Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Functional relationship of particulate matter (PM) emissions, animal species, and moisture content during manure application
    Kabelitz, Tina ; Ammon, Christian ; Funk, Roger ; Münch, Steffen ; Biniasch, Oliver ; Nübel, Ulrich ; Thiel, Nadine ; Rösler, Uwe ; Siller, Paul ; Amon, Barbara ; Aarnink, André J.A. ; Amon, Thomas - \ 2020
    Environment International 143 (2020). - ISSN 0160-4120
    Dry matter content - Fine dust - Manure management - Microorganism - Pig - Poultry

    Livestock manure is recycled to agricultural land as organic fertilizer. Due to the extensive usage of antibiotics in conventional animal farming, antibiotic-resistant bacteria are highly prevalent in feces and manure. The spread of wind-driven particulate matter (PM) with potentially associated harmful bacteria through manure application may pose a threat to environmental and human health. We studied whether PM was aerosolized during the application of solid and dried livestock manure and the functional relationship between PM release, manure dry matter content (DM), treatment and animal species. In parallel, manure and resulting PM were investigated for the survival of pathogenic and antibiotic-resistant bacterial species. The results showed that from manure with a higher DM smaller particles were generated and more PM was emitted. A positive correlation between manure DM and PM aerosolization rate was observed. There was a species-dependent critical dryness level (poultry: 60% DM, pig: 80% DM) where manure began to release PM into the environment. The maximum PM emission potentials were 1 and 3 kg t−1 of applied poultry and pig manure, respectively. Dried manure and resulting PM contained strongly reduced amounts of investigated pathogenic and antibiotic-resistant microorganisms compared to fresh samples. An optimal manure DM regarding low PM emissions and reduced pathogen viability was defined from our results, which was 55–70% DM for poultry manure and 75–85% DM for pig manure. The novel findings of this study increase our detailed understanding and basic knowledge on manure PM emissions and enable optimization of manure management, aiming a manure DM that reduces PM emissions and pathogenic release into the environment.

    Format bedrijfsspecifiek hitteprotocol varkenshouderij
    Hoofs, A.I.J. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research - 11 p.
    animal welfare - animal production - pigs - animal housing - climate - animal health
    Met behulp van dit format kun je als varkenshouder een bedrijfseigenhitteprotocol maken. Advies is om dit samen met je voorlichter(s), dierenarts en personeel(mits van toepassing) op te stellen. Advies is om dit samen met eventueel medewerkers, voorlichter(s) en dierenarts te doen.
    Tips om hittestress te beperken bij hoge buitentemperaturen
    Hoofs, A.I.J. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research - 10 p.
    animal welfare - animal production - pigs - climate - animal housing - heat - animal health
    Milieurisico van antibiotica in mest voor bodem en grondwater mogelijk beperkt
    Hoeksma, P. ; Koeijer, T.J. de; Wipfler, E.L. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Blokland, P.W. ; Rakonjac, Nikola ; Moermond, Caroline ; Lahr, J. - \ 2020
    Tijdschrift Milieu : Vereniging van milieuprofessionals 2020 (2020)juni. - p. 46 - 52.
    Maize silage as enrichment material improves the welfare of growing-finishing pigs in environmentally-friendly pens
    Ocepek, Marko ; Goold, Conor M. ; Busančić, Mirjana ; Aarnink, André J.A. - \ 2020
    Applied Animal Behaviour Science 230 (2020). - ISSN 0168-1591
    Drinker position - Maize silage - Pig behaviour - Straw

    Provision of enrichment in welfare- and environmentally-friendly pig pens is important for sustainable pig production. The primary aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effects of maize silage as a singular enrichment compared to a combination of maize silage and chopped straw on behaviours important for determining pig welfare (play, locomotion, exploration, social contact, aggression, manipulation, eating, drinking, lying/sleeping, sitting/standing and nosing objects) in growing-finishing pigs (pigs, n = 432; batch, n = 2; pens n = 12 per batch). Secondly, the impact of drinker position (IN: two drinkers placed in the inside area; OUT: two drinkers in the outside area; IN_OUT: a drinker in each of the inside and outside areas; n = 8 pens per group) on pig behaviour was assessed. There were no statistically significant influences of enrichment treatments on behaviour. The OUT group performed less manipulation behaviour than the IN (mean difference = 2.65; 90 % highest density interval (HDI): 0.46, 4.84) and IN-OUT (mean difference = 2.88 HDI: 0.69, 5.15) groups, and drank more than the IN-OUT group (mean difference = -3.87; HDI: -6.76, -0.90). In addition, we found that a one standard deviation (∼ 2 days) increase in observation days/pig age significantly decreased manipulation (log coefficient = -0.32; HDI: -0.42, -0.22) and aggressive behaviours (log coefficient = -0.46; HDI: -0.57, -0.36), but there was an increase in drinking (log coefficient = 0.13; HDI: 0.09, 0.18) and nosing objects (log coefficient = 0.12; HDI: 0.06, 0.18). Significant associations were also found for batch (season), as well as correlations between behaviours. In summary, our results showed that pig behaviours during the growing-fattening period were similarly expressed in the maize silage and combined maize silage and chopped straw treatments, suggesting that maize silage in environmentally-friendly pig pens is adequate in ensuring welfare standards. Furthermore, placing drinkers in the outside area reduced manipulation between pen-mates, thus, could improve pig welfare.

    CFD simulation of airflows and ammonia emissions in a pig compartment with underfloor air distribution system: Model validation at different ventilation rates
    Tabase, Raphael Kubeba ; linden, Veerle Van; Bagci, Ozer ; Paepe, Michel De; Aarnink, André J.A. ; Demeyer, Peter - \ 2020
    Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 171 (2020). - ISSN 0168-1699
    Ammonia emission - CFD simulation - Displacement airflow pattern - Pig building - Underfloor air distribution system

    Pig buildings with underfloor air distribution (UFAD) system provide the animal area with efficient cooling and better air quality compared ceiling air inlets. This is because the air inlets near the floor and the exhaust opening at the ceiling allow the excess heat and the old air to be displaced from the animal area to the upper part of the building. Typical inlet types of UFAD systems in Flanders (Belgium) are the slatted floor units placed in service alley. The main drawback in pig buildings with UFAD systems is that during winter, cold draughts often occur in the animal area, and due to the air displacement ventilation process, there is a risk of NH3 transport from the slurry pit. The effect of NH3 emissions is important as it leads to acidification and eutrophication. Modelling airflows and NH3 emissions using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can promote the development of techniques for mitigating NH3 emissions, improving indoor air quality and animal thermal comfort. A steady-state CFD model was therefore developed to predict the indoor airflow and NH3 distribution in a pig compartment with a UFAD system. An advanced NH3 emission modelling approach was implemented in the CFD model to simulate NH3 generation in the slurry pit and pen floor. In order to validate the CFD model, two experiments were performed. The first experiment was conducted in a compartment with mock-up pigs at different ventilation rates to validate the modelled air velocity and temperature fields. The second experiment was conducted in a compartment occupied by real pigs to validate the modelled airflow patterns, temperature, CO2 and NH3 concentrations. Overall, there was a good agreement between the simulated and measured results. The field experiment and CFD model results confirmed that NH3 was transported from the slurry pit to the compartment. The air exchange rate of the slurry pit in the CFD model increased from 10.4 to 26.1 h−1 as the ventilation rate was increased from 11 to 92 m3 h−1 pig−1 due to the air displacement in the slurry pit.

    The effect of gas to liquid ratio on carbon dioxide removal and heat loss across a forced ventilated trickling filter
    Karimi, Davood ; Eding, Ep ; Aarnink, Andre J.A. ; Groot Koerkamp, Peter ; Verreth, Johan - \ 2020
    Aquacultural Engineering 88 (2020). - ISSN 0144-8609
    Carbon dioxide stripping - Degassing - Energy - Forced ventilation - Gas:Liquid ratio (GLR) - Heat - Nitrification - RAS - Trickling filter (TF)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the gas: liquid ratio (GLR) on carbon dioxide removal and heat loss across a forced-ventilated trickling filter (TF) used as bioreactor. The effect of 8 different GLRs (1.2–15.7) on carbon dioxide removal and heat loss from water passing a trickling filter were tested in random order. The TF was part of a pilot scale fresh water intensive recirculating aquaculture system and had a media bed height of 1.8 m, a diameter of 0.9 m, a specific surface area of 200 m2/m3 and was operated at a fixed hydraulic surface load of 9.42 m3/m2.h, a mean inlet water temperature of 27.0–27.5 °C, and a mean inlet pH ranging from 7.02–7.12. For each GLR, CO2 removal from water was calculated from CO2 measurements in the inlet and outlet air of the TF using an online infrared probe (developed for agriculture and greenhouses) and from 12 water measurements done once every 3 h during 2 subsequent days. The water inlet CO2 concentrations varied between 4.5–9.0 mg/L (calculated from total inorganic carbon and pH). The results showed that the CO2 removal from water to the air in a trickling filter increased from 3.1 mg/L at a GLR of 1 to 6.1 mg/L for a GLR of 15. The relationship between GLR and CO2 removal could be described as an asymptotic curve with the following equation [Formula presented]; (R2 = 0.91). A linear relation between total heat loss across the TF and the applied GLRs showed an average total heat loss of 33.2 kJ per cubic meter of air for all GLRs. Of the total heat loss on average 91 % was latent heat loss and 9 % sensible heat loss. This study showed that: (1) GLRs above 5 will not result in significant additional CO2 removal; (2) energy loss at a GLR of 5 is, under our experimental conditions with a mean inlet air temperature of 22.6 °C and an mean inlet air relative humidity of 66.9 %, 26.0 kJ per g CO2 removed.

    Review of legal requirements on ammonia and greenhouse gases emissions from animal production buildings in european countries
    Bjerg, Bjarne ; Demeyer, Peter ; Hoyaux, Julien ; Didara, Mislav ; Grönroos, Juha ; Hassouna, Mélynda ; Amon, Barbara ; Bartzanas, Thomas ; Sándor, Renáta ; Fogarty, Micheal ; Klas, Sivan ; Schiavon, Stefano ; Juskiene, Violeta ; Radeski, Miroslav ; Attard, George ; Aarnink, André ; Gülzari, Şeyda Özkan ; Kuczyński, Tadeusz ; Fangueiro, David ; Marin, Monica Paula ; Mihina, Stefan ; Verbič, Jože ; Calvet, Salvador ; Jeppsson, Knut Håkan ; Menzi, Harald ; Sizmaz, Ozge ; Norton, Tomas - \ 2019
    Ammonia - Emission - EU - Europe - Greenhouse gas - Legal requirements - Legislation

    This review gathers information about the current legal requirements related to the emission of ammonia and greenhouse gases from animal housing in 21 out of the 28 EU countries and in 5 non-EU countries. Overall the review shows that most of the included countries have established substantial procedures to limit ammonia emission and practically no procedures to limit greenhouse gas emission. The review can also be seen as an introduction to the substantial initiatives and decisions taken by the EU in relation to ammonia emission from animal housing, and as a notification on the absence of corresponding initiatives and decisions in relation to greenhouse gases. An EU directive on industrial emissions from 2010 and an implementation decision from 2017 are the main general instruments to reduce ammonia emission from animal housing in the EU. These treaties put limits to ammonia emissions from installations with more than 2000 places for fattening pigs, with more than 750 places for sows and with more than 40,000 places for poultry. As an example, the upper general limit for fattening pigs is 2.6 kg ammonia per animal place per year. This review indicates that the important animal producing countries in the EU have implemented the EU requirements, and, that only a few countries with a large pig population, in relation to their geographical size, have implemented requirements that are stricter than what is required by the EU.

    Effects of dietary crude protein levels on ammonia emission, litter and manure composition, N losses, and water intake in broiler breeders
    Emous, R.A. van; Winkel, A. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. - \ 2019
    Poultry Science 98 (2019)12. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 6618 - 6625.
    ammonia emission - broiler breeder - dietary crude protein - litter and manure composition - N losses

    This study determined the effects of different dietary crude protein (CP) levels on ammonia emission (NH3), litter and manure composition, nitrogen (N) losses, and water intake in broiler breeders. A total of 480 females and 64 males (Ross 308) 20 wk of age were randomly allotted to 2 dietary treatments with 8 replicates of 30 females and 4 males per replicate. Birds were fed either high CP (CPh) or low CP diets (CPl) supplemented with free amino acids (AA). Both diets consisted of 3 sub-diets; 1 for each phase of the laying period. Diets were formulated to be iso-caloric and calculated CP content of the CPl diets was 15 g/kg lower than the CPh diets (Breeder 1 (23 to 34 wk): 135 vs. 150, Breeder 2 (35 to 46 wk): 125 vs. 140 and Breeder 3 (47 to 60 wk of age): 115 vs. 130 g/kg, respectively). Pens consisted of an elevated slatted floor (25% of the floor surface) and a litter floor. Water and feed intake were recorded daily. Litter (floor) and manure (below slatted floor) composition and ammonia concentration were measured at 34, 44, and 54 wk of age. Ammonia concentration was measured using a flux chamber on top of the litter or manure. Estimated N losses were calculated. Dietary protein level did not affect water intake and dry matter (DM) content of the litter or manure. Compared to birds fed the CPh diets, the litter and manure samples of broiler breeders fed the CPl had 8% lower total-N and 13% lower ammonia-N content resulting in a 9% lower ammonia concentration, 9% lower ammonia emission, and 11% lower total-N losses. In conclusion, this study shows that reducing CP level in the diet of broiler breeders reduces ammonia emission and total N-losses from litter and manure.

    Reduction of ammonia emission from areas where animals are maintained
    Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Puente Rodriguez, D. - \ 2019
    Octrooinummer: WO2019117710, gepubliceerd: 2019-06-20.
    The present invention relates to the use of at least one oxidizing biocide in a livestock housing and other areas in which animals are maintained for reducing urease activity and/or ammonia emission, during a prolonged period of time, wherein the at least one oxidizing biocide is preferably chosen from the group consisting of peracetic acid and electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW). The invention also relates to a device comprising a manure scraper or robot system, a reservoir containing at least one oxidizing biocide, and a sprayer for spraying the at least one oxidizing biocide, as well as a livestock housing (or other animal containing area) having a floor (or a surface), wherein the floor is in combination with at least one oxidizing biocide.
    Less nitrogen is very doable: the nitrogen problem is not as black and white as it seems
    Migchels, Gerard ; Vries, Wim de; Aarnink, Andre ; Gies, Edo - \ 2019
    Schone vloer aan basis emissiearm
    Aarnink, Andre ; Ogink, Nico - \ 2019
    Warmte- en CO2-productie van trager groeiende vleeskuikens
    Aarnink, André ; Harn, Jan van; Bos, Bram - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1186) - 21
    In this report the heat and carbon dioxide (CO2) production of slow growing broilers is estimated.
    Brongerichte maatregelen voor beperking emissies uit bestaande varkensstallen
    Aarnink, André ; Groot, Jos de; Ogink, Nico - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1205) - 29
    The coalition Vitalization of pig farming has taken the initiative, with the provinces and LNV, for a source-oriented sustainability improvement of pig houses. The objective is that harmful emissions from pig houses are prevented as far as possible directly from the source and integral. This report provides insight into the points of application and the measures that can be taken to reduce emissions integrally at the source in existing housing for the different categories of pigs. The perspective of possible measures, the impact on emissions and the possibility of combining measures, possibly with end-of-pipe solutions, are indicated. In addition, insight is provided into current initiatives in this field in the Netherlands and abroad.
    Concentrate on the cowsheds
    Vries, W. de; Melse, R.W. ; Groenestein, C.M. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Verhoeven, Frank - \ 2019
    Review of Legal Requirements on Ammonia and Greenhouse Gases Emissons from Animal Production Buildings in European countries
    Bjerg, B. ; Demeyer, Peter ; Hoyaux, J. ; Didara, M. ; Grönroos, J. ; Hassouna, M. ; Amon, B. ; Sándor, R. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Ozkan-Gulzari, Seyda - \ 2019
    - p. 6 - 23.
    Project 7: Voorkomen van methaanverliezen uit varkensstallen door dagontmesting en koeling
    Aarnink, A.J.A. - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 1 p.
    Project 8: Verlagen van methaanemissie uit vleesvarkensstallen door een innovatieve techniek van mestverwijdering en mestbehandeling
    Aarnink, A.J.A. - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 1 p.
    Development of ammonia mass transfer coefficient models for the atmosphere above two types of the slatted floors in a pig house using computational fluid dynamics
    Rong, L. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. - \ 2019
    Biosystems Engineering 183 (2019). - ISSN 1537-5110 - p. 13 - 25.
    Airflow pattern - Ammonia emission - CFD - Mass transfer coefficient - Pig houses

    Ammonia emissions from animal production systems are a concern due to their potential adverse effects on the environment. It is important for governments to adjust their policies to control ammonia emissions from animal production. To evaluate and quantify emission factors, process-based modelling is a cost-effective procedure, particularly due to the complex and diverse transfer chains. During the modelling process, ammonia mass transfer coefficient is one of the key parameters to be determined. However, inconsistencies are found in widely used expressions for mass transfer coefficients in ammonia volatilization models. This study used CFD simulations to derive the mass transfer coefficients above metal and concrete slatted floor in an experimental pig houses with 12 full-scale pig pens. Five ammonia mass transfer coefficient models were selected for comparison with the models derived from CFD simulations. It was noticed that the models derived from wind tunnel/flux chamber experiments usually predicted lower values of ammonia mass transfer coefficients compared to the models developed from full-scale measurements and/or numerical modelling. Care is needed to extrapolate the relationships developed under controlled laboratory conditions to the commercial barns. The results indicated also that the ammonia mass transfer coefficient relies heavily on the airflow patterns which could be affected by the ventilation systems, location of the inlet and outlets, internal partitions, floor types etc. This makes it very difficult to present a universal ammonia mass transfer coefficient model for pig houses.

    The Effect of Gas to Liquid Ratio on Carbon Dioxide Ramoval and Heat loss across a Forced Ventilated Trickling Filter in Aquaculture
    Karimi, Davood ; Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Eding, E. ; Verreth, J.A.J. - \ 2018
    In: AgEng Conference 2018: New engineering concepts for a valued agriculture. -
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