HIV and AIDS becomes part of the context or situation within which households arrange their lives, generate livelihoods and arrange and provide care. The differential impacts of HIV and AIDS on male and female members of different ages within households is poorly documented and understood. How people arrange care, especially for household members who are chronically ill, while generating livelihoods at the same time, is even less clear in the context of HIV and AIDS. This research assessed household living and care arrangements and livelihood generation in non-urban Mbonambi in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa, in the context of HIV and AIDS. The study used a combined approach of quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Demographic, socio-economic and health data were collected at the level of the household by means of a survey and results were verified and clarified by means of focus group discussions. For the survey, two research locations were selected, one close to town, with a high population density and fairly good infrastructure and the other further from town and with poorer infrastructure. In the latter location, lack of access to electricity and clean water close to the home adds to the burden of domestic work. In addition, this location also has fewer individuals who are working, with many of those who are working, employed in low paying elementary occupations or working as unskilled labourers. Households at this location also have lower household incomes, are more dependent on state grants and own fewer assets that can be converted to cash if need be.
Female-headed households proved to be bigger than male-headed ones, having significantly more demographic and effective dependents residing at their homesteads. Female heads are significantly older than their male counterparts, the majority of them widows relying on state old-age pensions as the main source of household income. Female-headed households have significantly lower average incomes and fewer assets than male-headed households. All the households in the survey sample were categorised based on whether and how they were afflicted and/or affected by HIV/AIDS and/or TB, where TB was used as a proxy indicator for HIV infection. Households were allocated to four clusters. Households in Cluster 1 did not experience any impacts attributed to AIDS and included just more that half of al the households. Afflicted households in Cluster 2 had at least one ill member diagnosed with HIV or TB and requiring some care, but did not experience any deaths and were not taking care of orphans. Affected households in Cluster 3 had no ill members, but took care of orphans and/or experienced deaths, while households in Cluster 4 were both afflicted and affected by HIV and AIDS.
Progression from Cluster 1 to Cluster 4 showed a significant difference in household size, with households in Cluster 4 having on average two more members than households in Cluster 1. Households in Clusters 3 and 4 had significantly more demographic dependents than those in Clusters 1 and 2, while the households hosting orphans in Clusters 2 and 4 had significantly more effective dependents than the households in the other clusters. Although not significant, households in Clusters 2, 3 and 4 had lower household incomes and fewer assets. Of all the households it is clearly visible that households in Cluster 4 that host ill persons and orphans, and experienced deaths, are in all regards worse off than the households in the other clusters, and are extremely vulnerable to livelihood insecurity. Considering that these households have more dependents they will be more severely affected by the lower household income that has to be shared by more persons. Having fewer assets also mean that they do not have anything they can sell when they need money to cover household expenses or to pay for transport or a funeral.
Case study households were selected from each cluster for further study of their living arrangements and livelihoods. This was done by means of interviews and observations, and each household was visited at least two times over a period of six months. This revealed that the majority of households experienced changes in their living arrangements, regardless of whether and how they were affected by HIV and AIDS. It was especially young people and children who were mobile and individuals were leaving or joining households for a variety of reasons. Young women with or without their children were leaving to look for work, get married or provide care. Mobile children moved between the homesteads of unmarried mothers and biological fathers. The case study households included several households where unmarried mothers were living with their children at the homesteads of their frequently unmarried or widowed mothers.
Although changes in living arrangements can be caused by many factors other than morbidity and mortality, the majority of cases described experienced changes as a direct result of TB and/or AIDS-related illness and death. The time frame of inter-household movements varies from a few months to several years. The variation in cases presented illustrates that when movements between homesteads take place, the impact of HIV/AIDS-related morbidity and mortality on the livelihood and resources extends beyond the single household.
It is clearly visible that the majority of households depend on social transfers, either grants from government or private grants, as their only or main source of income, emphasizing the strategic importance of grants in coping with poverty. The financial situation of households may even improve when children receiving grants join a household and are ‘accompanied’ by their grants. But when such children move, the gain of income in one household will translate into a loss for another. Furthermore, some cases show that accessing grants for children is difficult when the status of the child changes and/or the foster parent does not have the required papers. The role of maternal parents or grandparents becomes clear when looking at intra-household cooperation to arrange health care or take care of vulnerable or orphaned children.
All the households are visited regularly by paid Community Health Workers and/or volunteer Home Based Caregivers, all of them female. These people are well-trained and work closely with the local public health clinic to assist households with care activities, caregivers with emotional support and patients with nutritional advice and traditional treatments to maintain health and relief symptoms. This is very important, as none of the HIV-positive persons in this small sample were on antiretroviral (ARV) treatment at the time of the research. Although treatment is free, to access it means regular blood tests and frequent hospital visits, which translates into indirect costs.
The cases clearly reveal that women are still the main providers of health- and childcare. When the demand on their time to provide care increases, they have less time to devote to income generating and community activities, which means less time to invest in social networks. This will cause already poor households with weak safety nets ‘to fall through’ the vulnerability threshold. All case households reveal the significance of social capital, the network of kin in particular, as a source of material and immaterial support. Relatives may take in a child to relieve the household’s burden, may send money, or may provide emotional and practical support. When no relatives are living nearby, the neighbours provide the latter kind of support. At the same time, the cases also show ‘missing’ partners and parents who have opted out and whose whereabouts are sometimes not even known.
Although the majority of children in the case study households manage to stay in school, they are absent from school more often due to HIV/AIDS-related morbidity and mortality. As a result they fall behind and are at risk of eventually dropping out. Some children choose to stay at the homestead of their late parents, with or without adult supervision rather than moving in with grandparents or other relatives, in an attempt to retain their parents’ homestead and land. This may make children vulnerable to exploitation. Child migration as a strategy to cope with HIV/AIDS-related morbidity was employed by some of the households. Although migration in search of employment has long been common in Southern Africa, migration of ill persons and children seeking care is a much more recent phenomenon.
Inter-household movements are likely to occur when a household affected by AIDS-related morbidity and mortality does not have the capacity to meet the additional demand for care. Moving of ill persons or vulnerable or orphaned children across household boundaries may make for more efficient use of human, material and financial resources. The cases show a continuous adaptation of living arrangements in response to illness and death. While the homestead and the kinship network still function as important anchors for people’s lives, at the same time HIV and AIDS induce flux and instability, changes dependency relations between homesteads, makes ‘holes’ in safety nets, and undermines relations between partners, in particular those that are not sanctioned by traditional marriage, turning their children into de facto orphans. The homestead also seems to be losing its unified and patriarchal character, though more analysis is needed to prove this, and the supportive role and authority of grandmothers and maternal relatives is increasing. Care is not only morally grounded, it can also add to moral authority.
The government should look into ways to facilitate better access to ARV treatment, because this would not only improve and prolong the life of people living with HIV, but also contribute to a better quality of life for household members. Streamlining access to foster care grants will prevent households taking care of orphans or orphans living on their own from living in extreme poverty. Increasing the number of well-trained paid community health workers, liaising with formal health care and social workers, will enhance the much need support required by households living with the burden of HIV/AIDS-related morbidity and mortality.
Although consisting of a very small sample of households studied over a relatively short period of time, this study shows significant HIV/AIDS-induced changes in living arrangements, the variation in the timeframe of these changes, and the impact of these changes on the livelihoods of households and their potential to arrange health- and childcare, thus revealing the mechanisms of micro-level social change induced by the AIDS epidemic. It demonstrates the importance of qualitative research to complement cross-sectional survey research. More qualitative and longitudinal research is needed to know whether in the wake of the epidemic the cultural and social landscape of rural KwaZulu-Natal is fundamentally changing.
|Towards markets of choice : the commodity exchange and warehouse receipt system
Nijhoff, G.H. ; Edwards, F. ; Goggin, I. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (Market, chains and sustainable development strategy & policy paper 22) - 12
goederenmarkten - markten - risicobeheersing - zambia - zuidelijk afrika - afrika - minst ontwikkelde landen - commodity markets - markets - risk management - zambia - southern africa - africa - least developed countries
|Emergent practice of adaptive collaborative management in natural resources management in Southern and Eastern Africa: eight case studies
Hijweege, W.L. - \ 2008
Wageningen : Wageningen International - ISBN 9789085853367 - 66
natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - gevalsanalyse - samenwerking - zuidelijk afrika - oost-afrika - natural resources - resource management - case studies - cooperation - southern africa - east africa
Improving research management: institutionalization of management informations systems in national agricultural research organisations in Sub Saharan Africa
Webber, H. - \ 2006
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Adrie Beulens; Gert Jan Hofstede; D. Horton. - [S.l. ] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085043898
bedrijfswetenschap - landbouwkundig onderzoek - onderzoeksinstituten - kennis - zuidelijk afrika - informatiesystemen - bedrijfsinformatiesystemen - kennismanagement - management science - agricultural research - research institutes - information systems - knowledge - southern africa - management information systems - knowledge management
Agricultural research management in the public sector in Sub Saharan Africa suffers from a lack of relevant, timely and accurate information on which to base decision-making. Developments in Management information systems over the past several years have been dramatic and can offer research managers in developing countries a great deal of help in the orderly capture, processing and presentation of information for decision-making. This thesis describes case study research on institutionalization of a MIS in National Agricultural Research Organizations in Sub Saharan Africa. Full MIS institutionalization is defined as the continuous and integrated use of MIS by NAROs' staff for data collection, and data processing into information and decision-making in NAROs' research management processes.The MIS software package INFORM (Information for Agricultural Research Management) was designed and developed by ISNAR (The International Service for National Agricultural Research) in the early 1990s in collaboration with developing countries' NAROs and implemented in several countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America.The institutionalization of the latest version INFORM-R and INFORM- Light in the annual research management cycle of priority setting, planning, budgeting, monitoring, evaluation and reporting of Sub Saharan African NAROs was found to be inadequate. Issues such as data collection and use, adequacy of the MIS software packages, leadership, information management capacity, organizational structure etc. were initially considered as problem factors. The goal of the study is to get insight into factors affecting positively and negatively institutionalization and the continuous and integrated use and maintenance of the MISin NAROs in Sub Saharan Africa. The objectives are fourfold: to evaluate the extent of institutionalization, to identify factors that promoted (critical success factors) and frustrated (critical failure factors) institutionalization,to evaluate the contribution of MIS to agricultural research management, and to recommend a method of working for institutionalizing MIS.Based on the goal and objectives, we attempted to answer three questions: (1) to what extent is MIS institutionalized in Sub Saharan African NAROs? (2) What key factors promoted (critical success factors) and frustrated (critical failure factors) institutionalization of the MIS in Sub Saharan African NAROs? (3) How does institutionalization of MIS improve research management and performance of Sub Saharan African NAROs? Based on our literature review, a causal model for MIS institutionalization was developed and used to design a questionnaire and face-to-face interviews in four countries (NAROs) in Sub Saharan Africa: CSIR Ghana, DRD Tanzania, NARO Uganda and ZARI Zambia. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from managers and researchers in these NAROs. The quantitative data were analysed by statistical means, frequency, correlation and regression in SPSS, and the qualitative data were analysed using (a self designed) MIS institutionalization database.Regarding the question on critical factors of success and failure, we conclude that leadership involvement is the most important critical success factor that strongly and significantly correlates with institutionalization of MIS in Sub Saharan African NAROs. This implies that the more NAROs' leaders (especially the Director General, Permanent Secretary or Minister of Agriculture) get involved in the institutionalization of MIS, the greater the chance of success. Other critical factors such as adoption, adaptation, government support, ICT Infrastructure, organizational structure and culture, and transparency in information sharing also contribute to the success of institutionalization. The major critical failure factors that frustrate institutionalization are lack of funds, user resistance to change and lack of MIS policy/strategy guidelines. Based on these results an impact model for institutionalization has been designed.Considering the results of the question on how MIS improved research management, we conclude that MIS enables NAROs to organize their data and generate information for timely decision-making on their annual research management cycle. Annual reports generated from MIS improve NAROs internal performance, in terms of NAROs being able to show accountability, relevance and sense of continuity to their stakeholders and beneficiaries. Website publications generated from MIS improve NAROs external performance, in terms of NAROs being able to show their achievements to the world. With respect to the results of the question on the extents of institutionalization, we conclude that MIS is still not fully institutionalized in Sub Saharan African NAROs. Zambia and Uganda NAROs scored high while Tanzania and Ghana NAROs scored low. We therefore strongly recommend that the Zambian and Ugandan NAROs can serve as benchmarks of good practices to other NAROs in Sub Saharan Africa wishing to introduce MIS in their organizations.Based on these conclusions, we recommend that the Director General, or Permanent Secretary or Minister of Agriculture (depending on the organization structure of a NARO) be the continuous champion of MIS in order to ensure full and continuous institutionalization of MIS in Sub Saharan African NAROs.The champion should: include MIS in their organizational vision and support MIS policy and strategy development in NARO, allocate special funds for MIS institutionalization, support and spearhead efforts to acquire funds from partners, donors, governments, or clients, participate in the stages of introduction, adoption, implementation, adaptation and institutionalization of MIS and encourage teamwork, support and finance the procurement of ICT infrastructure (especially Local Area Network) and connectivity of NARO headquarters with remote research stations, support MIS training (especially training of institute/station managers and program leaders, reward MIS coordinators and practitioners by promotion or higher degree training, ensure clear link between NAROs and ministries of agriculture and finance so as to enable funds to reach NAROs in a timely fashion.Finally, the above-mentioned recommendations for a MIS champion and other useful recommendations for research managers at stations/institutes, governments (ministries of agriculture and finance), donors, MIS coordinators, and researchers, were used to design a flow chart model for planning and managing MIS projects in NAROs.
|Veranderend landgebruik in zuidelijk Afrika : meer kansen voor wild?
Heitkönig, I.M.A. ; Wieren, S.E. van; Prins, H.H.T. - \ 2003
Ecologie en ontwikkeling 11 (2003)4/6. - ISSN 0928-6470 - p. 46 - 48.
wildbescherming - landgebruik - zuidelijk afrika - wilde dieren - wildlife conservation - wild animals - land use - southern africa
In Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibië en Zuid-Afrika wonen op een oppervlak van 3.100.000 km2 ongeveer 54 miljoen mensen. De vier landen verschillen nogal wat betreft hun bevolkingsdichtheid, bruto nationaal product (BNP) en omgevingsvariabelen als regenval. Ook hun geschiedenissen zijn verschillend maar op enkele essentiëlepunten vertonen ze ook grote overeenkomsten. Dit artikel gaat vooral in op de aanwezigheid van grasetende hoefdieren, zoals buffel, wildebeest, giraffe, wrattenzwijn, koedoe etc.
Delivering the Goods : Scaling out Results of Natural Resource Management Research
Harrington, L. ; White, J. ; Grace, P. ; Hodson, D. ; Hartkamp, A.D. ; Vaughan, C. ; Meisner, C. - \ 2002
Ecology and Society 5 (2002)2. - ISSN 1708-3087
milieubeheer - hulpbronnenbeheer - grondbewerking gericht op bodemconservering - geografische informatiesystemen - simulatiemodellen - technologieoverdracht - mexico - zuid-azië - zuidelijk afrika - environmental management - resource management - conservation tillage - geographical information systems - simulation models - technology transfer - mexico - south asia - southern africa
To help integrated natural resource management (INRM) research "deliver the goods" for many of the world's poor over a large area and in a timely manner, the authors suggest a problem-solving approach that facilitates the scaling out of relevant agricultural practices. They propose seven ways to foster scaling out: (1) develop more attractive practices and technologies through participatory research (2) balance supply-driven approaches with resource user demands, (3) use feedback to redefine the research agenda, (4) encourage support groups and networks for information sharing, (5) facilitate negotiation among stakeholders, (6) inform policy change and institutional development, and (7) make sensible use of information management tools, including models and geographic information systems (GIS). They also draw on experiences in Mesoamerica, South Asia, and southern Africa to describe useful information management tools, including site similarity analyses, the linking of simulation models with GIS, and the use of farmer and land type categories