Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Reproducible, interactive, scalable and extensible microbiome data science using QIIME 2
Bolyen, Evan ; Rideout, Jai Ram ; Dillon, Matthew R. ; Bokulich, Nicholas A. ; Abnet, Christian C. ; Al-Ghalith, Gabriel A. ; Alexander, Harriet ; Alm, Eric J. ; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan ; Asnicar, Francesco ; Bai, Yang ; Bisanz, Jordan E. ; Bittinger, Kyle ; Brejnrod, Asker ; Brislawn, Colin J. ; Brown, Titus C. ; Callahan, Benjamin J. ; Caraballo-Rodríguez, Andrés Mauricio ; Chase, John ; Cope, Emily K. ; Silva, Ricardo da; Diener, Christian ; Dorrestein, Pieter C. ; Douglas, Gavin M. ; Durall, Daniel M. ; Duvallet, Claire ; Edwardson, Christian F. ; Ernst, Madeleine ; Estaki, Mehrbod ; Fouquier, Jennifer ; Gauglitz, Julia M. ; Gibbons, Sean M. ; Gibson, Deanna L. ; Gonzalez, Antonio ; Gorlick, Kestrel ; Guo, Jiarong ; Hillmann, Benjamin ; Holmes, Susan ; Holste, Hannes ; Huttenhower, Curtis ; Huttley, Gavin A. ; Janssen, Stefan ; Jarmusch, Alan K. ; Jiang, Lingjing ; Kaehler, Benjamin D. ; Kang, Kyo Bin ; Keefe, Christopher R. ; Keim, Paul ; Kelley, Scott T. ; Knights, Dan ; Koester, Irina ; Kosciolek, Tomasz ; Kreps, Jorden ; Langille, Morgan G.I. ; Lee, Joslynn ; Ley, Ruth ; Liu, Yong Xin ; Loftfield, Erikka ; Lozupone, Catherine ; Maher, Massoud ; Marotz, Clarisse ; Martin, Bryan D. ; McDonald, Daniel ; McIver, Lauren J. ; Melnik, Alexey V. ; Metcalf, Jessica L. ; Morgan, Sydney C. ; Morton, Jamie T. ; Naimey, Ahmad Turan ; Navas-Molina, Jose A. ; Nothias, Louis Felix ; Orchanian, Stephanie B. ; Pearson, Talima ; Peoples, Samuel L. ; Petras, Daniel ; Preuss, Mary Lai ; Pruesse, Elmar ; Rasmussen, Lasse Buur ; Rivers, Adam ; Robeson, Michael S. ; Rosenthal, Patrick ; Segata, Nicola ; Shaffer, Michael ; Shiffer, Arron ; Sinha, Rashmi ; Song, Se Jin ; Spear, John R. ; Swafford, Austin D. ; Thompson, Luke R. ; Torres, Pedro J. ; Trinh, Pauline ; Tripathi, Anupriya ; Turnbaugh, Peter J. ; Ul-Hasan, Sabah ; Hooft, Justin J.J. van der; Vargas, Fernando ; Vázquez-Baeza, Yoshiki ; Vogtmann, Emily ; Hippel, Max von; Walters, William ; Wan, Yunhu ; Wang, Mingxun ; Warren, Jonathan ; Weber, Kyle C. ; Williamson, Charles H.D. ; Willis, Amy D. ; Xu, Zhenjiang Zech ; Zaneveld, Jesse R. ; Zhang, Yilong ; Zhu, Qiyun ; Knight, Rob ; Caporaso, J.G. - \ 2019
Nature Biotechnology 37 (2019)8. - ISSN 1087-0156 - p. 852 - 857.
Recept voor plastic soep
Verburg, Charlotte - \ 2019
In: Plastic: Van zegen tot vloek / van Everdingen, Jannes, van Donk, Ellen, Poolen, Daniël, Buiter, Rob, Den Haag : Stichting Biowetenschappen en Maatschappij (Cahier Biowetenschappen en Maatschappij 2) - ISBN 9789073196957 - p. 36 - 47.
Twintig jaar terug ontdekte de Amerikaanse oceanograaf en kapitein Charles Moore in de StilleOceaan de eerste zogenoemde ‘plastic soep’: een enorme plek met een relatief hoge concentratieronddrijvend plastic. Inmiddels is die soep een iconisch begrip bij het grote publiek. Om tebegrijpen wat er aan de plastic soep kan worden gedaan – opruimen bij de bron of de uitgang? –zul je het moeten terugvolgen naar de bron. Waar komt al dat plastic vandaan?
Hergebruiken of vervangen?
Brouwer, M.T. ; Bolck, C.H. - \ 2019
In: Plastic: Van zegen tot vloek / van Everdingen, Jannes, van Donk, Ellen, Poolen, Daniël, Buiter, Rob, Den Haag : Stichting Biowetenschappen en Maatschappij (Cahier Biowetenschappen en Maatschappij 2) - ISBN 9789073196957 - p. 64 - 73.
Volgens het ministerie van Infrastructuur en Waterstaat, zou Nederland
rond 2050 ‘afvalvrij’ moeten leven. Recycling van plastic is wat dat betreft
een hoopvolle optie, zegt de Wageningse onderzoekster Marieke Brouwer.
Ook biologisch afbreekbare plastics kunnen een rol spelen, zegt haar
collega Christiaan Bolck, ‘al is over die term de nodige verwarring.’
Boven de stad is het nog heter
Heusinkveld, Bert ; Krol, Maarten ; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan - \ 2019

Hitte-eiland Een stad wordt warmer dan het buitengebied, door al die stenen en een gebrek aan wind. Maar tot hoe hoog gaat dat ‘hitte-eiland’ door? Onderzoekers deden unieke proeven, in hartje Amsterdam.

Effects of applying liquid swine manure on soil quality and yield production in tropical soybean crops (Paraná, Brazil)
Antoneli, Valdemir ; Mosele, Ana Caroline ; Bednarz, João Anésio ; Pulido-Fernández, Manuel ; Lozano-Parra, Javier ; Keesstra, Saskia Deborah ; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús - \ 2019
Sustainability 11 (2019)14. - ISSN 2071-1050
Agricultural intensification - Agricultural land management - Chronosequence - Fertilization - Mixed-farming

Brazil is one of the main producers of pork meat in the world. It is well-known that the agricultural sector is a key component of the economic development of this country, where super-intensive fields are only competitive in the globalized market. For the farmers, the application of swine manure to fertilize the soil can increase the yearly income, but it also may cause serious environmental problems related to soil health and soil quality. In this research, we assessed the effects of applying liquid swine manure in a tropical soybean (Glycine max) plantation to better understand when this technique stops being effective and starts causing a threat to soil health and quality. Therefore, we compared values of several soil properties and the soybean yield on treated fields at 10 random points belonging to 7 different plots that were treated with the liquid swine manure over a period ranging from 0 to 15 years. The results showed a positive linear trend in soybean production from 2.45 to 3.08 Mg ha-1 yr-1. This positive trend was also recorded for some key soil parameters such as porosity and exchangeable cations content (Ca, Mg, K, and Al). Additionally, positive effects were also found for organic matter content after 10 years of application. Our findings suggest that the use of liquid swine manure has a positive effect on soybean yield and improves soil quality, particularly on mixed farms where pigs are intensively raised nearby cultivated fields.

Weerballonnen meten hoe warm het is in de lucht
Steeneveld, Gert-Jan ; Heusinkveld, Bert - \ 2019

Het is warm, heel warm. Het hitterecord kan zelfs vandaag al worden gesneuveld. In het zuidoosten van ons land wordt een maximumtemperatuur van 39 graden verwacht; het record uit 1944 staat op 38,6 graden. Maar hoe warm is in het de lucht?

Die vraag proberen onderzoekers van de Wageningen University en AMS Institute te beantwoorden door meerdere luchtballonnen op te laten in Amsterdam. De hele dag worden ballonnen opgelaten om te meten hoe de hitte in de hoofdstad verschilt van de temperaturen van buiten de stad. En dat levert mooie plaatjes op

Validating the demethylating effects of 5-aza-20-deoxycytidine in insects requires a whole-genome approach (A reply to ellers et al.)
Cook, Nicola ; Parker, Darren J. ; Tauber, Eran ; Pannebakker, Bart A. ; Shuker, David M. - \ 2019
American Naturalist 194 (2019)3. - ISSN 0003-0147 - p. 432 - 438.
5-aza-2-deoxycytidine - DNA methylation - Nasonia vitripennis - Sex ratio

We previously demonstrated that treatment with the de-methylating agent 5-aza-20-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) alters the offspring sex ratios produced by females of the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. Females allocate offspring sex ratio in line with local mate competition theory, producing more or less female-biased sex ratios as the number of other females laying eggs on a patch varies, thereby reducing competition among their sons for mates. Interestingly, treatment with 5-aza-dC did not ablate the facultative sex allocation re-sponse. Instead, sex ratios became less female biased, a shift in the direction of the optimum sex ratio for paternally inherited alleles ac-cording to genomic conflict theory. This was the first (albeit indirect) experimental evidence for genomic conflict over sex allocation. In their comment, Ellers and colleagues assayed the effects of 5-aza-dC on DNA methylation in 10 Nasonia genes, finding no evidence of demeth-ylation in these 10 genes, from which they conclude that 5-aza-dC has no demethylating capability in N. vitripennis. Quantifying the efficacy of 5-aza-dC in terms of demethylation is indeed crucial to in-depth interpretation of studies using 5-aza-dC to link phenotypes to epigenetic regulation. Here we outline the mode of action of 5-aza-dC and demonstrate that determining the efficacy of 5-aza-dC in insect systems requires a whole-genome approach.

Zebra finch v-calls and the evidence for a signal: A response to comments on McDiarmid et al
McDiarmid, Callum S. ; Naguib, Marc ; Griffith, Simon C. - \ 2019
Behavioral Ecology 30 (2019)3. - ISSN 1045-2249 - p. E4 - E5.
Corrigendum: Exposure to antibiotics affects Saponin immersion-induced immune stimulation and shift in microbial composition in Zebrafish larvae
Nadal, Adrià López ; Peggs, David ; Wiegertjes, Geert F. ; Brugman, Sylvia - \ 2019
Frontiers in Microbiology 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-302X

In the original article, there was an error. The name of the transgenic line used was incorrect. The correct name of the line is "mpeg1:mCherry/mpx:eGFPi114" Corrections have been made to the Materials and Methods subsection Animals: "Adult Tg(mpeg1:mCherry/mpx:eGFPi114) (Renshaw et al., 2006; Bernut et al., 2014) zebrafish (kindly provided by Prof. Meijer, Leiden University), expressing mCherry under the macrophage-specific mpeg1 promotor and GFP under the neutrophil-specific mpx promotor were housed in Zebtec family tanks (Tecniplast, Buguggiate, Italy) under continuous flow-through at 28°C (14/10-hour light/dark cycle) at Carus facilities (WUR, Wageningen, Netherlands). Zebrafish were fed with a mixture of Artemia 230.000 npg (Ocean Nutrition Europe, Essen, Belgium) and Tetramin Flakes (Tetra, Melle, Germany) twice per day. Embryos were obtained by natural spawning and raised with E3 water (0.10 mM NaCl in demineralized water, pH 7.6) in petri dishes at 28°C (12/12-hour light/dark cycle) (Westerfield, 2007). Dead or fungus-infected embryos were identified by microscopy and discarded in tricaine/E3 solution [8.4% (v/v) 24 mM Tricaine (Sigma-Aldrich, DL, United States) stock solution in E3]. Larval ages are expressed in days post-fertilization (dpf). From 5 dpf onward larvae were fed with live daily cultured Tetrahymena pyriformis." Materials and Methods, subsection Dose-Response Experiment Saponin Exposure: "Double Tg(mpeg1:mCherry /mpx:eGFPi114) zebrafish larvae were randomly distributed in 6 well plates (n = 20 fish/well) and exposed to different concentrations [0, 0.5, 0.7 and 1.0 mg/ml] of saponin [ultrapure Soy Saponin 95%, kindly provided by Trond Kortner NMBU Oslo Norway, origin: Organic Technologies, Coshocton, OH (Krogdahl et al., 2015)] dissolved in the E3 (10 ml solution/well) from 6-9 dpf. Mortality was registered and all media were refreshed daily. At 24 h (7 dpf) and 72 h (9 dpf) after the start of the immersion, zebrafish (n = 6-11/group) were anaesthetized embedded and imaged using fluorescent microscopy (as described below). Per time point several larvae were euthanized for further analysis with an overdose MS-222 (8.4 ml of 24 mM Tricaine (Sigma-Aldrich, DL, United States) in 100 ml E3). Pools of 5 larvae were used for RNA extraction (3 pools per group at 24 h, 7-9 pools per group at 72 h) and gene expression was measured on cDNA by Real Time PCR (as described below). Two independent experiments were performed and data were combined." Materials and Methods, subsection Fluorescent in vivo imaging: "Tg(mpeg1:mCherry/mpx:eGFPi114) zebrafish larvae were anaesthetized with tricaine/E3 solution (4.2 ml of 24 mM Tricaine (Sigma-Aldrich, DL, United States) in 100 ml E3) and embedded in 1% low melting point agarose (Thermo Fisher Scientific, MA, United States). Larvae were imaged as whole mounts with a Leica M205 FA Fluorescence Stereo Microscope. After image acquisition, pictures were analyzed with ImageJ® software (United States National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, United States). The intestinal regions were manually selected per fish on the basis of the bright light picture and subsequently copied to the green and red channel pictures (Supplementary Figure S1). Within this intestinal region individual cells were counted for each fish. Furthermore, corrected total cell fluorescence (CTCF) was measured in ImageJ® on total fish larvae by using the following formula: Integrated density-(area of total fish x mean fluorescence of the background reading)." Material and Methods, subsection Experimental Design and Sampling Strategy Antibiotics and Saponin Exposure: A graphical representation of the experimental design and analysis performed per time-point is displayed in Figure 1. To assess the effect of antibiotics, 4 dpf Tg(mpeg1:mCherry/mpx:eGFPi114) fish were randomly distributed in five 6 well-plates (n = 20 fish/well) and 3 treatment conditions were established: (1) control (E3), (2) ciprofloxacin 5 μg/L (Sigma-Aldrich, DL, United States) or (3) oxytetracycline hydrochloride 5 μg/L (Sigma-Aldrich, DL, United States) (10 ml solution/well). The dose of antibiotics was based on several reviews and experimental papers summarizing environmental concentrations of antibiotics in water environments (Ding and He, 2010; Carvalho and Santos, 2016; Watts et al., 2017; Patrolecco et al., 2018; Zhou et al., 2018b) to be at a low dose (ng-μg/L range) and not acute dose (mg/L range). At 6 dpf, 4 pools of 5 larvae were sampled to assess changes in gene expression at baseline. Moreover, at 6 dpf DNA was isolated from 3 pools of 5 larvae to investigate microbiome composition at baseline. In vivo imaging was performed on n = 10 larvae/group to visualize innate immune cells. Subsequently, after sampling, at 6 dpf ultrapure soy saponin was applied to half of the remaining larvae at a concentration 0.5 mg/ml (to induce mild immune stimulation) so each treatment group was split into two, resulting in 6 treatment groups: (1) control, (2) ciprofloxacin (5 μg/L), (3) oxytetracycline hydrochloride (5 μg/L), (4) saponin (0.5 mg/ml), (5) ciprofloxacin + saponin (5 μg/L + 0.5 mg/ml), and (6) oxytetracycline hydrochloride + saponin (5 μg/L + 0.5 mg/ml). All treatment media were refreshed daily. At 9 dpf in vivo imaging was performed on n = 10 larvae/group to visualize innate immune cells. Gene expression was performed on 4 pools of 5 larvae to investigate immune gene expression and from 3 pools of 5 larvae DNA was isolated for microbiological analysis. Because of the error reported above, corrections have also been made to the Figure legends of Figure 2 and Figure 4. The correct legends appear below. Figure 2: Effect of saponin immersion on zebrafish larvae. (A) Percent survival of zebrafish exposed to control (E3), 0.5 mg/ml saponin, 0.7 mg/ml saponin and 1 mg/ml saponin from 6-9 dpf (n = 40 fish/treatment) (Log-rank Mantel-Cox Test for Chi-square, ∗∗∗p < 0.0005). (B) Representative pictures of the saponin-treated Tg(mpeg1:mCherry/mpx:eGFPi114) fish displaying green neutrophils and red macrophages. (C) Quantification of neutrophils and macrophages in the intestinal area (n = 6-11 fish/group) (one way ANOVA Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn's Multiple comparison Post-Test, mean ± SEM, ∗p < 0.05 ∗∗p < 0.01). Top: counted cells in intestinal area. Bottom: Corrected Total Cell Fluorescence (CTCF, measure for total fluorescent pixels in the whole fish). Two independent experiments were performed and data are combined. Figure 4: Effect of antibiotic exposure on saponin-immune-stimulation. (A) Percent survival of zebrafish exposed to control (E3), ciprofloxacin (4-9 dpf) (5 ug/L) or oxytetracycline (4-9 dpf) (5 ug/ml) + /- saponin (0.5 mg/ml) from 6-9 dpf (n = 100 fish / treatment) (Log-rank Mantel-Cox Test for Chi-square). (B) Representative pictures of the antibiotic/saponin-treated Tg(mpeg1:mCherry/mpx:eGFPi114) fish displaying green neutrophils and red macrophages. (C) Quantification of neutrophils and macrophages in the intestinal area (n = 10 fish/ group) (one way ANOVA Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn's Multiple comparison Post-Test, mean ± SEM, ∗p < 0.05). Two independent experiments were performed and one representative experiment is shown. The authors apologize for this error and state that this does not change the scientific conclusions of the article in any way. The original article has been updated.

Inventarisatie ruim 20 duizend eiken: sterke toename eikenprocessierups
Vliet, A.J.H. van; Hofhuis, Hidde ; Hellingman, S. ; Kuppen, H. ; Jans, H. ; Buijs, Jan ; Spijker, J.H. - \ 2019
Nature Today
Twintigduizend eikenbomen zijn vorig jaar en dit jaar gecontroleerd op de aanwezigheid van eikenprocessierupsen. Het blijkt dat het aantal rupsen sterk is toegenomen. Op sommige plaatsen zijn er drie keer zo veel rupsen als in het piekjaar 2018. Opvallend is verder dat ze ook meer in bossen voorkomen dan voorheen. We verwachten dat half juli de eerste vlinders al gaan uitvliegen.
Customising dry period management: consequences for milk yield, body condition and disease incidence
Knegsel, A.T.M. van; Hoeij, R.J. van; Kemp, B. ; Kok, A. - \ 2019
In: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Production Diseases in Farm Animals. - Bern, Switserland : University of Bern - ISBN 9783906813936 - p. 147 - 147.
Advantages of shortening and omitting of the dry period are an improved energy balance and metabolic status in early lactation and potentially also an improved fertility (Van Knegsel et al., 2013). Disadvantages, however, are a reduction in milk yield in the subsequent lactation, loss of opportunity for selective dry cow therapy (DCT) and, in case of omitting of the dry period, reduction in concentration of antibodies in colostrum. Moreover, response of dairy cows to different dry period lengths was related to individual cow characteristics, like parity (Annen et al., 2004), milk yield level or SCC level (Van Hoeij et al., 2016). Therefore, it can be hypothesized that customising dry period management for individual cows could mitigate negative impacts of shortening and omitting the dry period on milk production and udder health, and at the same time retain benefits from both a dry period as well as benefits from a short or no dry period. In this study, we aimed to evaluate two decision trees to customize dry period length and selective DCT based on parity, milk production and SCC in late lactation.
Vliegende start met vroege voeding : Effect vroege voeding op vleeskuikenontwikkeling
Makkink, C.A. ; Hollemans, M.S. - \ 2019
De Molenaar 9 (2019). - ISSN 0165-4284 - p. 16 - 17.
Vroege voeding kan vleeskuikens helpen een goede start te maken. In de praktijk is er al veel belangstelling voor het zo snel mogelijk verstrekken van voer aan eendagskuikens. Maarten Hollemans doet onderzoek naar het effect van vroege voeding bij deze kuikens.
Exploring the Role of RanGAP2 in Recognition by the Potato CC-NB-LRR Immune Receptors Rx1 and Gpa2
Sukarta, O.C.A. - \ 2019
The Ran GTPase activating protein 2 (RanGAP2) is a co-factor of the potato CC-NB-LRR immune receptor Rx1. However, its role in defence remains to be fully elucidated. Artificial tethering of RanGAP2 to the nematode effector GpRbp-1 was shown to enhance the cell death response of Gpa2, a closely related immune receptor of Rx1 that also interacts with RanGAP2 (Sacco et al. 2009). This suggests that RanGAP2 may contribute to immunity by facilitating effector recognition. Here, we expand on this model using a combination of structure-informed approaches, including co-immunoprecipitation and cellular imaging studies. We show that RanGAP2 can in fact form complexes in planta with the cognate effectors of Rx1 and Gpa2, namely the PVX coat protein (CP) and GpRbp-1. Interestingly, this was noted for both the eliciting and non-eliciting effector variants, suggesting that the RanGAP2/effector interaction may not be sufficient to confer recognition. This is in line with existing data demonstrating that the C-terminal region of the Rx1 and Gpa2 LRR domains is required for successful pathogen perception (Slootweg et al. 2013). Currently, we are performing structural and biochemical analysis to discern whether RanGAP2 acts as a bait that facilitates specific effector recognition either by bridging or enhancing the effector/cognate LRR interaction. This model may explain the bifurcation of pathogen recognition specificities of these two closely related immune receptors during evolution.
Tree Biomass Equations from Terrestrial LiDAR: A Case Study in Guyana
Lau, Alvaro ; Calders, Kim ; Bartholomeus, Harm ; Martius, Christopher ; Raumonen, Pasi ; Herold, Martin ; Vicari, Matheus ; Sukhdeo, Hansrajie ; Singh, Jeremy ; Goodman, Rosa - \ 2019
Forests 10 (2019)6. - ISSN 1999-4907 - 18 p.
Large uncertainties in tree and forest carbon estimates weaken national efforts to accurately estimate aboveground biomass (AGB) for their national monitoring, measurement, reporting and verification system. Allometric equations to estimate biomass have improved, but remain limited. They rely on destructive sampling; large trees are under-represented in the data used to create them; and they cannot always be applied to different regions. These factors lead to uncertainties and systematic errors in biomass estimations. We developed allometric models to estimate tree AGB in Guyana. These models were based on tree attributes (diameter, height, crown diameter) obtained from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) point clouds from 72 tropical trees and wood density. We validated our methods and models with data from 26 additional destructively harvested trees. We found that our best TLS-derived allometric models included crown diameter, provided more accurate AGB estimates ( R2 = 0.92–0.93) than traditional pantropical models ( R2 = 0.85–0.89), and were especially accurate for large trees (diameter > 70 cm). The assessed pantropical models underestimated AGB by 4 to 13%. Nevertheless, one pantropical model (Chave et al. 2005 without height) consistently performed best among the pantropical models tested ( R2 = 0.89) and predicted AGB accurately across all size classes—which but for this could not be known without destructive or TLS-derived validation data. Our methods also demonstrate that tree height is difficult to measure in situ, and the inclusion of height in allometric models consistently worsened AGB estimates. We determined that TLS-derived AGB estimates were unbiased. Our approach advances methods to be able to develop, test, and choose allometric models without the need to harvest trees.
Electrical energy from CO2 emissions by direct gas feeding in capacitive cells
Legrand, L. ; Schaetzle, O. ; Tedesco, M. ; Hamelers, H.V.M. - \ 2019
Electrochimica Acta 319 (2019). - ISSN 0013-4686 - p. 264 - 276.
Capacitive cell - Capacitive deionization - CO - Membrane potential - Mixing energy

This work demonstrates the possibility to harvest electrical power from CO2 emissions by feeding CO2 and air gas directly into a capacitive cell. Hamelers et al. previously showed, that the available mixing energy of CO2 emitted into the air can be converted into electricity, but at high energy costs for gas-sparging in the process. In the present work, electrical power is generated by feeding the gas directly into the capacitive cell. We investigated three different cell designs (namely, “conventional”, “flow-by(wire)”, and “flow-by(flat)”), by changing both electrode and cell geometry. The flow-by(flat), inspired from fuel cell design, showed the best performance thanks to a high membrane potential (≈190 mV), which is the highest value so far reported from CO2 and air. A maximum membrane permselectivity between CO2 and air of 90% was obtained, i.e., almost double of values reported in previous studies. On the contrary, the “conventional” cell design gave poor performance due to non-optimal gas flow in the cell. We highlight the importance of water management and internal electrical resistance, to indicate directions for future developments of the technology.

The Lemon Car Game Across Cultures: Evidence of Relational Rationality
Hofstede, G.J. ; Jonker, Catholijn ; Verwaart, T. ; Yorke-Smith, Neil - \ 2019
Group Decision and Negotiation 28 (2019)5. - ISSN 0926-2644 - p. 849 - 877.
Negotiation - Culture - Experimental studies - Power distance - Long-term orientation - Lemon car
In cross-cultural business negotiation, culture is known to influence negotiation processes. As a lens to study this effect we deployed the Lemon Car Game, an online negotiation game developed for this purpose (Hofstede et al. in: Proceedings of 39th international simulation and gaming association conference (ISAGA). Technologia, Kaunas, pp 39–46, 2009a; Hofstede et al. in: David, Sichman (eds) Multi-agent-based simulation IX, international workshop, MABS 2008, revised selected papers, LNAI 5269. Springer, Berlin, pp 1–16, 2009b). In this article we report the results from the game, obtained from over 800 players from more than 70 countries. We employ several complementary analyses in a mixed-methods approach.Our findings show that to make sense of the players’ actions during negotiation, economic rationality falls short. A pan-cultural individual-level analysis of actions and stated intentions also fails to yield a coherent picture. Within countries, however, actions and intentions do cohere, as shown by an ecological country-level factor analysis, from which three factors emerge for the sellers at country level: trustworthiness, opportunism, and fairness. We conclude from these findings that, in this game, players are driven by what we call relational rationality: they are rational from the perspective of the social world in which they live, with interpersonal relationships weighing heavily. Relational rationality changes players’ perspective of economic rationality, and thus their observed behaviour in negotiation. Based on this evidence, we extrapolate that relational rationality significantly influences negotiation processes in all cultures.
Data from: Quantitative visual soil observation for visual soil evaluation on dairy farms
Leeuwen, M.W.J. van; Schols, Anne ; Quik, C. - \ 2019
dairy farm - soil quality assessment - visual soil evaluation
Quantitative visual observations were collected for two studies on dairy farms in the Netherlands. Data were collected following the same methodology (Van Leeuwen et al., 2018) based on Visual Soil Assessment of Shepherd (2009).
Invang van mosselzaad in MZI’s : Resultaten 2018
Capelle, Jacob ; Stralen, Marnix van - \ 2019
Yerseke : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C057/19) - 27
Voorliggend technisch rapport behandelt de resultaten van de oogst van mosselzaad van de zogenaamde Mosselzaadinvangsinstalaties (MZI’s) in de Oosterschelde, Voordelta en Waddenzee in 2018 met als doel: Inzicht te geven in de oogstresultaten in relatie tot de afspraken in het mosselconvenant. Inzicht te geven in de geschiktheid van locaties voor MZI’s en de daarbij gebruikte invangsystemen. Dit rapport is opgesteld in opdracht van de PO Mosselcultuur. In 2018 is in de Nederlandse wateren totaal 20,7 miljoen kg (207 duizend mosselton) mosselzaad geoogst van de MZI’s. Het merendeel hiervan, 18,5 miljoen kg (waarvan 17,5 Mkg door transitiebedrijven en 1,0 Mkg door experimenteerbedrijven) is ingevangen in de Waddenzee. In de Oosterschelde is 1,8 miljoen kg en in de Voordelta 0,4 miljoen kg mosselzaad geoogst. Binnen het mosselconvenant is afgesproken de bodemzaadvisserij stapsgewijs af te bouwen in een tempo waarin alternatieve bronnen van mosselzaad productie/vangst kunnen worden ontwikkeld waarmee een rendabele kweek mogelijk blijft. Inmiddels zijn twee stappen gezet en de derde stap is gepland voor 2019. Voor de eerste twee stappen dient respectievelijk 11 Mkg en 14 Mkg mosselzaad beschikbaar te zijn uit MZI’s Met de productie van 18 Mkg mosselzaad in alleen al de Waddenzee kan hierin ruimschoots worden voorzien. Er is totaal 29% meer mosselzaad ingevangen dan in 2017 en 5% meer dan in 2015 (het jaar met de hoogste productie voorafgaand aan 2018). Er is zowel in de Zeeuwse Delta als in de Waddenzee meer substraat in het water gehangen dan in voorgaande jaren. In combinatie met over het algemeen goede oogstresultaten heeft dit geleidt tot een goede oogst in 2018. Uitzonderingen zijn (relatief aan voorgaande jaren) het Malzwin, de Zuidwal, Neeltje Jans en de Voordelta. De oorzaak hiervoor is te vinden in de tegenvallende oogst aan de nettensystemen op deze locaties. Daar staat tegenover dat de oogst per meter touw hoger was dan in voorgaande jaren.
Lelystad Open Teelten: strokenteelt nu al veelbelovend
Apeldoorn, Dirk van; Rijk, Joost - \ 2019
Data from: The interplay of landscape composition and configuration: new pathways to manage functional biodiversity and agro-ecosystem services across Europe
Martin, Emily A. ; Dainese, Matteo ; Clough, Yann ; Báldi, András ; Bommarco, R. ; Gagic, Vesna ; Garratt, Michael P.D. ; Holzschuh, Andrea ; Kleijn, D. ; Kovács-Hostyánszki, Anikó ; Marini, Lorenzo ; Potts, Simon G. ; Smith, Henrik G. ; Hassan, Diab Al; Albrecht, Matthias ; Andersson, Georg K.S. ; Asís, Josep D. ; Aviron, Stéphanie ; Balzan, M.V. ; Baños-Picón, Laura ; Bartomeus, Ignasi ; Batáry, Péter ; Burel, Francoise ; Caballero-lópez, Berta ; Concepción, Elena D. ; Coudrain, Valérie ; Dänhardt, Juliana ; Diaz, Mario ; Diekötter, Tim ; Dormann, Carsten F. ; Duflot, Rémi ; Entling, Martin H. ; Farwig, Nina ; Fischer, Christina ; Frank, Thomas ; Garibaldi, Lucas A. ; Hermann, John ; Herzog, Felix ; Inclán, Diego J. ; Jacot, Katja ; Jauker, Frank ; Jeanneret, Philippe ; Kaiser, Marina ; Krauss, Jochen ; Féon, Violette Le; Marshall, Jon ; Moonen, Anna Camilla ; Moreno, Gerardo ; Riedinger, Verena ; Rundlöf, Maj ; Rusch, Adrien ; Scheper, J.A. ; Schneider, Gudrun ; Schüepp, Christof ; Stutz, Sonja ; Sutter, Louis ; Tamburini, Giovanni ; Thies, Carsten ; Tormos, José ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Tschumi, Matthias ; Uzman, Deniz ; Wagner, Christian ; Zubair Anjum, Muhammad ; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf - \ 2019
biodiversity - agroecosystem - landscape composition - landscape configuration - functional traits - arthropods - natural pest control - pollination - yields
Managing agricultural landscapes to support biodiversity and ecosystem services is a key aim of a sustainable agriculture. However, how the spatial arrangement of crop fields and other habitats in landscapes impacts arthropods and their functions is poorly known. Synthesising data from 49 studies (1515 landscapes) across Europe, we examined effects of landscape composition (% habitats) and configuration (edge density) on arthropods in fields and their margins, pest control, pollination and yields. Configuration effects interacted with the proportions of crop and non‐crop habitats, and species’ dietary, dispersal and overwintering traits led to contrasting responses to landscape variables. Overall, however, in landscapes with high edge density, 70% of pollinator and 44% of natural enemy species reached highest abundances and pollination and pest control improved 1.7‐ and 1.4‐fold respectively. Arable‐dominated landscapes with high edge densities achieved high yields. This suggests that enhancing edge density in European agroecosystems can promote functional biodiversity and yield‐enhancing ecosystem services.
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