Eindrapportage monitoring- en onderzoeksprogramma Natuurcompensatie Voordelta (PMR-NCV)
Prins, Theo ; Meer, Jaap van der; Herman, Peter ; Spek, Ad van der; Chen, Chun ; Wymenga, Eddy ; Zee, Els van der; Stienen, Eric ; Aarts, Geert ; Meijer-Holzhauer, Harriëtte ; Adema, Jeroen ; Craeymeersch, Johan ; Wolfshaar, Karen van; Bolle, Loes ; Poot, Martin ; Hintzen, Niels ; Horssen, Peter van; Fijn, Ruben ; Glorius, Sander ; Beier, Ulrika ; Courtens, Wouter ; Neitzel, Sophie ; Hoof, Luc van - \ 2020
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C053/20) - 183
Burrow distribution of three sandeel species relates to beam trawl fishing, sediment composition and water velocity, in Dutch coastal waters
Tien, N.S.H. ; Craeymeersch, J. ; Damme, C. van; Couperus, A.S. ; Adema, J. ; Tulp, I. - \ 2017
Journal of Sea Research 127 (2017). - ISSN 1385-1101 - p. 194 - 202.
Ammodytes tobianus - Ammodytes marinus - Hyperoplus lanceolatus - Burrow distribution - Fishing pressure - environmental conditions
Sandeel partly spend their life buried in the sediment, without a permanent burrow opening or an inhalant opening in the sediment. We linked the presence of three sandeel species (Ammodytes tobianus, A. marinus and Hyperoplus lanceolatus) off the southern Dutch coast of the North Sea to sediment related environmental variables; (1) sediment composition, with a hypothesized preference for low silt content and high mediumcoarse sand content, (2) water velocity near the seabed, with a hypothesized preference for high water velocity
and (3) fishing effort of the beam trawl fleet targeting flatfish and shrimp, with a hypothesized negative impact of fishing on sandeel presence. Data originated from an intensive benthic sampling scheme, VMS and logbook databases and a hydrodynamic model. Statistical models were run including these environmental variables plus year, depth, water temperature and salinity. Sandeel presence was negatively correlated with flatfish and shrimp fisheries – both Ammodytes species with flatfish fisheries and H. lanceolatus with shrimp fisheries. Water velocity and silt content were correlated as hypothesized with the presence of all species, and sand content was positively correlated with both Ammodytes species. The remaining environmental variables also showed a significant
relation with at least two sandeel species. These findings agree with and greatly expand on previous studies on the relation between sandeel and its environment.
PMR Monitoring natuurcompensatie Voordelta - bodemdieren 2004 - 2013
Craeymeersch, J.A.M. ; Escaravage, V. ; Adema, J. ; Asch, M. van; Tulp, I.Y.M. ; Prins, T. - \ 2015
Yerseke : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES C091/15) - 171
bodemfauna - monitoring - natuurcompensatie - zuid-holland - soil fauna - monitoring - nature compensation - zuid-holland
Met de aanleg van Maasvlakte 2 is de haven van Rotterdam uitgebreid. Maasvlakte 2 ligt in de Voordelta, een Natura 2000-gebied. In de Passende Beoordeling die in 2007 is uitgevoerd, is een aantal effecten van de aanwezigheid van Maasvlakte als significant negatief beoordeeld. Ter compensatie van deze effecten is binnen de Voordelta een aantal maatregelen getroffen, onder meer een bodembeschermingsgebied. In het bodembeschermingsgebied worden beperkingen opgelegd aan vormen van visserij die de zeebodem beroeren. De boomkorvisserij met wekkerkettingen door schepen met een motorvermogen groter dan 260 pk (191 kW) (Eurokotters) is niet toegestaan. Om het effect van de instelling van het bodembeschermingsgebied te kunnen evalueren, zijn in de periode 2004-2007 metingen verricht om de nulsituatie vast te leggen, en is vanaf 2009 het monitoringsprogramma voor de natuurcompensatie gestart.
Circulation of Group 2 Coronaviruses in a Bat Species Common to Urban Areas in Western Europe
Reusken, C.B.E.M. ; Lina, P.H.C. ; Pielaat, A. ; Vries, A. de; Dam-Deisz, C. ; Adema, J. ; Drexler, J.F. ; Drosten, C. ; Kooi, E.A. - \ 2010
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 10 (2010)8. - ISSN 1530-3667 - p. 785 - 791.
acute respiratory syndrome - chinese horseshoe bats - sequence - prevalence - diversity - humans - virus - swine
Fecal samples of 211 bats representing 13 different bat species from 31 locations in the Netherlands were analyzed for the presence of coronaviruses (CoV) using a genus-wide reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction. CoVs are known for their high potential for interspecies transmission, including zoonotic transmission with bats as reservoir hosts. For the first time, a group 2 CoV was found in a bat, Pipistrellus pipistrellus, in Europe. This is of particular interest for public health as the reservoir host is a species that is common to urban areas in most of Europe and notorious for its close interactions with humans. Four verspertilionid bat species were found to excrete group 1 CoVs, viz. Myotis daubentonii, M. dasycneme, P. pipistrellus, and Nyctalus noctula. The last species is a newly identified reservoir. The overall prevalence was 16.9% and positive bats were found at multiple widespread locations. The circulating group 1 CoV lineages were rather species associated than location associated.
The determination of nitrogen dioxide in ambient air with free hanging filters as passive samplers, and a new calibration method using fritted bubblers
Heeres, P. ; Setiawan, R. ; Krol, M.C. ; Adema, E.H. - \ 2009
Journal of Environmental Monitoring 11 (2009)12. - ISSN 1464-0325 - p. 2216 - 2221.
sulfur-dioxide - sampling method - validation - membrane - exposure - device - no2
This paper describes two new methods for the determination of NO2 in the ambient air. The first method consists of free hanging filters with a diameter of 2.5 cm as passive samplers. The filters are impregnated with triethanolamine to bind NO2. With standard colorimetrical analysis, the amount of NO2 on the filters is determined. The second method is performed with fritted bubblers filled with Saltzman reagent, where, with a special procedure the absorption efficiencies of the bubblers are determined using ambient air, without the use of standard gases and electronic analytical instruments. The results of the bubblers are used to calibrate the free hanging filters. The two methods were applied simultaneously in the city of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The methods are inexpensive and very well suited for use in low-budget situations. A characteristic of the free filter is the Sampling Volume, SV. This is the ratio of the amount of NO2 on the filter and the ambient concentration. With the filter used in this study, the amount of triethanolamine and exposure time, the SV is 0.0166 m3. The sampling rate (SR) of the filter, 4.6 cm3/s, is high. Hourly averaged measurements are performed for 15 hours per day in four busy streets. The measured amounts of NO2 on the filters varied between 0.57 and 2.02 µg NO2, at ambient air concentrations of 32 to 141 µg/m3 NO2. During the experiments the wind velocity was between 0.2 and 2.0 m/s, the relative humidity between 24 and 83 % and the temperature between 295 K and 311 K. These variations in weather conditions have no influence on the uptake of NO2
How nitrogen and sulphur addition, and a single drought event affect root phosphatase activity in Phalaris arundinacea
Robroek, B.J.M. ; Adema, E.B. ; Venterink, H.O. ; Leonardson, L. ; Wassen, M.J. - \ 2009
Science of the Total Environment 407 (2009)7. - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 2342 - 2348.
fresh-water wetlands - species richness - phosphorus limitation - eutrophication - deposition - biomass - fertilization - grasslands - growth - carbon
Conservation and restoration of fens and fen meadows often aim to reduce soil nutrients, mainly nitrogen (N) andphosphorus (P). The biogeochemistry of P has received much attention as P-enrichment is expected to negatively impact on species diversity in wetlands. It is known that N, sulphur (S) and hydrological conditions affect the biogeochemistry of P, yet their interactive effects on P-dynamics are largely unknown. Additionally, in Europe, climate change has been predicted to lead to increases in summer drought. We performed a greenhouse experiment to elucidate the interactive effects of N, S and a single drought event on the P-availability for Phalaris arundinacea. Additionally, the response of plant phosphatase activity to these factors was measured over the two year experimental period. In contrast to results from earlier experiments, our treatments hardly affected soil P-availability. This may be explained by the higher pH in our soils, hampering the formation of Fe-P or Fe-Al complexes. Addition of S, however, decreased the plants N:P ratio, indicating an effect of S on the N:P stoichiometry and an effect on the plant's P-demand. Phosphatase activity increased significantly after addition of S, but was not affected by the addition of N or a single drought event. Root phosphatase activity was also positively related to plant tissue N and P concentrations, plant N and P uptake, and plant aboveground biomass, suggesting that the phosphatase enzyme influences P-biogeochemistry. Our results demonstrated that it is difficult to predict the effects of wetland restoration, since the involved mechanisms are not fully understood. Short-term and long-term effects on root phosphatase activity may differ considerably. Additionally, the addition of S can lead to unexpected effects on the biogeochemistry of P. Our results showed that natural resource managers should be careful when restoring degraded fens or preventing desiccation of fen ecosystems.
Restauratie van schraallanden op veengronden door afgraven en vernatten [thema restauratie van natte schraallanden]
Grootjans, A. ; Kemmers, R.H. ; Everts, H. ; Adema, E. - \ 2007
De Levende Natuur 108 (2007)3. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 108 - 113.
veengronden - bodemchemie - vegetatie - herstel - hooiland - hydrologie - plaggen steken - beekdalen - herstelbeheer - friesland - drenthe - peat soils - soil chemistry - vegetation - rehabilitation - meadows - hydrology - sod cutting - brook valleys - restoration management - friesland - drenthe
Verdroging van veengronden is een veel voorkomend verschijnsel in beekdalen. Hoewel hydrologisch herstel een eerste vereiste is, zijn aanvullende maatregelen wenselijk. In deze obn bijdrage wordt verslag gedaan van ervaringen met het plaggen in De Lage Maden (Drentse Aa), De Barten (Linde) en De Wyldlannen (lage midden, Friesland)
Field evidence for buoyancy-driven water flow in a Sphagnum dominated peat bog
Adema, E.B. ; Baaijens, G.J. ; Belle, J. van; Rappoldt, C. ; Grootjans, A.P. ; Smolders, A.J.P. - \ 2006
Journal of Hydrology 327 (2006)1-2. - ISSN 0022-1694 - p. 226 - 234.
increased nitrogen deposition - vascular plants - n deposition - carbon - ecosystems - vegetation - transport - oxidation - emission - growth
Nocturnal buoyancy-driven water flow in bogs is proposed as a mechanism to replenish the nutrient availability in the top of the acrotelm. In an earlier paper, we provided evidence for buoyancy-driven water flow on theoretical and experimental grounds. In this paper, field evidence is given for the occurrence of nocturnal buoyancy cells. Measurements in a small isolated bog in the Netherlands showed that temperature differences between day and night and hydraulic conductivity resulted in a Rayleigh number that is sufficiently high to induce buoyancy flow. Irregularities between diurnal heating and nocturnal cooling gave evidence that indeed convective heat exchange occurred. Moreover, we observed a temperature rise at 5¿10 cm depth around midnight, which would be expected on theoretical grounds if buoyancy-driven water flow occurs. Furthermore, the oxygen cycles at 5 cm depth showed an irregularity, which exactly matched the temperature irregularity. This also strongly suggests that buoyancy-driven water flow occurred. Nutrient samples taken from the same ombrotrophic bog showed a significant increase in the concentrations of , Ca2+, Mg2+ and CO2 with depth, whereas K+ showed a significant decrease with depth indicating that buoyancy-driven water flow may potentially redistribute these nutrients. The size of the buoyancy cells was assessed under controlled conditions in a peat core taken from the bog. We observed two spots of upward flow of warm water and two spots of downward flow of cold water. The cell sizes were approximately 25¿100 cm2. We conclude that nocturnal buoyancy-driven water flow occurs in the field were it may be an important mechanism for relocation of oxygen and nutrients.
Onderwijsinnovatie groen onderwijs 2005-2010 : advies Werkgroep Onderwijsvernieuwing .d.d 14 april 2005
Biemans, H. ; Adema, B. ; Bartelink, H.H. ; Bes, O. ; Beus, M. de; Bor, W. van den; Bredewold, W. ; Klomp, S. ; Naaijkens, J. ; Osinga, S.A. ; Schaper, E. ; Steen, J. - \ 2005
Wageningen : Advies Werkgroep Onderwijsvernieuwing Groene Kennis Coöperatie - 16
agrarisch onderwijs - onderwijs - onderwijshervorming - verandering - leerplan - onderwijsvernieuwing - innovaties - vaardigheidsonderwijs - leren - nederland - agricultural education - education - educational reform - change - curriculum - educational innovation - innovations - competency based education - learning - netherlands
Buoyancy-driven flow in a peat moss layer as a mechanism for solute transport
Rappoldt, C. ; Pieters, G.J.J.M. ; Adema, E.B. ; Baaijens, G.J. ; Grootjans, A.P. ; Duijn, C.J. van - \ 2003
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100 (2003)25. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 14937 - 14942.
horizontal porous layer - boundary-conditions - large peatlands - sphagnum - stability - carbon - modulation - convection - growth - bog
Transport of nutrients, CO2, methane, and oxygen plays an important ecological role at the surface of wetland ecosystems. A possibly important transport mechanism in a water-saturated peat moss layer (usually Sphagnum cuspidatum) is nocturnal buoyancy flow, the downward flow of relatively cold surface water, and the upward flow of warm water induced by nocturnal cooling. Mathematical stability analysis showed that buoyancy flow occurs in a cooling porous layer if the system¿s Rayleigh number (Ra) exceeds 25. For a temperature difference of 10 K between day and night, a typical Ra value for a peat moss layer is 80, which leads to quickly developing buoyancy cells. Numerical simulation demonstrated that fluid flow leads to a considerable mixing of water. Temperature measurements in a cylindrical peat sample of 50-cm height and 35-cm diameter were in agreement with the theoretical results. The nocturnal flow and the associated mixing of the water represent a mechanism for solute transport in water-saturated parts of peat land and in other types of terrestrializing vegetation. This mechanism may be particularly important in continental wetlands, where Ra values in summer are often much larger than the threshold for fluid flow. The upper part of a living mire consists of a sponge-like layer of predominantly moss species, the acrotelm (1), with a porosity above 95%. The green and brownish plants near the surface (Fig. 1) intercept light and fix CO2. Further down, the older plants turn yellow and start to decay. Aerobic decay in the acrotelm takes place relatively rapidly and makes nutrients available for recycling. Below the acrotelm, a denser layer, the catotelm, is present, where the hydraulic conductivity is much lower than in the acrotelm (2), and where the decay rate is several orders of magnitude smaller due to the anoxic conditions (3). It is the peat formation (4, 5) in the slowly growing catotelm that represents a sink of atmospheric CO2 (5, 6). The production of organic matter at the surface largely depends on the recycling of nutrients originating from decomposing plant material. Because decomposition and photosynthesis take place at different depths, the transport of oxygen, carbon compounds, and nutrients forms an important element in the functioning of the mire ecosystem. This transport takes place both inside (7) and outside the plants by diffusion and fluid flow. In this paper, we investigate a mechanism for fluid flow in a water-saturated peat moss layer, which does not depend on capillarity or an external hydraulic pressure. During the night, the surface cools, leading to relatively cold water on top of warm water, and if the temperature drop is sufficiently large, the cold water sinks and the warm water rises. This type of flow is called buoyancy flow, and it implies convective transport of the heat and solutes carried with the water. Buoyancy flow often occurs as ``cells¿¿ consisting of adjacent regions with upward and downward flow. We studied the phenomenon in a peat moss layer by means of a mathematical model, numerical simulation, and laboratory measurements.
Surface - atmosphere exchange of ammonia over grazed pasture
Plantaz, M.A.H.G. - \ 1998
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): J. Slanina; E.H. Adema. - S.l. : S.n. - 199
atmosfeer - milieufactoren - ammoniak - atmosphere - environmental factors - ammonia
This thesis deals with the exchange of ammonia between the atmosphere and grazed pasture in an area of intensive livestock breeding. The term exchange is used because gaseous ammonia can be taken up (dry deposition) as well as released (emission) by this type of surface.
Ammonia exchange fluxes over the grass pasture of a research farm for dairy cattle breeding at Zegveld (the Netherlands) were measured continuously from July 1992 until July 1994. The main objective was to investigate the long term values and general patterns of the net contribution to atmospheric ammonia provided by exchange with such pastures. This is important for assessments of the export of ammonia from emission regions to natural areas that are sensitive to eutrophication and acidification.
|Passive monitoring of NH3, SO2, NO2 and ozone
Willems, J.J.H. ; Adema, E.H. - \ 1997
In: Proceedings Workshop Commission European Communities and CNR, Rome,(1992). Air Pollution Research Report 41 (1997) - p. 159 - 170.
|Monitoring ambient ozone with a passive measurement technique - method, field results and strategy.
Scheeren, H.A. ; Adema, E.H. - \ 1996
Water Air and Soil Pollution 91 (1996). - ISSN 0049-6979 - p. 335 - 350.
Short communication: The effective thickness of water films on leaves.
Hove, L.W.A. van; Adema, E.H. - \ 1996
Atmospheric Environment 30 (1996). - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 2933 - 2936.
There are indications that the adsorption of water-soluble gases like NH3 and SO2 on a leaf surface may be compared with the dry deposition on a freely accessible water layer. The aim of our study was to quantify the thickness of the apparent water layer on the leaf surface. The thickness was calculated from NH3 adsorption data on leaves. Also we performed weighing experiments with dried leaves of different plant species at relative air humidities of 20 and 95% (at 20oC), respectively. From the increase in weight the water film thickness was calculated. The thickness calculated from NH3 adsorption data strongly depends on air humidity and varied from 10 m at low relative humidities to 100 m at high relative humidities. However, the maximum water layer thicknesses obtained for the dried leaves were much lower (8.8-17.9 m). We postulate that the cuticular membrane may behave as a ''valve'' between the inner and outer region of the leaf and that its permeability is controlled by the relative humidity of the air. This view may be a fundamental contribution to the representation of the mechanism of the dry deposition of gaseous compounds to the vegetation.
Dry deposition of sulphur dioxide and ammonia on wet surfaces and the surface oxidation kinetics of bisulphite.
Adema, E.H. ; Heeres, P. - \ 1995
Atmospheric Environment 29 (1995). - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 1091 - 1103.
|Characterization of air quality in the Czech Republic with passive sampling techniques.
Harssema, H. ; Adema, E.H. - \ 1994
Unknown Publisher - 14 p.
|The determination of NH3 concentration gradients in a Spruce forest using a passive sampling technique.
Adema, E.H. ; Mejstrik, V. ; Binek, B. - \ 1993
Water Air and Soil Pollution 69 (1993). - ISSN 0049-6979 - p. 321 - 335.
|Dry deposition and canopy wetness.
Adema, E.H. ; Heeres, P. ; Hove, L.W.A. van; Hofschreuder, P. ; Vermetten, A.W.M. - \ 1993
In: Proc. MECC Conf. Session D1 - p. 1 - 2.
Emission of fumigants from soil and dispersion in air
Berg, F. van den - \ 1992
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): L. Wartena, co-promotor(en): E.H. Adema; M. Leistra. - S.l. : Van den Berg - 223
grondsterilisatie - bodemfumigatie - desinfecteren - bodem - gewasbescherming - pesticiden - pesticidenresiduen - persistentie - organische verbindingen - bodemchemie - nematiciden - luchtverontreiniging - milieu - schade - milieueffect - fumigatie - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - milieuhygiëne - soil sterilization - soil fumigation - disinfestation - soil - plant protection - pesticides - pesticide residues - persistence - organic compounds - soil chemistry - nematicides - air pollution - environment - damage - environmental impact - fumigation - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - environmental hygiene
In the Netherlands, soil fumigants are used on a large scale for nematode control in arable farming. After injecting the fumigant into the soil, a fraction of the dosage of 1,3-dichloropropene and methyl isothiocyanate (formed from metham-sodium) diffuses up to the soil surface and escapes into the air.
The processes involved in fumigant behaviour in soil are described and the factors affecting these processes are discussed. A standard model including the most important processes is described and used to simulate the fumigation of fields injected with 1,3-dichloropropene or metham-sodium. It was computed that up to a few tens of percent of the dosage of the fumigant can be emitted into the air during the first three weeks after injection.
The impact of several simplifications in the standard model on the rate and extent of emission of fumigant into the air was evaluated. The effect of a fumigant content- dependent rate coefficient for the transformation of fumigant in soil and that of changes in soil moisture content on the rate and extent of emission into the air was computed to be substantial. Although a diurnally changing soil temperature was computed to affect the rate of emission of fumigant into the air substantially, its effect on the cumulative emission in time, compared with a soil system at the average temperature, was computed to be negligible.
Measurements on the one-hour concentrations of methyl isothiocyanate and 1,3-dichloropropene in air were done around two fields injected with metham-sodium and around two other fields injected with 1,3-dichloropropene. Concentrations measured in air were compared with those computed using a gaussian plume model. The comparatively large differences between the computed and measured concentrations in the air during the first few days after injection could be ascribed to an underestimation of the source strength of the emission. Improving the description of the pattern of concentrations of fumigant in air would require more detailed measurements on input parameters for the dispersion model.
In two consecutive years, 6-hour concentrations of 1,3-dichloropropene and methyl isothiocyanate were measured at two locations in a region with intensive use of soil fumigants. For some weeks with many fumigations in this region, the concentration of fumigant in air at a receptor site, with representative fumigated fields at different upwind distances, was computed using a gaussian plume model. The computed and measured concentrations were of the same order of magnitude.
|Boeren tussen hemel en aarde, hoe lang nog?
Adema, E.H. - \ 1992
Grondvest 4 (1992). - ISSN 0166-0284 - p. 7 - 22.