Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Land-Management Options for Greenhouse Gas Removal and Their Impacts on Ecosystem Services and the Sustainable Development Goals
Smith, Pete ; Adams, Justin ; Beerling, David J. ; Beringer, Tim ; Calvin, Katherine V. ; Fuss, Sabine ; Griscom, Bronson ; Hagemann, Nikolas ; Kammann, Claudia ; Kraxner, Florian ; Minx, Jan C. ; Popp, Alexander ; Renforth, Phil ; Vicente Vicente, Jose Luis ; Keesstra, Saskia - \ 2019
Annual Review of Environment and Resources 44 (2019). - ISSN 1543-5938 - p. 255 - 286.
afforestation/reforestation - BECCS - biochar - bioenergy with carbon capture and storage - carbon dioxide removal - CDR - ecosystem services - greenhouse gas removal - Nature's Contributions to People - NCPs - negative emission technology - NET - SDG - soil carbon sequestration - terrestrial enhanced weathering - UN Sustainable Development Goals - wetland restoration

Land-management options for greenhouse gas removal (GGR) include afforestation or reforestation (AR), wetland restoration, soil carbon sequestration (SCS), biochar, terrestrial enhanced weathering (TEW), and bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). We assess the opportunities and risks associated with these options through the lens of their potential impacts on ecosystem services (Nature's Contributions to People; NCPs) and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We find that all land-based GGR options contribute positively to at least some NCPs and SDGs. Wetland restoration and SCS almost exclusively deliver positive impacts. A few GGR options, such as afforestation, BECCS, and biochar potentially impact negatively some NCPs and SDGs, particularly when implemented at scale, largely through competition for land. For those that present risks or are least understood, more research is required, and demonstration projects need to proceed with caution. For options that present low risks and provide cobenefits, implementation can proceed more rapidly following no-regrets principles.

Boeren voeden Nederland, maar 70 procent van productie gaat naar Duitsland
Berkhout, P. - \ 2019
Anti-inflammatory nutrition with high protein attenuates cardiac and skeletal muscle alterations in a pulmonary arterial hypertension model
Vinke, Paulien ; Bowen, T.S. ; Boekschoten, Mark V. ; Witkamp, Renger F. ; Adams, Volker ; Norren, Klaske van - \ 2019
Scientific Reports 9 (2019)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by remodelling of the pulmonary arteries and right ventricle (RV), which leads to functional decline of cardiac and skeletal muscle. This study investigated the effects of a multi-targeted nutritional intervention with extra protein, leucine, fish oil and oligosaccharides on cardiac and skeletal muscle in PAH. PAH was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by weekly injections of monocrotaline (MCT) for 8 weeks. Control diet (sham and MCT group) and isocaloric nutritional intervention (MCT + NI) were administered. Compared to sham, MCT mice increased heart weight by 7%, RV thickness by 13% and fibrosis by 60% (all p < 0.05) and these were attenuated in MCT + NI mice. Microarray and qRT-PCR analysis of RV confirmed effects on fibrotic pathways. Skeletal muscle fiber atrophy was induced (P < 0.05) by 22% in MCT compared to sham mice, but prevented in MCT + NI group. Our findings show that a multi-targeted nutritional intervention attenuated detrimental alterations to both cardiac and skeletal muscle in a mouse model of PAH, which provides directions for future therapeutic strategies targeting functional decline of both tissues.

Anti-inflammatory nutrition with high protein attenuates cardiac and skeletal muscle alterations in a pulmonary arterial hypertension model
Vinke, Paulien ; Bowen, T.S. ; Boekschoten, M.V. ; Witkamp, R.F. ; Adams, V. ; Norren, K. van; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J. - \ 2019
Mus musculus - GSE125537 - PRJNA516702
Background: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive and fatal disease predominantly affecting women and characterized by right ventricular (RV) remodeling. PAH patients experience exercise intolerance and fatigue, often associated with functional decline of their cardiac and skeletal muscle. As treatment options for these disease manifestations are very limited, there is a need for novel therapeutic strategies. The present study used a pulmonary arterial hypertension model in female mice to investigate effects of a nutritional combination (containing extra protein, leucine, fish oil and oligosaccharides) presumably targeting pathways involved in cardiac and skeletal muscle remodeling. Methods: Pulmonary arterial hypertension was induced in female mice (C57/BL6) by weekly administration of monocrotaline (MCT; s.c. 600 mg/kg) during 8 weeks, using saline injection as control. During that period, one MCT group (MCT; n=9) and the sham group (Sham; n=9) received a control diet (standard AIN-93M) while a further MCT-treated group received the nutritional intervention (NI, isocaloric) (MCT+NI; n=10). Histological analyses were performed on the RV, tibialis anterior (TA), soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle. Microarray and qRT-PCR analysis for gene expression were performed in RV tissue, and protein analysis by Western blot in tibialis anterior material. Results: Compared to sham mice, MCT mice showed an increase in heart weight by 7%, RV thickness by 13% and fibrosis by 60% (all p<0.05), which were attenuated in MCT+NI mice. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) of array data from the RV confirmed upregulation of fibrotic pathways in the MCT-compared to sham-treated mice (P<0.05), which were downregulated in MCT+NI mice. In addition, skeletal muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) of the tibialis anterior was reduced (P<0.05) by 22% in MCT compared to sham mice, but preserved in the MCT+NI group (1503 vs. 1178 vs 1495 µm2, respectively), with protein expression of the key E3 ligase MuRF1 also reduced by 30% compared to MCT mice alone (p<0.05). In the EDL, CSA was also reduced (p<0.05) by 28% in MCT compared to sham mice and preserved in the group receiving nutritional intervention (764 vs. 542 Vs.742 µm2). No effect of MCT or nutritional intervention was found in the soleus. Conclusions: A multi-compound supplemented nutrition significantly attenuated changes in both cardiac and skeletal muscle in a mouse model of PAH, providing directions for future therapeutic strategies targeting functional decline of both tissues
Soil nematode abundance and functional group composition at a global scale
Hoogen, Johan Van Den; Geisen, Stefan ; Routh, Devin ; Ferris, Howard ; Traunspurger, Walter ; Wardle, David A. ; Goede, Ron G.M. De; Adams, Byron J. ; Ahmad, Wasim ; Andriuzzi, Walter S. ; Korthals, Gerard ; Quist, Casper W. ; Putten, Wim Van Der; Wilschut, Rutger - \ 2019
Nature 572 (2019)7768. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 194 - 198.
Soil organisms are a crucial part of the terrestrial biosphere. Despite their importance for ecosystem functioning, few quantitative, spatially explicit models of the active belowground community currently exist. In particular, nematodes are the most abundant animals on Earth, filling all trophic levels in the soil food web. Here we use 6,759 georeferenced samples to generate a mechanistic understanding of the patterns of the global abundance of nematodes in the soil and the composition of their functional groups. The resulting maps show that 4.4 ± 0.64 × 1020 nematodes (with a total biomass of approximately 0.3 gigatonnes) inhabit surface soils across the world, with higher abundances in sub-Arctic regions (38% of total) than in temperate (24%) or tropical (21%) regions. Regional variations in these global trends also provide insights into local patterns of soil fertility and functioning. These high-resolution models provide the first steps towards representing soil ecological processes in global biogeochemical models and will enable the prediction of elemental cycling under current and future climate scenarios
Improving environmental risk assessments of chemicals: Steps towards evidence-based ecotoxicology
Martin, Olwenn V. ; Adams, Julie ; Beasley, Amy ; Belanger, Scott ; Breton, Roger L. ; Brock, Theo C.M. ; Buonsante, Vito A. ; Galay Burgos, Malyka ; Green, John ; Guiney, Patrick D. ; Hall, Tilghman ; Hanson, Mark ; Harris, Meagan J. ; Henry, Tala R. ; Huggett, Duane ; Junghans, Marion ; Laskowski, Ryszard ; Maack, Gerd ; Moermond, Caroline T.A. ; Panter, Grace ; Pease, Anita ; Poulsen, Veronique ; Roberts, Mike ; Rudén, Christina ; Schlekat, Christian E. ; Schoeters, Ilse ; Solomon, Keith R. ; Staveley, Jane ; Stubblefield, Bill ; Sumpter, John P. ; Warne, Michael S.J. ; Wentsel, Randall ; Wheeler, James R. ; Wolff, Brian A. ; Yamazaki, Kunihiko ; Zahner, Holly ; Ågerstrand, Marlene - \ 2019
Environment International 128 (2019). - ISSN 0160-4120 - p. 210 - 217.
Chemical safety - Decision-making - Ecological risk assessment - Ecotoxicology - Environmental risk assessment - Evidence-based
Working governance for working land
Brockington, Dan ; Adams, William M. ; Agarwal, Bina ; Agrawal, Arun ; Büscher, Bram ; Chhatre, Ashwini ; Duffy, Rosaleen ; Fletcher, Robert ; Oldekop, Johan A. - \ 2018
Science 362 (2018)6420. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 1257 - 1257.
Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure : A pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants
Ezzati, Majid ; Zhou, Bin ; Bentham, James ; Cesare, Mariachiara di; Bixby, Honor ; Danaei, Goodarz ; Hajifathalian, Kaveh ; Taddei, Cristina ; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M. ; Djalalinia, Shirin ; Khatibzadeh, Shahab ; Lugero, Charles ; Peykari, Niloofar ; Zhang, Wan Zhu ; Bennett, James ; Bilano, Ver ; Stevens, Gretchen A. ; Cowan, Melanie J. ; Riley, Leanne M. ; Chen, Zhengming ; Hambleton, Ian R. ; Jackson, Rod T. ; Kengne, Andre Pascal ; Khang, Young Ho ; Laxmaiah, Avula ; Liu, Jing ; Malekzadeh, Reza ; Neuhauser, Hannelore K. ; Sorić, Maroje ; Starc, Gregor ; Sundström, Johan ; Woodward, Mark ; Abarca-Gómez, Leandra ; Abdeen, Ziad A. ; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. ; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin ; Adams, Robert J. ; Aekplakorn, Wichai ; Afsana, Kaosar ; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A. ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. - \ 2018
International Journal of Epidemiology 47 (2018)3. - ISSN 0300-5771 - p. 872 - 883i.
Blood pressure - Global health - Hypertension - Non-communicable disease - Population health

Background: Change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure could be due to both shifts in the entire distribution of blood pressure (representing the combined effects of public health interventions and secular trends) and changes in its high-blood-pressure tail (representing successful clinical interventions to control blood pressure in the hypertensive population). Our aim was to quantify the contributions of these two phenomena to the worldwide trends in the prevalence of raised blood pressure. Methods: We pooled 1018 population-based studies with blood pressure measurements on 88.6 million participants from 1985 to 2016. We first calculated mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and prevalence of raised blood pressure by sex and 10-year age group from 20-29 years to 70-79 years in each study, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights, where relevant. We used a linear mixed effect model to quantify the association between (probittransformed) prevalence of raised blood pressure and age-group- and sex-specific mean blood pressure. We calculated the contributions of change in mean SBP and DBP, and of change in the prevalence-mean association, to the change in prevalence of raised blood pressure. Results: In 2005-16, at the same level of population mean SBP and DBP, men and women in South Asia and in Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa would have the highest prevalence of raised blood pressure, and men and women in the highincome Asia Pacific and high-income Western regions would have the lowest. In most region-sex-age groups where the prevalence of raised blood pressure declined, one half or more of the decline was due to the decline in mean blood pressure. Where prevalence of raised blood pressure has increased, the change was entirely driven by increasing mean blood pressure, offset partly by the change in the prevalence-mean association. Conclusions: Change in mean blood pressure is the main driver of the worldwide change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure, but change in the high-blood-pressure tail of the distribution has also contributed to the change in prevalence, especially in older age groups.

Seagrass ecosystem trajectory depends on the relative timescales of resistance, recovery and disturbance
O'Brien, Katherine R. ; Waycott, Michelle ; Maxwell, Paul ; Kendrick, Gary A. ; Udy, James W. ; Ferguson, Angus J.P. ; Kilminster, Kieryn ; Scanes, Peter ; McKenzie, Len J. ; McMahon, Kathryn ; Adams, Matthew P. ; Samper-Villarreal, Jimena ; Collier, Catherine ; Lyons, Mitchell ; Mumby, Peter J. ; Radke, Lynda ; Christianen, Marjolijn J.A. ; Dennison, William C. - \ 2018
Marine Pollution Bulletin 134 (2018). - ISSN 0025-326X - p. 166 - 176.
Colonizing - Opportunistic - Persistent - Recovery - Resilience - Resistance - Seagrass - Trajectory
Seagrass ecosystems are inherently dynamic, responding to environmental change across a range of scales. Habitat requirements of seagrass are well defined, but less is known about their ability to resist disturbance. Specific means of recovery after loss are particularly difficult to quantify. Here we assess the resistance and recovery capacity of 12 seagrass genera. We document four classic trajectories of degradation and recovery for seagrass ecosystems, illustrated with examples from around the world. Recovery can be rapid once conditions improve, but seagrass absence at landscape scales may persist for many decades, perpetuated by feedbacks and/or lack of seed or plant propagules to initiate recovery. It can be difficult to distinguish between slow recovery, recalcitrant degradation, and the need for a window of opportunity to trigger recovery. We propose a framework synthesizing how the spatial and temporal scales of both disturbance and seagrass response affect ecosystem trajectory and hence resilience.
Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults
Bentham, James ; Cesare, Mariachiara Di; Bilano, Ver ; Bixby, Honor ; Zhou, Bin ; Stevens, Gretchen A. ; Riley, Leanne M. ; Taddei, Cristina ; Hajifathalian, Kaveh ; Lu, Yuan ; Savin, Stefan ; Cowan, Melanie J. ; Paciorek, Christopher J. ; Chirita-Emandi, Adela ; Hayes, Alison J. ; Katz, Joanne ; Kelishadi, Roya ; Kengne, Andre Pascal ; Khang, Young Ho ; Laxmaiah, Avula ; Li, Yanping ; Ma, Jun ; Miranda, J.J. ; Mostafa, Aya ; Neovius, Martin ; Padez, Cristina ; Rampal, Lekhraj ; Zhu, Aubrianna ; Bennett, James E. ; Danaei, Goodarz ; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A. ; Ezzati, Majid ; Abarca-Gómez, Leandra ; Abdeen, Ziad A. ; Hamid, Zargar Abdul ; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. ; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin ; Acuin, Cecilia ; Adams, Robert J. ; Aekplakorn, Wichai ; Afsana, Kaosar ; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A. ; Ferrieres, Jean ; Jacobs, Jeremy M. ; Kromhout, Daan ; Ma, Guansheng ; Peeters, Petra H. ; Wang, Qian ; Wang, Ya Xing ; Wang, Ying Wei ; Geleijnse, J.M. - \ 2017
The Lancet 390 (2017)10113. - ISSN 0140-6736 - p. 2627 - 2642.

Background Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults. Methods We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5–19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2016 in 200 countries for mean BMI and for prevalence of BMI in the following categories for children and adolescents aged 5–19 years: more than 2 SD below the median of the WHO growth reference for children and adolescents (referred to as moderate and severe underweight hereafter), 2 SD to more than 1 SD below the median (mild underweight), 1 SD below the median to 1 SD above the median (healthy weight), more than 1 SD to 2 SD above the median (overweight but not obese), and more than 2 SD above the median (obesity). Findings Regional change in age-standardised mean BMI in girls from 1975 to 2016 ranged from virtually no change (−0·01 kg/m2 per decade; 95% credible interval −0·42 to 0·39, posterior probability [PP] of the observed decrease being a true decrease=0·5098) in eastern Europe to an increase of 1·00 kg/m2 per decade (0·69–1·35, PP>0·9999) in central Latin America and an increase of 0·95 kg/m2 per decade (0·64–1·25, PP>0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. The range for boys was from a non-significant increase of 0·09 kg/m2 per decade (−0·33 to 0·49, PP=0·6926) in eastern Europe to an increase of 0·77 kg/m2 per decade (0·50–1·06, PP>0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Trends in mean BMI have recently flattened in northwestern Europe and the high-income English-speaking and Asia-Pacific regions for both sexes, southwestern Europe for boys, and central and Andean Latin America for girls. By contrast, the rise in BMI has accelerated in east and south Asia for both sexes, and southeast Asia for boys. Global age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 0·7% (0·4–1·2) in 1975 to 5·6% (4·8–6·5) in 2016 in girls, and from 0·9% (0·5–1·3) in 1975 to 7·8% (6·7–9·1) in 2016 in boys; the prevalence of moderate and severe underweight decreased from 9·2% (6·0–12·9) in 1975 to 8·4% (6·8–10·1) in 2016 in girls and from 14·8% (10·4–19·5) in 1975 to 12·4% (10·3–14·5) in 2016 in boys. Prevalence of moderate and severe underweight was highest in India, at 22·7% (16·7–29·6) among girls and 30·7% (23·5–38·0) among boys. Prevalence of obesity was more than 30% in girls in Nauru, the Cook Islands, and Palau; and boys in the Cook Islands, Nauru, Palau, Niue, and American Samoa in 2016. Prevalence of obesity was about 20% or more in several countries in Polynesia and Micronesia, the Middle East and north Africa, the Caribbean, and the USA. In 2016, 75 (44–117) million girls and 117 (70–178) million boys worldwide were moderately or severely underweight. In the same year, 50 (24–89) million girls and 74 (39–125) million boys worldwide were obese. Interpretation The rising trends in children's and adolescents' BMI have plateaued in many high-income countries, albeit at high levels, but have accelerated in parts of Asia, with trends no longer correlated with those of adults. Funding Wellcome Trust, AstraZeneca Young Health Programme.

Building bridges through dialogue for the Brahmaputra River Basin
Gulati, Vishaka ; Deka, Arundhati ; Fanaian, Safa ; Vij, Sumit ; Barua, Anamika - \ 2017
In: China and Transboundary Water Politics in Asia Taylor and Francis Inc. - ISBN 9781138060654 - p. 177 - 196.
Management of the freshwater resources has been a global challenge, especially for transboundary river waters (TBW). Management of such communal goods or common resources becomes difficult as the interests of the diverse stakeholders involved will always vary. The assumption that the basin actors will share a common understanding and sympathy towards the issues associated with the basin, cannot be held as true. Only rarely there will be common characteristics present among the knowledge and information shared with the stakeholders regarding the crisis associated with TBW basins. In fact, the various case studies conducted on this discourse show that different regions along the boundary will have diverse level of interplay in the political dimension as well as during the stage of actual resource management (Adams, Brockington, Dyson, & Vira, 2003). The final consequence of water sharing amongst the riparian nations and the level of management success will rely on the dynamics of the level of influence that are at play at the national, regional, and international positions in the region. Therefore, the management of TBW that cut across national, political, social, economic, and sectoral boundaries is regarded as one of the supreme security challenges of the decade (Wouters & Ziganshina, 2011). This is because as rivers cross borders, their flows are diverted, dammed, or stored by national governments for multiple purposes.
ICTV virus taxonomy profile : Hepeviridae
Purdy, Michael A. ; Harrison, Tim J. ; Jameel, S. ; Meng, X.J. ; Okamoto, H. ; Poel, W.H.M. Van Der; Smith, Donald B. ; Lefkowitz, Elliot J. ; Davison, Andrew J. ; Siddell, Stuart G. ; Simmonds, Peter ; Adams, Michael J. ; Smith, Donald B. ; Orton, Richard J. ; Knowles, Nick J. - \ 2017
Journal of General Virology 98 (2017)11. - ISSN 0022-1317 - p. 2645 - 2646.
Avian hepatitis E virus - Hepatitis E virus - Hepeviridae - ICTV - Piscihepevirus - Swine hepatitis E virus - Taxonomy
The family Hepeviridae includes enterically transmitted small non-enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses. It includes the genera Piscihepevirus, whose members infect fish, and Orthohepevirus, whose members infect mammals and birds. Members of the genus Orthohepevirus include hepatitis E virus, which is responsible for self-limiting acute hepatitis in humans and several mammalian species; the infection may become chronic in immunocompromised individuals. Extrahepatic manifestations of Guillain–Barré syndrome, neuralgic amyotrophy, glomerulonephritis and pancreatitis have been described in humans. Avian hepatitis E virus causes hepatitis–splenomegaly syndrome in chickens. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Hepeviridae, which is available at
Off-stage ecosystem service burdens : A blind spot for global sustainability
Pascual, Unai ; Palomo, Ignacio ; Adams, William M. ; Chan, Kai M.A. ; Daw, Tim M. ; Garmendia, Eneko ; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik ; Groot, Dolf de; Mace, Georgina M. ; Martín-López, Berta ; Phelps, Jacob - \ 2017
Environmental Research Letters 12 (2017)7. - ISSN 1748-9318
biodiversity - cross-scale interactions - ecosystem assessments - global sustainability - IPBES - IPCC - teleconnections
The connected nature of social-ecological systems has never been more apparent than in today's globalized world. The ecosystem service framework and associated ecosystem assessments aim to better inform the science-policy response to sustainability challenges. Such assessments, however, often overlook distant, diffuse and delayed impacts that are critical for global sustainability. Ecosystem-services science must better recognise the off-stage impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services of place-based ecosystem management, which we term 'ecosystem service burdens'. These are particularly important since they are often negative, and have a potentially significant effect on ecosystem management decisions. Ecosystem-services research can better recognise these off-stage burdens through integration with other analytical approaches, such as life cycle analysis and risk-based approaches that better account for the uncertainties involved. We argue that off-stage ecosystem service burdens should be incorporated in ecosystem assessments such as those led by the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Taking better account of these off-stage burdens is essential to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of cross-scale interactions, a pre-requisite for any sustainability transition.
ICTV virus taxonomy profile : Ophioviridae
García, María Laura ; Bó, Elena Dal; Graça, John V. da; Gago-Zachert, Selma ; Hammond, John ; Moreno, Pedro ; Natsuaki, Tomohide ; Pallás, Vicente ; Navarro, Jose A. ; Reyes, Carina A. ; Luna, Gabriel Robles ; Sasaya, Takahide ; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E. ; Vaira, Anna María ; Verbeek, Martin ; Lefkowitz, Elliot J. ; Davison, Andrew J. ; Siddell, Stuart G. ; Simmonds, Peter ; Adams, Michael J. ; Smith, Donald B. ; Orton, Richard J. ; Sanfaçon, Hélène - \ 2017
Journal of General Virology 98 (2017)6. - ISSN 0022-1317 - p. 1161 - 1162.
Blueberry mosaic associated virus - Citrus psorosis virus - ICTV - Lettuce ring necrosis virus - Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus - Ophioviridae - Taxonomy
The Ophioviridae is a family of filamentous plant viruses, with single-stranded negative, and possibly ambisense, RNA genomes of 11.3-12.5 kb divided into 3-4 segments, each encapsidated separately. Virions are naked filamentous nucleocapsids, forming kinked circles of at least two different contour lengths. The sole genus, Ophiovirus, includes seven species. Four ophioviruses are soil-transmitted and their natural hosts include trees, shrubs, vegetables and bulbous or corm-forming ornamentals, both monocots and dicots. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Ophioviridae, which is available at
Type I interferon is required for T helper (Th) 2 induction by dendritic cells
Webb, Lauren M. ; Lundie, Rachel J. ; Borger, Jessica G. ; Brown, Sheila L. ; Connor, Lisa M. ; Cartwright, Adam N.R. ; Dougall, Annette M. ; Wilbers, Ruud H.P. ; Cook, Peter C. ; Jackson-Jones, Lucy H. ; Phythian-Adams, Alexander T. ; Johansson, Cecilia ; Davis, Daniel M. ; Dewals, Benjamin G. ; Ronchese, Franca ; Macdonald, Andrew S. - \ 2017
The EMBO Journal 36 (2017)16. - ISSN 0261-4189 - p. 2311 - 2465.
Dendritic cell - Interferon - Priming - Th2
Type 2 inflammation is a defining feature of infection with parasitic worms (helminths), as well as being responsible for widespread suffering in allergies. However, the precise mechanisms involved in T helper (Th) 2 polarization by dendritic cells (DCs) are currently unclear. We have identified a previously unrecognized role for type I IFN (IFN-I) in enabling this process. An IFN-I signature was evident in DCs responding to the helminth Schistosoma mansoni or the allergen house dust mite (HDM). Further, IFN-I signaling was required for optimal DC phenotypic activation in response to helminth antigen (Ag), and efficient migration to, and localization with, T cells in the draining lymph node (dLN). Importantly, DCs generated from Ifnar1-/- mice were incapable of initiating Th2 responses in vivo. These data demonstrate for the first time that the influence of IFN-I is not limited to antiviral or bacterial settings but also has a central role to play in DC initiation of Th2 responses.
Doing Whole Earth justice : a reply to Cafaro et al.
Büscher, Bram ; Fletcher, Robert ; Brockington, Dan ; Sandbrook, Chris ; Adams, Bill ; Campbell, Lisa ; Corson, Catherine ; Dressler, Wolfram ; Duffy, Rosaleen ; Gray, Noella ; Holmes, George ; Kelly, Alice ; Lunstrum, Elizabeth ; Ramutsindela, Maano ; Shanker, Kartik - \ 2017
Oryx 51 (2017)3. - ISSN 0030-6053 - p. 401 - 401.
Consensus statement : Virus taxonomy in the age of metagenomics
Simmonds, Peter ; Adams, Mike J. ; Benk, Mária ; Breitbart, Mya ; Brister, J.R. ; Carstens, Eric B. ; Davison, Andrew J. ; Delwart, Eric ; Gorbalenya, Alexander E. ; Harrach, Balázs ; Hull, Roger ; King, Andrew M.Q. ; Koonin, Eugene V. ; Krupovic, Mart ; Kuhn, Jens H. ; Lefkowitz, Elliot J. ; Nibert, Max L. ; Orton, Richard ; Roossinck, Marilyn J. ; Sabanadzovic, Sead ; Sullivan, Matthew B. ; Suttle, Curtis A. ; Tesh, Robert B. ; Vlugt, René A. Van Der; Varsani, Arvind ; Murilo Zerbini, F. - \ 2017
Nature Reviews Microbiology 15 (2017)3. - ISSN 1740-1526 - p. 161 - 168.
The number and diversity of viral sequences that are identified in metagenomic data far exceeds that of experimentally characterized virus isolates. In a recent workshop, a panel of experts discussed the proposal that, with appropriate quality control, viruses that are known only from metagenomic data can, and should be, incorporated into the official classification scheme of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Although a taxonomy that is based on metagenomic sequence data alone represents a substantial departure from the traditional reliance on phenotypic properties, the development of a robust framework for sequence-based virus taxonomy is indispensable for the comprehensive characterization of the global virome. In this Consensus Statement article, we consider the rationale for why metagenomic sequence data should, and how it can, be incorporated into the ICTV taxonomy, and present proposals that have been endorsed by the Executive Committee of the ICTV.
Half-Earth or Whole Earth? Radical ideas for conservation, and their implications
Büscher, Bram ; Fletcher, Robert ; Brockington, Dan ; Sandbrook, Chris ; Adams, William M. ; Campbell, Lisa ; Corson, Catherine ; Dressler, Wolfram ; Duffy, Rosaleen ; Gray, Noella ; Holmes, George ; Kelly, Alice ; Lunstrum, Elizabeth ; Ramutsindela, Maano ; Shanker, Kartik - \ 2017
Oryx 51 (2017)3. - ISSN 0030-6053 - p. 407 - 410.
Biodiversity - economy - Half-Earth - inequality - protected area

We question whether the increasingly popular, radical idea of turning half the Earth into a network of protected areas is either feasible or just. We argue that this Half-Earth plan would have widespread negative consequences for human populations and would not meet its conservation objectives. It offers no agenda for managing biodiversity within a human half of Earth. We call instead for alternative radical action that is both more effective and more equitable, focused directly on the main drivers of biodiversity loss by shifting the global economy from its current foundation in growth while simultaneously redressing inequality.

Climatic risks and impacts in South Asia: extremes of water scarcity and excess
Vinke, Kira ; Martin, Maria A. ; Adams, Sophie ; Schaeffer, M. - \ 2017
Regional Environmental Change 17 (2017)6. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 1569 - 1583.
This paper reviews the current knowledge of climatic risks and impacts in South Asia associated with anthropogenic warming levels of 1.5–4 °C above pre-industrial values in the twenty-first century. It is based on the World Bank Report “Turn Down the Heat, Climate Extremes, Regional Impacts and the Case for Resilience” (2013b) . Many of the climate change impacts in the region, which appear quite severe even with relatively modest warming of 1.5–2 °C, pose significant hazards to development. For example, increased monsoon variability and loss or glacial meltwater will likely confront populations with ongoing and multiple challenges. The result is a significant risk to stable and reliable water resources for the region, with increases in peak flows potentially causing floods and dry season flow reductions threatening agriculture. Irrespective of the anticipated economic development and growth, climate projections indicate that large parts of South Asia’s growing population and especially the poor are likely to remain highly vulnerable to climate change.
Assessing the relevance of ecotoxicological studies for regulatory decision making
Rudén, Christina ; Adams, Julie ; Ågerstrand, Marlene ; Brock, Theo C.M. ; Poulsen, Veronique ; Schlekat, Christian E. ; Wheeler, James R. ; Henry, Tala R. - \ 2017
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 13 (2017)4. - ISSN 1551-3793 - p. 652 - 663.
Data evaluation - Environmental risk assessment - Peer-reviewed literature - Regulatory decision making - Relevance evaluation

Regulatory policies in many parts of the world recognize either the utility of or the mandate that all available studies be considered in environmental or ecological hazard and risk assessment (ERA) of chemicals, including studies from the peer-reviewed literature. Consequently, a vast array of different studies and data types need to be considered. The first steps in the evaluation process involve determining whether the study is relevant to the ERA and sufficiently reliable. Relevance evaluation is typically performed using existing guidance but involves application of "expert judgment" by risk assessors. In the present paper, we review published guidance for relevance evaluation and, on the basis of the practical experience within the group of authors, we identify additional aspects and further develop already proposed aspects that should be considered when conducting a relevance assessment for ecotoxicological studies. From a regulatory point of view, the overarching key aspect of relevance concerns the ability to directly or indirectly use the study in ERA with the purpose of addressing specific protection goals and ultimately regulatory decision making. Because ERA schemes are based on the appropriate linking of exposure and effect estimates, important features of ecotoxicological studies relate to exposure relevance and biological relevance. Exposure relevance addresses the representativeness of the test substance, environmental exposure media, and exposure regime. Biological relevance deals with the environmental significance of the test organism and the endpoints selected, the ecological realism of the test conditions simulated in the study, as well as a mechanistic link of treatment-related effects for endpoints to the protection goal identified in the ERA. In addition, uncertainties associated with relevance should be considered in the assessment. A systematic and transparent assessment of relevance is needed for regulatory decision making. The relevance aspects also need to be considered by scientists when designing, performing, and reporting ecotoxicological studies to facilitate their use in ERA.

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