Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Eindrapportage monitoring- en onderzoeksprogramma Natuurcompensatie Voordelta (PMR-NCV)
    Prins, Theo ; Meer, Jaap van der; Herman, Peter ; Spek, Ad van der; Chen, Chun ; Wymenga, Eddy ; Zee, Els van der; Stienen, Eric ; Aarts, Geert ; Meijer-Holzhauer, Harriëtte ; Adema, Jeroen ; Craeymeersch, Johan ; Wolfshaar, Karen van; Bolle, Loes ; Poot, Martin ; Hintzen, Niels ; Horssen, Peter van; Fijn, Ruben ; Glorius, Sander ; Beier, Ulrika ; Courtens, Wouter ; Neitzel, Sophie ; Hoof, Luc van - \ 2020
    Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C053/20) - 183
    Burrow distribution of three sandeel species relates to beam trawl fishing, sediment composition and water velocity, in Dutch coastal waters
    Tien, N.S.H. ; Craeymeersch, J. ; Damme, C. van; Couperus, A.S. ; Adema, J. ; Tulp, I. - \ 2017
    Journal of Sea Research 127 (2017). - ISSN 1385-1101 - p. 194 - 202.
    Ammodytes tobianus - Ammodytes marinus - Hyperoplus lanceolatus - Burrow distribution - Fishing pressure - environmental conditions
    Sandeel partly spend their life buried in the sediment, without a permanent burrow opening or an inhalant opening in the sediment. We linked the presence of three sandeel species (Ammodytes tobianus, A. marinus and Hyperoplus lanceolatus) off the southern Dutch coast of the North Sea to sediment related environmental variables; (1) sediment composition, with a hypothesized preference for low silt content and high mediumcoarse sand content, (2) water velocity near the seabed, with a hypothesized preference for high water velocity
    and (3) fishing effort of the beam trawl fleet targeting flatfish and shrimp, with a hypothesized negative impact of fishing on sandeel presence. Data originated from an intensive benthic sampling scheme, VMS and logbook databases and a hydrodynamic model. Statistical models were run including these environmental variables plus year, depth, water temperature and salinity. Sandeel presence was negatively correlated with flatfish and shrimp fisheries – both Ammodytes species with flatfish fisheries and H. lanceolatus with shrimp fisheries. Water velocity and silt content were correlated as hypothesized with the presence of all species, and sand content was positively correlated with both Ammodytes species. The remaining environmental variables also showed a significant
    relation with at least two sandeel species. These findings agree with and greatly expand on previous studies on the relation between sandeel and its environment.
    PMR Monitoring natuurcompensatie Voordelta - bodemdieren 2004 - 2013
    Craeymeersch, J.A.M. ; Escaravage, V. ; Adema, J. ; Asch, M. van; Tulp, I.Y.M. ; Prins, T. - \ 2015
    Yerseke : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES C091/15) - 171
    bodemfauna - monitoring - natuurcompensatie - zuid-holland - soil fauna - monitoring - nature compensation - zuid-holland
    Met de aanleg van Maasvlakte 2 is de haven van Rotterdam uitgebreid. Maasvlakte 2 ligt in de Voordelta, een Natura 2000-gebied. In de Passende Beoordeling die in 2007 is uitgevoerd, is een aantal effecten van de aanwezigheid van Maasvlakte als significant negatief beoordeeld. Ter compensatie van deze effecten is binnen de Voordelta een aantal maatregelen getroffen, onder meer een bodembeschermingsgebied. In het bodembeschermingsgebied worden beperkingen opgelegd aan vormen van visserij die de zeebodem beroeren. De boomkorvisserij met wekkerkettingen door schepen met een motorvermogen groter dan 260 pk (191 kW) (Eurokotters) is niet toegestaan. Om het effect van de instelling van het bodembeschermingsgebied te kunnen evalueren, zijn in de periode 2004-2007 metingen verricht om de nulsituatie vast te leggen, en is vanaf 2009 het monitoringsprogramma voor de natuurcompensatie gestart.
    Circulation of Group 2 Coronaviruses in a Bat Species Common to Urban Areas in Western Europe
    Reusken, C.B.E.M. ; Lina, P.H.C. ; Pielaat, A. ; Vries, A. de; Dam-Deisz, C. ; Adema, J. ; Drexler, J.F. ; Drosten, C. ; Kooi, E.A. - \ 2010
    Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 10 (2010)8. - ISSN 1530-3667 - p. 785 - 791.
    acute respiratory syndrome - chinese horseshoe bats - sequence - prevalence - diversity - humans - virus - swine
    Fecal samples of 211 bats representing 13 different bat species from 31 locations in the Netherlands were analyzed for the presence of coronaviruses (CoV) using a genus-wide reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction. CoVs are known for their high potential for interspecies transmission, including zoonotic transmission with bats as reservoir hosts. For the first time, a group 2 CoV was found in a bat, Pipistrellus pipistrellus, in Europe. This is of particular interest for public health as the reservoir host is a species that is common to urban areas in most of Europe and notorious for its close interactions with humans. Four verspertilionid bat species were found to excrete group 1 CoVs, viz. Myotis daubentonii, M. dasycneme, P. pipistrellus, and Nyctalus noctula. The last species is a newly identified reservoir. The overall prevalence was 16.9% and positive bats were found at multiple widespread locations. The circulating group 1 CoV lineages were rather species associated than location associated.
    The determination of nitrogen dioxide in ambient air with free hanging filters as passive samplers, and a new calibration method using fritted bubblers
    Heeres, P. ; Setiawan, R. ; Krol, M.C. ; Adema, E.H. - \ 2009
    Journal of Environmental Monitoring 11 (2009)12. - ISSN 1464-0325 - p. 2216 - 2221.
    sulfur-dioxide - sampling method - validation - membrane - exposure - device - no2
    This paper describes two new methods for the determination of NO2 in the ambient air. The first method consists of free hanging filters with a diameter of 2.5 cm as passive samplers. The filters are impregnated with triethanolamine to bind NO2. With standard colorimetrical analysis, the amount of NO2 on the filters is determined. The second method is performed with fritted bubblers filled with Saltzman reagent, where, with a special procedure the absorption efficiencies of the bubblers are determined using ambient air, without the use of standard gases and electronic analytical instruments. The results of the bubblers are used to calibrate the free hanging filters. The two methods were applied simultaneously in the city of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The methods are inexpensive and very well suited for use in low-budget situations. A characteristic of the free filter is the Sampling Volume, SV. This is the ratio of the amount of NO2 on the filter and the ambient concentration. With the filter used in this study, the amount of triethanolamine and exposure time, the SV is 0.0166 m3. The sampling rate (SR) of the filter, 4.6 cm3/s, is high. Hourly averaged measurements are performed for 15 hours per day in four busy streets. The measured amounts of NO2 on the filters varied between 0.57 and 2.02 µg NO2, at ambient air concentrations of 32 to 141 µg/m3 NO2. During the experiments the wind velocity was between 0.2 and 2.0 m/s, the relative humidity between 24 and 83 % and the temperature between 295 K and 311 K. These variations in weather conditions have no influence on the uptake of NO2
    How nitrogen and sulphur addition, and a single drought event affect root phosphatase activity in Phalaris arundinacea
    Robroek, B.J.M. ; Adema, E.B. ; Venterink, H.O. ; Leonardson, L. ; Wassen, M.J. - \ 2009
    Science of the Total Environment 407 (2009)7. - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 2342 - 2348.
    fresh-water wetlands - species richness - phosphorus limitation - eutrophication - deposition - biomass - fertilization - grasslands - growth - carbon
    Conservation and restoration of fens and fen meadows often aim to reduce soil nutrients, mainly nitrogen (N) andphosphorus (P). The biogeochemistry of P has received much attention as P-enrichment is expected to negatively impact on species diversity in wetlands. It is known that N, sulphur (S) and hydrological conditions affect the biogeochemistry of P, yet their interactive effects on P-dynamics are largely unknown. Additionally, in Europe, climate change has been predicted to lead to increases in summer drought. We performed a greenhouse experiment to elucidate the interactive effects of N, S and a single drought event on the P-availability for Phalaris arundinacea. Additionally, the response of plant phosphatase activity to these factors was measured over the two year experimental period. In contrast to results from earlier experiments, our treatments hardly affected soil P-availability. This may be explained by the higher pH in our soils, hampering the formation of Fe-P or Fe-Al complexes. Addition of S, however, decreased the plants N:P ratio, indicating an effect of S on the N:P stoichiometry and an effect on the plant's P-demand. Phosphatase activity increased significantly after addition of S, but was not affected by the addition of N or a single drought event. Root phosphatase activity was also positively related to plant tissue N and P concentrations, plant N and P uptake, and plant aboveground biomass, suggesting that the phosphatase enzyme influences P-biogeochemistry. Our results demonstrated that it is difficult to predict the effects of wetland restoration, since the involved mechanisms are not fully understood. Short-term and long-term effects on root phosphatase activity may differ considerably. Additionally, the addition of S can lead to unexpected effects on the biogeochemistry of P. Our results showed that natural resource managers should be careful when restoring degraded fens or preventing desiccation of fen ecosystems.
    Restauratie van schraallanden op veengronden door afgraven en vernatten [thema restauratie van natte schraallanden]
    Grootjans, A. ; Kemmers, R.H. ; Everts, H. ; Adema, E. - \ 2007
    De Levende Natuur 108 (2007)3. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 108 - 113.
    veengronden - bodemchemie - vegetatie - herstel - hooiland - hydrologie - plaggen steken - beekdalen - herstelbeheer - friesland - drenthe - peat soils - soil chemistry - vegetation - rehabilitation - meadows - hydrology - sod cutting - brook valleys - restoration management - friesland - drenthe
    Verdroging van veengronden is een veel voorkomend verschijnsel in beekdalen. Hoewel hydrologisch herstel een eerste vereiste is, zijn aanvullende maatregelen wenselijk. In deze obn bijdrage wordt verslag gedaan van ervaringen met het plaggen in De Lage Maden (Drentse Aa), De Barten (Linde) en De Wyldlannen (lage midden, Friesland)
    Field evidence for buoyancy-driven water flow in a Sphagnum dominated peat bog
    Adema, E.B. ; Baaijens, G.J. ; Belle, J. van; Rappoldt, C. ; Grootjans, A.P. ; Smolders, A.J.P. - \ 2006
    Journal of Hydrology 327 (2006)1-2. - ISSN 0022-1694 - p. 226 - 234.
    increased nitrogen deposition - vascular plants - n deposition - carbon - ecosystems - vegetation - transport - oxidation - emission - growth
    Nocturnal buoyancy-driven water flow in bogs is proposed as a mechanism to replenish the nutrient availability in the top of the acrotelm. In an earlier paper, we provided evidence for buoyancy-driven water flow on theoretical and experimental grounds. In this paper, field evidence is given for the occurrence of nocturnal buoyancy cells. Measurements in a small isolated bog in the Netherlands showed that temperature differences between day and night and hydraulic conductivity resulted in a Rayleigh number that is sufficiently high to induce buoyancy flow. Irregularities between diurnal heating and nocturnal cooling gave evidence that indeed convective heat exchange occurred. Moreover, we observed a temperature rise at 5¿10 cm depth around midnight, which would be expected on theoretical grounds if buoyancy-driven water flow occurs. Furthermore, the oxygen cycles at 5 cm depth showed an irregularity, which exactly matched the temperature irregularity. This also strongly suggests that buoyancy-driven water flow occurred. Nutrient samples taken from the same ombrotrophic bog showed a significant increase in the concentrations of , Ca2+, Mg2+ and CO2 with depth, whereas K+ showed a significant decrease with depth indicating that buoyancy-driven water flow may potentially redistribute these nutrients. The size of the buoyancy cells was assessed under controlled conditions in a peat core taken from the bog. We observed two spots of upward flow of warm water and two spots of downward flow of cold water. The cell sizes were approximately 25¿100 cm2. We conclude that nocturnal buoyancy-driven water flow occurs in the field were it may be an important mechanism for relocation of oxygen and nutrients.
    Onderwijsinnovatie groen onderwijs 2005-2010 : advies Werkgroep Onderwijsvernieuwing .d.d 14 april 2005
    Biemans, H. ; Adema, B. ; Bartelink, H.H. ; Bes, O. ; Beus, M. de; Bor, W. van den; Bredewold, W. ; Klomp, S. ; Naaijkens, J. ; Osinga, S.A. ; Schaper, E. ; Steen, J. - \ 2005
    Wageningen : Advies Werkgroep Onderwijsvernieuwing Groene Kennis Coöperatie - 16
    agrarisch onderwijs - onderwijs - onderwijshervorming - verandering - leerplan - onderwijsvernieuwing - innovaties - vaardigheidsonderwijs - leren - nederland - agricultural education - education - educational reform - change - curriculum - educational innovation - innovations - competency based education - learning - netherlands
    Buoyancy-driven flow in a peat moss layer as a mechanism for solute transport
    Rappoldt, C. ; Pieters, G.J.J.M. ; Adema, E.B. ; Baaijens, G.J. ; Grootjans, A.P. ; Duijn, C.J. van - \ 2003
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100 (2003)25. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 14937 - 14942.
    horizontal porous layer - boundary-conditions - large peatlands - sphagnum - stability - carbon - modulation - convection - growth - bog
    Transport of nutrients, CO2, methane, and oxygen plays an important ecological role at the surface of wetland ecosystems. A possibly important transport mechanism in a water-saturated peat moss layer (usually Sphagnum cuspidatum) is nocturnal buoyancy flow, the downward flow of relatively cold surface water, and the upward flow of warm water induced by nocturnal cooling. Mathematical stability analysis showed that buoyancy flow occurs in a cooling porous layer if the system¿s Rayleigh number (Ra) exceeds 25. For a temperature difference of 10 K between day and night, a typical Ra value for a peat moss layer is 80, which leads to quickly developing buoyancy cells. Numerical simulation demonstrated that fluid flow leads to a considerable mixing of water. Temperature measurements in a cylindrical peat sample of 50-cm height and 35-cm diameter were in agreement with the theoretical results. The nocturnal flow and the associated mixing of the water represent a mechanism for solute transport in water-saturated parts of peat land and in other types of terrestrializing vegetation. This mechanism may be particularly important in continental wetlands, where Ra values in summer are often much larger than the threshold for fluid flow. The upper part of a living mire consists of a sponge-like layer of predominantly moss species, the acrotelm (1), with a porosity above 95%. The green and brownish plants near the surface (Fig. 1) intercept light and fix CO2. Further down, the older plants turn yellow and start to decay. Aerobic decay in the acrotelm takes place relatively rapidly and makes nutrients available for recycling. Below the acrotelm, a denser layer, the catotelm, is present, where the hydraulic conductivity is much lower than in the acrotelm (2), and where the decay rate is several orders of magnitude smaller due to the anoxic conditions (3). It is the peat formation (4, 5) in the slowly growing catotelm that represents a sink of atmospheric CO2 (5, 6). The production of organic matter at the surface largely depends on the recycling of nutrients originating from decomposing plant material. Because decomposition and photosynthesis take place at different depths, the transport of oxygen, carbon compounds, and nutrients forms an important element in the functioning of the mire ecosystem. This transport takes place both inside (7) and outside the plants by diffusion and fluid flow. In this paper, we investigate a mechanism for fluid flow in a water-saturated peat moss layer, which does not depend on capillarity or an external hydraulic pressure. During the night, the surface cools, leading to relatively cold water on top of warm water, and if the temperature drop is sufficiently large, the cold water sinks and the warm water rises. This type of flow is called buoyancy flow, and it implies convective transport of the heat and solutes carried with the water. Buoyancy flow often occurs as ``cells¿¿ consisting of adjacent regions with upward and downward flow. We studied the phenomenon in a peat moss layer by means of a mathematical model, numerical simulation, and laboratory measurements.
    Surface - atmosphere exchange of ammonia over grazed pasture
    Plantaz, M.A.H.G. - \ 1998
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): J. Slanina; E.H. Adema. - S.l. : S.n. - 199
    atmosfeer - milieufactoren - ammoniak - atmosphere - environmental factors - ammonia
    This thesis deals with the exchange of ammonia between the atmosphere and grazed pasture in an area of intensive livestock breeding. The term exchange is used because gaseous ammonia can be taken up (dry deposition) as well as released (emission) by this type of surface.
    Ammonia exchange fluxes over the grass pasture of a research farm for dairy cattle breeding at Zegveld (the Netherlands) were measured continuously from July 1992 until July 1994. The main objective was to investigate the long term values and general patterns of the net contribution to atmospheric ammonia provided by exchange with such pastures. This is important for assessments of the export of ammonia from emission regions to natural areas that are sensitive to eutrophication and acidification.
    Passive monitoring of NH3, SO2, NO2 and ozone
    Willems, J.J.H. ; Adema, E.H. - \ 1997
    In: Proceedings Workshop Commission European Communities and CNR, Rome,(1992). Air Pollution Research Report 41 (1997) - p. 159 - 170.
    Monitoring ambient ozone with a passive measurement technique - method, field results and strategy.
    Scheeren, H.A. ; Adema, E.H. - \ 1996
    Water Air and Soil Pollution 91 (1996). - ISSN 0049-6979 - p. 335 - 350.
    Short communication: The effective thickness of water films on leaves.
    Hove, L.W.A. van; Adema, E.H. - \ 1996
    Atmospheric Environment 30 (1996). - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 2933 - 2936.
    There are indications that the adsorption of water-soluble gases like NH3 and SO2 on a leaf surface may be compared with the dry deposition on a freely accessible water layer. The aim of our study was to quantify the thickness of the apparent water layer on the leaf surface. The thickness was calculated from NH3 adsorption data on leaves. Also we performed weighing experiments with dried leaves of different plant species at relative air humidities of 20 and 95% (at 20oC), respectively. From the increase in weight the water film thickness was calculated. The thickness calculated from NH3 adsorption data strongly depends on air humidity and varied from 10 m at low relative humidities to 100 m at high relative humidities. However, the maximum water layer thicknesses obtained for the dried leaves were much lower (8.8-17.9 m). We postulate that the cuticular membrane may behave as a ''valve'' between the inner and outer region of the leaf and that its permeability is controlled by the relative humidity of the air. This view may be a fundamental contribution to the representation of the mechanism of the dry deposition of gaseous compounds to the vegetation.
    Dry deposition of sulphur dioxide and ammonia on wet surfaces and the surface oxidation kinetics of bisulphite.
    Adema, E.H. ; Heeres, P. - \ 1995
    Atmospheric Environment 29 (1995). - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 1091 - 1103.
    Characterization of air quality in the Czech Republic with passive sampling techniques.
    Harssema, H. ; Adema, E.H. - \ 1994
    Unknown Publisher - 14 p.
    The determination of NH3 concentration gradients in a Spruce forest using a passive sampling technique.
    Adema, E.H. ; Mejstrik, V. ; Binek, B. - \ 1993
    Water Air and Soil Pollution 69 (1993). - ISSN 0049-6979 - p. 321 - 335.
    Dry deposition and canopy wetness.
    Adema, E.H. ; Heeres, P. ; Hove, L.W.A. van; Hofschreuder, P. ; Vermetten, A.W.M. - \ 1993
    In: Proc. MECC Conf. Session D1 - p. 1 - 2.
    Emission of fumigants from soil and dispersion in air
    Berg, F. van den - \ 1992
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): L. Wartena, co-promotor(en): E.H. Adema; M. Leistra. - S.l. : Van den Berg - 223
    grondsterilisatie - bodemfumigatie - desinfecteren - bodem - gewasbescherming - pesticiden - pesticidenresiduen - persistentie - organische verbindingen - bodemchemie - nematiciden - luchtverontreiniging - milieu - schade - milieueffect - fumigatie - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - milieuhygiëne - soil sterilization - soil fumigation - disinfestation - soil - plant protection - pesticides - pesticide residues - persistence - organic compounds - soil chemistry - nematicides - air pollution - environment - damage - environmental impact - fumigation - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - environmental hygiene

    In the Netherlands, soil fumigants are used on a large scale for nematode control in arable farming. After injecting the fumigant into the soil, a fraction of the dosage of 1,3-dichloropropene and methyl isothiocyanate (formed from metham-sodium) diffuses up to the soil surface and escapes into the air.

    The processes involved in fumigant behaviour in soil are described and the factors affecting these processes are discussed. A standard model including the most important processes is described and used to simulate the fumigation of fields injected with 1,3-dichloropropene or metham-sodium. It was computed that up to a few tens of percent of the dosage of the fumigant can be emitted into the air during the first three weeks after injection.

    The impact of several simplifications in the standard model on the rate and extent of emission of fumigant into the air was evaluated. The effect of a fumigant content- dependent rate coefficient for the transformation of fumigant in soil and that of changes in soil moisture content on the rate and extent of emission into the air was computed to be substantial. Although a diurnally changing soil temperature was computed to affect the rate of emission of fumigant into the air substantially, its effect on the cumulative emission in time, compared with a soil system at the average temperature, was computed to be negligible.

    Measurements on the one-hour concentrations of methyl isothiocyanate and 1,3-dichloropropene in air were done around two fields injected with metham-sodium and around two other fields injected with 1,3-dichloropropene. Concentrations measured in air were compared with those computed using a gaussian plume model. The comparatively large differences between the computed and measured concentrations in the air during the first few days after injection could be ascribed to an underestimation of the source strength of the emission. Improving the description of the pattern of concentrations of fumigant in air would require more detailed measurements on input parameters for the dispersion model.

    In two consecutive years, 6-hour concentrations of 1,3-dichloropropene and methyl isothiocyanate were measured at two locations in a region with intensive use of soil fumigants. For some weeks with many fumigations in this region, the concentration of fumigant in air at a receptor site, with representative fumigated fields at different upwind distances, was computed using a gaussian plume model. The computed and measured concentrations were of the same order of magnitude.

    Boeren tussen hemel en aarde, hoe lang nog?
    Adema, E.H. - \ 1992
    Grondvest 4 (1992). - ISSN 0166-0284 - p. 7 - 22.
    On the quality of the atmosphere in South Bohemia, CSSR. An application of passive sampling for ammonia.
    Adema, E.H. ; Hurk, B. van den; Willems, J.J.H. - \ 1992
    In: Proc. Symp. Agriculture and environment in Eastern Europe and The Netherlands, J.L. Meulenbroek (ed.). 1990. Wageningen - p. 117 - 136.
    Dry deposition and canopy wetness.
    Adema, E.H. ; Heeres, P. ; Hove, L.W.A. van; Hofschreuder, P. ; Vermetten, A.W.M. - \ 1992
    In: Abstract Int. Conf. Acidification research: evaluation and policy applications. Maastricht 1991. Session D1. Uitg. RIVM (1992)
    Boeren tussen hemel en aarde, hoe lang nog?
    Adema, E.H. - \ 1992
    Wageningen : Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen - 41
    atmosfeer - aërosolen - samenstelling - stof - luchtverontreiniging - luchtkwaliteit - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnengebruik - bescherming - herstel - colleges (hoorcolleges) - lucht - hygiëne - milieuhygiëne - milieuwetenschappen - openbare redes - atmosphere - aerosols - composition - dust - air pollution - air quality - sustainability - natural resources - resource utilization - protection - rehabilitation - lectures - air - hygiene - environmental hygiene - environmental sciences - public speeches
    Acute effects of ambient air pollution episodes on respiratory health of children
    Hoek, G. - \ 1992
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): E.H. Adema; D.W. Dockery; B. Brunekreef. - S.l. : Hoek - 239
    atmosfeer - aërosolen - samenstelling - stof - luchtverontreiniging - luchtkwaliteit - lucht - hygiëne - ademhalingsziekten - kinderen - zuigelingen - atmosphere - aerosols - composition - dust - air pollution - air quality - air - hygiene - respiratory diseases - children - infants

    In this thesis the acute effects of air pollution episodes on respiratory health of seven to eleven year old children living in non-urban communities in the Netherlands are discussed. Repeated measurements of pulmonary function (spirometry) and the occurrence of acute respiratory symptoms using a daily diary, were conducted to detect health effects. Exposure to air pollution was characterized by the ambient concentration of several pollutants, including ozone, PM 10 and acid aerosol, measured at fixed sites. Data were collected for a period of three and a half year, including two summer and three winter periods, from 1851 children.

    In the summer of 1989 several photochemical episodes occurred with one hour maximum ozone concentrations between 160 and 240 μg/m 3. During these episodes small decrements of pulmonary function persisting for at least one day were found. No evidence of increased respiratory symptoms was found during these episodes. No major winter air pollution episode occurred, but significant associations of pulmonary function with the concentration of particles smaller than 10 μm (PM 10 ) were found. These associations were not explained by exposure to acid aerosol, because concentration levels of acid aerosol were low during both the winter and the summer periods. For the general population samples of children, respiratory symptom prevalence was not associated with air pollution levels. For a panel of children with chronic respiratory symptoms, prevalence of wheeze and bronchodilator use was associated with the PM 10 concentration. For all study populations differences in pulmonary function response between individual children were found. However, determined characteristics of the children (age, gender, presence of chronic respiratory symptoms) did not explain the magnitude of the response to air pollution.

    The findings of the present study in combination with other recent studies support a revision of present guidelines for ozone and particulate matter.

    Physiological effects of long term exposure to low concentrations of SO2 and NH3 on poplar leaves.
    Hove, L.W.A. van; Kooten, O. van; Wijk, K.J. van; Vredenberg, W.J. ; Adema, E.H. ; Pieters, G.A. - \ 1991
    Physiologia Plantarum 82 (1991). - ISSN 0031-9317 - p. 32 - 40.
    On the quality of the atmosphere in South Bohemia, CSSR. An application of passive sampling for ammonia.
    Adema, E.H. ; Mejstrik, V. - \ 1991
    Unknown Publisher - 21 p.
    The oxidation of HSO3 and SO3-- in the dry deposition process of SO2 atmospheric on waterfilm.
    Adema, E.H. ; Heeres, P. - \ 1991
    Unknown Publisher - 6 p.
    Effects of low-level ozone exposure under ambient conditions on photosynthesis and stomatal control of Vicia faba L.
    Aben, J.M.M. ; Jansen-Jurkovicova, M. ; Adema, E.H. - \ 1990
    Plant, Cell & Environment 13 (1990). - ISSN 0140-7791 - p. 463 - 469.
    The effect of wind velocity, air temperature and humidity on NH3 and SO2 transfer into bean leaves (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).
    Hove, L.W.A. van; Vredenberg, W.J. ; Adema, E.H. - \ 1990
    Atmospheric Environment 24A (1990). - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 1263 - 1270.
    The heterogeneous formation of N2O in air containing NO2, O3 and NH3.
    Adema, E.H. ; Ybema, J.R. ; Heeres, P. ; Wegh, C.P. - \ 1990
    Journal of atmospheric chemistry 11 (1990). - ISSN 0167-7764 - p. 255 - 269.
    On the role of ammonia on the quality of the needles and roots of Norway Spruce in South Bohemia, CSSR.
    Adema, E.H. ; Doorn, W. van; Hurk, B. van den; Meystrik, V. ; Cudlin, P. ; Binek, B. - \ 1990
    Unknown Publisher
    The physiological effects of a long term exposure to low concentrations of NH3, SO2 and NO2 on Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii).
    Hove, L.W.A. van; Kooten, O. van; Mensink, M. ; Bossen, M.E. ; Adema, E.H. ; Vredenberg, W.J. - \ 1990
    In: Book of Abstacts Int. Conf. Acidic deposition, Glascow - p. 537 - 537.
    Physiological effects of long-term exposure to low and moderate concentrations of atmospheric NH3 on poplar leaves.
    Hove, L.W.A. van; Kooten, O. van; Adema, E.H. ; Vredenberg, W.J. ; Pieters, G.A. - \ 1989
    Plant, Cell & Environment 12 (1989). - ISSN 0140-7791 - p. 899 - 908.
    A leaf chamber for measuring the uptake of pollutant gases at low concentrations by leaves, transpiration and carbon dioxide assimilation (Reply on the comment of Alan H. Ledge).
    Hove, L.W.A. van; Tonk, W.J.M. ; Adema, E.H. - \ 1989
    Atmospheric Environment 23 (1989). - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 1617 - 1618.
    A study of the adsorption of NH3 and SO2 on leaf surfaces.
    Hove, L.W.A. van; Adema, E.H. ; Vredenberg, W.J. ; Pieters, G.A. - \ 1989
    Atmospheric Environment 23 (1989). - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 1479 - 1486.
    A study of the dry deposition of SO2, NH3, CO2, O2 and O3 on a water surface.
    Heeres, P. ; Adema, E.H. - \ 1989
    In: Proc. 8th World Clean air Congr., The Hague. Man and his ecosystem, Vol.3, L.J. Brasser & W.C. Mulder (eds.). Elsevier Science Publ., Amsterdam - p. 485 - 490.
    The mechanism of NH3 and SO2 uptake by leaves and its physiological effects = [Het mechanisme van de NH3 en SO2 opname door bladeren en hierdoor veroorzaakte fysiologische effecten]
    Hove, L.W.A. van - \ 1989
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): E.H. Adema; W.J. Vredenberg. - S.l. : Van Hove - 155
    neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - oogstschade - luchtverontreiniging - zwaveldioxide - ammoniak - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - crop damage - air pollution - sulfur dioxide - ammonia

    The relation between uptake of atmospheric ammonia (NH 3 ) and sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) by individual leaves, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was examined. The experiments were carried out with bean plants ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. ) and poplar shoots ( Populus euramericana L. ). The method of analysis was derived from methods used in photosynthetic research. The uptake of NH 3 or SO 2 was experimentally determined by using a leaf chamber specially developed for this research. Simultaneously, transpiration and carbondioxide (CO 2 ) assimilation of leaves were measured.

    The adsorption of NH 3 and SO 2 strongly increased with increasing air humidity, indicating a major role of water in the adsorption process. A descriptive model for the adsorption in the cuticle-watersystem is proposed. The affinity of SO 2 for the leaf surface was found to be approximately twice that of NH 3 . A mixture of these gases in the air mutually stimulated their adsorption on the leaf surface. No significant desorption or transport of these gases through the cuticle could be detected.

    The uptake of NH 3 into leaves appeared to be dependent on the leaf boundary layer and stomatal resistance and NH 3 concentration at the leaf surface. In contrast, a less clear relation between SO 2 uptake and stomatal resistance was found, in particular at a low vapor pressure deficit (VPD). The measured flux was larger than can be calculated from the boundary layer and stomatal resistance for H 2 O, suggesting a lower resistance of the diffusion pathway. The same was observed for NH 3 at a low temperature and VPD. It is postulated that this discrepancy is due to a difference in path length.

    Under the conditions of the present research the physiological effects caused by a prolonged exposure to NH 3 or SO 2 became notable at concentrations of about 100 μg.m -3. The NH 3 exposure had a positive effect on photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and NH 3 uptake, whereas a small irreversible inhibition of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was induced by the SO 2 exposure.

    The relations assessed in this study can be used to construct a descriptive model for NH 3 and SO 2 transfer into leaves as a function of wind velocity, light intensity, air temperature and humidity.

    Quantification of SO2 effects on physiological processes, plant growth and crop production
    Kropff, M. - \ 1989
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): C.T. de Wit; E.H. Adema. - S.l. : Kropff - 201
    oogstschade - rook - gassen - zwaveldioxide - crop damage - smoke - gases - sulfur dioxide - cum laude

    SO 2 may cause damage on crops and vegetation. This thesis aimes to explain the impact of SO 2 on plant growth and crop production on basis of a quantitative analysis of SO 2 effects on physiological processes. Photosynthesis of leaves was found to be depressed at high radiation levels, by competition between SO 2 and CO 2 for the carboxylating enzyme. A model for the flux of SO 2 into the leaf and effects of its metabolites on photosynthesis was developed and used to estimate values for model parameters at the biochemical level from data on the effect of SO 2 on photosynthesis. Differences in sensitivity between species and cultivars appeared to be largely based on variation in the rate of sulphite oxidation. The model was used to analyse the mechanism behind temperature effects on photosynthetic sensitivity to SO 2 . The submodel for SO 2 effects at the leaf level was coupled to a model for photosynthesis for leaf canopies. The effects Of SO 2 on canopy photosynthesis were simulated accurately.

    SO 2 effects on growth and production of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) crops were studied using an open-air exposure system. Yield was depressed by 9-17% at SO 2 concentrations ranging from 74-165 μg SO 2 m -3. Chronic injury, leaf damage in the older leaves after long exposures, caused substantial reductions in leaf area at the end of the growing period.

    The mechanism behind the observed depression in crop yield was analysed by mechanistic simulation models for crop growth, extended with the submodels for SO 2 effects on leaf photosynthesis. Direct effects of SO 2 on photosynthesis explained about 10% of the observed yield reduction. An increased rate of maintenance respiration, observed in field exposed leaves, explained an extra 10% of the observed yield reduction. The major part was explained by chronic leaf injury at the end of the growing period.

    Because chronic injury may be related to a disturbance of intracellular pH regulation, a conceptual model was proposed for regulation of intracellular pH in relation to uptake and assimilation of nutrients and uptake of N and S containing air pollutants by the shoots of plants.

    The results of this study are discussed in view of the development of mechanistic models for estimation of the impact of air pollutants on crops, forests and (semi-) natural vegetation.

    A leaf chamber for measuring the uptake of pollutant gases at low concentrations by leaves, transpiration and carbon dioxide assimilation.
    Hove, L.W.A. van; Tonk, W.J.M. ; Pieters, G.A. ; Adema, E.H. ; Vredenberg, W.J. - \ 1988
    Atmospheric Environment 22 (1988). - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 2515 - 2523.
    A leaf chamber for analyzing the uptake and physiological effects of low concentrations of pollutant gases on leaves.
    Hove, L.W.A. van; Tonk, W.J.M. ; Pieters, G.A. ; Adema, E.H. ; Vredenberg, W.J. - \ 1988
    Atmospheric Environment 22 (1988). - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 2515 - 2523.
    Analysis of the uptake of atmospheric ammonia by leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L.
    Hove, L.W.A. van; Koops, A.J. ; Adema, E.H. ; Vredenberg, W.J. ; Pieters, G.A. - \ 1987
    Atmospheric Environment 21 (1987). - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 1759 - 1763.
    Atmospheric behaviour of ammonia and ammonium
    Asman, W.A.H. - \ 1987
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): E.H. Adema; H.W. Georgii. - S.l. : Asman - 173
    atmosfeer - samenstelling - chemische samenstelling - aërosolen - stof - luchtverontreiniging - luchtkwaliteit - lucht - hygiëne - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - milieu - ammoniak - atmosphere - composition - chemical composition - aerosols - dust - air pollution - air quality - air - hygiene - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - environment - ammonia

    1.4.1 Scope of this thesis

    A few models for ammonia and ammonium exist. Russell et al. (1983) made a multi-layer Lagrangian transport model describing the transport and formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol for California. They did not take reactions of ammonia and sulphuric acid into account, nor wet deposition. Their model was mainly used to compute diurnal variations of ammonium nitrate aerosol, ammonia and nitric acid concentrations, which were compared with measurements for one day.

    De Leeuw et al. (1986) developed a multi-layer Lagrangian transport model with detailed chemistry including the reaction with sulphuric acid containing aerosol and wet deposition. Their model was especially designed to describe episodes with high aerosol concentrations.

    More complicated models as discussed above have the advantage of giving more insight in detailed (chemical) mechanisms. But the results obtained with such models are often difficult to verify as components are involved which are not measured, or not at all levels the model gives results for. Moreover, more complicated models require relatively more computing time, which makes them less suitable to compute long-term average concentrations. At this moment no good information is available on seasonal variations in the ammonia emission. Moreover, much Information on the variation both in time and space of other processes is also lacking. This means that some processes involved can be described in detail, whereas others cannot. Such models suffer then from an imbalance in the treatment of different processes, and the results of the models will be no better than is dictated by the weakest link in the chain. It should be mentioned here that such models still can be very valuable to study mechanisms and possible interactions between different processes and components. But because of the lacking information on e.g. short-time variation in emission no realistic short-term concentrations can be obtained.

    Some information on the processes involved is available, but sometimes only on a yearly basis. It seems therefore most appropriate to integrate the existing knowledge by using a relatively simple model for the computation of yearly averaged concentrations. A first attempt to do this was made by Fisher (1984). He tried to compute deposition fields for ammonium in precipitation and the total deposition (sum of dry and wet deposition) of NHx (sum of ammonia and ammonium) for Europe. But he had to conclude that his approach would remain limited until the main rates of removal of nitrogen compounds were better known.

    The scope of this thesis is:

    a. To evaluate the existing knowledge of all processes involved.
    b. To acquire additional crucial information on some processes from own field measurements.
    c. To integrate this knowledge by applying a model for the computation of long-term average (ground level) concentrations, with emphasis on the European scale. This model has been developed especially for ammonia and ammonium.
    d. To show some new applications of models: computation of historical import/export balances and concentration patterns.

    1.4.2. On the presentation

    This thesis consists mainly of separate articles (chapters 3 to 6) which were submitted to Atmospheric Environment. This has some consequences:
    a. Some information is presented in more than one article or part of this thesis.
    b. A list of references appears after each chapter.
    c. The articles have not been written at the same time. As a result some information was not yet known at the time of preparation of some articles, although this does not lead to any serious inconsequences.
    In the following a preview is given of the contents of the different chapters.

    Chapter 2

    In this chapter some information is presented on the geographical distribution of the yearly averaged ammonia emission in Europe, which is essential to understand the model results.

    Chapter 3

    In this chapter field measurements are described. These measurements were performed for the following purposes:
    a. To verify the estimated emission density
    b. To get an indication on the vertical concentration profiles of ammonia, ammonium and related components In an area where emission occurs. This information is needed to model the horizontal transport.
    c. To get an indication of the overall conversion rate of ammonia to ammonium.

    Chapter 4

    In this chapter is described how correction factors can be computed which can be used in a simple Lagrangian long-range transport model to describe the effects of turbulent mixing on concentration and deposition patterns. By using these correction factors more realistic results can be obtained.

    Chapter 5

    This chapter forms the basic part of the thesis and describes the evaluation and integration of the present knowledge, the setup of the model, numerical aspects of the model and comparison of model results with measurements. Although the model in principle would allow to vary most parameters as a function of time and space (e.g. dry deposition velocity, reaction rate, mixing height etc.) this was not done in practice in view of all uncertainties in the parameter values. Therefore, also no processes like escape into the reservoir layer were taken into account.

    Chapter 6

    In this chapter it is shown that it is not only possible to use a model to describe the present situation, but also to give estimates of concentrations in the past. These estimates make it possible to know where trends in concentrations measured in the past can be expected.

    Chapter 7

    In this chapter the conclusions of this study are summarized and discussed.

    The uptake of atmospheric ammonia by leaves.
    Hove, L.W.A. van; Adema, E.H. ; Vredenberg, W.J. - \ 1987
    In: Posterabstract Ned-Belgie bijeenkomst Plantenfysiologie (1987)
    Expositie-respons-relatie modellen en onderzoek naar de opname van ammoniak door bladeren.
    Booij, C.G. ; Hove, L.W.A. van; Adema, E.H. - \ 1987
    Unknown Publisher - 50 p.
    The uptake of atmospheric ammonia by leaves.
    Hove, L.W.A. van; Adema, E.H. ; Vredenberg, W.J. - \ 1987
    Acta botanica neerlandica 36 (1987). - ISSN 0044-5983 - p. 60 - 60.
    Toespassing van een verkeersmodel ten behoeve van de herinrichting Roden-Norg.
    Adema, W. ; Jaarsma, C.F. - \ 1986
    Wageningen : Unknown Publisher (Mededeling Vakgroep Cultuurtechniek 95)
    On the dry deposition on wet surfaces in a small scale windtunnel.
    Adema, E.H. ; Heeres, P. ; Hulskotte, J. - \ 1986
    In: Proc. 7th World Clean air Congr., Sydney, vol.1 - p. 1 - 8.
    On the atmospheric chemistry of NO2 - O3 systems : a laboratory study
    Verhees, P.W.C. - \ 1986
    Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): E.H. Adema; H.M. ten Brink. - S.l. : S.n. - 153
    atmosfeer - samenstelling - chemische samenstelling - aërosolen - stof - luchtverontreiniging - luchtkwaliteit - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - ozon - stikstofdioxide - laboratoriummethoden - onderzoek - atmosphere - composition - chemical composition - aerosols - dust - air pollution - air quality - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - ozone - nitrogen dioxide - laboratory methods - research

    In this dissertation a laboratory study dealing with the atmospheric chemistry of NO 2 -O 3 systems is described. Knowledge of this system is relevant for a better understanding of a number of air pollution problems, particularly that of acid deposition.

    In chapter 1 a short overview of atmospheric chemistry is given, in which the formation of oxidants, the SO 2 chemistry and the NO X chemistry are considered.

    It appears that, in absence of light, interactions between NO 2 and O 3 may lead to the formation of nitric acid. After oxidation of NO 2 by O 3 , the NO 3 radical is formed. Next, this radical can react in several ways. one of the possibilities is the reaction with NO 2 resulting in N 2 O 5 . The actual nitric acid formation is the N 2 O 5 hydrolysis. In theory, this process can substantially contribute to the nitric acid formation In the atmosphere. Some gaps in the present knowledge are the exact mechanism and kinetics of the N 2 O 5 hydrolysis and the NO 3 reactivity.

    Chapter 2 contains a review of the recent literature. Subsequently, laboratory, field and model studies are considered. Without doubt, it can be concluded that the non-photochemical nitrate formation by the NO 2 -O 3 system is recognized as an important atmospheric chemical process. The above-mentioned knowledge gaps are confirmed which, among other things. follows from measurements of the ambient NO 3 radical concentration profile. Regularly, it is suggested that heterogeneous processes of NO 3 or N 2 O 5 removal are involved. The parameters needed to quantify such processes are currently unavailable.

    After the general Introduction and the literature review, the experimental methods applied in the present investigation are described. The construction of the employed laboratory equipment is given. The basic principles of the techniques used for the generation and analysis of the reactants are listed.

    In the chapters 4 to 7 the results are described and discussed. Chapter 4 treates the results of a study on the NO 2 -O 3 chemistry at sub-ppm concentrations as well as the influence of temperature and relative humidity (R.H.). The experiments are performed using the standard techniques for measurement and calibration of NO 2 and O 3 .

    If we consider the stoichiometry of the reaction system at R.H. < 0.1%, It appears that it deviates from the theoretical value of two. Obviously a side-reaction, that regenerates NO 2 , consumes extra O 3 or both, is involved. Since the stoichiometry significantly differs in reaction vessels of different size (other variables constant), we have to deal with a wall reaction. Further analysis of the results combined with literature data leads to the interpretation that the low stoichiometry is caused by the heterogeneous NO 3 decay on the vessel wall with regeneration of NO 2 , With this reaction mechanism, kinetic parameters can be obtained from the massbalance of every component. The rate constant of the NO 2 -O 3 reaction appears to agree reasonably well with literature values.

    The influence of R.H. results in an increase of the stoichiometry caused by N 2 O 5 hydrolysis. The kinetics of the NO 2 -O 3 reaction remains unchanged. The kinetics of the N 2 O 5 hydrolysis can be described with Its pseudo-first-order rate constant. This rate constant Is not directly proportional to the R. H. , which is an indication that the N 2 O 5 hydrolysis -at least in part- occurs heterogeneously at the wall of the reaction vessel.

    In the atmosphere, aerosol particles are involved in these heterogeneous processes. Before studying the NO 2 -O 3 -aerosol chemistry, the dynamical behaviour of aerosol particles in the reaction vessels is considered. The results are given in chapter 5. The differences in the particle number concentration and in the particle size distribution of the feed and steady state aerosol have been measured. It appears that these differences are caused by coagulation and wall deposition processes.

    The influence of aerosol particles on the NO 2 -O 3 chemistry is the subject of chapter 6. 'Dry' aerosol (NaCl; R.H.=15%) and 'wet' aerosol (MgCl 2 ; R.H.=78%) are distinguished. In case of a 'dry' aerosol a small decrease in the stoichiometry is observed. This can be interpreted as a NO 3 decay on the aerosol surface. In case of 'wet' aerosol NO 3 decay as well as N 2 O 5 hydrolysis is important. This follows from the nearly constant stoichiometry and the nitrate formation in the aerosol.

    The kinetics of the NO 2 -O 3 reaction do not change in the presence of aerosol particles. Moreover, the rate constants of the heterogeneous reactions can be obtained. From these the so- called 'accommodation coefficient' can be deduced. This coefficient Indicates what part of the gas- aerosol collisions really leads to reaction and characterizes the rate of the heterogeneous reaction. The heterogeneous N 2 O 5 hydrolysis can also be understood as a bulk aqueous phase process. The product of Henry's law constant and the rate constant of the aqueous phase hydrolysis can be found. It appears that for N 2 O 5 this product is in fairly good agreement with the product for N 2 O 3 and N 2 O 4 .

    In chapter 7 the aqueous phase chemistry of NO 2 and O 3 is considered. It is investigated using a gas-liquid contact reactor and analysis of the nitrite and nitrate formation. The results of the Interaction between NO 2 and liquid water are in agreement with the current literature. The influence of O 3 is restricted to the oxidation of nitrite. From the results it can be deduced that aqueous phase NO 2 -O 3 reactions do not significantly contribute to atmospheric nitrate formation.

    Finally, a general evaluation is given in chapter 8. It can be concluded that this investigation confirms the present insights in the atmospheric chemistry of NO 2 and O 3 and that new insights in the reactivity of NO 3 and N 2 O 5 are obtained.

    Verwaaiing van bodemstof van het fabrieksterrein van Cargill aan de Mercuriushaven te Amsterdam
    Adema, E.H. - \ 1985
    Unknown Publisher - 15 p.
    Air pollution in Dutch homes : an exploratory study in environmental epidemiology
    Lebret, E. - \ 1985
    Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): E.H. Adema; K. Biersteker. - Wageningen : Lebret - 142
    lucht - hygiëne - luchtverontreiniging - microklimaat - gebouwen - klimaatregeling - ventilatie - koelen - verwarming - onderzoek - nederland - binnenklimaat - air - hygiene - air pollution - microclimate - buildings - air conditioning - ventilation - cooling - heating - research - netherlands - indoor climate

    The subject of air pollution in homes is of interest for people from various backgrounds. Medical doctors, environmentalists, building engineers, public health officers, gas industry and consumer organisations all have to deal with indoor air quality problems in one way or the other. It is therefore necessary to introduce briefly several issues of indoor air pollution, which may be commom knowledge for some readers but not for others.

    The report is devided in two parts; one which describes the study and one which contains the results. The figures and tables are separated from the text.

    In part 1, the subject of air pollution in homes and the background of the study are introduced in chapter 1. Chapter 2 gives an overview of indoor air pollution research methodology and sketches the current state of knowledge. In chapter 3, the study design is presented; this chaper is arranged according to the three main measurement programs which form the body of the study. The statistical techniques, which were used for the data analysis in part 2, are briefly introduced in the final part of chapter 3.

    Part 2 presents the results of the study. First, a description is given of some general characteristics of the homes which were studied. In chapters 3 to 6, the measurement results for the pollutants under study are treated separately. In these chapters, the associations between indoor pollutant levels and characteristics of the homes are described and each chapter ends with a summary and discussion. In the final chapter, a general discussion on air pollution in Dutch homes is given from the perspective of public health.

    On the role of ammonia in the deposition of sulfur dioxide on wet surfaces
    Adema, E.H. ; Heeres, P. ; Hulskotte, J. - \ 1985
    In: Proc. Workshop of measurements of atmospheric acidity, Rome (1985) 10 pp
    The NO2-O3-system, at sub-ppm concentrations: influence of temperature and relative humitidy
    Verhees, P.W.C. ; Adema, E.H. - \ 1985
    Journal of atmospheric chemistry 2 (1985). - ISSN 0167-7764 - p. 387 - 403.
    Het rommelt in de lucht
    Wal, H. van der; Adema, E.H. - \ 1985
    Contrastma 24 (1985)3. - p. 3 - 7.
    Verslag van de conferentie Energie en CARA
    Adema, E.H. - \ 1984
    Contrastma (1984). - p. 20 - 21.
    Reactie op het artikel van A. van Diest over de bijdrage van de landbouw aan zure regen
    Adema, E.H. - \ 1984
    L&O, kwartaaltijdschrift van de NRLO 84 (1984)4. - p. 4 - 5.
    Over de rol van ammoniak in de zure regen
    Adema, E.H. - \ 1984
    L&O : Landbouw en onderzoek : kwartaaltijdschrift van de Nationale Raad voor Landbouwkundig Onderzoek (1984)4. - ISSN 0167-3521 - p. 3 - 8.
    neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - ammoniak - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - ammonia
    Op basis van diverse studies wordt de huidige Nederlandse visie ten aanzien van zure regen globaal geschetst, waarbij tevens de betekenis van ammoniak als luchtvervuilende komponent wordt aangegeven
    Energie en CARA, Luchtkwaliteit en longaandoeningen
    Adema, E.H. ; Wams, H.W.A. - \ 1984
    In: Nederlands Astma Fonds (1984). Proceedings Symposium te Rotterdam
    Standaardlijst van de nederlandse flora
    Meyden, R. van der; Arnolds, E. ; Adema, F. ; Weeda, E. ; Plate, C. - \ 1983
    Leiden : Rijksherbarium - 32 p.
    Zure Regen, oorzaken, effecten en beleid
    Adema, E.H. ; Ham, J. van - \ 1983
    In: Proceedings van het Symposium Te Den bosch (1983), E.H. Adema en J. van Ham eds
    Inleiding op het Symposium 'Zure Regen', 's-Hertogenbosch
    Adema, E.H. - \ 1983
    In: Proceedings Symposium 'Zure Regen' - p. 21 - 28.
    Investigation of the formation of nitric acid in the atmosphere
    Adema, E.H. ; Verhees, P. - \ 1983
    In: Proceedings of the VIth International Conference on Clean Air 1 - p. 65 - 73.
    Physico-chemical behaviour of atmospheric pollutants. Water, Air and Soil Pollutions
    Adema, E.H. - \ 1983
    Unknown Publisher - 672 p.
    Zure Regen. Chemische Feitelijkheden
    Adema, E.H. - \ 1983
    In: Aktuele Chemische Encyclopedie KNCV - p. 1983 - 010.
    Investigations into the dynamics of aerosols in enclosures as used for air pollution studies
    Vate, J.F. van de - \ 1980
    Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): E.H. Adema, co-promotor(en): W. Stoeber. - Wageningen : van de Vate - 177
    atmosfeer - aërosolen - samenstelling - stof - luchtverontreiniging - luchtkwaliteit - milieu - schade - milieueffect - atmosphere - aerosols - composition - dust - air pollution - air quality - environment - damage - environmental impact
    This thesis treats aerosol behaviour under various conditions in enclosed spaces. Knowledge of this behaviour is of importance for the use of aerosol-filled enclosures as a supply of aerosol, as a means for aerosol characterization and for so-called smog chambers for air pollution research (mainly for the investigation of photochemical processes by which usually particles are formed).

    Chapter 1 gives a brief literature survey, indicating the limited attention given hitherto to aerosol behaviour in enclosed spaces. After decades of almost exclusive interest from meteorologists, since the beginning of the sixties, enclosed aerosols have become an important research subject in nuclear safety. Nuclear aerosol research, however, pertains mainly to high aerosol mass concentrations.

    In chapter 2 a model is given, describing aerosol removal from enclosed spaces. Usually, aerosol deposition on the walls occurs from a cloud with homogeneous space distribution due to thermal convection. The rate-limiting step of deposition is the transport through the boundary layer at the walls. Relations are derived for a number of removal mechanisms: sedimentation, diffusion, thermophoresis, diffusiophoresis, electrophoresis and photophoresis. From literature data and Fuchs' theory a relation is derived for the dependence of the boundary layer thickness δfor diffusive deposition on the diffusion coefficient D of aerosol particles in usual containments. Boundary conditions for non-stirred deposition of aerosols by sedimentation and diffusion are given.

    Chapter 3 summarizes the most important means used for experiments.

    In chapter 4 the experimental results and conclusions are presented. It consists of four sections dealing with unheated dry enclosures, heated dry enclosures, enclosures with a heated pool of liquid, and smog chambers, respectively.

    Observations on the behaviour of monodisperse and polydisperse aerosols in unheated dry enclosures support the model derived for sedimentation and diffusion. Additionally, the relation between δand D derived in chapter 2 is validated. Particles larger than a few tenths of a micron are removed by sedimentation; particles smaller than about 0.1 μm are
    subject to diffusive deposition, though often electrophoresis plays an important role (particularly, in case of particles of about 0.1 μm). It is shown that aerosol measurements in containments can be used for determination of dynamic shape factors and aerodynamic diameters.

    Aerosols in heated dry containments are removed by thermophoresis. Observations on a large variety of aerosols and enclosures are in fair agreement with the model on thermophoretic removal derived in chapter 2. Interpretation of the experimental results yields the thermophoretic properties of aerosols. The results support the theories of Brock and Stetter, and are in disagreement with those of Derjaguin and Epstein. In accordance with theoretical predictions, thermophoretic decay constants are obtained independent of particle size (≥0.5 μm), of particle material and of temperature. Gentle heating of the floor of a containment is shown to have a stabilizing effect on the enclosed aerosol.

    Introduction of aerosol in a containment with a heated pool of liquid on the floor leads to particle growth by vapour condensation followed by an accelerating removal by sedimentation. Experimental observations support a model describing aerosol behaviour in such systems. The knowledge of this aerosol behaviour allows study of condensation on aerosol particles and particle growth under conditions of variable degrees of supersaturation. The degree of supersaturation can be varied by means of the heating power dissipated in the pool of liquid as well as by means of solving substances in the liquid.

    Investigations of aerosol behaviour in photochemical smog chambers show insignificant deposition due to thermophoresis or photophoresis under these conditions. Observed aerosol stabilities could be explained by electrophoretic deposition, yielding a coherent picture with electrophoresis in other investigations. Coagulation constants of aerosol could be calculated from measurements on number concentrations of aerosols in enclosed spaces. The results obtained agree fairly well with Davies' theory on coagulation. Decay curves of number concentration of aerosols in metal vessels can be used for assessment of diffusion coefficients.

    Over het atmosferische gedrag en de emissie van submicrone verkeersaerosolen
    Buringh, E. - \ 1980
    Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): E.H. Adema, co-promotor(en): R. Dams. - Wageningen : Buringh - 137
    atmosfeer - aërosolen - samenstelling - stof - luchtverontreiniging - luchtkwaliteit - uitlaatsystemen - uitlaatgassen - meteorologische instrumenten - meting - atmosphere - aerosols - composition - dust - air pollution - air quality - exhaust systems - exhaust gases - meteorological instruments - measurement

    Different processes can influence the perticle size distribution of fresh automobile aerosols. Dispersion, deposition and polydispers coagulation according to Fuchs (1964) are discussed. The monodispers coagulation theory of Davies (1979) and the formula describing the gradient coagulation are extended to polydispers aerosols. Also a critical review is given of the behavious of submicron particles under the influence of the relative humidity and the reentrainment of these particles by tubulence.
    A survey is given of the electrical aerosolanalyzer and condensation nucleus counter. The control and comparison of these instruments is treated next. After that a literature review of the particle size distributions of traffic aerosols and the emissions which can be calculated from these distributions is presented.
    The emission in particles/km per vehicle can be derived from the size distribution measurements of aerosols and tracergas concentrations along a road, because the dispersion is known for the tracergas. As the aerosol samples were taken at different distances from the road, with different residence times, the velocity of coagulation and deposition can be deduced. Also one model is used to describe the three processes dispersion, deposition and coagulation. With the measurements along a road an experimental verification of this model was possible.
    The measured particle size distributions in a tunnel were a steady state concentration. The loss of aerosol bij dispersion, deposition and coagulation is compensated by the traffic emission. With this steady state concentration and the emission by traffic found during the roadexperiments the coagulation constant of submicron particles can be calculated. As a conclusion from these calculations a preference can be given to the theory of DAVIES (1979) above the theory of FUCHS (1964) describing the value of the coagulation constant. With a model that describes the steady state concentration in the tunnel as a function of the emission and removal mechanisms the traffic emission in the tunnel could be calculated.
    The emissions from the road and tunnel experiments have been evaluated and are in a reasonable agreement. The following emission in particles per vehicle is presented with a variation coefficient between 20% for the bigger particles and 70% for particles of 0.01 μm:

    Tussen hemel en aarde
    Adema, E.H. - \ 1979
    Wageningen : L.H. - 33
    atmosfeer - aërosolen - samenstelling - stof - luchtverontreiniging - luchtkwaliteit - kooldioxide - milieu - schade - milieueffect - lucht - hygiëne - openbare redes - atmosphere - aerosols - composition - dust - air pollution - air quality - carbon dioxide - environment - damage - environmental impact - air - hygiene - public speeches
    Rede Wageningen, 27 september 1979
    Adema, E.H. - \ 1979
    Chemisch weekblad 2 (1979). - ISSN 0009-2932 - p. 103 - 105.
    Ozone Interference in the Determination of Nitrogen Dioxide by a Modified Manual Saltzman Method
    Adema, E.H. - \ 1979
    Analytical Chemistry 51 (1979). - ISSN 0003-2700 - p. 1002 - 1006.
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