Long-term thermal sensitivity of Earth's tropical forests
Sullivan, Martin J.P. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi ; Castilho, Carolina ; Costa, Flávia ; Sanchez, Aida Cuni ; Ewango, Corneille E.N. ; Hubau, Wannes ; Marimon, Beatriz ; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel ; Qie, Lan ; Sonké, Bonaventure ; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Brienen, Roel J.W. ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Galbraith, David ; Gloor, Manuel ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Alexiades, Miguel N. ; Almeida, Everton C. ; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Dávila, Esteban Álvarez ; Loayza, Patricia Alvarez ; Andrade, Ana ; Vieira, Simone Aparecida ; Aragão, Luiz E.O.C. ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Arets, Eric J.M.M. ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Ashton, Peter ; Aymard C, Gerardo ; Baccaro, Fabrício B. ; Banin, Lindsay F. ; Baraloto, Christopher ; Camargo, Plínio Barbosa ; Barlow, Jos ; Barroso, Jorcely ; Bastin, Jean François ; Batterman, Sarah A. ; Beeckman, Hans ; Begne, Serge K. ; Bennett, Amy C. ; Berenguer, Erika ; Berry, Nicholas ; Blanc, Lilian ; Boeckx, Pascal ; Bogaert, Jan ; Bonal, Damien ; Bongers, Frans ; Bradford, Matt ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brncic, Terry ; Brown, Foster ; Burban, Benoit ; Camargo, José Luís ; Castro, Wendeson ; Céron, Carlos ; Ribeiro, Sabina Cerruto ; Moscoso, Victor Chama ; Chave, Jerôme ; Chezeaux, Eric ; Clark, Connie J. ; Souza, Fernanda Coelho de; Collins, Murray ; Comiskey, James A. ; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo ; Medina, Massiel Corrales ; Costa, Lola da; Dančák, Martin ; Dargie, Greta C. ; Davies, Stuart ; Cardozo, Nallaret Davila ; Haulleville, Thales de; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante de; Aguila Pasquel, Jhon Del; Derroire, Géraldine ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Doucet, Jean Louis ; Dourdain, Aurélie ; Droissant, Vincent ; Duque, Luisa Fernanda ; Ekoungoulou, Romeo ; Elias, Fernando ; Erwin, Terry ; Esquivel-Muelbert, Adriane ; Fauset, Sophie ; Ferreira, Joice ; Llampazo, Gerardo Flores ; Foli, Ernest ; Ford, Andrew ; Gilpin, Martin ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hamer, Keith C. ; Hamilton, Alan C. ; Harris, David J. ; Hart, Terese B. ; Hédl, Radim ; Herault, Bruno ; Herrera, Rafael ; Higuchi, Niro ; Hladik, Annette ; Coronado, Eurídice Honorio ; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau ; Huasco, Walter Huaraca ; Jeffery, Kathryn J. ; Jimenez-Rojas, Eliana ; Kalamandeen, Michelle ; Djuikouo, Marie Noël Kamdem ; Kearsley, Elizabeth ; Umetsu, Ricardo Keichi ; Kho, Lip Khoon ; Killeen, Timothy ; Kitayama, Kanehiro ; Klitgaard, Bente ; Koch, Alexander ; Labrière, Nicolas ; Laurance, William ; Laurance, Susan ; Leal, Miguel E. ; Levesley, Aurora ; Lima, Adriano J.N. ; Lisingo, Janvier ; Lopes, Aline P. ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Lovejoy, Tom ; Lovett, Jon C. ; Lowe, Richard ; Magnusson, William E. ; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba ; Manzatto, Ângelo Gilberto ; Marimon, Ben Hur ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Marthews, Toby ; Almeida Reis, Simone Matias de; Maycock, Colin ; Melgaço, Karina ; Mendoza, Casimiro ; Metali, Faizah ; Mihindou, Vianet ; Milliken, William ; Mitchard, Edward T.A. ; Morandi, Paulo S. ; Mossman, Hannah L. ; Nagy, Laszlo ; Nascimento, Henrique ; Neill, David ; Nilus, Reuben ; Vargas, Percy Núñez ; Palacios, Walter ; Camacho, Nadir Pallqui ; Peacock, Julie ; Pendry, Colin ; Peñuela Mora, Maria Cristina ; Pickavance, Georgia C. ; Pipoly, John ; Pitman, Nigel ; Playfair, Maureen ; Poorter, Lourens ; Poulsen, John R. ; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg ; Preziosi, Richard ; Prieto, Adriana ; Primack, Richard B. ; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma ; Reitsma, Jan ; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime ; Correa, Zorayda Restrepo ; Sousa, Thaiane Rodrigues de; Bayona, Lily Rodriguez ; Roopsind, Anand ; Rudas, Agustín ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Abu Salim, Kamariah ; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Schietti, Juliana ; Sheil, Douglas ; Silva, Richarlly C. ; Espejo, Javier Silva ; Valeria, Camila Silva ; Silveira, Marcos ; Simo-Droissart, Murielle ; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni ; Singh, James ; Soto Shareva, Yahn Carlos ; Stahl, Clement ; Stropp, Juliana ; Sukri, Rahayu ; Sunderland, Terry ; Svátek, Martin ; Swaine, Michael D. ; Swamy, Varun ; Taedoumg, Hermann ; Talbot, Joey ; Taplin, James ; Taylor, David ; Steege, Hans Ter; Terborgh, John ; Thomas, Raquel ; Thomas, Sean C. ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Umunay, Peter ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Heijden, Geertje van der; Hout, Peter van der; Meer, Peter van der; Nieuwstadt, Mark van; Verbeeck, Hans ; Vernimmen, Ronald ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Torre, Emilio Vilanova ; Vleminckx, Jason ; Vos, Vincent ; Wang, Ophelia ; White, Lee J.T. ; Willcock, Simon ; Woods, John T. ; Wortel, Verginia ; Young, Kenneth ; Zagt, Roderick ; Zemagho, Lise ; Zuidema, Pieter A. ; Zwerts, Joeri A. ; Phillips, Oliver L. - \ 2020
Science 368 (2020)6493. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 869 - 874.
The sensitivity of tropical forest carbon to climate is a key uncertainty in predicting global climate change. Although short-term drying and warming are known to affect forests, it is unknown if such effects translate into long-term responses. Here, we analyze 590 permanent plots measured across the tropics to derive the equilibrium climate controls on forest carbon. Maximum temperature is the most important predictor of aboveground biomass (-9.1 megagrams of carbon per hectare per degree Celsius), primarily by reducing woody productivity, and has a greater impact per °C in the hottest forests (>32.2°C). Our results nevertheless reveal greater thermal resilience than observations of short-term variation imply. To realize the long-term climate adaptation potential of tropical forests requires both protecting them and stabilizing Earth's climate.
Data from: Patterns of nitrogen-fixing tree abundance in forests across Asia and America
Menge, Duncan N.L. ; Chisholm, Ryan A. ; Davies, Stuart J. ; Abu Salim, Kamariah ; Allen, David ; Alvarez, Mauricio ; Bourg, Norm ; Brockelman, Warren Y. ; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh ; Butt, Nathalie ; Ouden, Jan den; Jansen, Patrick - \ 2019
Determinants of plant community diversity and structure - Forest - Smithsonian ForestGEO - legume - symbiosis - nutrient limitation - nitrogen fixation
Symbiotic nitrogen (N)‐fixing trees can provide large quantities of new N to ecosystems, but only if they are sufficiently abundant. The overall abundance and latitudinal abundance distributions of N‐fixing trees are well characterised in the Americas, but less well outside the Americas. Here, we characterised the abundance of N‐fixing trees in a network of forest plots spanning five continents, ~5,000 tree species and ~4 million trees. The majority of the plots (86%) were in America or Asia. In addition, we examined whether the observed pattern of abundance of N‐fixing trees was correlated with mean annual temperature and precipitation. Outside the tropics, N‐fixing trees were consistently rare in the forest plots we examined. Within the tropics, N‐fixing trees were abundant in American but not Asian forest plots (~7% versus ~1% of basal area and stems). This disparity was not explained by mean annual temperature or precipitation. Our finding of low N‐fixing tree abundance in the Asian tropics casts some doubt on recent high estimates of N fixation rates in this region, which do not account for disparities in N‐fixing tree abundance between the Asian and American tropics. Synthesis. Inputs of nitrogen to forests depend on symbiotic nitrogen fixation, which is constrained by the abundance of N‐fixing trees. By analysing a large dataset of ~4 million trees, we found that N‐fixing trees were consistently rare in the Asian tropics as well as across higher latitudes in Asia, America and Europe. The rarity of N‐fixing trees in the Asian tropics compared with the American tropics might stem from lower intrinsic N limitation in Asian tropical forests, although direct support for any mechanism is lacking. The paucity of N‐fixing trees throughout Asian forests suggests that N inputs to the Asian tropics might be lower than previously thought.
Patterns of nitrogen-fixing tree abundance in forests across Asia and America
Menge, Duncan N.L. ; Chisholm, Ryan A. ; Davies, Stuart J. ; Abu Salim, Kamariah ; Allen, David ; Alvarez, Mauricio ; Bourg, Norm ; Brockelman, Warren Y. ; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh ; Butt, Nathalie ; Cao, Min ; Chanthorn, Wirong ; Chao, Wei Chun ; Clay, Keith ; Condit, Richard ; Cordell, Susan ; Silva, João Batista da; Dattaraja, H.S. ; Andrade, Ana Cristina Segalin de; Oliveira, Alexandre A. de; Ouden, Jan den; Drescher, Michael ; Fletcher, Christine ; Giardina, Christian P. ; Savitri Gunatilleke, C.V. ; Gunatilleke, I.A.U.N. ; Hau, Billy C.H. ; He, Fangliang ; Howe, Robert ; Hsieh, Chang Fu ; Hubbell, Stephen P. ; Inman-Narahari, Faith M. ; Jansen, Patrick A. ; Johnson, Daniel J. ; Kong, Lee Sing ; Král, Kamil ; Ku, Chen Chia ; Lai, Jiangshan ; Larson, Andrew J. ; Li, Xiankun ; Li, Yide ; Lin, Luxiang ; Lin, Yi Ching ; Liu, Shirong ; Lum, Shawn K.Y. ; Lutz, James A. ; Ma, Keping ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; McMahon, Sean ; McShea, William ; Mi, Xiangcheng ; Morecroft, Michael ; Myers, Jonathan A. ; Nathalang, Anuttara ; Novotny, Vojtech ; Ong, Perry ; Orwig, David A. ; Ostertag, Rebecca ; Parker, Geoffrey ; Phillips, Richard P. ; Abd. Rahman, Kassim ; Sack, Lawren ; Sang, Weiguo ; Shen, Guochun ; Shringi, Ankur ; Shue, Jessica ; Su, Sheng Hsin ; Sukumar, Raman ; Fang Sun, I. ; Suresh, H.S. ; Tan, Sylvester ; Thomas, Sean C. ; Toko, Pagi S. ; Valencia, Renato ; Vallejo, Martha I. ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Vrška, Tomáš ; Wang, Bin ; Wang, Xihua ; Weiblen, George D. ; Wolf, Amy ; Xu, Han ; Yap, Sandra ; Zhu, Li ; Fung, Tak - \ 2019
Journal of Ecology 107 (2019)6. - ISSN 0022-0477 - p. 2598 - 2610.
forest - legume - nitrogen fixation - nutrient limitation - Smithsonian ForestGEO - symbiosis
Symbiotic nitrogen (N)-fixing trees can provide large quantities of new N to ecosystems, but only if they are sufficiently abundant. The overall abundance and latitudinal abundance distributions of N-fixing trees are well characterised in the Americas, but less well outside the Americas. Here, we characterised the abundance of N-fixing trees in a network of forest plots spanning five continents, ~5,000 tree species and ~4 million trees. The majority of the plots (86%) were in America or Asia. In addition, we examined whether the observed pattern of abundance of N-fixing trees was correlated with mean annual temperature and precipitation. Outside the tropics, N-fixing trees were consistently rare in the forest plots we examined. Within the tropics, N-fixing trees were abundant in American but not Asian forest plots (~7% versus ~1% of basal area and stems). This disparity was not explained by mean annual temperature or precipitation. Our finding of low N-fixing tree abundance in the Asian tropics casts some doubt on recent high estimates of N fixation rates in this region, which do not account for disparities in N-fixing tree abundance between the Asian and American tropics. Synthesis. Inputs of nitrogen to forests depend on symbiotic nitrogen fixation, which is constrained by the abundance of N-fixing trees. By analysing a large dataset of ~4 million trees, we found that N-fixing trees were consistently rare in the Asian tropics as well as across higher latitudes in Asia, America and Europe. The rarity of N-fixing trees in the Asian tropics compared with the American tropics might stem from lower intrinsic N limitation in Asian tropical forests, although direct support for any mechanism is lacking. The paucity of N-fixing trees throughout Asian forests suggests that N inputs to the Asian tropics might be lower than previously thought.
Field methods for sampling tree height for tropical forest biomass estimation
Sullivan, Martin J.P. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Hubau, Wannes ; Qie, Lan ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Banin, Lindsay F. ; Chave, Jerôme ; Cuni-Sanchez, Aida ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Arets, Eric ; Ashton, Peter ; Bastin, Jean François ; Berry, Nicholas J. ; Bogaert, Jan ; Boot, Rene ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brienen, Roel ; Burslem, David F.R.P. ; Canniere, Charles de; Chudomelová, Markéta ; Dančák, Martin ; Ewango, Corneille ; Hédl, Radim ; Lloyd, Jon ; Makana, Jean Remy ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Marimon, Beatriz S. ; Junior, Ben Hur Marimon ; Metali, Faizah ; Moore, Sam ; Nagy, Laszlo ; Vargas, Percy Nuñez ; Pendry, Colin A. ; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma ; Reitsma, Jan ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Salim, Kamariah Abu ; Sonké, Bonaventure ; Sukri, Rahayu S. ; Sunderland, Terry ; Svátek, Martin ; Umunay, Peter M. ; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Vernimmen, Ronald R.E. ; Torre, Emilio Vilanova ; Vleminckx, Jason ; Vos, Vincent ; Phillips, Oliver L. - \ 2018
Methods in Ecology and Evolution 9 (2018)5. - ISSN 2041-210X - p. 1179 - 1189.
Above-ground biomass estimation - Allometry - Carbon stocks - Forest inventory - Forest structure - Sample size
Quantifying the relationship between tree diameter and height is a key component of efforts to estimate biomass and carbon stocks in tropical forests. Although substantial site-to-site variation in height-diameter allometries has been documented, the time consuming nature of measuring all tree heights in an inventory plot means that most studies do not include height, or else use generic pan-tropical or regional allometric equations to estimate height. Using a pan-tropical dataset of 73 plots where at least 150 trees had in-field ground-based height measurements, we examined how the number of trees sampled affects the performance of locally derived height-diameter allometries, and evaluated the performance of different methods for sampling trees for height measurement. Using cross-validation, we found that allometries constructed with just 20 locally measured values could often predict tree height with lower error than regional or climate-based allometries (mean reduction in prediction error = 0.46 m). The predictive performance of locally derived allometries improved with sample size, but with diminishing returns in performance gains when more than 40 trees were sampled. Estimates of stand-level biomass produced using local allometries to estimate tree height show no over- or under-estimation bias when compared with biomass estimates using field measured heights. We evaluated five strategies to sample trees for height measurement, and found that sampling strategies that included measuring the heights of the ten largest diameter trees in a plot outperformed (in terms of resulting in local height-diameter models with low height prediction error) entirely random or diameter size-class stratified approaches. Our results indicate that even limited sampling of heights can be used to refine height-diameter allometries. We recommend aiming for a conservative threshold of sampling 50 trees per location for height measurement, and including the ten trees with the largest diameter in this sample.
CTFS-ForestGEO: A worldwide network monitoring forests in an era of global change
Anderson-Teixeira, K.J. ; Davies, S.J. ; Bennett, A.C. ; Gonzalez-Akre, E.B. ; Muller-Landau, H.C. ; Wright, S.J. ; Abu Salim, K. ; Almeyda Zambrano, A.M. ; Jansen, P.A. ; Ouden, J. den - \ 2015
Global Change Biology 21 (2015)2. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 528 - 549.
tropical tree community - long-term nitrogen - rain-forest - neotropical forest - functional traits - spatial-patterns - el-nino - phylogenetic structure - seedling recruitment - dispersal limitation
Global change is impacting forests worldwide, threatening biodiversity and ecosystem services including climate regulation. Understanding how forests respond is critical to forest conservation and climate protection. This review describes an international network of 59 long-term forest dynamics research sites (CTFS-ForestGEO) useful for characterizing forest responses to global change. Within very large plots (median size 25 ha), all stems =1 cm diameter are identified to species, mapped, and regularly recensused according to standardized protocols. CTFS-ForestGEO spans 25°S–61°N latitude, is generally representative of the range of bioclimatic, edaphic, and topographic conditions experienced by forests worldwide, and is the only forest monitoring network that applies a standardized protocol to each of the world's major forest biomes. Supplementary standardized measurements at subsets of the sites provide additional information on plants, animals, and ecosystem and environmental variables. CTFS-ForestGEO sites are experiencing multifaceted anthropogenic global change pressures including warming (average 0.61 °C), changes in precipitation (up to ±30% change), atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds (up to 3.8 g N m-2 yr-1 and 3.1 g S m-2 yr-1), and forest fragmentation in the surrounding landscape (up to 88% reduced tree cover within 5 km). The broad suite of measurements made at CTFS-ForestGEO sites makes it possible to investigate the complex ways in which global change is impacting forest dynamics. Ongoing research across the CTFS-ForestGEO network is yielding insights into how and why the forests are changing, and continued monitoring will provide vital contributions to understanding worldwide forest diversity and dynamics in an era of global change.