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N2Africa Annual Report 2019
Dontsop-Nguezet, Paul M. ; Ampadu-Boakye, Theresa ; Ronner, E. ; Baars, Edward ; Kanampiu, Fred ; Giller, K.E. ; Vanlauwe, B. ; Adjei-nsiah, Samuel ; Wolde-Meskel, E. ; Ebanyat, Peter ; Baijukya, Frederick ; Dianda, M. ; Sanginga, Jean-Marie ; Woomer, P.L. ; Chikowo, Regis ; Phiphira, Lloyd ; Kantengwa, Speciose ; Leonardo, W. ; Kamai, Nkeki ; Thuijsman, E.C. ; Schilt-van Ettekoven, C. - \ 2019
Wageningen : N2Africa (N2Africa project report 120) - 78 p.
Annual report, Key milestones, objectives, progress, biological nitrogen fixation, grain legumes, Nigeria, Borno State, Ghana, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Uganda, DR Congo, Rwanda, Kenya, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Mozambique
N2Africa Podcaster no. 56 : Putting nitrogen fixation to work for smallholder farmers in Africa: April, May and June 2019
Schilt-van Ettekoven, C. ; Giller, K.E. ; Ronner, E. ; Abdulkadir, Birhan ; Wolde-Meskel, Endalkachew ; Adjei-Nsiah, S. ; Kamai, Nkeki ; Baijukya, F.P. ; Ebanyat, Peter ; Ninsiima, P. ; Tamiru, Amanuel - \ 2019
Wageningen : N2Africa project (N2Africa Podcaster 56) - 12 p.
N2Africa Annual Report 2018
Ampadu-Boakye, Theresa ; Ronner, E. ; Kanampiu, Fred ; Giller, K.E. ; Baars, Edward ; Vanlauwe, B. ; Adjei-nsiah, Samuel ; Wolde-Meskel, E. ; Ebanyat, Peter ; Baijukya, Frederick ; Sanginga, Jean-Marie ; Woomer, P.L. ; Chikowo, Regis ; Phiphira, Lloyd ; Kantengwa, Speciose ; Leonardo, W. ; Kamai, Nkeki ; Thuijsman, E.C. ; Schilt-van Ettekoven, C. - \ 2019
Wageningen : N2Africa (N2Africa project report 111) - 77 p.
Annual report, Key milestones, objectives, progress, biological nitrogen fixation, grain legumes, Nigeria, Borno State, Ghana, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Uganda, DR Congo, Rwanda, Kenya, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Mozambique
Can yield variability be explained? Integrated assessment of maize yield gaps across smallholders in Ghana
Loon, Marloes P. van; Adjei-Nsiah, Samuel ; Descheemaeker, Katrien ; Akotsen-Mensah, Clement ; Dijk, Michiel van; Morley, Tom ; Ittersum, Martin K. van; Reidsma, Pytrik - \ 2019
Field Crops Research 236 (2019). - ISSN 0378-4290 - p. 132 - 144.
Crop experiments - Crop modelling - Farm household survey - Integrated assessment - Smallholder farms - Yield gaps - Yield potential
Agricultural production in Ghana should more than double to fulfil the estimated food demand in 2050, but this is a challenge as the productivity of food crops has been low, extremely variable and prone to stagnation. Yield gap estimations and explanations can help to identify the potential for intensification on existing agricultural land. However, to date most yield gap analyses had a disciplinary focus. The objective of this paper is to assess the impact of crop management, soil and household factors on maize (Zea mays) yields in two major maize growing regions in Ghana through an integrated approach. We applied a variety of complementary methods to study sites in the Brong Ahafo and Northern region. Farm household surveys, yield measurements and soil sampling were undertaken in 2015 and 2016. Water-limited potential yield (Y w ) was estimated with a crop growth simulation model, and two different on-farm demonstration experiments were carried out in 2016 and 2017. There is great potential to increase maize yields across the study sites. Estimated yield gaps ranged between 3.8 Mg ha −1 (67% of Y w ) and 13.6 Mg ha −1 (84% of Y w ). However, there was no consistency in factors affecting maize yield and yield gaps when using complementary methods. Demonstration experiments showed the potential of improved varieties, fertilizers and improved planting densities, with yields up to 9 Mg ha −1 . This was not confirmed in the analysis of the household surveys, as the large yield variation across years on the same farms impeded the disclosure of effects of management, soil and household factors. The low-input nature of the farming system and the incidence of fall armyworm led to relatively uniform and low yields across the entire population. So, farmers’ yields were determined by interacting, and strongly varying, household, soil and management factors. We found that for highly variable and complex smallholder farming systems there is a danger in drawing oversimplified conclusions based on results from a single methodological approach. Integrating household surveys, crop growth simulation modelling and demonstration experiments can add value to yield gap analysis. However, the challenge remains to improve upon this type of integrated assessment to be able to satisfactorily disentangle the interacting factors that can be managed by farmers in order to increase crop yields.
|Correlating farmers' perception and sheep preference with the nutritional quality of grain legume fodders stored under different conditions
Akakpo, Daniel ; Oosting, S.J. ; Adjei-nsiah, Samuel ; Duncan, A. ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Giller, K.E. - \ 2019
In: Trade-Offs in Science - Keeping the balance. - Wageningen University & Research - p. 20 - 20.
The objective of the present study was to correlate farmers’ perception (FP), sheep preference (SP) and laboratory analysis (LA) of nutritional quality of stored grain legume fodders (GLFs). The GLFs of cowpea, groundnut and soybean were stored at 3-locations (rooftop, room and treefork) in -packaging types (polythene sacks or tied with ropes) for 120 days. FP was assessed by scoring the perceived quality of GLFs on a scale of 1 to 10 (1=bad and 0=good) based on physical appraisal by a group of farmers. SP was assessed by cafeteria feeding trial based on dry matter intake (DMI) of GLFs by a flock of 12 sheep during a 14 hr period. For LA, Organic Matter Digestibility (OMD) and Crude Protein (CP) content were assessed by Near Infra-Red Spectroscopy (NIRS). Cowpea scored higher FP (6.3) and SP (66 g DMI/14hr/sheep) than
groundnut (FP 5.5 and SP 59 g DMI/14hr/sheep) and soybean had lowest FP (2.3) and SP (39 g DMI/14hr/sheep). However, LA indicated that groundnut had higher CP content (140 g kg DM) than cowpea (115 g kg DM) and soybean (98 g kg DM). OMD, on the other hand, was higher in cowpea (686 g kg DM) than groundnut (659 g kg DM) and soybean (574 g kg DM). CP was positively orrelated with FP (r=0.35) and with SP (r=0.48). Similarly, OMD was positively correlated with FP (r=0.50) and with SP (r=0.70). Room storage had higher FP and SP than rooftop and treefork. Sack storage scored higher than tied on FP, SP and LA. The present study demonstrated that it is possible to used FP and SP to predict the nutritional quality of GLFs.
Legume–maize rotation or relay? Options for ecological intensification of smallholder farms in the guinea savanna of northern
Kermah, M. ; Franke, A.C. ; Ahiabor, B.D.K. ; Adjei-nsiah, S. ; Abaidoo, R.C. ; Giller, K.E. - \ 2019
Experimental Agriculture 55 (2019)5. - ISSN 0014-4797 - p. 673 - 691.
Soil nutrient constraints coupled with erratic rainfall have led to poor crop yields and occasionally to crop failure in sole cropping in the Guinea savanna of West Africa. We explored different maize-grain legume diversification and intensification options that can contribute to mitigating risks of crop failure, increase crop productivity under different soil fertility levels, while improving soil fertility due to biological N2-fixation by the legume. There were four relay patterns with cowpea sown first and maize sown at least 2 weeks after sowing (WAS) cowpea; two relay patterns with maize sown first and cowpea sown at least 3 WAS maize in different spatial arrangements. These were compared with groundnut-maize, soybean–maize, fallow-maize and continuous maize rotations in fields high, medium and poor in fertility at a site each in the southern (SGS) and northern (NGS) Guinea savanna of northern Ghana. Legumes grown in the poorly fertile fields relied more on N2-fixation for growth leading to generally larger net N inputs to the soil. Crop yields declined with decreasing soil fertility and were larger in the SGS than in the NGS due to more favourable rainfall and soil fertility. Spatial arrangements of relay intercrops did not have any significant impact on maize and legume grain yields. Sowing maize first followed by a cowpea relay resulted in 0.18–0.26 t ha−1 reduction in cowpea grain yield relative to cowpea sown from the onset. Relaying maize into cowpea led to a 0.29–0.64 t ha−1 reduction in maize grain yield relative to maize sown from the onset in the SGS. In the NGS, a decline of 0.66 and 0.82 t ha−1 in maize grain yield relative to maize sown from the onset was observed due to less rainfall received by the relay maize. Groundnut and soybean induced 0.38–1.01 t ha−1 more grain yield of a subsequent maize relative to continuous maize, and 1.17–1.71 t ha−1 more yield relative to relay maize across both sites. Accumulated crop yields over both years suggest that sowing maize first followed by cowpea relay is a promising ecological intensification option besides the more common legume–maize rotation in the Guinea savanna, as it was comparable with soybean–maize rotation and more productive than the other treatments.
From best fit technologies to best fit scaling: incorporating and evaluating factors affecting the adoption of grain legumes in Sub-Saharan Africa
Farrow, Andrew ; Ronner, Esther ; Brand, Greta J. Van Den; Boahen, Stephen K. ; Leonardo, Wilson ; Wolde-Meskel, Endalkachew ; Adjei-Nsiah, Samuel ; Chikowo, Regis ; Baijukya, Fredrick ; Ebanyat, Peter ; Sangodele, Emmanuel A. ; Sanginga, Jean-Marie ; Kantengwa, Speciose ; Phiphira, Lloyd ; Woomer, Paul ; Ampadu-Boakye, Theresa ; Baars, Edward ; Kanampiu, Fred ; Vanlauwe, Bernard ; Giller, Kenneth E. - \ 2019
Experimental Agriculture 55 (2019)S1. - ISSN 0014-4797 - p. 226 - 251.
The success of scaling out depends on a clear understanding of the factors that affect adoption of grain legumes and account for the dynamism of those factors across heterogeneous contexts of sub-Saharan Africa. We reviewed literature on adoption of grain legumes and other technologies in sub-Saharan Africa and other developing countries. Our review enabled us to define broad factors affecting different components of the scaling out programme of N2Africa and the scales at which those factors were important. We identified three strategies for managing those factors in the N2Africa scaling out programme: (i) testing different technologies and practices; (ii) evaluating the performance of different technologies in different contexts; and (iii) monitoring factors that are difficult to predict. We incorporated the review lessons in a design to appropriately target and evaluate technologies in multiple contexts across scales from that of the farm to whole countries. Our implementation of this design has only been partially successful because of competing reasons for selecting activity sites. Nevertheless, we observe that grain legume species have been successfully targeted for multiple biophysical environments across sub-Saharan Africa, and to social and economic contexts within countries. Rhizobium inoculant and legume specific fertiliser blends have also been targeted to specific contexts, although not in all countries. Relatively fewer input and output marketing models have been tested due to public–private partnerships, which are a key mechanism for dissemination in the N2Africa project.
The devil is in the detail! : Sustainability assessment of African smallholder farming
Marinus, Wytze ; Ronner, E. ; Ven, G.W.J. van de; Kanampiu, Fred ; Adjei-Nsiah, Samuel ; Giller, K.E. - \ 2018
In: Routledge Handbook of Sustainability Indicators / Bell, S., Morse, S., Routledge - ISBN 9781138674769 - p. 427 - 450.
Indicators for sustainability are a hot and debated topic. Sustainable intensification of agriculture is also widely debated due to the divergent views on the future of agriculture and the wide variety of indicators used. Legumes are seen as a key option for sustainable intensification of smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We developed a framework for assessing the sustainability of contrasting farming systems to illustrate the complex balancing act involved, using a case study of the N2Africa project. N2Africa offers legume options to farmers in SSA (www.N2Africa.org). We worked at farm household level and used a hierarchical framework of principles and criteria to select the indicators for sustainability.
One of the main outcomes is a list of questions and hurdles we ran into when developing the framework. This can be used by others as guidance both when choosing indicators and to critically evaluate existing sustainability assessments. We illustrate that many of the decisions made in developing an indicator framework are subjective and that they include important but easily overlooked details. We conclude that, only by being explicit about the steps taken and the assumptions and decisions made, one can develop a sustainability framework that results in meaningful outcomes.
Evaluating the Traditional Feed Storage Systems of Grain Legume Fodders in Northern Ghana
Akakpo, Daniel ; Oosting, S.J. ; Adjei-Nsiah, S. ; Duncan, Alan ; Giller, K.E. ; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2018
In: Book of abstracts Tropentag 2018. - Weikersheim : Margraf Publishers - ISBN 9783823617600 - p. 118 - 118.
Effects of location and time of storage on the nutritional quality of grain legume fodder in northern Ghana
Akakpo, Daniel ; Oosting, S.J. ; Adjei-Nsiah, Samuel ; Duncan, Alan ; Giller, K.E. ; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2018
- 1 p.
The objective of the study was to evaluate dry matter (DM) loss, nutritional quality and animal feed intake preference of different grain legume fodders stored in different locations. Three major grain legumes (cowpea, groundnut and soybean) fodders were harvested at physiological maturity, air-dried and stored according to the experimental design. The experimental design used was a split-split plot design with 18 observations replicated four times, each replicate in a different community. The treatments included: whole plot - 3 types of storage locations (rooftop, tree fork and room), sub plot - 3 types of grain legume fodders (cowpea, groundnut and soybean) and sub-sub plot - 2 types of packing (sacks and unpacked, but tied with ropes). Stored fodders were weighed monthly and sampled quantities fed to 12 matured sheep to determine DM intake. Samples were also evaluated for nutritional quality over time, i.e. crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), in-vitro organic matter digestibility and metabolizable energy (ME). Fodders stored in sacks lost 13% DM which was lower (P<0.05) compared to the DM loss of 32% of fodder tied with rope over a period of four months. DM intake by sheep was higher (P<0.05) for cowpea fodder when stored in sacks (833 g day -1) than when tied with rope (741 g day -1). Similarly, sheep consumed more (761 g day -1) groundnut fodderstored in sacks than (649 g day -1) those tied with ropes. Cowpea fodder was rated first followed by groundnut and soybean fodder was the least preferred by farmers and their animals.
Soyabean response to rhizobium inoculation across sub-Saharan Africa : Patterns of variation and the role of promiscuity
Heerwaarden, Joost van; Baijukya, Frederick ; Kyei-Boahen, Stephen ; Adjei-nsiah, Samuel ; Ebanyat, Peter ; Kamai, Nkeki ; Wolde-Meskel, Endalkachew ; Kanampiu, Fred ; Vanlauwe, Bernard ; Giller, Ken - \ 2018
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 261 (2018). - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 211 - 218.
Bradyrhizobium - Promiscuous varieties - Response variability - Smallholder farmers - Soyabean - Sub saharan Africa - Sustainable intensification
Improving bacterial nitrogen fixation in grain legumes is central to sustainable intensification of agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa. In the case of soyabean, two main approaches have been pursued: first, promiscuous varieties were developed to form effective symbiosis with locally abundant nitrogen fixing bacteria. Second, inoculation with elite bacterial strains is being promoted. Analyses of the success of these approaches in tropical smallholder systems are scarce. It is unclear how current promiscuous and non-promiscuous soyabean varieties perform in inoculated and uninoculated fields, and the extent of variation in inoculation response across regions and environmental conditions remains to be determined.We present an analysis of on-farm yields and inoculation responses across ten countries in Sub Saharan Africa, including both promiscuous and non-promiscuous varieties. By combining data from a core set of replicated on-farm trials with that from a large number of farmer-managed try-outs, we study the potential for inoculation to increase yields in both variety types and evaluate the magnitude and variability of response.Average yields were estimated to be 1343 and 1227. kg/ha with and without inoculation respectively. Inoculation response varied widely between trials and locations, with no clear spatial patterns at larger scales and without evidence that this variation could be explained by yield constraints or environmental conditions. On average, specific varieties had similar uninoculated yields, while responding more strongly to inoculation. Side-by side comparisons revealed that stronger responses were observed at sites where promiscuous varieties had superior uninoculated yields, suggesting the availability of compatible, effective bacteria as a yield limiting factor and as a determinant of the magnitude of inoculation response.
N2-fixation and N contribution by grain legumes under different soil fertility status and cropping systems in the Guinea savanna of northern Ghana
Kermah, M. ; Franke, A.C. ; Adjei-Nsiah, S. ; Ahiabor, B.D.K. ; Abaidoo, Robert C. ; Giller, K.E. - \ 2018
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 261 (2018). - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 201 - 210.
Cowpea - Groundnut - Maize - Partial N balance - Soybean
Continuous cereal-based cropping has led to a rapid decline in soil fertility in the Guinea savanna agro-ecological zone of northern Ghana with corresponding low crop yields. We evaluated the effects of cropping system and soil fertility status on grain yields and N2-fixation by grain legumes and net N contribution to soil fertility improvement in contrasting sites in this agro-ecological zone. Maize was intercropped with cowpea, soybean and groundnut within a row, with a maize stand alternated with two equally spaced cowpea or groundnut stands and in the maize-soybean system, four equally spaced soybean stands. These intercrops were compared with sole crops of maize, cowpea, soybean and groundnut in fertile and poorly fertile fields at sites in the southern (SGS) and the northern (NGS) Guinea savanna. The proportion of N derived from N2-fixation (%Ndfa) was comparable between intercrops and sole crops. However, the amount of N2-fixed was significantly larger in sole crops due to a greater biomass accumulation. Legumes in poorly fertile fields had significantly smaller shoot δ 15N enrichment (-2.8 to +0.7‰) and a larger %Ndfa (55-94%) than those in fertile fields (-0.8 to +2.2‰; 23-85%). The N2-fixed however was larger in fertile fields (16-145kgNha-1) than in poorly fertile fields (15-123kgNha-1) due to greater shoot dry matter and N yields. The legumes grown in the NGS obtained more of their N requirements from atmospheric N2-fixation (73-88%) than legumes grown in the SGS (41-69%). The partial soil N balance (inkgha-1) was comparable between intercrops (-14 to 21) and sole legumes (-8 to 23) but smaller than that of sole maize receiving N fertiliser (+7 to +34). With other N inputs (aerial deposition) and outputs (leaching and gaseous losses) unaccounted for, there is uncertainty surrounding the actual amount of soil N balances of the cropping systems, indicating that partial N balances are not reliable indicators of the sustainability of cropping systems. Nevertheless, the systems with legumes seem more attractive due to several non-N benefits. Our results suggest that soybean could be targeted in the SGS and cowpea in the NGS for greater productivity while groundnut is suited to both environments. Grain legumes grown in poorly fertile fields contributed more net N to the soil but growing legumes in fertile fields seems more lucrative due to greater grain and stover yields and non-N benefits.
Review of policies relating to legume intensification in N2Africa countries
Stadler, Minke ; Giller, K.E. ; Kanampiu, Fred ; Sangodele, Emmanuel A. ; Ebanyat, Peter ; Wolde-Meskel, Endalkachew ; Baijukya, Frederick ; Adjei-Nsiah, S. ; Sanginga, Jean-Marie ; Kantengwa, Speciose ; Woomer, P.L. ; Chikowo, Regis ; Phiphira, Lloyd ; Leonardo, W. ; Kamai, Nkeki ; Schilt-van Ettekoven, C. - \ 2017
N2Africa project (N2Africa project report 107) - 38 p.
The ‘N2Africa Review of policies relating to legume intensification in N2Africa counties’ showed that governments in N2Africa countries acknowledge the importance of legume intensification and its significant potential to contribute to improving food security and health, especially for poor families.
At global level, the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development developed by the United Nations (UN) aim to end all forms of poverty, fight inequalities and tackle climate change, while ensuring that no one is left behind. The SDGs recognize that ending poverty must go hand-in-hand with strategies that build economic growth and addresses a range of social needs including education, health and job opportunities, amongst others. Governments are expected to take ownership and establish national frameworks for the achievement of the seventeen goals. Particularly, SDG2 ‘End hunger achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture’ seeks sustainable solutions to end hunger in all its forms and to achieve food security. It entails improving the productivity and incomes of small-scale farmers by promoting equal access to land, technology and markets, sustainable food production systems and resilient agricultural practices.
The Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) is the pan-African policy framework for agricultural transformation, wealth creation, food security and nutrition, economic growth and prosperity for all. The CAADP Results Framework 2015 – 2025 is prepared by the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) of the UN in cooperation with the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) Steering Committee. It recognizes the importance of increasing yield of food grains, tubers and legumes to catalyse transformation of Africa’s agricultural systems and presents critical actions required to achieve agricultural development agenda targets. Furthermore, the Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA) serves as a platform for promoting regional research and in the sharing of benefits and spillovers that derive from such research. The association focuses on four thematic areas that are well aligned to the major ongoing regional and continental initiatives. These include (i) Integrated capacity strengthening, (ii) Development and scaling up of technologies and innovations, (iii) Policy advocacy, market analysis and institutional arrangement, (iv) Knowledge and information management. High yielding climbing bean varieties and training on different staking options are included in ASARECA projects that scale up best practices to address farmers’ needs.
National governments in the N2Africa countries all developed national policies aimed at increasing agricultural productivity, improving food security, diversifying food production to improve nutrition, and increasing agricultural incomes of the rural people. All national policies refer to legumes, mostly indirectly (e.g. intercropping practices, as measure for soil fertility, amongst others). Table 1 presents the N2Africa target legumes mentioned in national policies per N2Africa country.
All national policies aim at increasing the production and productivity of various legumes by various strategies, such as (i) adopting modern production techniques, (ii) strengthening coordination, institutional capacity and skills across the key actors, (iii) providing timely and appropriate market entry support for effective market development and (iv) scaling up production and trade, amongst others. Rhizobia are only referred to in a few national policies (e.g. Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi and Rwanda). The Tanzanian government is the only government that developed an explicit policy tool to promote the pulses sector (e.g. common bean, cowpea, pigeonpea, green gram and chickpea, mung bean and Bambara nut).
The study results will be completed and used to provide recommendations to governments about best-fit legume technologies, how to increase production and productivity of various legumes and how to stimulate farmers’ use.
Tailoring and adaptation in N2Africa demonstration trials : intermediate report
Thuijsman, Eva ; Ronner, E. ; Heerwaarden, J. van - \ 2017
Wageningen : N2Africa (Project report N2Africa 99) - 28 p.
One of N2Africa's objectives is to "tailor and adapt legume technologies to close yield gaps and expand the area of legume production within the farm" (Objective 4). Sub-objectives are to develop variety * inoculant * nutrient management recommendations for the target legumes and areas (Objective 4.1), and to develop best-fit recommendations (Objective 5.5). Each season, in diagnostic and demonstration trials, the effectiveness of varieties, inputs and management practices has been assessed, leading to the development of such recommendations. In other words: technologies were tailored and adapted to make them more suitable for specific legumes, areas or groups of farmers. To report on these objectives, we would like to capture the "learning pathways" that have led to changes in the design of demonstration trials and the development of best-fit recommendations.
This report provides an overview of changes that have occurred on trials in terms of variety selection, input choice and other practices. These changes and their reasons and initiators are listed in tables per crop for five core countries: Ghana, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Tanzania and Uganda. The report only comprises the changes that have occurred, not the full overview of technologies that are being tested and demonstrated by N2Africa.
Information about the learning pathways were collected via an ODK survey with country coordinators and field research officers Samuel Adjei-Nsiah and Arnold Sylvester Amppiah (Ghana), Endalkachew Wolde-Meskel and Birhan Abdulkadir (Ethiopia), Bassey Ukem (Nigeria), Abubakar Mohammed (Nigeria), Sheu Muhammad Dandago (Nigeria), Abubakari Mzanda (Tanzania) and Anthony Epel (Uganda). They described the changes that had occurred in demonstration trials since the beginning of N2Africa Phase II in 2014, and the stakeholders who initiated the actions.
Improving food security by reducing the maize yield gap in Ghana
Asante, F. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Jongeneel, R.A. ; Adjei-Nsiah, S. ; Akotsen, Clement - \ 2017
University of Ghana (Policy brief / Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research (ISSER) ) - 4 p.
Can sub-Saharan Africa feed itself?
Ittersum, M.K. van; Bussel, L.G.J. van; Wolf, J. ; Grassini, Patricio ; Wart, Justin van; Guilpart, Nicolas ; Claessens, L.F.G. ; Groot, H.L.E. de; Wiebe, Keith ; Mason-d’Croz, Daniel ; Yang, Haishun ; Boogaard, H.L. ; Oort, P.A.J. van; Loon, M.P. van; Saito, Kazuki ; Adimo, Ochieng ; Adjei-Nsiah, Samuel ; Agali, Alhassane ; Bala, Abdullahi ; Chikowo, Regis ; Kaizzi, Kayuki ; Kouressy, Mamoutou ; Makoi, Joachim H.J.R. ; Ouattara, Korodjouma ; Tesfaye, Kindie ; Cassman, Kenneth G. ; Hall, Lindsey ; Kalka, Gogi - \ 2017
Environmental Science Journal for Teens (2017). - 4 p.
By the year 2050, the world’s population will need 60% more food than it did in 2005. In sub-Saharan Africa (we’ll call it SSA) (Fig. 1) this problem will be even greater, with the demand for cereals increasing by more than three times as the population rises.
We collected and calculated farming data for 10 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. This made us realize that countries in SSA must make many large changes to ncrease their yield of cereals (the amount of cereals that are grown on the current farmland each year) to meet this greater demand.
If countries in SSA are unable to increase cereal yield, there are two options. either farmland areas will have to increase drastically, at the expense of natural land, or SSA will need to buy more cereal from other countries than it does today. This may put more people in these countries at risk of not having enough food to be able to live healthily.
Maize-grain legume intercropping for enhanced resource use efficiency and crop productivity in the Guinea savanna of northern Ghana
Kermah, Michael ; Franke, Angelinus C. ; Adjei-nsiah, Samuel ; Ahiabor, Benjamin D.K. ; Abaidoo, Robert C. ; Giller, Ken E. - \ 2017
Field Crops Research 213 (2017). - ISSN 0378-4290 - p. 38 - 50.
LER - Net benefit - Radiation interception - Soil fertility - Spatial arrangement
Smallholder farmers in the Guinea savanna practise cereal-legume intercropping to mitigate risks of crop failure in mono-cropping. The productivity of cereal-legume intercrops could be influenced by the spatial arrangement of the intercrops and the soil fertility status. Knowledge on the effect of soil fertility status on intercrop productivity is generally lacking in the Guinea savanna despite the wide variability in soil fertility status in farmers’ fields, and the productivity of within-row spatial arrangement of intercrops relative to the distinct-row systems under on-farm conditions has not been studied in the region. We studied effects of maize-legume spatial intercropping patterns and soil fertility status on resource use efficiency, crop productivity and economic profitability under on-farm conditions in the Guinea savanna. Treatments consisted of maize-legume intercropped within-row, 1 row of maize alternated with one row of legume, 2 rows of maize alternated with 2 rows of legume, a sole maize crop and a sole legume crop. These were assessed in the southern Guinea savanna (SGS) and the northern Guinea savanna (NGS) of northern Ghana for two seasons using three fields differing in soil fertility in each agro-ecological zone. Each treatment received 25 kg P and 30 kg K ha−1 at sowing, while maize received 25 kg (intercrop) or 50 kg (sole) N ha−1 at 3 and 6 weeks after sowing. The experiment was conducted in a randomised complete block design with each block of treatments replicated four times per fertility level at each site. Better soil conditions and rainfall in the SGS resulted in 48, 38 and 9% more maize, soybean and groundnut grain yield, respectively produced than in the NGS, while 11% more cowpea grain yield was produced in the NGS. Sole crops of maize and legumes produced significantly more grain yield per unit area than the respective intercrops of maize and legumes. Land equivalent ratios (LERs) of all intercrop patterns were greater than unity indicating more efficient and productive use of environmental resources by intercrops. Sole legumes intercepted more radiation than sole maize, while the interception by intercrops was in between that of sole legumes and sole maize. The intercrop however converted the intercepted radiation more efficiently into grain yield than the sole crops. Economic returns were greater for intercrops than for either sole crop. The within-row intercrop pattern was the most productive and lucrative system. Larger grain yields in the SGS and in fertile fields led to greater economic returns. However, intercropping systems in poorly fertile fields and in the NGS recorded greater LERs (1.16–1.81) compared with fertile fields (1.07–1.54) and with the SGS. This suggests that intercropping is more beneficial in less fertile fields and in more marginal environments such as the NGS. Cowpea and groundnut performed better than soybean when intercropped with maize, though the larger absolute grain yields of soybean resulted in larger net benefits.
Maize-Grain Legume Intercropping: Ecological Intensification to Enhance Resource Use and Production Efficiency for Smallholder Farmers in Northern Ghana
Kermah, M. ; Franke, A.C. ; Adjei-Nsiah, S. ; Abaidoo, R. ; Giller, K.E. - \ 2016
In: Book of abstracts Joint Pan-African Grain Legume and World Cowpea Conference. - - p. 81 - 81.
N2Africa: What role for legumes in sustainable intensification? - Case studies in Western Kenya and Northern Ghana for PROIntenseAfrica
Marinus, Wytze ; Ronner, E. ; Ven, G.W.J. van de; Kanampiu, Fred ; Adjei-nsiah, Samuel ; Giller, K.E. - \ 2016
Wageningen : N2Africa (Project report N2Africa 96) - 64 p.
Can sub-Saharan Africa feed itself?
Ittersum, Martin K. Van; Bussel, Lenny G.J. Van; Wolf, Joost ; Grassini, Patricio ; Wart, Justin Van; Guilpart, Nicolas ; Claessens, Lieven ; Groot, Hugo de; Wiebe, Keith ; Mason-d’Croz, Daniel ; Yang, Haishun ; Boogaard, Hendrik ; Oort, Pepijn A.J. van; Loon, Marloes P. van; Saito, Kazuki ; Adimo, Ochieng ; Adjei-Nsiah, Samuel ; Agali, Alhassane ; Bala, Abdullahi ; Chikowo, Regis ; Kaizzi, Kayuki ; Kouressy, Mamoutou ; Makoi, Joachim H.J.R. ; Ouattara, Korodjouma ; Tesfaye, Kindie ; Cassman, Kenneth G. - \ 2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113 (2016)52. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 14964 - 14969.
Although global food demand is expected to increase 60% by 2050 compared with 2005/2007, the rise will be much greater in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Indeed, SSA is the region at greatest food security risk because by 2050 its population will increase 2.5-fold and demand for cereals approximately triple, whereas current levels of cereal consumption already depend on substantial imports. At issue is whether SSA can meet this vast increase in cereal demand without greater reliance on cereal imports or major expansion of agricultural area and associated biodiversity loss and greenhouse gas emissions. Recent studies indicate that the global increase in food demand by 2050 can be met through closing the gap between current farm yield and yield potential on existing cropland. Here, however, we estimate it will not be feasible to meet future SSA cereal demand on existing production area by yield gap closure alone. Our agronomically robust yield gap analysis for 10 countries in SSA using location-specific data and a spatial upscaling approach reveals that, in addition to yield gap closure, other more complex and uncertain components of intensification are also needed, i.e., increasing cropping intensity (the number of crops grown per 12 mo on the same field) and sustainable expansion of irrigated production area. If intensification is not successful and massive cropland land expansion is to be avoided, SSA will depend much more on imports of cereals than it does today.