Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Shotgun metagenomics reveal a diverse assemblage of protists in a model Antarctic soil ecosystem
    Thompson, Andrew ; Geisen, Stefan ; Adams, Byron J. - \ 2020
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 22 (2020)11. - ISSN 0099-2240 - p. 4620 - 4632.
    The soils of the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) of Antarctica are established models for understanding fundamental processes in soil ecosystem functioning (e.g. ecological tipping points, community structuring, and nutrient cycling) because the extreme physical environment drastically reduces biodiversity and ecological complexity. Understanding the functioning of MDV soils requires in‐depth knowledge of the diversity of MDV soil species. Protists, which contribute significantly to soil ecosystem functioning worldwide, remain poorly characterized in the MDV. To better assess the diversity of MDV protists, we performed shotgun metagenomics on 18 sites representing a variety of landscape features and edaphic variables. Our results show MDV soil protists are diverse at both the genus (155 of 281 eukaryote genera) and family (120) levels, but comprise only 6% of eukaryotic reads. Protists are structured by moisture, total N, and distance from the local coast, and possess limited richness in arid (<5% moisture) and at high elevation sites, known drivers of communities in the MDV. High relative diversity and broad distribution of protists in our study promotes these organisms as key members of MDV soil microbiomes and the MDV as a useful system for understanding the contribution of soil protists to the structure of soil microbiomes.
    Sequence analysis of 43-year old samples of Plantago lanceolata show that Plantain virus X is synonymous with Actinidia virus X and is widely distributed
    Hammond, John ; Adams, I.P. ; Fowkes, Aimee R. ; McGreig, Sam ; Botermans, M. ; Oorspronk, Joanieke van; Westenberg, M. ; Verbeek, M. ; Dullemans, A.M. ; Stijger, I. ; Blouin, Arnaud G. ; Massart, Sébastien ; Jonghe, Kris de; Heyneman, Maaike ; Walsh, J.A. ; Fox, Adrian - \ 2020
    Plant Pathology (2020). - ISSN 0032-0862
    actinidia virus X - historic isolates - plantain virus X - sequencing
    Plantain virus X was first recognized by the ICTV as a species in the genus Potexvirus in 1982. However, because no sequence was available for plantain virus X (PlVX), abolishing the species was proposed to the Flexiviridae working group of the ICTV in 2015. This initiated efforts to sequence the original isolates from Plantago lanceolata samples. Here we report the full-genome sequencing of two original isolates of PlVX, which demonstrate that the virus is synonymous to Actinidia virus X, a species previously reported from kiwifruit (Actinidia sp.) and blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum). PlVX was previously noted to be widespread in the UK in P. lanceolata. This report additionally presents novel data on the distribution and diversity of PlVX, collected at the same site as the original UK isolates, and from three independent surveys, two in the Netherlands and one in Belgium. This study also includes two new host records for PlVX, Browallia americana and Capsicum annuum (sweet pepper), indicating the virus is more widespread and infects a broader range of hosts than previously reported. This stresses the importance of surveys of noncultivated species to gain insight into viral distribution and host range. This study also demonstrates the value of generating sequence data for isolates retained in virus collections. Additionally, it demonstrates the potential value in prepublication data sharing for giving context to virus detections such as the four independent studies here which, when combined, give greater clarity to the identity, diversity, distribution, and host range of plantain virus X.
    Associations between socio-environmental factors and landscape-scale biodiversity recovery in naturally regenerating tropical and subtropical forests
    Crouzeilles, Renato ; Maurenza, Daniel ; Prieto, Pablo V. ; Barros, Felipe S.M. ; Jakovac, Catarina ; Ferreira, Mariana S. ; Chazdon, Robin L. ; Lindenmayer, David B. ; Brancalion, Pedro H.S. ; Ceccon, Eliane ; Adams, Cristina ; Lazos-Chavero, Elena ; Monteiro, Lara ; Junqueira, André B. ; Strassburg, Bernardo B.N. ; Guariguata, Manuel R. - \ 2020
    Conservation Letters (2020). - ISSN 1755-263X
    forest landscape restoration - meta-analysis - natural regeneration - restoration benefits - socioeconomic and biophysical factors
    Natural regeneration is key for large-scale forest restoration, yet it may lead to different biodiversity outcomes depending on socio-environmental context. We combined the results of a global meta-analysis to quantify how biodiversity recovery in naturally regenerating forests deviates from biodiversity values in reference old-growth forests, with structural equation modeling, to identify direct and indirect associations between socioeconomic, biophysical and ecological factors and deviation in biodiversity recovery at a landscape scale. Low deviation within a landscape means higher chances of multiple sites in naturally regenerating forests successfully recovering biodiversity compared to reference forests. Deviation in biodiversity recovery was directly negatively associated with the percentage of cropland, forest cover, and positively associated with the percentage of urban areas in the surrounding landscape. These three factors mediated the indirect associations with rural population size, recent gross deforestation, time since natural regeneration started, mean annual temperature, mean annual water deficit, road density, land opportunity cost, percentage cover of strictly protected forest areas, and human population variation in the surrounding landscape. We suggest that natural forest restoration should be prioritized in landscapes with both low socioeconomic pressures on land use conversion to pasturelands and urban areas, and high percentage of forest cover.
    The Attention for Classroom Management in the Intended and Implemented Teacher Education Workplace Curriculum [Roundtable Session]
    Adams, T.A.G. ; Koster, Bob ; Brok, P.J. den - \ 2020
    Teachers' classroom management competence is considered an important competence by many teacher educators and researchers. Little research has been done, however, on how classroom management competence is shaped during the internship part of teacher education. Therefore, this research focused on mapping the extent to which classroom management was part of the intended and implemented curriculum in the internship phase in the curriculum of one teacher education institute. Multiple data sources were used. We found little explicit attention for classroom management in the written curriculum. However, we did find major attention for classroom management in the implemented curriculum. The results suggest that it is important to create more coherence between the written and implemented curriculum with respect to classroom management.
    Transforming knowledge systems for life on Earth: Visions of future systems and how to get there
    Fazey, Ioan ; Schäpke, Niko ; Caniglia, Guido ; Hodgson, Anthony ; Kendrick, Ian ; Lyon, Christopher ; Page, Glenn ; Patterson, James ; Riedy, Chris ; Strasser, Tim ; Verveen, Stephan ; Adams, David ; Goldstein, Bruce ; Klaes, Matthias ; Leicester, Graham ; Linyard, Alison ; McCurdy, Adrienne ; Ryan, Paul ; Sharpe, Bill ; Silvestri, Giorgia ; Abdurrahim, Ali Yansyah ; Abson, David ; Adetunji, Olufemi Samson ; Aldunce, Paulina ; Alvarez-Pereira, Carlos ; Amparo, Jennifer Marie ; Amundsen, Helene ; Anderson, Lakin ; Andersson, Lotta ; Asquith, Michael ; Augenstein, Karoline ; Barrie, Jack ; Bent, David ; Bentz, Julia ; Bergsten, Arvid ; Berzonsky, Carol ; Bina, Olivia ; Blackstock, Kirsty ; Boehnert, Joanna ; Bradbury, Hilary ; Brand, Christine ; Böhme (born Sangmeister), Jessica ; Bøjer, Marianne Mille ; Carmen, Esther ; Charli-Joseph, Lakshmi ; Choudhury, Sarah ; Chunhachoti-ananta, Supot ; Cockburn, Jessica ; Colvin, John ; Connon, Irena L.C. ; Cornforth, Rosalind ; Cox, Robin S. ; Cradock-Henry, Nicholas ; Cramer, Laura ; Cremaschi, Almendra ; Dannevig, Halvor ; Day, Catherine T. ; Lima Hutchison, Cathel de; Vrieze, Anke de; Desai, Vikas ; Dolley, Jonathan ; Duckett, Dominic ; Durrant, Rachael Amy ; Egermann, Markus ; Elsner (Adams), Emily ; Fremantle, Chris ; Fullwood-Thomas, Jessica ; Galafassi, Diego ; Gobby, Jen ; Golland, Ami ; González-Padrón, Shiara Kirana ; Gram-Hanssen, Irmelin ; Grandin, Jakob ; Grenni, Sara ; Lauren Gunnell, Jade ; Gusmao, Felipe ; Hamann, Maike ; Harding, Brian ; Harper, Gavin ; Hesselgren, Mia ; Hestad, Dina ; Heykoop, Cheryl Anne ; Holmén, Johan ; Holstead, Kirsty ; Hoolohan, Claire ; Horcea-Milcu, Andra Ioana ; Horlings, Lummina Geertruida ; Howden, Stuart Mark ; Howell, Rachel Angharad ; Huque, Sarah Insia ; Inturias Canedo, Mirna Liz ; Iro, Chidinma Yvonne ; Ives, Christopher D. ; John, Beatrice ; Joshi, Rajiv ; Juarez-Bourke, Sadhbh ; Juma, Dauglas Wafula ; Karlsen, Bea Cecilie ; Kliem, Lea ; Kläy, Andreas ; Kuenkel, Petra ; Kunze, Iris ; Lam, David Patrick Michael ; Lang, Daniel J. ; Larkin, Alice ; Light, Ann ; Luederitz, Christopher ; Luthe, Tobias ; Maguire, Cathy ; Mahecha-Groot, Ana Maria ; Malcolm, Jackie ; Marshall, Fiona ; Maru, Yiheyis ; McLachlan, Carly ; Mmbando, Peter ; Mohapatra, Subhakanta ; Moore, Michele Lee ; Moriggi, Angela ; Morley-Fletcher, Mark ; Moser, Susanne ; Mueller, Konstanze Marion ; Mukute, Mutizwa ; Mühlemeier, Susan ; Naess, Lars Otto ; Nieto-Romero, Marta ; Novo, Paula ; ÓBrien, Karen ; O'Connell, Deborah Anne ; O'Donnell, Kathleen ; Olsson, Per ; Pearson, Kelli Rose ; Pereira, Laura ; Petridis, Panos ; Peukert, Daniela ; Phear, Nicky ; Pisters, Siri Renée ; Polsky, Matt ; Pound, Diana ; Preiser, Rika ; Rahman, Md Sajidur ; Reed, Mark S. ; Revell, Philip ; Rodriguez, Iokiñe ; Rogers, Briony Cathryn ; Rohr, Jascha ; Nordbø Rosenberg, Milda ; Ross, Helen ; Russell, Shona ; Ryan, Melanie ; Saha, Probal ; Schleicher, Katharina ; Schneider, Flurina ; Scoville-Simonds, Morgan ; Searle, Beverley ; Sebhatu, Samuel Petros ; Sesana, Elena ; Silverman, Howard ; Singh, Chandni ; Sterling, Eleanor ; Stewart, Sarah Jane ; Tàbara, J.D. ; Taylor, Douglas ; Thornton, Philip ; Tribaldos, Theresa Margarete ; Tschakert, Petra ; Uribe-Calvo, Natalia ; Waddell, Steve ; Waddock, Sandra ; Merwe, Liza van der; Mierlo, Barbara van; Zwanenberg, Patrick van; Velarde, Sandra Judith ; Washbourne, Carla Leanne ; Waylen, Kerry ; Weiser, Annika ; Wight, Ian ; Williams, Stephen ; Woods, Mel ; Wolstenholme, Ruth ; Wright, Ness ; Wunder, Stefanie ; Wyllie, Alastair ; Young, Hannah R. - \ 2020
    Energy Research & Social Science 70 (2020). - ISSN 2214-6296
    Climate and energy research - Epistemology - Knowledge - Social-technical transitions - Sustainability science - Transformation

    Formalised knowledge systems, including universities and research institutes, are important for contemporary societies. They are, however, also arguably failing humanity when their impact is measured against the level of progress being made in stimulating the societal changes needed to address challenges like climate change. In this research we used a novel futures-oriented and participatory approach that asked what future envisioned knowledge systems might need to look like and how we might get there. Findings suggest that envisioned future systems will need to be much more collaborative, open, diverse, egalitarian, and able to work with values and systemic issues. They will also need to go beyond producing knowledge about our world to generating wisdom about how to act within it. To get to envisioned systems we will need to rapidly scale methodological innovations, connect innovators, and creatively accelerate learning about working with intractable challenges. We will also need to create new funding schemes, a global knowledge commons, and challenge deeply held assumptions. To genuinely be a creative force in supporting longevity of human and non-human life on our planet, the shift in knowledge systems will probably need to be at the scale of the enlightenment and speed of the scientific and technological revolution accompanying the second World War. This will require bold and strategic action from governments, scientists, civic society and sustained transformational intent.

    Terrestrial laser scanning in forest ecology : Expanding the horizon
    Calders, Kim ; Adams, Jennifer ; Armston, John ; Bartholomeus, Harm ; Bauwens, Sebastien ; Bentley, Lisa Patrick ; Chave, Jerome ; Danson, Mark ; Demol, Miro ; Disney, Mathias ; Gaulton, Rachel ; Krishna Moorthy, Sruthi M. ; Levick, Shaun R. ; Saarinen, Ninni ; Schaaf, Crystal ; Stovall, Atticus ; Terryn, Louise ; Wilkes, Phil ; Verbeeck, Hans - \ 2020
    Remote Sensing of Environment 251 (2020). - ISSN 0034-4257
    Forest ecology - Forest plot measurement - Ground-based LiDAR - Remote sensing - Terrestrial laser scanning - Tree structure

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) was introduced for basic forest measurements, such as tree height and diameter, in the early 2000s. Recent advances in sensor and algorithm development have allowed us to assess in situ 3D forest structure explicitly and revolutionised the way we monitor and quantify ecosystem structure and function. Here, we provide an interdisciplinary focus to explore current developments in TLS to measure and monitor forest structure. We argue that TLS data will play a critical role in understanding fundamental ecological questions about tree size and shape, allometric scaling, metabolic function and plasticity of form. Furthermore, these new developments enable new applications such as radiative transfer modelling with realistic virtual forests, monitoring of urban forests and larger scale ecosystem monitoring through long-range scanning. Finally, we discuss upscaling of TLS data through data fusion with unmanned aerial vehicles, airborne and spaceborne data, as well as the essential role of TLS in validation of spaceborne missions that monitor ecosystem structure.

    Mapping the multicausality of Alzheimer’s disease through group model building
    Uleman, Jeroen F. ; Melis, René J.F. ; Quax, Rick ; Zee, Eddy A. van der; Thijssen, Dick ; Dresler, Martin ; Rest, Ondine van de; Velpen, Isabelle F. van der; Adams, Hieab H.H. ; Schmand, Ben ; Kok, Inge M.C.M. de; Bresser, Jeroen de; Richard, Edo ; Verbeek, Marcel ; Hoekstra, Alfons G. ; Rouwette, Etiënne A.J.A. ; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G.M. - \ 2020
    GeroScience (2020). - ISSN 2509-2715
    Alzheimer’s disease - Causal loop diagram - Centrality - Complexity - Group model building - Multicausal - Systems thinking

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a complex, multicausal disorder involving several spatiotemporal scales and scientific domains. While many studies focus on specific parts of this system, the complexity of AD is rarely studied as a whole. In this work, we apply systems thinking to map out known causal mechanisms and risk factors ranging from intracellular to psychosocial scales in sporadic AD. We report on the first systemic causal loop diagram (CLD) for AD, which is the result of an interdisciplinary group model building (GMB) process. The GMB was based on the input of experts from multiple domains and all proposed mechanisms were supported by scientific literature. The CLD elucidates interaction and feedback mechanisms that contribute to cognitive decline from midlife onward as described by the experts. As an immediate outcome, we observed several non-trivial reinforcing feedback loops involving factors at multiple spatial scales, which are rarely considered within the same theoretical framework. We also observed high centrality for modifiable risk factors such as social relationships and physical activity, which suggests they may be promising leverage points for interventions. This illustrates how a CLD from an interdisciplinary GMB process may lead to novel insights into complex disorders. Furthermore, the CLD is the first step in the development of a computational model for simulating the effects of risk factors on AD.

    Repositioning of the global epicentre of non-optimal cholesterol
    Taddei, Cristina ; Zhou, Bin ; Bixby, Honor ; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M. ; Danaei, Goodarz ; Jackson, Rod T. ; Farzadfar, Farshad ; Sophiea, Marisa K. ; Cesare, Mariachiara Di; Iurilli, Maria Laura Caminia ; Martinez, Andrea Rodriguez ; Asghari, Golaleh ; Dhana, Klodian ; Gulayin, Pablo ; Kakarmath, Sujay ; Santero, Marilina ; Voortman, Trudy ; Riley, Leanne M. ; Cowan, Melanie J. ; Savin, Stefan ; Bennett, James E. ; Stevens, Gretchen A. ; Paciorek, Christopher J. ; Aekplakorn, Wichai ; Cifkova, Renata ; Giampaoli, Simona ; Kengne, Andre Pascal ; Khang, Young Ho ; Kuulasmaa, Kari ; Laxmaiah, Avula ; Margozzini, Paula ; Mathur, Prashant ; Nordestgaard, Børge G. ; Zhao, Dong ; Aadahl, Mette ; Abarca-Gómez, Leandra ; Rahim, Hanan Abdul ; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. ; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin ; Adams, Robert J. ; Ferrieres, Jean ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; He, Yuna ; Jacobs, Jeremy M. ; Kromhout, Daan ; Ma, Guansheng ; Dam, Rob M. van; Wang, Qian ; Wang, Ya Xing ; Wang, Ying Wei - \ 2020
    Nature 582 (2020)7810. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 73 - 77.

    High blood cholesterol is typically considered a feature of wealthy western countries1,2. However, dietary and behavioural determinants of blood cholesterol are changing rapidly throughout the world3 and countries are using lipid-lowering medications at varying rates. These changes can have distinct effects on the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol, which have different effects on human health4,5. However, the trends of HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels over time have not been previously reported in a global analysis. Here we pooled 1,127 population-based studies that measured blood lipids in 102.6 million individuals aged 18 years and older to estimate trends from 1980 to 2018 in mean total, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol levels for 200 countries. Globally, there was little change in total or non-HDL cholesterol from 1980 to 2018. This was a net effect of increases in low- and middle-income countries, especially in east and southeast Asia, and decreases in high-income western countries, especially those in northwestern Europe, and in central and eastern Europe. As a result, countries with the highest level of non-HDL cholesterol—which is a marker of cardiovascular risk—changed from those in western Europe such as Belgium, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and Malta in 1980 to those in Asia and the Pacific, such as Tokelau, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. In 2017, high non-HDL cholesterol was responsible for an estimated 3.9 million (95% credible interval 3.7 million–4.2 million) worldwide deaths, half of which occurred in east, southeast and south Asia. The global repositioning of lipid-related risk, with non-optimal cholesterol shifting from a distinct feature of high-income countries in northwestern Europe, north America and Australasia to one that affects countries in east and southeast Asia and Oceania should motivate the use of population-based policies and personal interventions to improve nutrition and enhance access to treatment throughout the world.

    Adapting to extremes : Key insights for bridging climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction in the European Green Deal
    Adams, Kevin M. ; Klein, Richard J.T. ; Pulquério, M. ; Bachofen, Carina ; Barrott, Julia ; Bentz, J. ; Bharwani, S. ; Bojovic, Dragana ; Brandon, Karen ; Buschmann, Daniel ; Lourenço, Tiago Capela ; Coninx, I. ; Curl, Margot ; Giupponi, Carlo ; Houtkamp, J.M. ; Karali, Eleni ; Leitner, M. ; Lokers, R.M. ; Michalek, Gabriela ; Mysiak, J. ; Pringle, Patrick ; Prutsch, Andrea ; Schmidt, Anna ; Schwarze, Reimund ; Street, R.B. ; Sushchenko, Oleksandr ; Talebian, Sara ; Walton, Peter - \ 2020
    Brussels, Belgium : Placard (Policy brief ) - 12 p.
    Vogel- en Habitatrichtlijnrapportage 2019
    Adams, Annemiek ; Bijlsma, Rienk-Jan ; Bos, Gerdien ; Clerkx, Sandra ; Janssen, John ; Kleunen, André van; Remmelts, Wilmar ; Rooijen, Nils van; Schaminée, Joop ; Schmidt, Anne ; Swaay, Chris van; Wijnhoven, Sander ; Woestenburg, Martin ; Aar, Mies van - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (Thema Informatievoorziening Natuur / Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu ) - 52
    A global database of soil nematode abundance and functional group composition
    Hoogen, Johan van den; Geisen, Stefan ; Wall, Diana H. ; Wardle, David A. ; Traunspurger, Walter ; Goede, Ron G.M. de; Adams, Byron J. ; Ahmad, Wasim ; Ferris, Howard ; Bardgett, Richard D. ; Bonkowski, Michael ; Campos-Herrera, Raquel ; Cares, Juvenil E. ; Caruso, Tancredi ; Brito Caixeta, Larissa de; Chen, Xiaoyun ; Costa, Sofia R. ; Creamer, Rachel ; Cunha e Castro, José Mauro da; Dam, Marie ; Djigal, Djibril ; Escuer, Miguel ; Griffiths, Bryan S. ; Gutiérrez, Carmen ; Hohberg, Karin ; Kalinkina, Daria ; Kardol, Paul ; Kergunteuil, Alan ; Korthals, Gerard ; Krashevska, Valentyna ; Kudrin, Alexey A. ; Li, Qi ; Liang, Wenju ; Magilton, Matthew ; Marais, Mariette ; Martín, José Antonio Rodríguez ; Matveeva, Elizaveta ; Mayad, El Hassan ; Mzough, E. ; Mulder, Christian ; Mullin, Peter ; Neilson, Roy ; Nguyen, Duong T.A. ; Nielsen, Uffe N. ; Okada, Hiroaki ; Rius, Juan Emilio Palomares ; Pan, Kaiwen ; Peneva, Vlada ; Pellissier, Loïc ; Silva, Julio Carlos Pereira da; Pitteloud, Camille ; Powers, Thomas O. ; Powers, Kirsten ; Quist, Casper W. ; Rasmann, Sergio ; Moreno, Sara Sánchez ; Scheu, Stefan ; Setälä, Heikki ; Sushchuk, Anna ; Tiunov, Alexei V. ; Trap, Jean ; Vestergård, Mette ; Villenave, Cecile ; Waeyenberge, Lieven ; Wilschut, Rutger A. ; Wright, Daniel G. ; Keith, Aidan M. ; Yang, Jiuein ; Schmidt, Olaf ; Bouharroud, R. ; Ferji, Z. ; Putten, Wim H. van der; Routh, Devin ; Crowther, Thomas W. - \ 2020
    Scientific Data 7 (2020)1. - ISSN 2052-4463

    As the most abundant animals on earth, nematodes are a dominant component of the soil community. They play critical roles in regulating biogeochemical cycles and vegetation dynamics within and across landscapes and are an indicator of soil biological activity. Here, we present a comprehensive global dataset of soil nematode abundance and functional group composition. This dataset includes 6,825 georeferenced soil samples from all continents and biomes. For geospatial mapping purposes these samples are aggregated into 1,933 unique 1-km pixels, each of which is linked to 73 global environmental covariate data layers. Altogether, this dataset can help to gain insight into the spatial distribution patterns of soil nematode abundance and community composition, and the environmental drivers shaping these patterns.

    National wetland map 5 : An improved spatial extent and representation of inland aquatic and estuarine ecosystems in South Africa
    Deventer, Heidi van; Niekerk, Lara van; Adams, Janine ; Dinala, Millicent Ketelo ; Gangat, Ridhwannah ; Lamberth, Stephen J. ; Lötter, Mervyn ; Mbona, Namhla ; Mackay, Fiona ; Nel, Jeanne L. ; Ramjukadh, Carla Louise ; Skowno, Andrew ; Weerts, Steven P. - \ 2020
    Water SA 46 (2020)1. - ISSN 0378-4738 - p. 66 - 79.
    Estuarine functional zone - Inland aquatic ecosystems - Macro estuaries - Micro estuaries - National Biodiversity Assessment - National Wetland Map - Ramsar - Reporting - Sustainable Development Goal(SDG) - Wetland inventory

    The improved representation of freshwater and estuarine ecosystems and associated data was a key component of the 2018 National Biodiversity Assessment, and is an essential step in enhancing defensible land use planning and decision making. This paper reports on the enhancement of the National Wetland Map (NWM) version 5 for South Africa and other data layers associated with the South African Inventory of Inland Aquatic Ecosystems. Detail is provided on (i) the extent of wetlands mapped in NWM5, compared to previous versions of the NWMs; (ii) the improved extent of inland wetlands mapped in focus areas in NWM5 relative to NWM4; (iii) the type of cover associated with the wetlands (inundated, vegetated or arid); (iv) the ecotone between rivers and estuaries; and (v) level of confidence for the inland wetlands in terms of how well the extent and hydrogeomorphic units were captured for each sub-quaternary catchment of South Africa. A total of 4 596 509 ha (3.8% of South Africa) of inland aquatic ecosystems and artificial wetlands have now been mapped, with NWM5 delineating 23% more inland wetlands (2 650 509 ha or 2.2% of SA) compared with NWM4. The estuarine functional zone, which encapsulates all estuarine processes, and associated habitats and biota, was refined for 290 systems totalling 200 739 ha, with the addition of 42 micro-estuaries totalling 340 ha. Nearly 600 000 ha (0.5% of SA) of artificial wetlands were mapped in SA. Inland wetlands are predominantly palustrine (55%), with some arid (34%) and a few inundated systems (11%). Ecotones between rivers and estuaries, ecotones where biota and processes continuously vary from freshwater to estuarine, formed a small fraction (<1.5%) of river total extent (164 018 km). Most inland wetlands (~70%) had a low confidence ranking for designation of extent and typing, because they were not mapped by a wetland specialist and not verified in the field. Future improvements of the map should be focused on catchment-based improvements, particularly in strategic water-source areas, areas of high development pressure and those with low confidence designation.

    The Rural Household Multiple Indicator Survey, data from 13,310 farm households in 21 countries
    Wijk, Mark van; Hammond, James ; Gorman, Leo ; Adams, Sam ; Ayantunde, Augustine ; Baines, David ; Bolliger, Adrian ; Bosire, Caroline ; Carpena, Pietro ; Chesterman, Sabrina ; Chinyophiro, Amon ; Daudi, Happy ; Dontsop, Paul ; Douxchamps, Sabine ; Emera, Willy Desire ; Fraval, Simon ; Fonte, Steven ; Hok, Lyda ; Kiara, Henry ; Kihoro, Esther ; Korir, Luke ; Lamanna, Christine ; Long, Chau T.M. ; Manyawu, Godfrey ; Mehrabi, Zia ; Mengistu, Dejene K. ; Mercado, Leida ; Meza, Katherin ; Mora, Vesalio ; Mutemi, Jacob ; Ng’endo, Mary ; Njingulula, Paulin ; Okafor, Chris ; Pagella, Tim ; Phengsavanh, Phonepaseuth ; Rao, James ; Ritzema, Randall ; Rosenstock, Todd S. ; Skirrow, Tom ; Steinke, Jonathan ; Stirling, Clare ; Gabriel Suchini, Jose ; Teufel, Nils ; Thorne, Peter ; Vanek, Steven ; Etten, Jacob van; Vanlauwe, Bernard ; Wichern, Jannike ; Yameogo, Viviane - \ 2020
    Scientific Data 7 (2020)1. - ISSN 2052-4463

    The Rural Household Multiple Indicator Survey (RHoMIS) is a standardized farm household survey approach which collects information on 758 variables covering household demographics, farm area, crops grown and their production, livestock holdings and their production, agricultural product use and variables underlying standard socio-economic and food security indicators such as the Probability of Poverty Index, the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, and household dietary diversity. These variables are used to quantify more than 40 different indicators on farm and household characteristics, welfare, productivity, and economic performance. Between 2015 and the beginning of 2018, the survey instrument was applied in 21 countries in Central America, sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. The data presented here include the raw survey response data, the indicator calculation code, and the resulting indicator values. These data can be used to quantify on- and off-farm pathways to food security, diverse diets, and changes in poverty for rural smallholder farm households.

    The Rural Household Multiple Indicator Survey (RHoMIS) data of 13,310 farm households in 21 countries
    Wijk, Mark van; Hammond, James ; Gorman, Leo ; Adams, Sam ; Ayantunde, Augustine ; Baines, David ; Bolliger, Adrian ; Bosire, Caroline ; Carpena, Pietro ; Chesterman, Sabrina ; Chinyophiro, Amon ; Daudi, Happy ; Dontsop, Paul ; Douxchamps, Sabine ; Emera, Willy Desire ; Fraval, Simon ; Fonte, Steven ; Hok, Lyda ; Kiara, Henry ; Kihoro, Esther ; Korir, Luke ; Lamanna, Christine ; Long, Chau T.M. ; Manyawu, Godfrey ; Mehrabi, Zia ; Mengistu, Dejene K. ; Mercado, Leida ; Meza, Katherin ; Mora, Vesalio ; Mutemi, Jacob ; Ng’endo, Mary ; Njingulula, Paulin ; Okafor, Chris ; Pagella, Tim ; Phengsavanh, Phonepaseuth ; Rao, James ; Ritzema, Randall ; Rosenstock, Todd S. ; Skirrow, Tom ; Steinke, Jonathan ; Stirling, Clare ; Gabriel Suchini, Jose ; Teufel, Nils ; Thorne, Peter ; Vanek, Steven ; Etten, Jacob van; Vanlauwe, Bernard ; Wichern, Jannike ; Yameogo, Viviane - \ 2019
    International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
    household surveys - food security - smallholders - agriculture
    The Rural Household Multiple Indicator Survey (RHoMIS) is a standardized farm household survey approach which collects information on 753 variables covering household demographics, farm area, crops grown and their production, livestock holdings and their production, agricultural product use and variables underlying standard socio-economic and food security indicators like the Poverty Probability Index, the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale and dietary diversity. These variables are used to quantify more than 40 different aggregate indicators on farm household characteristics, welfare, productivity and economic performance. Between 2015 and the beginning of 2018, the survey instrument has been applied in 21 countries in Central America, sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. The data presented here cover the raw data, the indicator calculation code and the resulting indicator values, and can be used to quantify on- and off-farm pathways to food security, diverse diets and reduced poverty of rural smallholder farm households.
    How does nature contribute to human mobility? A conceptual framework and qualitative analysis
    Wiederkehr, Charlotte ; Schröter, Matthias ; Adams, Helen ; Seppelt, Ralf ; Hermans, Kathleen - \ 2019
    Ecology and Society 24 (2019)4. - ISSN 1708-3087
    Bangladesh - Ethiopia - Immobility - Mobility - Nature’s contributions to people - Place attachment

    Different types of mobility are known as longstanding strategies used by humans to deal with environmental pressure. Immobility is relevant in this context as population groups may be at considerable risk but lacking the capacity or willingness to move. Despite significant advances in this research field, grasping especially the subjective dimension of people’s migration decision remains challenging. Moreover, the conceptualization of cultural factors in this context has received rather marginal attention thus far. In light of this, we propose a framework that integrates the novel concept of nature’s contributions to people (NCP) with migration theory, in particular the triad of migration need, ability, and aspiration. NCP goes beyond the popular notion of ecosystem services by conceiving nature-society relations in a more inclusive way with culture being a key element of these. Combined with migration need, ability, and aspiration, we argue that this approach offers a valuable nuanced perspective on nature-mobility interactions, including cultural aspects of natural resource use and varying degrees of agency related to mobility decision making. We apply the framework to two archetypal climate-related migration situations, southwestern coastal Bangladesh and the northern Ethiopian highlands, to delineate the diverse mechanisms through which environmental change shapes population movement in highly resource-dependent livelihoods. We show that based on the analyzed case studies most links can be drawn between material and regulating NCP and migration need, and that nonenvironmental factors play a crucial role in mediating nature’s contributions to human mobility. More knowledge is needed though in particular on the influence of nonmaterial NCP on mobility decision making and on migration aspirations in general to better account for important cultural factors. We formulate a number of hypotheses and questions relevant for guiding future research that can inform policy interventions.

    De ontwikkeling van klassenmanagement competenties van aanstaande leraren op de werkplek
    Adams, Tom ; Koster, Bob ; Brok, Perry den - \ 2019
    Climate migration myths
    Boas, Ingrid ; Farbotko, Carol ; Adams, Helen ; Sterly, Harald ; Bush, Simon ; Geest, Kees van der; Wiegel, Hanne ; Ashraf, Hasan ; Baldwin, Andrew ; Bettini, Giovanni ; Blondin, Suzy ; Bruijn, Mirjam de; Durand-Delacre, David ; Fröhlich, Christiane ; Gioli, Giovanna ; Guaita, Lucia ; Hut, Elodie ; Jarawura, Francis X. ; Lamers, Machiel ; Lietaer, Samuel ; Nash, Sarah L. ; Piguet, Etienne ; Rothe, Delf ; Sakdapolrak, Patrick ; Smith, Lothar ; Tripathy Furlong, Basundhara ; Turhan, Ethemcan ; Warner, Jeroen ; Zickgraf, Caroline ; Black, Richard ; Hulme, Mike - \ 2019
    Nature Climate Change 9 (2019)12. - ISSN 1758-678X - p. 901 - 903.
    Misleading claims about mass migration induced by climate change continue to surface in both academia and policy. This requires a new research agenda on ‘climate mobilities’ that moves beyond simplistic assumptions and more accurately advances knowledge of the nexus between human mobility and climate change.
    “But You Are Also Ghanaian, You Should Know” : Negotiating the Insider–Outsider Research Positionality in the Fieldwork Encounter
    Adu-Ampong, Emmanuel Akwasi ; Adams, Ellis Adjei - \ 2019
    Qualitative Inquiry (2019). - ISSN 1077-8004
    fieldwork - Ghana - insider/outsider - Malawi - positionality

    The reflexive turn in sociology and across much of the social sciences has brought a central focus on the “self” within research encounters. Within this context, qualitative researchers are required to highlight how their positionality shapes their research experience. In this article, we interrogate how our own personal experiences as native Ghanaians conducting research at home and away from home in two different African countries—Ghana and Malawi—shaped our research positionality. We use the framework of credibility and approachability and develop new categories such as the eager learner. We show how our performed behaviors and perceived characteristics enabled and constrained our access to research participants and information. The analysis contributes to the research methods literature by highlighting the fieldwork encounter as a site of shifting, negotiated, and fluid positionalities for both fully insiders and fully outsiders.

    Land-Management Options for Greenhouse Gas Removal and Their Impacts on Ecosystem Services and the Sustainable Development Goals
    Smith, Pete ; Adams, Justin ; Beerling, David J. ; Beringer, Tim ; Calvin, Katherine V. ; Fuss, Sabine ; Griscom, Bronson ; Hagemann, Nikolas ; Kammann, Claudia ; Kraxner, Florian ; Minx, Jan C. ; Popp, Alexander ; Renforth, Phil ; Vicente Vicente, Jose Luis ; Keesstra, Saskia - \ 2019
    Annual Review of Environment and Resources 44 (2019). - ISSN 1543-5938 - p. 255 - 286.
    afforestation/reforestation - BECCS - biochar - bioenergy with carbon capture and storage - carbon dioxide removal - CDR - ecosystem services - greenhouse gas removal - Nature's Contributions to People - NCPs - negative emission technology - NET - SDG - soil carbon sequestration - terrestrial enhanced weathering - UN Sustainable Development Goals - wetland restoration

    Land-management options for greenhouse gas removal (GGR) include afforestation or reforestation (AR), wetland restoration, soil carbon sequestration (SCS), biochar, terrestrial enhanced weathering (TEW), and bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). We assess the opportunities and risks associated with these options through the lens of their potential impacts on ecosystem services (Nature's Contributions to People; NCPs) and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We find that all land-based GGR options contribute positively to at least some NCPs and SDGs. Wetland restoration and SCS almost exclusively deliver positive impacts. A few GGR options, such as afforestation, BECCS, and biochar potentially impact negatively some NCPs and SDGs, particularly when implemented at scale, largely through competition for land. For those that present risks or are least understood, more research is required, and demonstration projects need to proceed with caution. For options that present low risks and provide cobenefits, implementation can proceed more rapidly following no-regrets principles.

    Boeren voeden Nederland, maar 70 procent van productie gaat naar Duitsland
    Berkhout, P. - \ 2019
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