Repositioning of the global epicentre of non-optimal cholesterol
Taddei, Cristina ; Zhou, Bin ; Bixby, Honor ; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M. ; Danaei, Goodarz ; Jackson, Rod T. ; Farzadfar, Farshad ; Sophiea, Marisa K. ; Cesare, Mariachiara Di; Iurilli, Maria Laura Caminia ; Martinez, Andrea Rodriguez ; Asghari, Golaleh ; Dhana, Klodian ; Gulayin, Pablo ; Kakarmath, Sujay ; Santero, Marilina ; Voortman, Trudy ; Riley, Leanne M. ; Cowan, Melanie J. ; Savin, Stefan ; Bennett, James E. ; Stevens, Gretchen A. ; Paciorek, Christopher J. ; Aekplakorn, Wichai ; Cifkova, Renata ; Giampaoli, Simona ; Kengne, Andre Pascal ; Khang, Young Ho ; Kuulasmaa, Kari ; Laxmaiah, Avula ; Margozzini, Paula ; Mathur, Prashant ; Nordestgaard, Børge G. ; Zhao, Dong ; Aadahl, Mette ; Abarca-Gómez, Leandra ; Rahim, Hanan Abdul ; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. ; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin ; Adams, Robert J. ; Ferrieres, Jean ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; He, Yuna ; Jacobs, Jeremy M. ; Kromhout, Daan ; Ma, Guansheng ; Dam, Rob M. van; Wang, Qian ; Wang, Ya Xing ; Wang, Ying Wei - \ 2020
Nature 582 (2020)7810. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 73 - 77.
High blood cholesterol is typically considered a feature of wealthy western countries1,2. However, dietary and behavioural determinants of blood cholesterol are changing rapidly throughout the world3 and countries are using lipid-lowering medications at varying rates. These changes can have distinct effects on the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol, which have different effects on human health4,5. However, the trends of HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels over time have not been previously reported in a global analysis. Here we pooled 1,127 population-based studies that measured blood lipids in 102.6 million individuals aged 18 years and older to estimate trends from 1980 to 2018 in mean total, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol levels for 200 countries. Globally, there was little change in total or non-HDL cholesterol from 1980 to 2018. This was a net effect of increases in low- and middle-income countries, especially in east and southeast Asia, and decreases in high-income western countries, especially those in northwestern Europe, and in central and eastern Europe. As a result, countries with the highest level of non-HDL cholesterol—which is a marker of cardiovascular risk—changed from those in western Europe such as Belgium, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and Malta in 1980 to those in Asia and the Pacific, such as Tokelau, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. In 2017, high non-HDL cholesterol was responsible for an estimated 3.9 million (95% credible interval 3.7 million–4.2 million) worldwide deaths, half of which occurred in east, southeast and south Asia. The global repositioning of lipid-related risk, with non-optimal cholesterol shifting from a distinct feature of high-income countries in northwestern Europe, north America and Australasia to one that affects countries in east and southeast Asia and Oceania should motivate the use of population-based policies and personal interventions to improve nutrition and enhance access to treatment throughout the world.
Large-scale GWAS identifies multiple loci for hand grip strength providing biological insights into muscular fitness
Willems, Sara M. ; Wright, D.J. ; Day, Felix R. ; Trajanoska, Katerina ; Joshi, P.K. ; Morris, John A. ; Matteini, Amy M. ; Garton, Fleur C. ; Grarup, Niels ; Oskolkov, Nikolay ; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam ; Mangino, Massimo ; Liu, Jun ; Demirkan, Ayse ; Lek, Monkol ; Xu, Liwen ; Wang, Guan ; Oldmeadow, Christopher ; Gaulton, Kyle J. ; Lotta, Luca A. ; Miyamoto-Mikami, Eri ; Rivas, Manuel A. ; White, Tom ; Loh, Po Ru ; Aadahl, Mette ; Amin, Najaf ; Attia, John R. ; Austin, Krista ; Benyamin, Beben ; Brage, Søren ; Cheng, Yu Ching ; Ciȩszczyk, Paweł ; Derave, Wim ; Eriksson, Karl Fredrik ; Eynon, Nir ; Linneberg, Allan ; Lucia, Alejandro ; Massidda, Myosotis ; Mitchell, Braxton D. ; Miyachi, Motohiko ; Murakami, Haruka ; Padmanabhan, Sandosh ; Pandey, Ashutosh ; Papadimitriou, Ioannis ; Rajpal, Deepak K. ; Sale, Craig ; Schnurr, Theresia M. ; Sessa, Francesco ; Shrine, Nick ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. De - \ 2017
Nature Communications 8 (2017). - ISSN 2041-1723
Hand grip strength is a widely used proxy of muscular fitness, a marker of frailty, and predictor of a range of morbidities and all-cause mortality. To investigate the genetic determinants of variation in grip strength, we perform a large-scale genetic discovery analysis in a combined sample of 195,180 individuals and identify 16 loci associated with grip strength (P<5 × 10-8) in combined analyses. A number of these loci contain genes implicated in structure and function of skeletal muscle fibres (ACTG1), neuronal maintenance and signal transduction (PEX14, TGFA, SYT1), or monogenic syndromes with involvement of psychomotor impairment (PEX14, LRPPRC and KANSL1). Mendelian randomization analyses are consistent with a causal effect of higher genetically predicted grip strength on lower fracture risk. In conclusion, our findings provide new biological insight into the mechanistic underpinnings of grip strength and the causal role of muscular strength in age-related morbidities and mortality.
Self-rated health and all-cause and cause-specific mortality of older adults. Individual data meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies in the CHANCES Consortium
Bamia, Christina ; Orfanos, Philippos ; Juerges, H. ; Schöttker, Ben ; Brenner, Hermann ; Lorbeer, Roberto ; Aadahl, Mette ; Matthews, Charles E. ; Bueno-de Mesquita, H.B. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2017
Maturitas 103 (2017). - ISSN 0378-5122 - p. 37 - 44.
To evaluate, among the elderly, the association of self-rated health (SRH) with mortality, and to identify determinants of self-rating health as “at-least-good”.
Individual data on SRH and important covariates were obtained for 424,791 European and Unites States residents, ≥60 years at recruitment (1982-2008), in eight prospective studies in the Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES). In each study, adjusted mortality ratios (hazard ratios, HRs) in relation to SRH were calculated and subsequently combined with random-effect meta-analyses.
Main outcome measures
All-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality.
Within the median 12.5 years of follow-up, 93,014 (22%) deaths occurred. SRH “fair” or “poor” vs. “at-least-good” was associated with increased mortality: HRs 1.46 (95% CI 1·23-1.74) and 2.31 (1.79-2.99), respectively. These associations were evident: for cardiovascular and, to a lesser extent, cancer mortality, and within-study, within-subgroup analyses. Accounting for lifestyle, sociodemographic, somatometric factors and, subsequently, for medical history explained only a modest amount of the unadjusted associations. Factors favourably associated with SRH were: sex (males), age (younger-old), education (high), marital status (married/cohabiting), physical activity (active), body mass index (non-obese), alcohol consumption (low to moderate) and previous morbidity (absence).
SRH provides a quick and simple tool for assessing health and identifying groups of elders at risk of early mortality that may be useful also in clinical settings. Modifying determinants of favourably rating health, e.g. by increasing physical activity and/or by eliminating obesity, may be important for older adults to “feel healthy” and “be healthy”.