Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    The FLUXNET2015 dataset and the ONEFlux processing pipeline for eddy covariance data
    Pastorello, Gilberto ; Trotta, Carlo ; Canfora, Eleonora ; Chu, Housen ; Christianson, Danielle ; Cheah, You Wei ; Poindexter, Cristina ; Chen, Jiquan ; Elbashandy, Abdelrahman ; Humphrey, Marty ; Isaac, Peter ; Polidori, Diego ; Ribeca, Alessio ; Ingen, Catharine van; Zhang, Leiming ; Amiro, Brian ; Ammann, Christof ; Arain, M.A. ; Ardö, Jonas ; Arkebauer, Timothy ; Arndt, Stefan K. ; Arriga, Nicola ; Aubinet, Marc ; Aurela, Mika ; Baldocchi, Dennis ; Barr, Alan ; Beamesderfer, Eric ; Marchesini, Luca Belelli ; Bergeron, Onil ; Beringer, Jason ; Bernhofer, Christian ; Berveiller, Daniel ; Billesbach, Dave ; Black, Thomas Andrew ; Blanken, Peter D. ; Bohrer, Gil ; Boike, Julia ; Bolstad, Paul V. ; Bonal, Damien ; Bonnefond, Jean Marc ; Bowling, David R. ; Bracho, Rosvel ; Brodeur, Jason ; Brümmer, Christian ; Buchmann, Nina ; Burban, Benoit ; Burns, Sean P. ; Buysse, Pauline ; Cale, Peter ; Cavagna, Mauro ; Cellier, Pierre ; Chen, Shiping ; Chini, Isaac ; Christensen, Torben R. ; Cleverly, James ; Collalti, Alessio ; Consalvo, Claudia ; Cook, Bruce D. ; Cook, David ; Coursolle, Carole ; Cremonese, Edoardo ; Curtis, Peter S. ; Andrea, Ettore D'; Rocha, Humberto da; Dai, Xiaoqin ; Davis, Kenneth J. ; Cinti, Bruno De; Grandcourt, Agnes de; Ligne, Anne De; Oliveira, Raimundo C. De; Delpierre, Nicolas ; Desai, Ankur R. ; Bella, Carlos Marcelo Di; Tommasi, Paul di; Dolman, Han ; Domingo, Francisco ; Dong, Gang ; Dore, Sabina ; Duce, Pierpaolo ; Dufrêne, Eric ; Dunn, Allison ; Dušek, Jiří ; Eamus, Derek ; Eichelmann, Uwe ; ElKhidir, Hatim Abdalla M. ; Eugster, Werner ; Ewenz, Cacilia M. ; Ewers, Brent ; Famulari, Daniela ; Fares, Silvano ; Feigenwinter, Iris ; Feitz, Andrew ; Fensholt, Rasmus ; Filippa, Gianluca ; Fischer, Marc ; Frank, John ; Galvagno, Marta ; Gharun, Mana ; Gianelle, Damiano ; Gielen, Bert ; Gioli, Beniamino ; Gitelson, Anatoly ; Goded, Ignacio ; Goeckede, Mathias ; Goldstein, Allen H. ; Gough, Christopher M. ; Goulden, Michael L. ; Graf, Alexander ; Griebel, Anne ; Gruening, Carsten ; Grünwald, Thomas ; Hammerle, Albin ; Han, Shijie ; Han, Xingguo ; Hansen, Birger Ulf ; Hanson, Chad ; Hatakka, Juha ; He, Yongtao ; Hehn, Markus ; Heinesch, Bernard ; Hinko-Najera, Nina ; Hörtnagl, Lukas ; Hutley, Lindsay ; Ibrom, Andreas ; Ikawa, Hiroki ; Jackowicz-Korczynski, Marcin ; Janouš, Dalibor ; Jans, Wilma ; Jassal, Rachhpal ; Jiang, Shicheng ; Kato, Tomomichi ; Khomik, Myroslava ; Klatt, Janina ; Knohl, Alexander ; Knox, Sara ; Kobayashi, Hideki ; Koerber, Georgia ; Kolle, Olaf ; Kosugi, Yoshiko ; Kotani, Ayumi ; Kowalski, Andrew ; Kruijt, Bart ; Kurbatova, Julia ; Kutsch, Werner L. ; Kwon, Hyojung ; Launiainen, Samuli ; Laurila, Tuomas ; Law, Bev ; Leuning, Ray ; Li, Yingnian ; Liddell, Michael ; Limousin, Jean Marc ; Lion, Marryanna ; Liska, Adam J. ; Lohila, Annalea ; López-Ballesteros, Ana ; López-Blanco, Efrén ; Loubet, Benjamin ; Loustau, Denis ; Lucas-Moffat, Antje ; Lüers, Johannes ; Ma, Siyan ; Macfarlane, Craig ; Magliulo, Vincenzo ; Maier, Regine ; Mammarella, Ivan ; Manca, Giovanni ; Marcolla, Barbara ; Margolis, Hank A. ; Marras, Serena ; Massman, William ; Mastepanov, Mikhail ; Matamala, Roser ; Matthes, Jaclyn Hatala ; Mazzenga, Francesco ; McCaughey, Harry ; McHugh, Ian ; McMillan, Andrew M.S. ; Merbold, Lutz ; Meyer, Wayne ; Meyers, Tilden ; Miller, Scott D. ; Minerbi, Stefano ; Moderow, Uta ; Monson, Russell K. ; Montagnani, Leonardo ; Moore, Caitlin E. ; Moors, Eddy ; Moreaux, Virginie ; Moureaux, Christine ; Munger, J.W. ; Nakai, Taro ; Neirynck, Johan ; Nesic, Zoran ; Nicolini, Giacomo ; Noormets, Asko ; Northwood, Matthew ; Nosetto, Marcelo ; Nouvellon, Yann ; Novick, Kimberly ; Oechel, Walter ; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind ; Ourcival, Jean Marc ; Papuga, Shirley A. ; Parmentier, Frans Jan ; Paul-Limoges, Eugenie ; Pavelka, Marian ; Peichl, Matthias ; Pendall, Elise ; Phillips, Richard P. ; Pilegaard, Kim ; Pirk, Norbert ; Posse, Gabriela ; Powell, Thomas ; Prasse, Heiko ; Prober, Suzanne M. ; Rambal, Serge ; Rannik, Üllar ; Raz-Yaseef, Naama ; Reed, David ; Dios, Victor Resco de; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia ; Reverter, Borja R. ; Roland, Marilyn ; Sabbatini, Simone ; Sachs, Torsten ; Saleska, Scott R. ; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P. ; Sanchez-Mejia, Zulia M. ; Schmid, Hans Peter ; Schmidt, Marius ; Schneider, Karl ; Schrader, Frederik ; Schroder, Ivan ; Scott, Russell L. ; Sedlák, Pavel ; Serrano-Ortíz, Penélope ; Shao, Changliang ; Shi, Peili ; Shironya, Ivan ; Siebicke, Lukas ; Šigut, Ladislav ; Silberstein, Richard ; Sirca, Costantino ; Spano, Donatella ; Steinbrecher, Rainer ; Stevens, Robert M. ; Sturtevant, Cove ; Suyker, Andy ; Tagesson, Torbern ; Takanashi, Satoru ; Tang, Yanhong ; Tapper, Nigel ; Thom, Jonathan ; Tiedemann, Frank ; Tomassucci, Michele ; Tuovinen, Juha Pekka ; Urbanski, Shawn ; Valentini, Riccardo ; Molen, Michiel van der; Gorsel, Eva van; Huissteden, Ko van; Varlagin, Andrej ; Verfaillie, Joseph ; Vesala, Timo ; Vincke, Caroline ; Vitale, Domenico ; Vygodskaya, Natalia ; Walker, Jeffrey P. ; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth ; Wang, Huimin ; Weber, Robin ; Westermann, Sebastian ; Wille, Christian ; Wofsy, Steven ; Wohlfahrt, Georg ; Wolf, Sebastian ; Woodgate, William ; Li, Yuelin ; Zampedri, Roberto ; Zhang, Junhui ; Zhou, Guoyi ; Zona, Donatella ; Agarwal, Deb ; Biraud, Sebastien ; Torn, Margaret ; Papale, Dario - \ 2020
    Scientific Data 7 (2020)1. - ISSN 2052-4463 - 1 p.

    The FLUXNET2015 dataset provides ecosystem-scale data on CO2, water, and energy exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere, and other meteorological and biological measurements, from 212 sites around the globe (over 1500 site-years, up to and including year 2014). These sites, independently managed and operated, voluntarily contributed their data to create global datasets. Data were quality controlled and processed using uniform methods, to improve consistency and intercomparability across sites. The dataset is already being used in a number of applications, including ecophysiology studies, remote sensing studies, and development of ecosystem and Earth system models. FLUXNET2015 includes derived-data products, such as gap-filled time series, ecosystem respiration and photosynthetic uptake estimates, estimation of uncertainties, and metadata about the measurements, presented for the first time in this paper. In addition, 206 of these sites are for the first time distributed under a Creative Commons (CC-BY 4.0) license. This paper details this enhanced dataset and the processing methods, now made available as open-source codes, making the dataset more accessible, transparent, and reproducible.

    Meetrapport verzamelen van plastics van MSC Zoe: zeevogels, vissen, zeebodem, stranden : Beknopt verslag van werkzaamheden in 2019
    Baptist, Martin ; Volwater, Joey ; Hal, Ralf van; Zwol, Jetze van; Troost, Karin ; Franeker, Jan Andries van; Kühn, Suse ; Strietman, Wouter Jan - \ 2020
    Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C009/20) - 25
    In de nacht van 1 op 2 januari 2019 raakte het containerschip MSC Zoe ter hoogte van Terschelling de zeebodem waardoor in totaal 342 containers overboord geslagen zijn en verspreid geraakt over het gebied tussen Terschelling en Schiermonnikoog. Rijkswaterstaat heeft Wageningen University & Research opdracht gegeven onderzoek te doen naar de mogelijke gevolgen van de containerramp op het ecosysteem van de Noordzee en Waddenzee. De doelstelling van dit onderzoek is het in 2019 geregistreerd verzamelen van plastics en organismen die plastics kunnen hebben ingenomen, aansluitend bij bestaande monitoringprogramma’s. In 2019 is in het kader van deze opdracht zwerfvuil verzameld bij monitoring, en daarnaast zijn vissen, vismagen en vogels verzameld en veiliggesteld voor analyse op aanwezigheid van (micro)plastics. Zwerfvuil: Het registreren van zwerfvuil van de zeebodem is een reguliere activiteit tijdens visbestandsopnames met bodemtrawl netten in het IBTS-programma. Volgens hetzelfde protocol is aanvullend zwerfvuil op de zeebodem geregistreerd tijdens twee andere vissurveys en tijdens schelpdierinventarisaties. Ook is er een analyse gedaan naar zwerfvuil verzameld op Griend. Het zwerfvuilonderzoek richt zich op grotere objecten dan microplastics. Vogels: er zijn ten minste 43 dood gevonden Noordse Stormvogels verzameld, waarvan verreweg het grootste deel op de Waddeneilanden en de Fries-Groninger waddenkust. Daarnaast zijn ten minste 14 Zwarte Zee-eenden, 1 Grote Zee-eend en 4 Drieteenmeeuwen verzameld, allen dood aangetroffen in het Waddengebied. Vissen: er zijn tijdens reguliere visbestandsopnames in het gebied boven de Nederlandse eilanden tot aan Helgoland 211 magen van vissen uit de vangsten verzameld, en 4856 vissen uit de gehele Noordzee tijdens het reguliere onderzoek naar bijvangsten van de visserij. Begin 2020 gaf RWS opdracht aan WMR om (een deel van) de biologische monsters in 2020 te analyseren.
    A genomic view of trophic and metabolic diversity in clade-specific Lamellodysidea sponge microbiomes
    Podell, Sheila ; Blanton, Jessica M. ; Oliver, Aaron ; Schorn, Michelle A. ; Agarwal, Vinayak ; Biggs, Jason S. ; Moore, Bradley S. ; Allen, Eric E. - \ 2020
    Microbiome 8 (2020)1. - ISSN 2049-2618 - 1 p.
    Cyanosponge - Hormoscilla - Lamellodysidea - Methylospongia - PBDE - Prochloron - Sponge microbiome

    BACKGROUND: Marine sponges and their microbiomes contribute significantly to carbon and nutrient cycling in global reefs, processing and remineralizing dissolved and particulate organic matter. Lamellodysidea herbacea sponges obtain additional energy from abundant photosynthetic Hormoscilla cyanobacterial symbionts, which also produce polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) chemically similar to anthropogenic pollutants of environmental concern. Potential contributions of non-Hormoscilla bacteria to Lamellodysidea microbiome metabolism and the synthesis and degradation of additional secondary metabolites are currently unknown. RESULTS: This study has determined relative abundance, taxonomic novelty, metabolic capacities, and secondary metabolite potential in 21 previously uncharacterized, uncultured Lamellodysidea-associated microbial populations by reconstructing near-complete metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) to complement 16S rRNA gene amplicon studies. Microbial community compositions aligned with sponge host subgroup phylogeny in 16 samples from four host clades collected from multiple sites in Guam over a 3-year period, including representatives of Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Oligoflexia, and Bacteroidetes as well as Cyanobacteria (Hormoscilla). Unexpectedly, microbiomes from one host clade also included Cyanobacteria from the prolific secondary metabolite-producer genus Prochloron, a common tunicate symbiont. Two novel Alphaproteobacteria MAGs encoded pathways diagnostic for methylotrophic metabolism as well as type III secretion systems, and have been provisionally assigned to a new order, designated Candidatus Methylospongiales. MAGs from other taxonomic groups encoded light-driven energy production pathways using not only chlorophyll, but also bacteriochlorophyll and proteorhodopsin. Diverse heterotrophic capabilities favoring aerobic versus anaerobic conditions included pathways for degrading chitin, eukaryotic extracellular matrix polymers, phosphonates, dimethylsulfoniopropionate, trimethylamine, and benzoate. Genetic evidence identified an aerobic catabolic pathway for halogenated aromatics that may enable endogenous PBDEs to be used as a carbon and energy source. CONCLUSIONS: The reconstruction of high-quality MAGs from all microbial taxa comprising greater than 0.1% of the sponge microbiome enabled species-specific assignment of unique metabolic features that could not have been predicted from taxonomic data alone. This information will promote more representative models of marine invertebrate microbiome contributions to host bioenergetics, the identification of potential new sponge parasites and pathogens based on conserved metabolic and physiological markers, and a better understanding of biosynthetic and degradative pathways for secondary metabolites and halogenated compounds in sponge-associated microbiota. Video Abstract.

    Poverty or prosperity in northern India? New evidence on real wages, 1590s–1870s†
    Zwart, Pim de; Lucassen, Jan - \ 2020
    Economic History Review 73 (2020)3. - ISSN 0013-0117 - p. 644 - 667.

    This article introduces a new dataset on wages in northern India (from Gujarat in the west to Bengal in the east) from the 1590s to the 1870s. It follows Allen's subsistence basket methodology to compute internationally comparable real wages to shed light on developments in Indian living standards over time. It adjusts the comparative cost-of-living indices to take into account differences in climate and caloric intake due to variances in heights. The article also discusses the male/female wage gap in northern India. It demonstrates that the ‘great divergence’ started in the late seventeenth century, and widened further after the 1720s and especially after the 1800s. It was subsequently primarily England's spurt and India's stagnation in the first half of the nineteenth century that brought about most serious differences in the standard of living. If the British colonial state is to blame—as often suggested by the literature on India's persistent poverty—the fault lies in its failure to improve the situation after the British became near-undisputed masters of India in 1820.

    Regulation of endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria contacts and mitochondrial dynamics by Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD during thermogenesis
    Zhou, Zhangsen ; Torres, Mauricio ; Sha, Haibo ; Halbrook, Christopher J. ; Bergh, Françoise van den; Reinert, Rachel B. ; Yamada, Tatsuya ; Wang, Siwen ; Luo, Yingying ; Hunter, Allen H. ; Wang, Chunqing ; Sanderson, Thomas H. ; Liu, Meilian ; Taylor, Aaron ; Sesaki, Hiromi ; Lyssiotis, Costas A. ; Wu, Jun ; Kersten, Sander ; Beard, Daniel A. ; Qi, Ling - \ 2020
    Wageningen University
    GSE145895 - PRJNA608688 - Mus musculus
    Organelles such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria interact with each other at specialized domains on the ER known as mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs). Here, using three-dimensional high-resolution imaging techniques, we show that the Sel1LHrd1 protein complex, the most conserved branch of ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD), exerts a profound impact on ER-mitochondria contacts and mitochondrial dynamics, at least in part, by regulating the turnover and hence the abundance of the MAM protein sigma receptor 1 (SigmaR1). Sel1L or Hrd1 deficiency in brown adipocytes impairs dynamic interaction between ER and mitochondria, leading to the formation of pleomorphic “megamitochondria” and, in some cases with penetrating ER tubule(s), in response to acute cold challenge. Mice with ERAD deficiency are cold sensitive and exhibit mitochondrial dysfunction in brown adipocytes. Mechanistically, endogenous SigmaR1 is targeted for proteasomal degradation by Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD, whose accumulation in ERAD-deficient cells leads to mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) oligomerization, thereby linking ERAD to mitochondrial dynamics. Our study identifies Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD as a critical determinant of ER-mitochondria contacts, thereby regulating mitochondrial dynamics and thermogenesis.
    Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation regulates mitochondrial dynamics in brown adipocytes
    Zhou, Zhangsen ; Torres, Mauricio ; Sha, Haibo ; Halbrook, Christopher J. ; Bergh, Françoise van den; Reinert, Rachel B. ; Yamada, Tatsuya ; Wang, Siwen ; Luo, Yingying ; Hunter, Allen H. ; Wang, Chunqing ; Sanderson, Thomas H. ; Liu, Meilian ; Taylor, Aaron ; Sesaki, Hiromi ; Lyssiotis, Costas A. ; Wu, Jun ; Kersten, Sander ; Beard, Daniel A. ; Qi, Ling - \ 2020
    Science 368 (2020)6486. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 54 - 60.

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) engages mitochondria at specialized ER domains known as mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs). Here, we used three-dimensional high-resolution imaging to investigate the formation of pleomorphic “megamitochondria” with altered MAMs in brown adipocytes lacking the Sel1L-Hrd1 protein complex of ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD). Mice with ERAD deficiency in brown adipocytes were cold sensitive and exhibited mitochondrial dysfunction. ERAD deficiency affected ER-mitochondria contacts and mitochondrial dynamics, at least in part, by regulating the turnover of the MAM protein, sigma receptor 1 (SigmaR1). Thus, our study provides molecular insights into ER-mitochondrial cross-talk and expands our understanding of the physiological importance of Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD.

    The use of adverse outcome pathways in the safety evaluation of food additives
    Vinken, Mathieu ; Kramer, Nynke ; Allen, Timothy E.H. ; Hoffmans, Yvette ; Thatcher, Natalie ; Levorato, Sara ; Traussnig, Heinz ; Schulte, Stefan ; Boobis, Alan ; Thiel, Anette ; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. - \ 2020
    Archives of Toxicology 94 (2020). - ISSN 0340-5761
    Adverse outcome pathway - Food additive - Safety evaluation

    In the last decade, adverse outcome pathways have been introduced in the fields of toxicology and risk assessment of chemicals as pragmatic tools with broad application potential. While their use in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics sectors has been well documented, their application in the food area remains largely unexplored. In this respect, an expert group of the International Life Sciences Institute Europe has recently explored the use of adverse outcome pathways in the safety evaluation of food additives. A key activity was the organization of a workshop, gathering delegates from the regulatory, industrial and academic areas, to discuss the potentials and challenges related to the application of adverse outcome pathways in the safety assessment of food additives. The present paper describes the outcome of this workshop followed by a number of critical considerations and perspectives defined by the International Life Sciences Institute Europe expert group.

    Compositional turnover and variation in Eemian pollen sequences in Europe
    Felde, Vivian A. ; Flantua, Suzette G.A. ; Jenks, Cathy R. ; Benito, Blas M. ; Beaulieu, Jacques Louis de; Kuneš, Petr ; Magri, Donatella ; Nalepka, Dorota ; Risebrobakken, Bjørg ; Braak, Cajo J.F. ter; Allen, Judy R.M. ; Granoszewski, Wojciech ; Helmens, Karin F. ; Huntley, Brian ; Kondratienė, Ona ; Kalniņa, Laimdota ; Kupryjanowicz, Mirosława ; Malkiewicz, Małgorzata ; Milner, Alice M. ; Nita, Małgorzata ; Noryśkiewicz, Bożena ; Pidek, Irena A. ; Reille, Maurice ; Salonen, Sakari ; Šeirienė, Vaida ; Winter, Hanna ; Tzedakis, Polychronis C. ; Birks, John B. - \ 2020
    Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 29 (2020)1. - ISSN 0939-6314 - p. 101 - 109.
    Detrended canonical correspondence analysis - Extrinsic and intrinsic processes - Inertia - Last interglacial dataset - Multivariate regression trees - Neutral processes - Principal curves

    The Eemian interglacial represents a natural experiment on how past vegetation with negligible human impact responded to amplified temperature changes compared to the Holocene. Here, we assemble 47 carefully selected Eemian pollen sequences from Europe to explore geographical patterns of (1) total compositional turnover and total variation for each sequence and (2) stratigraphical turnover between samples within each sequence using detrended canonical correspondence analysis, multivariate regression trees, and principal curves. Our synthesis shows that turnover and variation are highest in central Europe (47–55°N), low in southern Europe (south of 45°N), and lowest in the north (above 60°N). These results provide a basis for developing hypotheses about causes of vegetation change during the Eemian and their possible drivers.

    Stakeholder management in SME open innovation: interdependences and strategic actions
    Albats, Ekaterina ; Alexander, Allen ; Mahdad, Maral ; Millerd, Kristel ; Post, Ger - \ 2019
    Journal of Business Research (2019). - ISSN 0148-2963
    This research explores how small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) manage external stakeholders during open innovation (OI) processes. To date, extensive literature has explored OI within large organisations, however, there is limited understanding of how SMEs can strategically manage stakeholders during different stages of OI projects. Using a multi-grounded theory approach, 11 cases of SME OI projects were analysed across four regions within Europe. The findings reveal a wide range of primary and secondary stakeholders with varying levels of power and dependency were leveraged across the different stages of the OI projects. A model is presented which advances knowledge on how to map, analyse and manage stakeholders strategically in a SME-OI context. Our research helps advance theory on SME-OI stakeholder management processes and reveals appropriate stakeholder management strategies, which will assist SME managers in alleviating the SME-OI paradox.
    Data from: Patterns of nitrogen-fixing tree abundance in forests across Asia and America
    Menge, Duncan N.L. ; Chisholm, Ryan A. ; Davies, Stuart J. ; Abu Salim, Kamariah ; Allen, David ; Alvarez, Mauricio ; Bourg, Norm ; Brockelman, Warren Y. ; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh ; Butt, Nathalie ; Ouden, Jan den; Jansen, Patrick - \ 2019
    Dryad
    Determinants of plant community diversity and structure - Forest - Smithsonian ForestGEO - legume - symbiosis - nutrient limitation - nitrogen fixation
    Symbiotic nitrogen (N)‐fixing trees can provide large quantities of new N to ecosystems, but only if they are sufficiently abundant. The overall abundance and latitudinal abundance distributions of N‐fixing trees are well characterised in the Americas, but less well outside the Americas. Here, we characterised the abundance of N‐fixing trees in a network of forest plots spanning five continents, ~5,000 tree species and ~4 million trees. The majority of the plots (86%) were in America or Asia. In addition, we examined whether the observed pattern of abundance of N‐fixing trees was correlated with mean annual temperature and precipitation. Outside the tropics, N‐fixing trees were consistently rare in the forest plots we examined. Within the tropics, N‐fixing trees were abundant in American but not Asian forest plots (~7% versus ~1% of basal area and stems). This disparity was not explained by mean annual temperature or precipitation. Our finding of low N‐fixing tree abundance in the Asian tropics casts some doubt on recent high estimates of N fixation rates in this region, which do not account for disparities in N‐fixing tree abundance between the Asian and American tropics. Synthesis. Inputs of nitrogen to forests depend on symbiotic nitrogen fixation, which is constrained by the abundance of N‐fixing trees. By analysing a large dataset of ~4 million trees, we found that N‐fixing trees were consistently rare in the Asian tropics as well as across higher latitudes in Asia, America and Europe. The rarity of N‐fixing trees in the Asian tropics compared with the American tropics might stem from lower intrinsic N limitation in Asian tropical forests, although direct support for any mechanism is lacking. The paucity of N‐fixing trees throughout Asian forests suggests that N inputs to the Asian tropics might be lower than previously thought.
    Global patterns and drivers of ecosystem functioning in rivers and riparian zones
    Tiegs, Scott D. ; Costello, David M. ; Isken, Mark W. ; Woodward, Guy ; McIntyre, Peter B. ; Gessner, Mark O. ; Chauvet, Eric ; Griffiths, Natalie A. ; Flecker, Alex S. ; Acuña, Vicenç ; Albariño, Ricardo ; Allen, Daniel C. ; Alonso, Cecilia ; Andino, Patricio ; Arango, Clay ; Aroviita, Jukka ; Barbosa, Marcus V.M. ; Barmuta, Leon A. ; Baxter, Colden V. ; Bell, Thomas D.C. ; Bellinger, Brent ; Boyero, Luz ; Brown, Lee E. ; Bruder, Andreas ; Bruesewitz, Denise A. ; Burdon, Francis J. ; Callisto, Marcos ; Canhoto, Cristina ; Capps, Krista A. ; Castillo, María M. ; Clapcott, Joanne ; Colas, Fanny ; Colón-Gaud, Checo ; Cornut, Julien ; Crespo-Pérez, Verónica ; Cross, Wyatt F. ; Culp, Joseph M. ; Danger, Michael ; Dangles, Olivier ; Eyto, Elvira De; Derry, Alison M. ; Villanueva, Veronica Díaz ; Douglas, Michael M. ; Elosegi, Arturo ; Encalada, Andrea C. ; Entrekin, Sally ; Espinosa, Rodrigo ; Ethaiya, Diana ; Ferreira, Verónica ; Ferriol, Carmen ; Flanagan, Kyla M. ; Fleituch, Tadeusz ; Follstad Shah, Jennifer J. ; Barbosa, André Frainer ; Friberg, Nikolai ; Frost, Paul C. ; Garcia, Erica A. ; Lago, Liliana García ; Soto, Pavel Ernesto García ; Ghate, Sudeep ; Giling, Darren P. ; Gilmer, Alan ; Gonçalves, José Francisco ; Gonzales, Rosario Karina ; Graça, Manuel A.S. ; Grace, Mike ; Grossart, Hans Peter ; Guérold, François ; Gulis, Vlad ; Hepp, Luiz U. ; Higgins, Scott ; Hishi, Takuo ; Huddart, Joseph ; Hudson, John ; Imberger, Samantha ; Iñiguez-Armijos, Carlos ; Iwata, Tomoya ; Janetski, David J. ; Jennings, Eleanor ; Kirkwood, Andrea E. ; Koning, Aaron A. ; Kosten, Sarian ; Kuehn, Kevin A. ; Laudon, Hjalmar ; Leavitt, Peter R. ; Lemes Da Silva, Aurea L. ; Leroux, Shawn J. ; LeRoy, Carri J. ; Lisi, Peter J. ; MacKenzie, Richard ; Marcarelli, Amy M. ; Masese, Frank O. ; McKie, Brendan G. ; Medeiros, Adriana Oliveira ; Meissner, Kristian ; Miliša, Marko ; Mishra, Shailendra ; Miyake, Yo ; Moerke, Ashley ; Mombrikotb, Shorok ; Mooney, Rob ; Moulton, Tim ; Muotka, Timo ; Negishi, Junjiro N. ; Neres-Lima, Vinicius ; Nieminen, Mika L. ; Nimptsch, Jorge ; Ondruch, Jakub ; Paavola, Riku ; Pardo, Isabel ; Patrick, Christopher J. ; Peeters, Edwin T.H.M. ; Pozo, Jesus ; Pringle, Catherine ; Prussian, Aaron ; Quenta, Estefania ; Quesada, Antonio ; Reid, Brian ; Richardson, John S. ; Rigosi, Anna ; Rincón, José ; Rîşnoveanu, Geta ; Robinson, Christopher T. ; Rodríguez-Gallego, Lorena ; Royer, Todd V. ; Rusak, James A. ; Santamans, Anna C. ; Selmeczy, Géza B. ; Simiyu, Gelas ; Skuja, Agnija ; Smykla, Jerzy ; Sridhar, Kandikere R. ; Sponseller, Ryan ; Stoler, Aaron ; Swan, Christopher M. ; Szlag, David ; Teixeira-De Mello, Franco ; Tonkin, Jonathan D. ; Uusheimo, Sari ; Veach, Allison M. ; Vilbaste, Sirje ; Vought, Lena B.M. ; Wang, Chiao Ping ; Webster, Jackson R. ; Wilson, Paul B. ; Woelfl, Stefan ; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A. ; Yates, Adam G. ; Yoshimura, Chihiro ; Yule, Catherine M. ; Zhang, Yixin X. ; Zwart, Jacob A. - \ 2019
    Science Advances 5 (2019)1. - ISSN 2375-2548 - p. 14966 - 14973.

    River ecosystems receive and process vast quantities of terrestrial organic carbon, the fate of which depends strongly on microbial activity. Variation in and controls of processing rates, however, are poorly characterized at the global scale. In response, we used a peer-sourced research network and a highly standardized carbon processing assay to conduct a global-scale field experiment in greater than 1000 river and riparian sites. We found that Earth's biomes have distinct carbon processing signatures. Slow processing is evident across latitudes, whereas rapid rates are restricted to lower latitudes. Both the mean rate and variability decline with latitude, suggesting temperature constraints toward the poles and greater roles for other environmental drivers (e.g., nutrient loading) toward the equator. These results and data set the stage for unprecedented "next-generation biomonitoring" by establishing baselines to help quantify environmental impacts to the functioning of ecosystems at a global scale.

    Investigating the role of the eurasian badger (Meles meles) in the nationwide distribution of the western european hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) in England
    Hof, Anouschka R. ; Allen, Andrew M. ; Bright, Paul W. - \ 2019
    Animals 9 (2019)10. - ISSN 2076-2615
    Citizen science - Conservation - Displacement - Predator-prey interaction - Spatial use

    Biodiversity is declining globally, which calls for effective conservation measures. It is, therefore, important to investigate the drivers behind species presence at large spatial scales. The Western European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) is one of the species facing declines in parts of its range. Yet, drivers of Western European hedgehog distribution at large spatial scales remain largely unknown. At local scales, the Eurasian badger (Meles meles), an intraguild predator of the Western European hedgehog, can affect both the abundance and the distribution of the latter. However, the Western European hedgehog and the Eurasian badger have shown to be able to co-exist at a landscape scale. We investigated whether the Eurasian badger may play a role in the likelihood of the presence of the Western European hedgehog throughout England by using two nationwide citizen science surveys. Although habitat-related factors explained more variation in the likelihood of Western European hedgehog presence, our results suggest that Eurasian badger presence negatively impacts the likelihood of Western European hedgehog presence. Intraguild predation may, therefore, be influencing the nationwide distribution of hedgehogs in England, and further research is needed about how changes in badger densities and intensifying agricultural practices that remove shelters like hedgerows may influence hedgehog presence.

    Disturbance increases high tide travel distance of a roosting shorebird but only marginally affects daily energy expenditure
    Linssen, Hans ; De Pol, Martijn Van; Allen, Andrew M. ; Jans, Mitzi ; Ens, Bruno J. ; Krijgsveld, Karen L. ; Frauendorf, Magali ; Kolk, Henk Jan Van Der - \ 2019
    Avian Research 10 (2019)1. - ISSN 2053-7166
    Biologging - Disturbance - Haematopus ostralegus - High tide roost - Movement ecology - Shorebird

    Background: Anthropogenic disturbance can negatively affect an animal's energy budget by evoking movement responses. Existing research focuses mainly on immediate displacement as a disturbance effect, since this can be easily observed in the field. However, effects on movement over longer timescales are poorly examined and it is largely unknown if and to what extent they reflect immediate responses. Longer-term responses could for example be larger than immediate responses if birds, after disturbance, return to the original location and thereby travel twice the immediate disturbed distance. Methods: We combined GPS tracking data with observational data to quantify the effects of anthropogenic (air force and walkers) and non-anthropogenic disturbances on distances travelled by roosting Eurasian Oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus) during the non-breeding season. We compared immediate displacement after a disturbance with distance travelled during the entire high tide period (longer-term response), while accounting for environmental factors. Additionally, we calculated energy expenditure due to disturbance based on observed disturbance frequencies. Results: Disturbance resulted in an immediate displacement response of ~ 200 m (median). Air force disturbances tended to yield larger immediate responses than walker and, especially, than non-anthropogenic disturbances. Longer-term responses and immediate responses were approximately similar, suggesting that, over longer timescales, spatial disturbance effects in the study area remain confined to immediate effects. However, disturbances were infrequent (0.17 disturbances per bird per hour) and most disturbances were of natural origin (62%). Consequently, anthropogenic disturbance of roosting oystercatchers in the study area on average costs 0.08% of the daily energy expenditure. Conclusions: Our results suggest that immediate spatial responses to disturbance can be a useful proxy for spatial responses over longer timescales. Over the non-exhaustive range of conditions investigated, energetic consequences of spatial disturbance responses for an oystercatcher in the study area are marginal due to low disturbance levels.

    Characterizing the coverage of critical effects relevant in the safety evaluation of food additives by AOPs
    Kramer, Nynke I. ; Hoffmans, Yvette ; Wu, Siyao ; Thiel, Anette ; Thatcher, Natalie ; Allen, Timothy E.H. ; Levorato, Sara ; Traussnig, Heinz ; Schulte, Stefan ; Boobis, Alan ; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. ; Vinken, Mathieu - \ 2019
    Archives of Toxicology 93 (2019)8. - ISSN 0340-5761 - p. 2115 - 2125.
    3Rs - Acceptable daily intake - Adverse outcome pathway - Critical adverse effect - Food additives

    There is considerable interest in adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) as a means of organizing biological and toxicological information to assist in data interpretation and method development. While several chemical sectors have shown considerable progress in applying this approach, this has not been the case in the food sector. In the present study, safety evaluation reports of food additives listed in Annex II of Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 of the European Union were screened to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize toxicity induced in laboratory animals. The resulting database was used to identify the critical adverse effects used for risk assessment and to investigate whether food additives share common AOPs. Analysis of the database revealed that often such scrutiny of AOPs was not possible or necessary. For 69% of the food additives, the report did not document any adverse effects in studies based on which the safety evaluation was performed. For the remaining 31% of the 326 investigated food additives, critical adverse effects and related points of departure for establishing health-based guidance values could be identified. These mainly involved effects on the liver, kidney, cardiovascular system, lymphatic system, central nervous system and reproductive system. AOPs are available for many of these apical endpoints, albeit to different degrees of maturity. For other adverse outcomes pertinent to food additives, including gastrointestinal irritation and corrosion, AOPs are lacking. Efforts should focus on developing AOPs for these particular endpoints.

    Twenty-three unsolved problems in hydrology (UPH)–a community perspective
    Blöschl, Günter ; Bierkens, Marc F.P. ; Chambel, Antonio ; Cudennec, Christophe ; Destouni, Georgia ; Fiori, Aldo ; Kirchner, James W. ; McDonnell, Jeffrey J. ; Savenije, Hubert H.G. ; Sivapalan, Murugesu ; Stumpp, Christine ; Toth, Elena ; Volpi, Elena ; Carr, Gemma ; Lupton, Claire ; Salinas, Josè ; Széles, Borbála ; Viglione, Alberto ; Aksoy, Hafzullah ; Allen, Scott T. ; Amin, Anam ; Andréassian, Vazken ; Arheimer, Berit ; Aryal, Santosh K. ; Baker, Victor ; Bardsley, Earl ; Barendrecht, Marlies H. ; Bartosova, Alena ; Batelaan, Okke ; Berghuijs, Wouter R. ; Beven, Keith ; Blume, Theresa ; Bogaard, Thom ; Borges de Amorim, Pablo ; Böttcher, Michael E. ; Boulet, Gilles ; Breinl, Korbinian ; Brilly, Mitja ; Brocca, Luca ; Buytaert, Wouter ; Castellarin, Attilio ; Castelletti, Andrea ; Chen, Xiaohong ; Chen, Yangbo ; Chen, Yuanfang ; Chifflard, Peter ; Claps, Pierluigi ; Clark, Martyn P. ; Collins, Adrian L. ; Croke, Barry ; Dathe, Annette ; David, Paula C. ; Barros, Felipe P.J. de; Rooij, Gerrit de; Baldassarre, Giuliano Di; Driscoll, Jessica M. ; Duethmann, Doris ; Dwivedi, Ravindra ; Eris, Ebru ; Farmer, William H. ; Feiccabrino, James ; Ferguson, Grant ; Ferrari, Ennio ; Ferraris, Stefano ; Fersch, Benjamin ; Finger, David ; Foglia, Laura ; Fowler, Keirnan ; Gartsman, Boris ; Gascoin, Simon ; Gaume, Eric ; Gelfan, Alexander ; Geris, Josie ; Gharari, Shervan ; Gleeson, Tom ; Glendell, Miriam ; Gonzalez Bevacqua, Alena ; González-Dugo, María P. ; Grimaldi, Salvatore ; Gupta, A.B. ; Guse, Björn ; Han, Dawei ; Hannah, David ; Harpold, Adrian ; Haun, Stefan ; Heal, Kate ; Helfricht, Kay ; Herrnegger, Mathew ; Hipsey, Matthew ; Hlaváčiková, Hana ; Hohmann, Clara ; Holko, Ladislav ; Hopkinson, Christopher ; Hrachowitz, Markus ; Illangasekare, Tissa H. ; Inam, Azhar ; Innocente, Camyla ; Istanbulluoglu, Erkan ; Jarihani, Ben ; Kalantari, Zahra ; Kalvans, Andis ; Khanal, Sonu ; Khatami, Sina ; Kiesel, Jens ; Kirkby, Mike ; Knoben, Wouter ; Kochanek, Krzysztof ; Kohnová, Silvia ; Kolechkina, Alla ; Krause, Stefan ; Kreamer, David ; Kreibich, Heidi ; Kunstmann, Harald ; Lange, Holger ; Liberato, Margarida L.R. ; Lindquist, Eric ; Link, Timothy ; Liu, Junguo ; Loucks, Daniel Peter ; Luce, Charles ; Mahé, Gil ; Makarieva, Olga ; Malard, Julien ; Mashtayeva, Shamshagul ; Maskey, Shreedhar ; Mas-Pla, Josep ; Mavrova-Guirguinova, Maria ; Mazzoleni, Maurizio ; Mernild, Sebastian ; Misstear, Bruce Dudley ; Montanari, Alberto ; Müller-Thomy, Hannes ; Nabizadeh, Alireza ; Nardi, Fernando ; Neale, Christopher ; Nesterova, Nataliia ; Nurtaev, Bakhram ; Odongo, Vincent O. ; Panda, Subhabrata ; Pande, Saket ; Pang, Zhonghe ; Papacharalampous, Georgia ; Perrin, Charles ; Pfister, Laurent ; Pimentel, Rafael ; Polo, María J. ; Post, David ; Prieto Sierra, Cristina ; Ramos, Maria Helena ; Renner, Maik ; Reynolds, José Eduardo ; Ridolfi, Elena ; Rigon, Riccardo ; Riva, Monica ; Robertson, David E. ; Rosso, Renzo ; Roy, Tirthankar ; Sá, João H.M. ; Salvadori, Gianfausto ; Sandells, Mel ; Schaefli, Bettina ; Schumann, Andreas ; Scolobig, Anna ; Seibert, Jan ; Servat, Eric ; Shafiei, Mojtaba ; Sharma, Ashish ; Sidibe, Moussa ; Sidle, Roy C. ; Skaugen, Thomas ; Smith, Hugh ; Spiessl, Sabine M. ; Stein, Lina ; Steinsland, Ingelin ; Strasser, Ulrich ; Su, Bob ; Szolgay, Jan ; Tarboton, David ; Tauro, Flavia ; Thirel, Guillaume ; Tian, Fuqiang ; Tong, Rui ; Tussupova, Kamshat ; Tyralis, Hristos ; Uijlenhoet, Remko ; Beek, Rens van; Ent, Ruud J. van der; Ploeg, Martine van der; Loon, Anne F. Van; Meerveld, Ilja van; Nooijen, Ronald van; Oel, Pieter R. van; Vidal, Jean Philippe ; Freyberg, Jana von; Vorogushyn, Sergiy ; Wachniew, Przemyslaw ; Wade, Andrew J. ; Ward, Philip ; Westerberg, Ida K. ; White, Christopher ; Wood, Eric F. ; Woods, Ross ; Xu, Zongxue ; Yilmaz, Koray K. ; Zhang, Yongqiang - \ 2019
    Hydrological Sciences Journal 64 (2019)10. - ISSN 0262-6667 - p. 1141 - 1158.
    hydrology - interdisciplinary - knowledge gaps - research agenda - science questions

    This paper is the outcome of a community initiative to identify major unsolved scientific problems in hydrology motivated by a need for stronger harmonisation of research efforts. The procedure involved a public consultation through online media, followed by two workshops through which a large number of potential science questions were collated, prioritised, and synthesised. In spite of the diversity of the participants (230 scientists in total), the process revealed much about community priorities and the state of our science: a preference for continuity in research questions rather than radical departures or redirections from past and current work. Questions remain focused on the process-based understanding of hydrological variability and causality at all space and time scales. Increased attention to environmental change drives a new emphasis on understanding how change propagates across interfaces within the hydrological system and across disciplinary boundaries. In particular, the expansion of the human footprint raises a new set of questions related to human interactions with nature and water cycle feedbacks in the context of complex water management problems. We hope that this reflection and synthesis of the 23 unsolved problems in hydrology will help guide research efforts for some years to come.

    Patterns of nitrogen-fixing tree abundance in forests across Asia and America
    Menge, Duncan N.L. ; Chisholm, Ryan A. ; Davies, Stuart J. ; Abu Salim, Kamariah ; Allen, David ; Alvarez, Mauricio ; Bourg, Norm ; Brockelman, Warren Y. ; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh ; Butt, Nathalie ; Cao, Min ; Chanthorn, Wirong ; Chao, Wei Chun ; Clay, Keith ; Condit, Richard ; Cordell, Susan ; Silva, João Batista da; Dattaraja, H.S. ; Andrade, Ana Cristina Segalin de; Oliveira, Alexandre A. de; Ouden, Jan den; Drescher, Michael ; Fletcher, Christine ; Giardina, Christian P. ; Savitri Gunatilleke, C.V. ; Gunatilleke, I.A.U.N. ; Hau, Billy C.H. ; He, Fangliang ; Howe, Robert ; Hsieh, Chang Fu ; Hubbell, Stephen P. ; Inman-Narahari, Faith M. ; Jansen, Patrick A. ; Johnson, Daniel J. ; Kong, Lee Sing ; Král, Kamil ; Ku, Chen Chia ; Lai, Jiangshan ; Larson, Andrew J. ; Li, Xiankun ; Li, Yide ; Lin, Luxiang ; Lin, Yi Ching ; Liu, Shirong ; Lum, Shawn K.Y. ; Lutz, James A. ; Ma, Keping ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; McMahon, Sean ; McShea, William ; Mi, Xiangcheng ; Morecroft, Michael ; Myers, Jonathan A. ; Nathalang, Anuttara ; Novotny, Vojtech ; Ong, Perry ; Orwig, David A. ; Ostertag, Rebecca ; Parker, Geoffrey ; Phillips, Richard P. ; Abd. Rahman, Kassim ; Sack, Lawren ; Sang, Weiguo ; Shen, Guochun ; Shringi, Ankur ; Shue, Jessica ; Su, Sheng Hsin ; Sukumar, Raman ; Fang Sun, I. ; Suresh, H.S. ; Tan, Sylvester ; Thomas, Sean C. ; Toko, Pagi S. ; Valencia, Renato ; Vallejo, Martha I. ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Vrška, Tomáš ; Wang, Bin ; Wang, Xihua ; Weiblen, George D. ; Wolf, Amy ; Xu, Han ; Yap, Sandra ; Zhu, Li ; Fung, Tak - \ 2019
    Journal of Ecology 107 (2019)6. - ISSN 0022-0477 - p. 2598 - 2610.
    forest - legume - nitrogen fixation - nutrient limitation - Smithsonian ForestGEO - symbiosis

    Symbiotic nitrogen (N)-fixing trees can provide large quantities of new N to ecosystems, but only if they are sufficiently abundant. The overall abundance and latitudinal abundance distributions of N-fixing trees are well characterised in the Americas, but less well outside the Americas. Here, we characterised the abundance of N-fixing trees in a network of forest plots spanning five continents, ~5,000 tree species and ~4 million trees. The majority of the plots (86%) were in America or Asia. In addition, we examined whether the observed pattern of abundance of N-fixing trees was correlated with mean annual temperature and precipitation. Outside the tropics, N-fixing trees were consistently rare in the forest plots we examined. Within the tropics, N-fixing trees were abundant in American but not Asian forest plots (~7% versus ~1% of basal area and stems). This disparity was not explained by mean annual temperature or precipitation. Our finding of low N-fixing tree abundance in the Asian tropics casts some doubt on recent high estimates of N fixation rates in this region, which do not account for disparities in N-fixing tree abundance between the Asian and American tropics. Synthesis. Inputs of nitrogen to forests depend on symbiotic nitrogen fixation, which is constrained by the abundance of N-fixing trees. By analysing a large dataset of ~4 million trees, we found that N-fixing trees were consistently rare in the Asian tropics as well as across higher latitudes in Asia, America and Europe. The rarity of N-fixing trees in the Asian tropics compared with the American tropics might stem from lower intrinsic N limitation in Asian tropical forests, although direct support for any mechanism is lacking. The paucity of N-fixing trees throughout Asian forests suggests that N inputs to the Asian tropics might be lower than previously thought.

    Association between vitamin content, plant morphology and geographical origin in a worldwide collection of the orphan crop Gynandropsis gynandra (Cleomaceae)
    Sogbohossou, E.O.D. ; Kortekaas, Dieke ; Achigan-Dako, Enoch G. ; Maundu, Patrick ; Stoilova, Tsvetilina ; Deynze, Allen Van; Vos, C.H. de; Schranz, M.E. - \ 2019
    Planta 250 (2019)3. - ISSN 0032-0935 - p. 933 - 947.
    Main conclusion: The variability in nutrient content and morphology in Gynandropsis gynandra is associated with the geographic origin of the accessions and provides a basis for breeding for higher levels of vitamin C, carotenoids or tocopherols in higher-yielding cultivars.We examined the variation in carotenoids, tocopherols and ascorbic acid as well as morphological traits in a worldwide germplasm of 76 accessions of the orphan leafy vegetable Gynandropsis gynandra (Cleomaceae) using greenhouse experiments and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The levels of carotenoids and tocopherols accumulating in the leaves varied significantly across accessions and were linked with the geographical origin and morphological variation. The main carotenoids included lutein, β-carotene, α-carotene and violaxanthin. A twofold to threefold variation was observed for these compounds. The main tocopherols detected were α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol with a 20-fold variation. A ninefold variation in vitamin C concentration and independent of geographical origin was observed. Overall, the accessions were grouped into three clusters based on variation in nutrient content and morphology. West African accessions were short plants with small leaves and with high tocopherol contents and relatively low carotenoid contents, Asian accessions were short plants with broad leaves and with relatively low carotenoid and high tocopherol contents, while East–Southern African plants were tall with high contents of both carotenoids and chlorophylls and low tocopherol contents. Carotenoids were positively correlated with plant height as well as foliar and floral traits but negatively correlated with tocopherols. The absence of a significant correlation between vitamin C and other traits indicated that breeding for high carotenoids or tocopherols content may be coupled with improved leaf yield and vitamin C content. Our study provides baseline information on the natural variation available for traits of interest for breeding for enhanced crop yield and nutrient content in Gynandropsis gynandra.
    Medical travel/tourism and the city
    Ormond, M.E. ; Kaspar, Heidi - \ 2019
    In: Global Urban Health / Vojnovic, I., Asiki, G., DeVerteuil, G., Allen, A., Abingdon : Routledge - ISBN 9781138206250 - 19 p.
    Transnational medical travel/tourism, by and large, involves travel to cities and metropolitan areas. Only urban areas possess the sufficient volume and variety of world-class medical expertise, cutting-edge technology, transportation infrastructure, communication and mediation facilities and hospitality services and infrastructure to be able to emerge as transnational medical travel destinations. Yet how cities and transnational flows of patients, standards and capital interact to generate new urban assemblages and new assemblages of health care is a story that has yet to really be told. While research on transnational medical travel/tourism is becoming more nuanced, involving a broader variety of perspectives, actors and medical mobilities, any attention given thus far to urban areas has been largely implicit and, thus, conceptually under-explored and -utilised. In this chapter, we argue for a relational approach on the urban as well as on transnational health care. Our focus was on how elements become mobile, circulate and assemble to form medical travel/tourism and how this assembling entangles with the elements and relations that constitute the urban. The presented cases show that networks are fluid and constantly being made, as elements entangle and disentangle and, through relational processes of dissociation and re-association, themselves transform. Through the assembling of medical travel/tourism, hospitals’ incomes can rise and their interiors can be ‘internationalised’; neighbours and hotels can learn to accommodate the presence of ‘sick’ bodies; patients can become health consumers and, perhaps, evangelise the benefits of travelling abroad for medical purposes; penniless refugees and wealthy doctors alike can become care brokers; and, last but not least, hopeless, ignored ‘medical cases’ at home can become hopeful, desired customers abroad.
    Meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies in neonates reveals widespread differential DNA methylation associated with birthweight
    Küpers, Leanne K. ; Monnereau, Claire ; Sharp, Gemma C. ; Yousefi, Paul ; Salas, Lucas A. ; Ghantous, Akram ; Page, Christian M. ; Reese, Sarah E. ; Wilcox, Allen J. ; Czamara, Darina ; Starling, Anne P. ; Novoloaca, Alexei ; Lent, Samantha ; Roy, Ritu ; Hoyo, Cathrine ; Breton, Carrie V. ; Allard, Catherine ; Just, Allan C. ; Bakulski, Kelly M. ; Holloway, John W. ; Everson, Todd M. ; Xu, Cheng Jian ; Huang, Rae Chi ; Plaat, Diana A. van der; Wielscher, Matthias ; Merid, Simon Kebede ; Ullemar, Vilhelmina ; Rezwan, Faisal I. ; Lahti, Jari ; Dongen, Jenny van; Langie, Sabine A.S. ; Richardson, Tom G. ; Magnus, Maria C. ; Nohr, Ellen A. ; Xu, Zongli ; Duijts, Liesbeth ; Zhao, Shanshan ; Zhang, Weiming ; Plusquin, Michelle ; DeMeo, Dawn L. ; Solomon, Olivia ; Heimovaara, Joosje H. ; Jima, Dereje D. ; Gao, Lu ; Bustamante, Mariona ; Perron, Patrice ; Wright, Robert O. ; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva ; Zhang, Hongmei ; Karagas, Margaret R. ; Gehring, Ulrike ; Marsit, Carmen J. ; Beilin, Lawrence J. ; Vonk, Judith M. ; Jarvelin, Marjo Riitta ; Bergström, Anna ; Örtqvist, Anne K. ; Ewart, Susan ; Villa, Pia M. ; Moore, Sophie E. ; Willemsen, Gonneke ; Standaert, Arnout R.L. ; Håberg, Siri E. ; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A. ; Taylor, Jack A. ; Räikkönen, Katri ; Yang, Ivana V. ; Kechris, Katerina ; Nawrot, Tim S. ; Silver, Matt J. ; Gong, Yun Yun ; Richiardi, Lorenzo ; Kogevinas, Manolis ; Litonjua, Augusto A. ; Eskenazi, Brenda ; Huen, Karen ; Mbarek, Hamdi ; Maguire, Rachel L. ; Dwyer, Terence ; Vrijheid, Martine ; Bouchard, Luigi ; Baccarelli, Andrea A. ; Croen, Lisa A. ; Karmaus, Wilfried ; Anderson, Denise ; Vries, Maaike de; Sebert, Sylvain ; Kere, Juha ; Karlsson, Robert ; Arshad, Syed Hasan ; Hämäläinen, Esa ; Routledge, Michael N. ; Boomsma, Dorret I. ; Feinberg, Andrew P. ; Newschaffer, Craig J. ; Govarts, Eva ; Moisse, Matthieu ; Fallin, M.D. ; Melén, Erik ; Prentice, Andrew M. ; Kajantie, Eero ; Almqvist, Catarina ; Oken, Emily ; Dabelea, Dana ; Boezen, H.M. ; Melton, Phillip E. ; Wright, Rosalind J. ; Koppelman, Gerard H. ; Trevisi, Letizia ; Hivert, Marie France ; Sunyer, Jordi ; Munthe-Kaas, Monica C. ; Murphy, Susan K. ; Corpeleijn, Eva ; Wiemels, Joseph ; Holland, Nina ; Herceg, Zdenko ; Binder, Elisabeth B. ; Davey Smith, George ; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V. ; Lie, Rolv T. ; Nystad, Wenche ; London, Stephanie J. ; Lawlor, Debbie A. ; Relton, Caroline L. ; Snieder, Harold ; Felix, Janine F. - \ 2019
    Nature Communications 10 (2019)1. - ISSN 2041-1723

    Birthweight is associated with health outcomes across the life course, DNA methylation may be an underlying mechanism. In this meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies of 8,825 neonates from 24 birth cohorts in the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics Consortium, we find that DNA methylation in neonatal blood is associated with birthweight at 914 sites, with a difference in birthweight ranging from −183 to 178 grams per 10% increase in methylation (P Bonferroni < 1.06 x 10 −7 ). In additional analyses in 7,278 participants, <1.3% of birthweight-associated differential methylation is also observed in childhood and adolescence, but not adulthood. Birthweight-related CpGs overlap with some Bonferroni-significant CpGs that were previously reported to be related to maternal smoking (55/914, p = 6.12 x 10 −74 ) and BMI in pregnancy (3/914, p = 1.13x10 −3 ), but not with those related to folate levels in pregnancy. Whether the associations that we observe are causal or explained by confounding or fetal growth influencing DNA methylation (i.e. reverse causality) requires further research.

    Paying the price for the meat we eat
    Allen, Andrew M. ; Hof, Anouschka R. - \ 2019
    Environmental Science & Policy 97 (2019). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 90 - 94.
    Biodiversity offsetting - Climate change - Ecological compensation - Intensive agriculture - Meat consumption

    An increasingly gloomy picture is painted by research focusing on the environmental challenges faced by our planet. Biodiversity loss is ongoing, landscapes continue to transform, and predictions on the effects of climate change worsen. Calls have been made for urgent action to avoid pushing our planet into a new system state. One of the principal threats to biodiversity is intensive agriculture, and in particular the livestock industry, which is an important driver of greenhouse gas emissions, habitat degradation and habitat loss. Ongoing intensification of agricultural practices mean that farmland no longer provides a habitat for many species. We suggest the use of a growing policy tool, biodiversity offsetting, to tackle these challenges. Biodiversity offsetting, or ecological compensation, assesses the impacts of new development projects and seeks to avoid, minimise and otherwise compensate for the ecological impacts of these development projects. By applying biodiversity offsetting to agriculture, the impacts of progressively intensifying farming practices can be compensated to achieve conservation outcomes by using tools like environmental taxes or agri-environment schemes. Low intensity, traditional, farming systems provide a number of benefits to biodiversity and society, and we suggest that the consumer and the agriculture industry compensate for the devastating ecological impacts of intensive farming so that we can once again preserve biodiversity in our landscapes and attempt to limit global temperature rise below 2°c.

    Local host-tick coextinction in neotropical forest fragments
    Esser, Helen J. ; Herre, Edward Allen ; Kays, Roland ; Liefting, Yorick ; Jansen, Patrick A. - \ 2019
    International Journal for Parasitology 49 (2019)3-4. - ISSN 0020-7519 - p. 225 - 233.
    Biodiversity loss - Defaunation - Extinction cascade - Forest fragmentation - Host specificity - Host-parasite interactions - Panama

    Ticks are obligatory parasites with complex life cycles that often depend on larger bodied vertebrates as final hosts. These traits make them particularly sensitive to local coextinction with their host. Loss of wildlife abundance and diversity should thus lead to loss of tick abundance and diversity to the point where only generalist tick species remain. However, direct empirical tests of these hypotheses are lacking, despite their relevance to our understanding of tick-borne disease emergence in disturbed environments. Here, we compare vertebrate and tick communities across 12 forest islands and peninsulas in the Panama Canal that ranged 1000-fold in size (2.6–2811.3 ha). We used drag sampling and camera trapping to directly assess the abundance and diversity of communities of questing ticks and vertebrate hosts. We found that the abundance and species richness of ticks were positively related to those of wildlife. Specialist tick species were only present in fragments where their final hosts were found. Further, less diverse tick communities had a higher relative abundance of the generalist tick species Amblyomma oblongoguttatum, a potential vector of spotted fever group rickettsiosis. These findings support the host-parasite coextinction hypothesis, and indicate that loss of wildlife can indeed have cascading effects on tick communities. Our results also imply that opportunities for pathogen transmission via generalist ticks may be higher in habitats with degraded tick communities. If these patterns are general, then tick identities and abundances serve as useful bioindicators of ecosystem health, with low tick diversity reflecting low wildlife diversity and a potentially elevated risk of interspecific disease transmission via remaining host species and generalist ticks.

    An uncertain future for the endemic Galliformes of the Caucasus
    Hof, Anouschka R. ; Allen, Andrew M. - \ 2019
    Science of the Total Environment 651 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 725 - 735.
    Birds - Climate change - Conservation - Land use - Species distribution modelling

    Impacts of climate change are already evident in ecosystems worldwide. High-latitude and altitude regions are at greatest risk because the effects of climate change are greater in these regions, and species from these areas have limited ability to track their climate envelopes. The Caucasian snowcock (Tetraogallus caucasicus) and the Caucasian grouse (Lyrurus mlokosiewiczi) are both high-altitude specialists that are endemic to a restricted range in the Caucasus mountains of Europe. Little research has been performed to determine the status of the populations or the potential impacts of climate change. We investigated how climate and land use change may impact both species in future and determined whether their life history traits may increase their vulnerability using a combined exposure and trait-based index. We compared several climate models, and in all instances, both species showed drastic range contractions although the extent of the contraction varied with each model. Traits like habitat specialism, ground nesting and incubation period meant that both species may be considered “most vulnerable” in the exposure and trait-based index. Given that both species already occur near the maximum elevations of the Caucasus, and that they lack any dispersal capabilities due to the isolation from alternative mountainous areas, research efforts need to be prioritized to improve our knowledge about their population status, to monitor future trends and to begin developing species action plans that conserve these endemic and iconic species of Europe. Both species are flagship and umbrella species and may serve as indicator species, their protection may therefore benefit a whole range of other species inhabiting this vulnerable Alpine ecosystem. Especially the Caucasian grouse has a high aesthetic value and is favoured by hunters in the region. The potential demise of this species may therefore also be negative for local communities.

    Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND): Vitamin B-12 Review
    Allen, L.H. ; Miller, J. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Rosenberg, I.H. ; Smith, A.D. ; Refsum, H. ; Raiten, D.J. - \ 2018
    The Journal of Nutrition 148 (2018)suppl. 4. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 1995S - 2027S.
    This report on vitamin B-12 (B12) is part of the Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND) Project, which provides state-of-the art information and advice on the selection, use, and interpretation of biomarkers of nutrient exposure, status, and function. As with the other 5 reports in this series, which focused on iodine, folate, zinc, iron, and vitamin A, this B12 report was developed with the assistance of an expert panel (BOND B12 EP) and other experts who provided information during a consultation. The experts reviewed the existing literature in depth in order to consolidate existing relevant information on the biology of B12, including known and possible effects of insufficiency, and available and potential biomarkers of status. Unlike the situation for the other 5 nutrients reviewed during the BOND project, there has been relatively little previous attention paid to B12 status and its biomarkers, so this report is a landmark in terms of the consolidation and interpretation of the available information on B12 nutrition. Historically, most focus has been on diagnosis and treatment of clinical symptoms of B12 deficiency, which result primarily from pernicious anemia or strict vegetarianism. More recently, we have become aware of the high prevalence of B12 insufficiency in populations consuming low amounts of animal-source foods, which can be detected with ≥1 serum biomarker but presents the new challenge of identifying functional consequences that may require public health interventions.
    Is het leven maakbaar? 3.3 Welzijn voor allen
    Tramper, J. - \ 2018
    Bio Based Press
    Radiofrequency identification systems: Advantages and constraints for tracking and monitoring of individual animals
    Sluis, M. van der; Ellen, E.D. ; Haas, Y. de; Rodenburg, T.B. - \ 2018
    In: Measuring behavior 2018. - Manchester : - ISBN 9781910029398 - p. 193 - 195.
    To track and monitor individual animals in groups, it is possible to use radiofrequency identification (RFID) systems. RFID encompasses all wireless communication systems that use radiofrequency fields [1]. RFID systems consist of tags and readers [2]. The tags contain unique identification data and can be attached to the item or, in the proposed application, to the animal that needs to be tracked [2]. The readers are used to read and identify the tags via radiofrequency fields [2]. The development of RFID technology started in the late 1960s and RFID systems are currently used for a large range of applications, including electronic door locking systems, contactless smart cards, and animal identification [2,3,4]. Further progress in the technology of chip manufacturing now makes RFID suitable for novel applications and available at a lower cost [4,5]. Therefore, the existing RFID technology may be applicable for animal tracking and monitoring as well. Here, different types of RFID systems will first be discussed for their applicability in individual animal tracking and monitoring, after which future work using RFID to track individual animals will be presented.
    Engineering the unicellular alga Phaeodactylum tricornutum for high-value plant triterpenoid production
    Adamo, Sarah D'; Schiano di Visconte, Gino ; Lowe, Gavin ; Szaub-Newton, Joanna ; Beacham, Tracey ; Landels, Andrew ; Allen, Michael J. ; Spicer, Andrew ; Matthijs, Michiel - \ 2018
    Plant Biotechnology Journal 17 (2018)1. - ISSN 1467-7644 - p. 75 - 87.
    algal synthetic biology - betulin - blue biotechnology - diatoms - lupeol - microalgae - natural product - triterpenoid biosynthesis

    Plant triterpenoids constitute a diverse class of organic compounds that play a major role in development, plant defence and environmental interaction. Several triterpenes have demonstrated potential as pharmaceuticals. One example is betulin, which has shown promise as a pharmaceutical precursor for the treatment of certain cancers and HIV. Major challenges for triterpenoid commercialization include their low production levels and their cost-effective purification from the complex mixtures present in their natural hosts. Therefore, attempts to produce these compounds in industrially relevant microbial systems such as bacteria and yeasts have attracted great interest. Here, we report the production of the triterpenes betulin and its precursor lupeol in the photosynthetic diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, a unicellular eukaryotic alga. This was achieved by introducing three plant enzymes in the microalga: a Lotus japonicus oxidosqualene cyclase and a Medicago truncatula cytochrome P450 along with its native reductase. The introduction of the L. japonicus oxidosqualene cyclase perturbed the mRNA expression levels of the native mevalonate and sterol biosynthesis pathway. The best performing strains were selected and grown in a 550-L pilot-scale photobioreactor facility. To our knowledge, this is the most extensive pathway engineering undertaken in a diatom and the first time that a sapogenin has been artificially produced in a microalga, demonstrating the feasibility of the photo-bio-production of more complex high-value, metabolites in microalgae.

    Coffee value chain analysis in the southern highlands of Tanzania : Final report
    Ruben, Ruerd ; Allen, Catherine ; Boureima, Fayçal ; Gongwe Mhando, David ; Dijkxhoorn, Youri - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 155
    Andromonoecy in Gynandropsis gynandra (L.) Briq. (Cleomaceae) and effects on fruit and seed production
    Zohoungbogbo, Herbaud P.F. ; Houdegbe, Carlos A. ; Sogbohossou, Dêêdi E.O. ; Tossou, Monique G. ; Maundu, Patrick ; Schranz, Eric M. ; Deynze, Allen Van; Zoundjihekpon, Jeanne ; Achigan-Dako, Enoch G. - \ 2018
    Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 65 (2018)8. - ISSN 0925-9864 - p. 2231 - 2239.
    Andromonoecy - Anthesis - Gynandropsis gynandra - Hermaphroditism - Pollination systems

    Spider plant (Gynandropsis gynandra) is a traditional leafy vegetable widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and tropical Asia that is also valued for its medicinal properties. Developing a breeding program for the species requires detailed knowledge of its phenology, floral morphology and pollination system. This study investigates the effects of floral morphology and pollination mechanisms on the reproductive success in G. gynandra. The experiments were conducted in two locations in Benin. A split-plot design was used with four randomized complete blocks. Three accessions were randomly assigned to the whole plots and five treatments including natural self-pollination, hand self-pollination, geitonogamy, open pollination and hand cross-pollination were randomized over the sub-plots. We observed that individual plant exhibited 70% of staminate (male) flowers and 30% of hermaphrodite flowers. G. gynandra was andromonoecious. Open pollination and hand cross-pollination led to higher fruit and seed set. Natural self-pollination and hand self-pollination resulted in lower fruit and seed production. G. gynandra is a self-compatible and predominantly out-crossing species. Cross-pollination resulted in a significant increase in fruit set. This study set the ground for the development of improved cultivars in G. gynandra.

    The ecology of Black Guillemot Cepphus grylle grylle chicks in the Baltic Sea region : insights into their diet, survival, nest predation and moment of fledging
    Hof, Anouschka R. ; Crombag, Joep A.H.M. ; Allen, Andrew M. - \ 2018
    Bird Study 65 (2018)3. - ISSN 0006-3657 - p. 357 - 364.

    Capsule: The diet of Black Guillemot Cepphus grylle grylle chicks in the Baltic Sea region was dominated by Viviparous Eelpout Zoarces viviparus. Risk of nest predation by avian and mammalian predators was perceived to be low, and hatching and fledging success were high. Aims: To gain insight into the ecology of nestling Black Guillemots in the Baltic Sea region to fill knowledge gaps and benefit its conservation. Methods: Two island groups in the Baltic Sea were visited several times during the breeding season of 2014 and 2015 to monitor nestling survival and fledging. In addition, camera traps were used in 2014 to monitor prey brought to chicks by adults and record possible nest predation events. Results: Hatching success was 0.89 and 0.73 in 2014 and 2015, respectively, and fledging success was very high (0.95 and 0.97). No incidences of avian or mammalian predation were observed. Chicks fledged at night between 32 and 38 days after hatching. Viviparous Eelpout made up 95% of the prey items brought to the chicks by adults. Conclusions: The hatching rate and fledging rate of the Black Guillemot was high in our study region. Juveniles seemed highly dependent on the availability of eelpout. Changes in the abundance of this species may therefore have negative effects on chick survival.

    Pictures or pellets? Comparing camera trapping and dung counts as methods for estimating population densities of ungulates
    Pfeffer, Sabine E. ; Spitzer, Robert ; Allen, Andrew M. ; Hofmeester, Tim R. ; Ericsson, Göran ; Widemo, Fredrik ; Singh, Navinder J. ; Cromsigt, Joris P.G.M. - \ 2018
    Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation 4 (2018)2. - ISSN 2056-3485 - p. 173 - 183.
    Camera traps - pellet counts - population estimates - random encounter model - ungulates - wildlife monitoring

    Across the northern hemisphere, land use changes and, possibly, warmer winters are leading to more abundant and diverse ungulate communities causing increased socioeconomic and ecological consequences. Reliable population estimates are crucial for sustainable management, but it is currently unclear which monitoring method is most suitable to track changes in multi-species assemblages. We compared dung counts and camera trapping as two non-invasive census methods to estimate population densities of moose Alces alces and roe deer Capreolus capreolus in Northern Sweden. For camera trapping, we tested the random encounter model (REM) which can estimate densities without the need to recognize individual animals. We evaluated different simplification options of the REM in terms of estimates of detection distance and angle (raw data vs. modelled) and of daily movement rate (camera trap based vs. telemetry based). In comparison to density estimates from camera traps, we found that, dung counts appeared to underestimate population density for roe deer, but not for moose. Estimates of detection distance and angle from modelled versus raw camera data resulted in nearly identical outcomes. The telemetry-derived daily movement rate for moose and roe deer resulted in much higher density estimates than the camera trap-derived estimates. We suggest that camera trapping may be a robust complement to dung counts when monitoring ungulate communities, particularly when similarities between dung pellets from sympatric deer species make unambiguous assignment difficult. Moreover, we show that a simplified use of the REM method holds great potential for large-scale citizen science-based programmes (e.g. involving hunters) that can track the rapidly changing European wildlife landscape. We suggest to include camera trapping in management programmes, where the analysis can be verified via web-based applications.

    The effect of vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on routine haematological parameters in older people : an individual participant data meta-analysis
    Smelt, Antonia F.H. ; Gussekloo, Jacobijn ; Bermingham, Lynette W. ; Allen, Elizabeth ; Dangour, Alan D. ; Eussen, Simone J.P.M. ; Favrat, Bernard ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. de; Kok, Frans J. ; Kwok, Timothy ; Mangoni, Arduino A. ; Ntaios, George ; Rest, Ondine van de; Seal, Eric ; Vaucher, Paul ; Verhoef, Petra ; Stijnen, Theo ; Elzen, Wendy P.J. Den - \ 2018
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 72 (2018)6. - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 785 - 795.
    Background/objectives: Low vitamin B12 and folate levels in community-dwelling older people are usually corrected with supplements. However, the effect of this supplementation on haematological parameters in older persons is not known. Therefore, we executed a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis of randomised placebo-controlled trials (RCTs). Subjects/methods: We performed a systematic search in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane and CENTRAL for RCTs published between January 1950 and April 2016, where community-dwelling elderly (60+ years) who were treated with vitamin B12 or folic acid or placebo. The presence of anaemia was not required. We analysed the data on haematological parameters with a two-stage IPD meta-analysis. Results: We found 494 full papers covering 14 studies. Data were shared by the authors of four RCTs comparing vitamin B12 with placebo (n = 343) and of three RCTs comparing folic acid with placebo (n = 929). We found no effect of vitamin B12 supplementation on haemoglobin (change 0.00 g/dL, 95% CI: −0.19;0.18), and no effect of folic acid supplementation (change −0.09 g/dL, 95% CI: −0.19;0.01). The effects of supplementation on other haematological parameters were similar. The effects did not differ by sex or by age group. Also, no effect was found in a subgroup of patients with anaemia and a subgroup of patients who were treated >4 weeks. Conclusions: Evidence on the effects of supplementation of low concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate on haematological parameters in community-dwelling older people is inconclusive. Further research is needed before firm recommendations can be made concerning the supplementation of vitamin B12 and folate.
    A roadmap for breeding orphan leafy vegetable species : A case study of Gynandropsis gynandra (Cleomaceae)
    Sogbohossou, E.O.D. ; Achigan-Dako, Enoch G. ; Maundu, Patrick ; Solberg, Svein ; Deguenon, Edgar M.S. ; Mumm, Rita H. ; Hale, Iago ; Deynze, Allen van; Schranz, M.E. - \ 2018
    Horticulture Research 5 (2018)1. - ISSN 2052-7276
    Despite an increasing awareness of the potential of "orphan" or unimproved crops to contribute to food security and enhanced livelihoods for farmers, coordinated research agendas to facilitate production and use of orphan crops by local communities are generally lacking. We provide an overview of the current knowledge on leafy vegetables with a focus on Gynandropsis gynandra, a highly nutritious species used in Africa and Asia, and highlight general and species-specific guidelines for participatory, genomics-assisted breeding of orphan crops. Key steps in genome-enabled orphan leafy vegetables improvement are identified and discussed in the context of Gynandropsis gynandra breeding, including: (1) germplasm collection and management; (2) product target definition and refinement; (3) characterization of the genetic control of key traits; (4) design of the 'process' for cultivar development; (5) integration of genomic data to optimize that 'process'; (6) multi-environmental participatory testing and end-user evaluation; and (7) crop value chain development. The review discusses each step in detail, with emphasis on improving leaf yield, phytonutrient content, organoleptic quality, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and post-harvest management.
    Metabolomics of tomato xylem sap during bacterial wilt reveals Ralstonia solanacearum produces abundant putrescine, a metabolite that accelerates wilt disease
    Lowe-Power, Tiffany M. ; Hendrich, Connor G. ; Roepenack-Lahaye, Edda von; Li, Bin ; Wu, Dousheng ; Mitra, Raka ; Dalsing, Beth L. ; Ricca, Patrizia ; Naidoo, Jacinth ; Cook, David ; Jancewicz, Amy ; Masson, Patrick ; Thomma, Bart ; Lahaye, Thomas ; Michael, Anthony J. ; Allen, Caitilyn - \ 2018
    Environmental Microbiology 20 (2018)4. - ISSN 1462-2912 - p. 1330 - 1349.
    Ralstonia solanacearum thrives in plant xylem vessels and causes bacterial wilt disease despite the low nutrient content of xylem sap. We found that R. solanacearum manipulates its host to increase nutrients in tomato xylem sap, enabling it to grow better in sap from infected plants than in sap from healthy plants. Untargeted GC/MS metabolomics identified 22 metabolites enriched in R. solanacearum-infected sap. Eight of these could serve as sole carbon or nitrogen sources for R. solanacearum. Putrescine, a polyamine that is not a sole carbon or nitrogen source for R. solanacearum, was enriched 76-fold to 37 μM in R. solanacearum-infected sap. R. solanacearum synthesized putrescine via a SpeC ornithine decarboxylase. A ΔspeC mutant required≥15 μM exogenous putrescine to grow and could not grow alone in xylem even when plants were treated with putrescine. However, co-inoculation with wildtype rescued ΔspeC growth, indicating R. solanacearum produced and exported putrescine to xylem sap. Intriguingly, treating plants with putrescine before inoculation accelerated wilt symptom development and R. solanacearum growth and systemic spread. Xylem putrescine concentration was unchanged in putrescine-treated plants, so the exogenous putrescine likely accelerated disease indirectly by affecting host physiology. These results indicate that putrescine is a pathogen-produced virulence metabolite.
    Integrated ecological-economic fisheries models-Evaluation, review and challenges for implementation
    Nielsen, J.R. ; Thunberg, Eric ; Holland, Daniel S. ; Schmidt, Jorn O. ; Fulton, Elizabeth A. ; Bastardie, Francois ; Punt, Andre E. ; Allen, Icarus ; Bartelings, Heleen ; Bertignac, Michel ; Groeneveld, Rolf A. ; Hamon, Katell G. ; Dijk, Diana van - \ 2018
    Fish and Fisheries 19 (2018)1. - ISSN 1467-2960 - p. 1 - 29.
    Bio-economic models - Comparative model evaluation - Fisheries management advice - Integrated ecological-economic fisheries models - Marine spatial planning and cross-sector management - Performance criteria and scales and risks - Use and acceptance and implementation and communication and flexibility and complexity

    Marine ecosystems evolve under many interconnected and area-specific pressures. To fulfil society's intensifying and diversifying needs while ensuring ecologically sustainable development, more effective marine spatial planning and broader-scope management of marine resources is necessary. Integrated ecological-economic fisheries models (IEEFMs) of marine systems are needed to evaluate impacts and sustainability of potential management actions and understand, and anticipate ecological, economic and social dynamics at a range of scales from local to national and regional. To make these models most effective, it is important to determine how model characteristics and methods of communicating results influence the model implementation, the nature of the advice that can be provided and the impact on decisions taken by managers. This article presents a global review and comparative evaluation of 35 IEEFMs applied to marine fisheries and marine ecosystem resources to identify the characteristics that determine their usefulness, effectiveness and implementation. The focus is on fully integrated models that allow for feedbacks between ecological and human processes although not all the models reviewed achieve that. Modellers must invest more time to make models user friendly and to participate in management fora where models and model results can be explained and discussed. Such involvement is beneficial to all parties, leading to improvement of mo-dels and more effective implementation of advice, but demands substantial resources which must be built into the governance process. It takes time to develop effective processes for using IEEFMs requiring a long-term commitment to integrating multidisciplinary modelling advice into management decision-making.

    Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 333 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016 : A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
    Hay, Simon I. ; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu ; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen ; Abbafati, Cristiana ; Abbas, Kaja M. ; Abd-Allah, Foad ; Abdulle, Abdishakur M. ; Abebo, Teshome Abuka ; Abera, Semaw Ferede ; Aboyans, Victor ; Abu-Raddad, Laith J. ; Ackerman, Ilana N. ; Adedeji, Isaac A. ; Adetokunboh, Olatunji ; Afshin, Ashkan ; Aggarwal, Rakesh ; Agrawal, Sutapa ; Agrawal, Anurag ; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad ; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir ; Aichour, Amani Nidhal ; Aichour, Ibtihel ; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine ; Aiyar, Sneha ; Akinyemiju, Tomi F. ; Akseer, Nadia ; Lami, Faris Hasan Al; Alahdab, Fares ; Al-Aly, Ziyad ; Alam, Khurshid ; Alam, Noore ; Alam, Tahiya ; Alasfoor, Deena ; Alene, Kefyalew Addis ; Ali, Raghib ; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza ; Alkaabi, Juma M. ; Alkerwi, A. ; Alla, François ; Allebeck, Peter ; Allen, Christine ; Al-Maskari, Fatma ; Almazroa, Mohammad Abdulaziz ; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa ; Geleijnse, J.M. - \ 2017
    The Lancet 390 (2017)10100. - ISSN 0140-6736 - p. 1260 - 1344.

    Background: Measurement of changes in health across locations is useful to compare and contrast changing epidemiological patterns against health system performance and identify specific needs for resource allocation in research, policy development, and programme decision making. Using the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we drew from two widely used summary measures to monitor such changes in population health: disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE). We used these measures to track trends and benchmark progress compared with expected trends on the basis of the Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Methods: We used results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 for all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, and non-fatal disease burden to derive HALE and DALYs by sex for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016. We calculated DALYs by summing years of life lost and years of life lived with disability for each location, age group, sex, and year. We estimated HALE using age-specific death rates and years of life lived with disability per capita. We explored how DALYs and HALE difered from expected trends when compared with the SDI: the geometric mean of income per person, educational attainment in the population older than age 15 years, and total fertility rate. Findings: The highest globally observed HALE at birth for both women and men was in Singapore, at 75·2 years (95% uncertainty interval 71·9-78·6) for females and 72·0 years (68·8-75·1) for males. The lowest for females was in the Central African Republic (45·6 years [42·0-49·5]) and for males was in Lesotho (41·5 years [39·0-44·0]). From 1990 to 2016, global HALE increased by an average of 6·24 years (5·97-6·48) for both sexes combined. Global HALE increased by 6·04 years (5·74-6·27) for males and 6·49 years (6·08-6·77) for females, whereas HALE at age 65 years increased by 1·78 years (1·61-1·93) for males and 1·96 years (1·69-2·13) for females. Total global DALYs remained largely unchanged from 1990 to 2016 (-2·3% [-5·9 to 0·9]), with decreases in communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) disease DALYs ofset by increased DALYs due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The exemplars, calculated as the fve lowest ratios of observed to expected age-standardised DALY rates in 2016, were Nicaragua, Costa Rica, the Maldives, Peru, and Israel. The leading three causes of DALYs globally were ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and lower respiratory infections, comprising 16·1% of all DALYs. Total DALYs and age-standardised DALY rates due to most CMNN causes decreased from 1990 to 2016. Conversely, the total DALY burden rose for most NCDs; however, age-standardised DALY rates due to NCDs declined globally. Interpretation: At a global level, DALYs and HALE continue to show improvements. At the same time, we observe that many populations are facing growing functional health loss. Rising SDI was associated with increases in cumulative years of life lived with disability and decreases in CMNN DALYs ofset by increased NCD DALYs. Relative compression of morbidity highlights the importance of continued health interventions, which has changed in most locations in pace with the gross domestic product per person, education, and family planning. The analysis of DALYs and HALE and their relationship to SDI represents a robust framework with which to benchmark location-specific health performance. Country-specific drivers of disease burden, particularly for causes with higher-than-expected DALYs, should inform health policies, health system improvement initiatives, targeted prevention eforts, and development assistance for health, including fnancial and research investments for all countries, regardless of their level of sociodemographic development. The presence of countries that substantially outperform others suggests the need for increased scrutiny for proven examples of best practices, which can help to extend gains, whereas the presence of underperforming countries suggests the need for devotion of extra attention to health systems that need more robust support.

    Global, regional, and national age-sex specifc mortality for 264 causes of death, 1980-2016: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
    Naghavi, Mohsen ; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu ; Abbafati, Cristiana ; Abbas, Kaja M. ; Abd-Allah, Foad ; Abera, Semaw Ferede ; Aboyans, Victor ; Adetokunboh, Olatunji ; Ärnlöv, Johan ; Afshin, Ashkan ; Agrawal, Anurag ; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad ; Ahmadi, Alireza ; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir ; Aichour, Amani Nidhal ; Aichour, Ibtihel ; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine ; Aiyar, Sneha ; Al-Eyadhy, Ayman ; Alahdab, Fares ; Al-Aly, Ziyad ; Alam, Khurshid ; Alam, Noore ; Alam, Tahiya ; Alene, Kefyalew Addis ; Ali, Syed Danish ; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza ; Alkaabi, Juma M. ; Alkerwi, A. ; Alla, François ; Allebeck, Peter ; Allen, Christine ; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa ; Alsharif, Ubai ; Altirkawi, Khalid A. ; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson ; Amare, Azmeraw T. ; Amini, Erfan ; Ammar, Walid ; Amoako, Yaw Ampem ; Anber, Nahla ; Andersen, Hjalte H. ; Andrei, Catalina Liliana ; Androudi, Sofa ; Ansari, Hossein ; Hoek, Hans W. ; Liu, Yang ; Nguyen, Cuong Tat ; Nguyen, Quyen Le ; Nguyen, Trang Huyen ; Geleijnse, J.M. - \ 2017
    The Lancet 390 (2017)10100. - ISSN 0140-6736 - p. 1151 - 1210.

    Background: Monitoring levels and trends in premature mortality is crucial to understanding how societies can address prominent sources of early death. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specifc mortality for 264 causes in 195 locations from 1980 to 2016. This assessment includes evaluation of the expected epidemiological transition with changes in development and where local patterns deviate from these trends. Methods: We estimated cause-specifc deaths and years of life lost (YLLs) by age, sex, geography, and year. YLLs were calculated from the sum of each death multiplied by the standard life expectancy at each age. We used the GBD cause of death database composed of: vital registration (VR) data corrected for under-registration and garbage coding; national and subnational verbal autopsy (VA) studies corrected for garbage coding; and other sources including surveys and surveillance systems for specifc causes such as maternal mortality. To facilitate assessment of quality, we reported on the fraction of deaths assigned to GBD Level 1 or Level 2 causes that cannot be underlying causes of death (major garbage codes) by location and year. Based on completeness, garbage coding, cause list detail, and time periods covered, we provided an overall data quality rating for each location with scores ranging from 0 stars (worst) to 5 stars (best). We used robust statistical methods including the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) to generate estimates for each location, year, age, and sex. We assessed observed and expected levels and trends of cause-specifc deaths in relation to the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of average income per capita, educational attainment, and total fertility, with locations grouped into quintiles by SDI. Relative to GBD 2015, we expanded the GBD cause hierarchy by 18 causes of death for GBD 2016. Findings: The quality of available data varied by location. Data quality in 25 countries rated in the highest category (5 stars), while 48, 30, 21, and 44 countries were rated at each of the succeeding data quality levels. Vital registration or verbal autopsy data were not available in 27 countries, resulting in the assignment of a zero value for data quality. Deaths from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represented 72·3% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 71·2-73·2) of deaths in 2016 with 19·3% (18·5-20·4) of deaths in that year occurring from communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) diseases and a further 8·43% (8·00-8·67) from injuries. Although age-standardised rates of death from NCDs decreased globally between 2006 and 2016, total numbers of these deaths increased; both numbers and age-standardised rates of death from CMNN causes decreased in the decade 2006-16 - age-standardised rates of deaths from injuries decreased but total numbers varied little. In 2016, the three leading global causes of death in children under-5 were lower respiratory infections, neonatal preterm birth complications, and neonatal encephalopathy due to birth asphyxia and trauma, combined resulting in 1·80 million deaths (95% UI 1·59 million to 1·89 million). Between 1990 and 2016, a profound shift toward deaths at older ages occurred with a 178% (95% UI 176-181) increase in deaths in ages 90-94 years and a 210% (208-212) increase in deaths older than age 95 years. The ten leading causes by rates of age-standardised YLL signifcantly decreased from 2006 to 2016 (median annualised rate of change was a decrease of 2·89%); the median annualised rate of change for all other causes was lower (a decrease of 1·59%) during the same interval. Globally, the fve leading causes of total YLLs in 2016 were cardiovascular diseases; diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and other common infectious diseases; neoplasms; neonatal disorders; and HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. At a fner level of disaggregation within cause groupings, the ten leading causes of total YLLs in 2016 were ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, lower respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases, road injuries, malaria, neonatal preterm birth complications, HIV/AIDS, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and neonatal encephalopathy due to birth asphyxia and trauma. Ischaemic heart disease was the leading cause of total YLLs in 113 countries for men and 97 countries for women. Comparisons of observed levels of YLLs by countries, relative to the level of YLLs expected on the basis of SDI alone, highlighted distinct regional patterns including the greater than expected level of YLLs from malaria and from HIV/AIDS across sub-Saharan Africa; diabetes mellitus, especially in Oceania; interpersonal violence, notably within Latin America and the Caribbean; and cardiomyopathy and myocarditis, particularly in eastern and central Europe. The level of YLLs from ischaemic heart disease was less than expected in 117 of 195 locations. Other leading causes of YLLs for which YLLs were notably lower than expected included neonatal preterm birth complications in many locations in both south Asia and southeast Asia, and cerebrovascular disease in western Europe. Interpretation: The past 37 years have featured declining rates of communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases across all quintiles of SDI, with faster than expected gains for many locations relative to their SDI. A global shift towards deaths at older ages suggests success in reducing many causes of early death. YLLs have increased globally for causes such as diabetes mellitus or some neoplasms, and in some locations for causes such as drug use disorders, and confict and terrorism. Increasing levels of YLLs might refect outcomes from conditions that required high levels of care but for which efective treatments remain elusive, potentially increasing costs to health systems.

    Analysis of LULUCF actions in EU member states as reported under Art. 10 of the LULUCF Decision : final study
    Paquel, Kamila ; Bowyer, C. ; Allen, Ben ; Nesbit, Martin ; Martineau, Hugh ; Lesschen, J.P. ; Arets, E.J.M.M. - \ 2017
    Institute for European Environmental Policy IEEP - 163 p.
    Towards standards for human fecal sample processing in metagenomic studies
    Costea, Paul I. ; Zeller, Georg ; Sunagawa, Shinichi ; Pelletier, Eric ; Alberti, Adriana ; Levenez, Florence ; Tramontano, Melanie ; Driessen, Marja ; Hercog, Rajna ; Jung, Ferris Elias ; Kultima, Jens Roat ; Hayward, Matthew R. ; Coelho, Luis Pedro ; Allen-Vercoe, Emma ; Bertrand, Laurie ; Blaut, Michael ; Brown, Jillian R.M. ; Carton, Thomas ; Cools-Portier, Stéphanie ; Daigneault, Michelle ; Derrien, Muriel ; Druesne, Anne ; Vos, Willem M. De; Finlay, B.B. ; Flint, Harry J. ; Guarner, Francisco ; Hattori, Masahira ; Heilig, Hans ; Luna, Ruth Ann ; Hylckama Vlieg, Johan Van; Junick, Jana ; Klymiuk, Ingeborg ; Langella, Philippe ; Chatelier, Emmanuelle Le; Mai, Volker ; Manichanh, Chaysavanh ; Martin, Jennifer C. ; Mery, Clémentine ; Morita, Hidetoshi ; O'Toole, Paul W. ; Orvain, Céline ; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb ; Penders, John ; Persson, Søren ; Pons, Nicolas ; Popova, Milena ; Salonen, Anne ; Saulnier, Delphine ; Scott, Karen P. ; Singh, Bhagirath ; Slezak, Kathleen ; Veiga, Patrick ; Versalovic, James ; Zhao, Liping ; Zoetendal, Erwin G. ; Ehrlich, S.D. ; Dore, Joel ; Bork, Peer - \ 2017
    Nature Biotechnology 35 (2017)11. - ISSN 1087-0156 - p. 1069 - 1076.
    Technical variation in metagenomic analysis must be minimized to confidently assess the contributions of microbiota to human health. Here we tested 21 representative DNA extraction protocols on the same fecal samples and quantified differences in observed microbial community composition. We compared them with differences due to library preparation and sample storage, which we contrasted with observed biological variation within the same specimen or within an individual over time. We found that DNA extraction had the largest effect on the outcome of metagenomic analysis. To rank DNA extraction protocols, we considered resulting DNA quantity and quality, and we ascertained biases in estimates of community diversity and the ratio between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We recommend a standardized DNA extraction method for human fecal samples, for which transferability across labs was established and which was further benchmarked using a mock community of known composition. Its adoption will improve comparability of human gut microbiome studies and facilitate meta-analyses.
    Citizen science for hydrological risk reduction and resilience building
    Paul, Jonathan D. ; Buytaert, Wouter ; Allen, Simon ; Ballesteros‐Cánovas, Juan A. ; Bhusal, Jagat K. ; Cieslik, Katarzyna ; Clark, Julian ; Dugar, Sumit ; Hannah, David M. ; Stoffel, M. ; Dewulf, A.R.P.J. ; Dhital, Megh R. ; Liu, Wei ; Nayaval, Janak Lal ; Neupane, Bhanu ; Schiller, Arnulf ; Smith, P.J. ; Supper, Robert - \ 2017
    Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Water 2017 (2017). - ISSN 2049-1948 - 15 p.
    In disaster risk management (DRM), an emerging shift has been noted from broad-scale, top-down assessments toward more participatory, community-based, bottom-up approaches. Arguably, nonscientist local stakeholders have always played an important role in knowledge risk management and resilience building within a hydrological context, such as flood response and drought alleviation. However, rapidly developing information and communication technologies such as the Internet, smartphones, and social media have already demonstrated their sizeable potential to make knowledge creation more multidirectional, decentralized, diverse, and inclusive. Combined with technologies for robust and low-cost sensor networks, a ‘citizen science’ approach has recently emerged as a promising direction in the provision of extensive, real-time information for risk management. Such projects work best when there is community buy-in, when their purpose(s) are clearly defined at the outset, and when the motivations and skillsets of all participants and stakeholders are well understood. They have great potential to enhance knowledge creation, not only for data collection, but also for analysis or interpretation. In addition, they can serve as a means of educating and empowering communities and stakeholders that are bypassed by more traditional knowledge generation processes. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of citizen science within the context of hydrological risk reduction and resilience building. Particularly when embedded within a polycentric approach toward risk governance, we argue that citizen science could complement more traditional knowledge generation practices, and also enhance innovation, adaptation, multidirectional information provision, risk management, and local resilience building.
    Migratory preferences of humpback whales between feeding and breeding grounds in the eastern South Pacific
    Acevedo, Jorge ; Aguayo-lobo, Anelio ; Allen, Judith ; Botero-acosta, Natalia ; Capella, Juan ; Castro, Cristina ; Rosa, Luciano Dalla ; Denkinger, Judith ; Félix, Fernando ; Flórez-gonzález, Lilian ; Garita, Frank ; Guzmán, Héctor M. ; Haase, Ben ; Kaufman, Gregory ; Llano, Martha ; Olavarría, Carlos ; Pacheco, Aldo S. ; Plana, Jordi ; Rasmussen, Kristin ; Scheidat, Meike ; Secchi, Eduardo R. ; Silva, Sebastian ; Stevick, Peter T. - \ 2017
    Marine Mammal Science 33 (2017)4. - ISSN 0824-0469 - p. 1035 - 1052.
    megaptera novaeangliae - migratory destinations - breeding stock G - photo-identifiaction - feeding ground - Antarctic Peninsula - Fueguian Archipelago
    Latitudinal preferences within the breeding range have been suggested for Breeding Stock G humpback whales that summer in different feeding areas of the eastern South Pacific. To address this hypothesis, humpback whales photo-identified from the Antarctic Peninsula and the Fueguian Archipelago (southern Chile) were compared with whales photo-identified from lower latitudes extending from northern Peru to Costa Rica. This comparison was performed over a time span that includes 18 austral seasons. A total of 238 whales identified from the Antarctic Peninsula and 25 whales from the Fueguian Archipelago were among those photo-identified at the breeding grounds. Our findings showed that humpback whales from each feeding area were resighted unevenly across the breeding grounds, which suggests a degree of spatial structuring in the migratory pathway. Humpback whales that feed at the
    Antarctic Peninsula were more likely to migrate to the southern breeding range
    between northern Peru and Colombia, whereas whales that feed at the Fueguian
    Archipelago were more likely to be found in the northern range of the breeding
    ground off Panama. Further photo-identification efforts and genetic sampling from poorly sampled or unsampled areas are recommended to confirm these reported connectivity patterns.
    Crops in silico : Generating virtual crops using an integrative and multi-scale modeling platform
    Marshall-Colon, Amy ; Long, Stephen P. ; Allen, Douglas K. ; Allen, Gabrielle ; Beard, Daniel A. ; Benes, Bedrich ; Caemmerer, Susanne Von; Christensen, A.J. ; Cox, Donna J. ; Yin, Xinyou - \ 2017
    Frontiers in Plant Science 8 (2017). - ISSN 1664-462X
    Computational framework - Crop yield - Integration - Model - Multiscale

    Multi-scale models can facilitate whole plant simulations by linking gene networks, protein synthesis, metabolic pathways, physiology, and growth. Whole plant models can be further integrated with ecosystem, weather, and climate models to predict how various interactions respond to environmental perturbations. These models have the potential to fill in missing mechanistic details and generate new hypotheses to prioritize directed engineering efforts. Outcomes will potentially accelerate improvement of crop yield, sustainability, and increase future food security. It is time for a paradigm shift in plant modeling, from largely isolated efforts to a connected community that takes advantage of advances in high performance computing and mechanistic understanding of plant processes. Tools for guiding future crop breeding and engineering, understanding the implications of discoveries at the molecular level for whole plant behavior, and improved prediction of plant and ecosystem responses to the environment are urgently needed. The purpose of this perspective is to introduce Crops in silico (cropsinsilico.org), an integrative and multi-scale modeling platform, as one solution that combines isolated modeling efforts toward the generation of virtual crops, which is open and accessible to the entire plant biology community. The major challenges involved both in the development and deployment of a shared, multi-scale modeling platform, which are summarized in this prospectus, were recently identified during the first Crops in silico Symposium and Workshop.

    Strong linkage of polar cod ( Boreogadus saida ) to sea ice algae-produced carbon: Evidence from stomach content, fatty acid and stable isotope analyses
    Kohlbach, Doreen ; Schaafsma, Fokje L. ; Graeve, Martin ; Lebreton, Benoit ; Lange, Benjamin Allen ; David, Carmen ; Vortkamp, Martina ; Flores, Hauke - \ 2017
    Progress in Oceanography 152 (2017). - ISSN 0079-6611 - p. 62 - 74.
    Ice-water interface - Stomach content - Compound-specific stable isotope analysis - Marker fatty acids - Carbon flux - Carbon isotope ratio
    The polar cod (Boreogadus saida) is considered an ecological key species, because it reaches high stock biomasses and constitutes an important carbon source for seabirds and marine mammals in high-Arctic ecosystems. Young polar cod (1–2 years) are often associated with the underside of sea ice. To evaluate the impact of changing Arctic sea ice habitats on polar cod, we examined the diet composition and quantified the contribution of ice algae-produced carbon (αIce) to the carbon budget of polar cod. Young polar cod were sampled in the ice-water interface layer in the central Arctic Ocean during late summer 2012. Diets and carbon sources of these fish were examined using 4 approaches: (1) stomach content analysis, (2) fatty acid (FA) analysis, (3) bulk nitrogen and carbon stable isotope analysis (BSIA) and (4) compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) of FAs. The ice-associated (sympagic) amphipod Apherusa glacialis dominated the stomach contents by mass, indicating a high importance of sympagic fauna in young polar cod diets. The biomass of food measured in stomachs implied constant feeding at daily rates of ∼1.2% body mass per fish, indicating the potential for positive growth. FA profiles of polar cod indicated that diatoms were the primary carbon source, indirectly obtained via amphipods and copepods. The αIce using bulk isotope data from muscle was estimated to be >90%. In comparison, αIce based on CSIA ranged from 34 to 65%, with the highest estimates from muscle and the lowest from liver tissue. Overall, our results indicate a strong dependency of polar cod on ice-algae produced carbon. This suggests that young polar cod may be particularly vulnerable to changes in the distribution and structure of sea ice habitats. Due to the ecological key role of polar cod, changes at the base of the sea ice-associated food web are likely to affect the higher trophic levels of high-Arctic ecosystems.
    Quick scan beheersmaatregelen van Tetrodotoxine in schelpdierproductie in de Oosterschelde
    Poelman, M. ; Blanco Garcia, A. ; Kamermans, P. ; Wijsman, J.W.M. ; Bolman, B.C. ; Strietman, W.J. - \ 2016
    IMARES (Rapport / IMARES C064/16) - 39
    oesterteelt - mosselteelt - tetrodotoxine - oosterschelde - milieumonitoring - oyster culture - mussel culture - tetrodotoxin - eastern scheldt - environmental monitoring
    In 2015 is een onderzoek naar het voorkomen en de meetbaarheid van Tetrodotoxine (TTX) in de Nederlandse schelpdierproductiegebieden uitgevoerd. De analyses zijn een gevolg van internationale rapportages over TTX in schelpdieren, zowel mosselen als oesters (voornamelijk in Griekenland en Groot Brittannië). Het onderzoek in Nederland laat zien dat er in verschillende schelpdiermonsters uit de Oosterschelde TTX aanwezig was. Het voorkomen van TTX in Nederland lijkt, op basis van feitelijke metingen, beperkt te zijn. Echter, door het gebrek aan; a) voldoende inzicht in het voorkomen van toxinen, b) inzicht in de kans op toxine aanwezigheid in Nederland en c) inzicht in de oorzaak (de bron) van TTX in Nederland, wordt het voorzorgsprincipe gehanteerd. Het huidige voedselveiligheidsmanagement systeem voorziet niet in het voldoende gericht managen van risico’s met onbekende bron. Hiervoor is aanvullend of specifiekere monitoring nodig, ook om data te verzamelen voor toekomstige management maatregelen. Dit biedt mogelijkheden om de productie- (Oosterschelde) en verwatergebieden voor schelpdieren te analyseren op mogelijke verschillen in potentiele aanwezigheid van TTX. Hierdoor is een monitoring- en managementsysteem ontwikkeld dat aansluit bij de onbekendheden van de toxine aanwezigheid en productie in Nederland. Om dit te bereiken is beoordeeld wat de mogelijke karakteristieken zijn voor de toxine producenten en is er een indeling voorgesteld voor de Oosterschelde die rekening houdt met de verschillen in omgevingsfactoren. Zodat een beeld ontstaat van de mogelijke indeling van een dergelijk gebied voor toepassing in monitoring en management. De oorzaak van het voorkomen van TTX in de Oosterschelde is niet bekend. Mogelijke oorzaken zijn te vinden in Vibrio en andere bacteriën, eventueel in symbiose met andere vectoren. Van de bekende TTX producenten uit de literatuur komt alleen de snoerworm Cephalothrix simula in de Oosterschelde voor. De exemplaren van Cephalothrix simula zijn op de bodem aangetroffen in dichte populaties van schelpkokerwormen en spinragwormen, die mogelijk als voedsel voor deze soort dienen (natuurbericht.nl). Daarnaast komt een Gibbula soort (de Asgrauwe tolhoren Gibbula cineraria) voor in de Oosterschelde. Het is minder waarschijnlijk dat er een direct verband is tussen deze soorten en TTX in schelpdieren, waar een indirecte route (via sediment) niet is uitgesloten. Het huidige monitoring programma houdt onvoldoende rekening met management van risico’s verbonden aan een onbekende bron. De gegevens over de mogelijke bronnen van TTX in schelpdieren en de karakteristieken hiervan geven de volgende criteria (mede op basis van beschikbaarheid van fysische informatie) om een gebiedsindeling te rechtvaardigen:  Temperatuur (mede een functie van o.a. diepte)  Saliniteit  Troebelheid  Verblijftijd water  Stroming / stroomsnelheid  Bodemsoort  Schelpdiersoort (soort schelpdier i.v.m. accumulatie en depuratie tijd) Op basis van verschillen in de fysische gegevens in de deelgebieden betekent dit dat de Oosterschelde opgesplitst kan worden in 16 deelgebieden die allen in meer of minder mate van elkaar te onderscheiden zijn. Een eerste indeling kan gemaakt worden op soort niveau, waarbij de verwaterpercelen en de Oesterproductie percelen in drie gebieden van elkaar gescheiden worden (waardoor 19 verschillende gebieden ontstaan). De gebieden voorzien allen in mogelijk verschil in toxine productie, accumulatie en risico op aanwezigheid van TTX. De verschillen zijn niet kwantificeerbaar, echter vanuit een risicomanagement perspectief zijn de gebieden te benutten voor verbetering van de trefkans, rekening houdend met spreiding. Het is zeer waarschijnlijk dat er verschillen in accumulatie per schelpdiersoort zijn, waardoor het mogelijk lijkt om soortspecifieke monitoring en management toe te passen. Er kan geen indicator IMARES rapport C064/16| 5 van 39 organisme (hoogste trefkans) worden aangewezen bij gebrek aan informatie over accumulatie van TTX. De kosten voor monitoring van productiegebieden die rekening houdt met de mogelijke verschillen in aanwezigheid van TTX in schelpdieren is berekend voor een wekelijkse meting en monitoring gedurende twee maanden. De wekelijkse kosten voor monitoring van de Oosterschelde bedragen 9 – 13 keuro. Dit is een bedrag van 70-103 keuro over een periode van 8 weken. Het is niet uitgesloten dat ook buiten het zomerseizoen monitoring noodzakelijk is. Het is aan te bevelen TTX standaard in het monitoringprogramma op te nemen om meer data te verzamelen. Voor de mosselsector wordt de sociaal-economische waarde van de Yerseke bank in de eerste twee weken van juli geschat op € 5 miljoen met een geschatte werkgelegenheid van 37 fte. Van half juli tot en met eind augustus wordt de waarde geschat op € 3,4 tot € 6,8 miljoen met een geschatte werkgelegenheid van 30 tot 45 fte. Voor de oestersector wordt de sociaal-economische waarde geschat op € 2 miljoen op jaarbasis en een werkgelegenheid van ca 67 fte. Op basis van de analyse kan een managementsysteem worden ingericht dat rekening houdt met de mogelijke bronnen van TTX. Dit systeem kan gebruikt worden om duidelijke inzichten te verkrijgen in de aanwezigheid van TTX in schelpdieren in de Oosterschelde. Daarnaast is het mogelijk om de gebiedsindeling (of delen ervan) te benutten voor een goede beheersing van de mogelijke voedselveiligheid of economische risico’s die het TTX dossier kent.
    Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015
    Wang, Haidong ; Naghavi, Mohsen ; Allen, Christine ; Barber, R.M. ; Bhutta, Zulfiqar ; Carter, Austin ; Casey, Daniel C. ; Charlson, Fiona J. ; Chen, Alan Z. ; Coates, M. ; Geleijnse, J.M. - \ 2016
    The Lancet 388 (2016)10053. - ISSN 0140-6736 - p. 1459 - 1544.
    Background
    Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures.

    Methods
    We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010. Improvements included refinements to the estimation of child and adult mortality and corresponding uncertainty, parameter selection for under-5 mortality synthesis by spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression, and sibling history data processing. We also expanded the database of vital registration, survey, and census data to 14 294 geography–year datapoints. For GBD 2015, eight causes, including Ebola virus disease, were added to the previous GBD cause list for mortality. We used six modelling approaches to assess cause-specific mortality, with the Cause of Death Ensemble Model (CODEm) generating estimates for most causes. We used a series of novel analyses to systematically quantify the drivers of trends in mortality across geographies. First, we assessed observed and expected levels and trends of cause-specific mortality as they relate to the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Second, we examined factors affecting total mortality patterns through a series of counterfactual scenarios, testing the magnitude by which population growth, population age structures, and epidemiological changes contributed to shifts in mortality. Finally, we attributed changes in life expectancy to changes in cause of death. We documented each step of the GBD 2015 estimation processes, as well as data sources, in accordance with Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER).

    Findings
    Globally, life expectancy from birth increased from 61·7 years (95% uncertainty interval 61·4–61·9) in 1980 to 71·8 years (71·5–72·2) in 2015. Several countries in sub-Saharan Africa had very large gains in life expectancy from 2005 to 2015, rebounding from an era of exceedingly high loss of life due to HIV/AIDS. At the same time, many geographies saw life expectancy stagnate or decline, particularly for men and in countries with rising mortality from war or interpersonal violence. From 2005 to 2015, male life expectancy in Syria dropped by 11·3 years (3·7–17·4), to 62·6 years (56·5–70·2). Total deaths increased by 4·1% (2·6–5·6) from 2005 to 2015, rising to 55·8 million (54·9 million to 56·6 million) in 2015, but age-standardised death rates fell by 17·0% (15·8–18·1) during this time, underscoring changes in population growth and shifts in global age structures. The result was similar for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), with total deaths from these causes increasing by 14·1% (12·6–16·0) to 39·8 million (39·2 million to 40·5 million) in 2015, whereas age-standardised rates decreased by 13·1% (11·9–14·3). Globally, this mortality pattern emerged for several NCDs, including several types of cancer, ischaemic heart disease, cirrhosis, and Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. By contrast, both total deaths and age-standardised death rates due to communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional conditions significantly declined from 2005 to 2015, gains largely attributable to decreases in mortality rates due to HIV/AIDS (42·1%, 39·1–44·6), malaria (43·1%, 34·7–51·8), neonatal preterm birth complications (29·8%, 24·8–34·9), and maternal disorders (29·1%, 19·3–37·1). Progress was slower for several causes, such as lower respiratory infections and nutritional deficiencies, whereas deaths increased for others, including dengue and drug use disorders. Age-standardised death rates due to injuries significantly declined from 2005 to 2015, yet interpersonal violence and war claimed increasingly more lives in some regions, particularly in the Middle East. In 2015, rotaviral enteritis (rotavirus) was the leading cause of under-5 deaths due to diarrhoea (146 000 deaths, 118 000–183 000) and pneumococcal pneumonia was the leading cause of under-5 deaths due to lower respiratory infections (393 000 deaths, 228 000–532 000), although pathogen-specific mortality varied by region. Globally, the effects of population growth, ageing, and changes in age-standardised death rates substantially differed by cause. Our analyses on the expected associations between cause-specific mortality and SDI show the regular shifts in cause of death composition and population age structure with rising SDI. Country patterns of premature mortality (measured as years of life lost [YLLs]) and how they differ from the level expected on the basis of SDI alone revealed distinct but highly heterogeneous patterns by region and country or territory. Ischaemic heart disease, stroke, and diabetes were among the leading causes of YLLs in most regions, but in many cases, intraregional results sharply diverged for ratios of observed and expected YLLs based on SDI. Communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases caused the most YLLs throughout sub-Saharan Africa, with observed YLLs far exceeding expected YLLs for countries in which malaria or HIV/AIDS remained the leading causes of early death.

    Interpretation
    At the global scale, age-specific mortality has steadily improved over the past 35 years; this pattern of general progress continued in the past decade. Progress has been faster in most countries than expected on the basis of development measured by the SDI. Against this background of progress, some countries have seen falls in life expectancy, and age-standardised death rates for some causes are increasing. Despite progress in reducing age-standardised death rates, population growth and ageing mean that the number of deaths from most non-communicable causes are increasing in most countries, putting increased demands on health systems.
    Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990–2015 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015
    Vos, Theo ; Allen, Christine ; Arora, Megha ; Barber, R.M. ; Bhutta, Zulfiqar ; Brown, Alexandria ; Carter, Austin ; Casey, Daniel C. ; Charlson, Fiona J. ; Chen, Alan Z. ; Geleijnse, J.M. - \ 2016
    The Lancet 388 (2016)10053. - ISSN 0140-6736 - p. 1545 - 1602.

    Background

    Non-fatal outcomes of disease and injury increasingly detract from the ability of the world's population to live in full health, a trend largely attributable to an epidemiological transition in many countries from causes affecting children, to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) more common in adults. For the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we estimated the incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for diseases and injuries at the global, regional, and national scale over the period of 1990 to 2015.


    Methods

    We estimated incidence and prevalence by age, sex, cause, year, and geography with a wide range of updated and standardised analytical procedures. Improvements from GBD 2013 included the addition of new data sources, updates to literature reviews for 85 causes, and the identification and inclusion of additional studies published up to November, 2015, to expand the database used for estimation of non-fatal outcomes to 60 900 unique data sources. Prevalence and incidence by cause and sequelae were determined with DisMod-MR 2.1, an improved version of the DisMod-MR Bayesian meta-regression tool first developed for GBD 2010 and GBD 2013. For some causes, we used alternative modelling strategies where the complexity of the disease was not suited to DisMod-MR 2.1 or where incidence and prevalence needed to be determined from other data. For GBD 2015 we created a summary indicator that combines measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility (the Socio-demographic Index [SDI]) and used it to compare observed patterns of health loss to the expected pattern for countries or locations with similar SDI scores.


    Findings

    We generated 9·3 billion estimates from the various combinations of prevalence, incidence, and YLDs for causes, sequelae, and impairments by age, sex, geography, and year. In 2015, two causes had acute incidences in excess of 1 billion: upper respiratory infections (17·2 billion, 95% uncertainty interval [UI] 15·4–19·2 billion) and diarrhoeal diseases (2·39 billion, 2·30–2·50 billion). Eight causes of chronic disease and injury each affected more than 10% of the world's population in 2015: permanent caries, tension-type headache, iron-deficiency anaemia, age-related and other hearing loss, migraine, genital herpes, refraction and accommodation disorders, and ascariasis. The impairment that affected the greatest number of people in 2015 was anaemia, with 2·36 billion (2·35–2·37 billion) individuals affected. The second and third leading impairments by number of individuals affected were hearing loss and vision loss, respectively. Between 2005 and 2015, there was little change in the leading causes of years lived with disability (YLDs) on a global basis. NCDs accounted for 18 of the leading 20 causes of age-standardised YLDs on a global scale. Where rates were decreasing, the rate of decrease for YLDs was slower than that of years of life lost (YLLs) for nearly every cause included in our analysis. For low SDI geographies, Group 1 causes typically accounted for 20–30% of total disability, largely attributable to nutritional deficiencies, malaria, neglected tropical diseases, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis. Lower back and neck pain was the leading global cause of disability in 2015 in most countries. The leading cause was sense organ disorders in 22 countries in Asia and Africa and one in central Latin America; diabetes in four countries in Oceania; HIV/AIDS in three southern sub-Saharan African countries; collective violence and legal intervention in two north African and Middle Eastern countries; iron-deficiency anaemia in Somalia and Venezuela; depression in Uganda; onchoceriasis in Liberia; and other neglected tropical diseases in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.


    Interpretation

    Ageing of the world's population is increasing the number of people living with sequelae of diseases and injuries. Shifts in the epidemiological profile driven by socioeconomic change also contribute to the continued increase in years lived with disability (YLDs) as well as the rate of increase in YLDs. Despite limitations imposed by gaps in data availability and the variable quality of the data available, the standardised and comprehensive approach of the GBD study provides opportunities to examine broad trends, compare those trends between countries or subnational geographies, benchmark against locations at similar stages of development, and gauge the strength or weakness of the estimates available
    Review of approaches and datasets to categorise and map Public Goods and Ecosystem Services at EU level : Deliverable 2.1. EU-Horizon 2020 project PEGASUS, project ID: 633814
    Paracchini, M.L. ; Barredo, J.I. ; Rega, Carlo ; Caudullo, G. ; Perez-Soba, M. ; Cormont, A. ; Hendriks, C.M.A. ; Miguel Ayala, L. ; Nabuurs, G.J. ; Guiomar, Nuno ; Cruz, David ; Pinto-Correia, Teresa ; Allen, Ben ; Underwood, Evelyn - \ 2016
    PEGASUS - 148 p.
    Informed debate on the use of fire for peatland management means acknowledging the complexity of socio-ecological systems
    Davies, G.M. ; Kettridge, Nicholas ; Stoof, Cathelijne R. ; Gray, Alan ; Marrs, Rob ; Ascoli, Davide ; Fernandes, Paulo M. ; Allen, Katherine A. ; Doerr, Stefan H. ; Clay, Gareth D. - \ 2016
    Nature Conservation 16 (2016). - ISSN 1314-6947 - p. 59 - 77.
    Adaptive management - Diversity - Heathland - Managed burning - Moorland - Participatory - Scale

    The effects of fire and its use on European peatlands and heaths are the focus of considerable research and debate due to the important services these ecosystems provide and the threats they face from climatic and land-use change. Whilst in some countries ecologists are actively promoting the restoration of historic fire management regimes, in the UK the debate has become increasingly acrimonious. Positions seem entrenched between continuing the intensive form of management associated with grouse moors or ceasing burning and seeking to eliminate fire altogether. In a recent paper we argued that participants' positions appeared influenced by political and philosophical beliefs associated with, for example, private land-ownership, hunting, and associated conservation conflicts such as raptor persecution. We also suggested there was inadequate engagement with key concepts and evidence from fire and peatland ecology. We argued that management debates should aim to be inclusive and evidence-based, and to understand the benefits and costs of different fire regimes. In a strongly-worded critique of our paper, George Monbiot (author of "Feral: Searching for Enchantment on the Frontiers of Rewilding") suggested we: i) framed our research question too narrowly; ii) made the implicit assumption that moorlands were the "right" ecosystem for the UK countryside; and iii) failed to adequately engage with arguments put forward for cessation of managed burning. Here we critically examine each of these issues to provide further insight into how adaptive, participatory land-management could develop. We argue that a productive debate must acknowledge that complex trade-offs are inevitable during ecological management. Choosing the "right" ecosystem is difficult, especially in a landscape with a long history of human influence, and the answer depends on the values and ecosystem services we prioritize. Natural resource management decisions will be improved if based on an understanding and valuation of the multiple scales and levels of organization at which ecological diversity exists, the role of disturbance in controlling ecosystem composition and function, and the need for participatory action.

    Eén voor allen, allen voor één
    Zoethout, H. ; Bouwmans, M.H.C.F. ; Runhaar, P.R. ; Wesselink, R. - \ 2016
    Opleiding en Ontwikkeling 29 (2016)2. - ISSN 0922-0895 - p. 22 - 26.
    Solutions for ecosystem-level protection of ocean systems under climate change
    Queirós, Ana M. ; Huebert, Klaus B. ; Keyl, Friedemann ; Fernandes, Jose A. ; Stolte, Willem ; Maar, Marie ; Kay, Susan ; Jones, Miranda C. ; Hamon, Katell G. ; Hendriksen, Gerrit ; Vermard, Youen ; Marchal, Paul ; Teal, Lorna R. ; Somerfield, Paul J. ; Austen, Melanie C. ; Barange, Manuel ; Sell, Anne F. ; Allen, Icarus ; Peck, Myron A. - \ 2016
    Global Change Biology 22 (2016)12. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 3927 - 3936.
    climate change - conservation - COP21 - ecosystem model - habitat - marine spatial planning - ocean - ocean acidification - species distribution - warming
    The Paris Conference of Parties (COP21) agreement renewed momentum for action against climate change, creating the space for solutions for conservation of the ocean addressing two of its largest threats: climate change and ocean
    acidification (CCOA). Recent arguments that ocean policies disregard a mature conservation research field and that protected areas cannot address climate change may be oversimplistic at this time when dynamic solutions for the
    management of changing oceans are needed. We propose a novel approach, based on spatial meta-analysis of climate impact models, to improve the positioning of marine protected areas to limit CCOA impacts. We do this by estimating the vulnerability of ocean ecosystems to CCOA in a spatially explicit manner and then co-mapping human activities such as the placement of renewable energy developments and the distribution of marine protected areas. We test this approach in the NE Atlantic considering also how CCOA impacts the base of the food web which supports protected species, an aspect often neglected in conservation studies. We found that, in this case, current regional conservation plans protect areas with low ecosystem-level vulnerability to CCOA, but disregard how species may redistribute to new, suitable and productive habitats. Under current plans, these areas remain open to commercial
    extraction and other uses. Here, and worldwide, ocean conservation strategies under CCOA must recognize the longterm importance of these habitat refuges, and studies such as this one are needed to identify them. Protecting these
    areas creates adaptive, climate-ready and ecosystem-level policy options for conservation, suitable for changing oceans.
    Host body size and the diversity of tick assemblages on Neotropical vertebrates
    Esser, Helen J. ; Foley, Janet E. ; Bongers, Frans ; Herre, Edward Allen ; Miller, Matthew J. ; Prins, Herbert H.T. ; Jansen, Patrick A. - \ 2016
    International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife 5 (2016)3. - ISSN 2213-2244 - p. 295 - 304.
    20/80 Rule - Panama - Parasite fauna - Pareto principle - Proportional similarity - Species richness

    Identifying the factors that influence the species diversity and distribution of ticks (Acari: Ixodida) across vertebrate host taxa is of fundamental ecological and medical importance. Host body size is considered one of the most important determinants of tick abundance, with larger hosts having higher tick burdens. The species diversity of tick assemblages should also be greater on larger-bodied host species, but empirical studies testing this hypothesis are lacking. Here, we evaluate this relationship using a comparative dataset of feeding associations from Panama between 45 tick species and 171 host species that range in body size by three orders of magnitude. We found that tick species diversity increased with host body size for adult ticks but not for immature ticks. We also found that closely related host species tended to have similar tick species diversity, but correcting for host phylogeny did not alter the relationships between host body size and tick species diversity. The distribution of tick species was highly aggregated, with approximately 20% of the host species harboring 80% of all tick species, following the Pareto principle or 20/80 Rule. Thus, the aggregated pattern commonly observed for tick burdens and disease transmission also holds for patterns of tick species richness. Our finding that the adult ticks in this system preferentially parasitize large-bodied host species suggests that the ongoing anthropogenic loss of large-bodied vertebrates is likely to result in host-tick coextinction events, even when immature stages feed opportunistically. As parasites play critical roles in ecological and evolutionary processes, such losses may profoundly affect ecosystem functioning and services.

    Groen en allen gevoed
    Ittersum, Martin van - \ 2016
    Molecular ecological insights into neotropical bird-tick interactions
    Miller, Matthew J. ; Esser, Helen J. ; Loaiza, Jose R. ; Herre, Edward Allen ; Aguilar, Celestino ; Quintero, Diomedes ; Alvarez, Eric ; Bermingham, Eldredge - \ 2016
    PLoS ONE 11 (2016)5. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 17 p.

    In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds' role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually-sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna). Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical-Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically-identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly-discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology and the dynamics of emerging tropical tick-borne pathogens should explicitly consider wild bird as hosts.

    The peatland vegetation burning debate: keep scientific critique in perspective. : A response to Brown et al. and Douglas et al.
    Davies, G.M. ; Kettridge, Nicholas ; Stoof, Cathelijne R. ; Gray, Alan ; Marrs, Rob ; Ascoli, Davide ; Fernandes, Paulo M. ; Allen, Katherine A. ; Doerr, Stefan H. ; Clay, Gareth D. ; McMorrow, Julia ; Vandvik, Vigdis - \ 2016
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Biological sciences 371 (2016). - ISSN 0962-8436 - 4 p.
    Mapping the climate change challenge
    Hallegatte, Stephane ; Rogelj, Joeri ; Allen, Myles ; Clarke, Leon ; Edenhofer, Ottmar ; Field, Christopher B. ; Friedlingstein, Pierre ; Kesteren, Line Van; Knutti, Reto ; Mach, Katharine J. ; Mastrandrea, Michael ; Michel, Adrien ; Minx, Jan ; Oppenheimer, Michael ; Plattner, Gian Kasper ; Riahi, Keywan ; Schaeffer, Michiel ; Stocker, Thomas F. ; Vuuren, Detlef P. van - \ 2016
    Nature Climate Change 6 (2016)7. - ISSN 1758-678X - p. 663 - 668.

    Discussions on a long-term global goal to limit climate change, in the form of an upper limit to warming, were only partially resolved at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change negotiations in Paris, 2015. Such a political agreement must be informed by scientific knowledge. One way to communicate the costs and benefits of policies is through a mapping that systematically explores the consequences of different choices. Such a multi-disciplinary effort based on the analysis of a set of scenarios helped structure the IPCC AR5 Synthesis Report. This Perspective summarizes this approach, reviews its strengths and limitations, and discusses how decision-makers can use its results in practice. It also identifies research needs that can facilitate integrated analysis of climate change and help better inform policy-makers and the public.

    Understanding isoprene photooxidation using observations and modeling over a subtropical forest in the southeastern US
    Su, Luping ; Patton, Edward G. ; Vilà-guerau De Arellano, Jordi ; Guenther, Alex B. ; Kaser, Lisa ; Yuan, Bin ; Xiong, Fulizi ; Shepson, Paul B. ; Zhang, Li ; Miller, David O. ; Brune, William H. ; Baumann, Karsten ; Edgerton, Eric ; Weinheimer, Andrew ; Misztal, Pawel K. ; Park, Jeong-Hoo ; Goldstein, Allen H. ; Skog, Kate M. ; Keutsch, Frank N. ; Mak, John E. - \ 2016
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16 (2016)12. - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 7725 - 7741.
    The emission, dispersion, and photochemistry of isoprene (C5H8) and related chemical species in the convective boundary layer (CBL) during sunlit daytime were studied over a mixed forest in the southeastern United States by combining ground-based and aircraft observations. Fluxes of isoprene and monoterpenes were quantified at the top of the forest canopy using a high-resolution proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS). Snapshot (∼  2 min sampling duration) vertical profiles of isoprene, methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) + methacrolein (MACR), and monoterpenes were collected from aircraft every hour in the CBL (100–1000 m). Both ground-based and airborne collected volatile organic compound (VOC) data are used to constrain the initial conditions of a mixed-layer chemistry model (MXLCH), which is applied to examine the chemical evolution of the O3–NOx–HOx–VOC system and how it is affected by boundary layer dynamics in the CBL. The chemical loss rate of isoprene (∼  1 h) is similar to the turbulent mixing timescale (0.1–0.5 h), which indicates that isoprene concentrations are equally dependent on both photooxidation and boundary layer dynamics. Analysis of a model-derived concentration budget suggests that diurnal evolution of isoprene inside the CBL is mainly controlled by surface emissions and chemical loss; the diurnal evolution of O3 is dominated by entrainment. The NO to HO2 ratio (NO : HO2) is used as an indicator of anthropogenic impact on the CBL chemical composition and spans a wide range (1–163). The fate of hydroxyl-substituted isoprene peroxyl radical (HOC5H8OO·; ISOPOO) is strongly affected by NO : HO2, shifting from NO-dominant to NO–HO2-balanced conditions from early morning to noontime. This chemical regime change is reflected in the diurnal evolution of isoprene hydroxynitrates (ISOPN) and isoprene hydroxy hydroperoxides (ISOPOOH).
    Agrarisch natuurbeheer in Nederland : principes, resultaten en perspectieven
    Snoo, G.R. de; Melman, T.C.P. ; Brouwer, F.M. ; Weijden, W.J. van der; Udo de Haes, H.A. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086862818 - 384
    Dit boek geeft het eerste brede overzicht van agrarisch natuurbeheer in Nederland. Naast de actuele stand van zaken schetst het boek perspectieven voor de toekomst die inpasbaar zijn in de bedrijfsvoering. Het bestaat uit drie delen. Het eerste deel gaat in op de ontwikkeling van het natuur- en landbouwbeleid en van de organisaties die zich voor agrarisch natuurbeheer inzetten. Het tweede deel geeft een overzicht van de ecologische aspecten, waarbij naast weidevogels, akkervogels en ganzen, ook sloten, opgaande begroeiing, erven en gebouwen aan bod komen. Ook worden de functies van biodiversiteit voor de landbouw belicht. Het laatste deel van het boek behandelt de inpasbaarheid in de bedrijfsvoering en de betekenis voor verbreding van de landbouw. Het afsluitende hoofdstuk schetst de perspectieven voor natuur in het boerenland. Hierbij worden relaties gelegd met het huidige landelijke, provinciale en Europese beleid. Aan dit boek hebben ruim 40 auteurs meegewerkt, die tezamen een breed spectrum aan disciplines bestrijken. Het is bedoeld voor allen die met agrarisch natuurbeheer te maken hebben of daarin geïnteresseerd zijn, zoals agrarische natuurverenigingen en collectieven, natuur- en landschapsbeheerders, boeren, waterschappen, onderwijsinstellingen, recreanten en beleidsmakers.
    The role of fire in UK peatland and moorland management : The need for informed, unbiased debate
    Davies, G.M. ; Kettridge, Nicholas ; Stoof, Cathelijne R. ; Gray, Alan ; Ascoli, Davide ; Fernandes, Paulo M. ; Marrs, Rob ; Allen, Katherine A. ; Doerr, Stefan H. ; Clay, Gareth D. ; McMorrow, Julia ; Vandvik, Vigdis - \ 2016
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Biological sciences 371 (2016)1696. - ISSN 0962-8436
    Calluna vulgaris - Management burning - Moorland - Peat - Prescribed burning - UK - Wildfire

    Fire has been used for centuries to generate and manage some of the UK’s cultural landscapes. Despite its complex role in the ecology of UK peatlands and moorlands, there has been a trend of simplifying the narrative around burning to present it as an only ecologically damaging practice. That fire modifies peatland characteristics at a range of scales is clearly understood. Whether these changes are perceived as positive or negative depends upon how trade-offs are made between ecosystem services and the spatial and temporal scales of concern. Here we explore the complex interactions and trade-offs in peatland fire management, evaluating the benefits and costs of managed fire as they are currently understood. We highlight the need for (i) distinguishing between the impacts of fires occurring with differing severity and frequency, and (ii) improved characterization of ecosystem health that incorporates the response and recovery of peatlands to fire. We also explore how recent research has been contextualized within both scientific publications and the wider media and how this can influence non-specialist perceptions. We emphasize the need for an informed, unbiased debate on fire as an ecological management tool that is separated from other aspects of moorland management and from political and economic opinions.

    Differences between carbon budget estimates unravelled
    Rogelj, Joeri ; Schaeffer, Michiel ; Friedlingstein, Pierre ; Gillett, Nathan P. ; Vuuren, Detlef P. Van; Riahi, Keywan ; Allen, Myles ; Knutti, Reto - \ 2016
    Nature Climate Change 6 (2016). - ISSN 1758-678X - p. 245 - 252.

    Several methods exist to estimate the cumulative carbon emissions that would keep global warming to below a given temperature limit. Here we review estimates reported by the IPCC and the recent literature, and discuss the reasons underlying their differences. The most scientifically robust number-the carbon budget for CO2 -induced warming only-is also the least relevant for real-world policy. Including all greenhouse gases and using methods based on scenarios that avoid instead of exceed a given temperature limit results in lower carbon budgets. For a >66% chance of limiting warming below the internationally agreed temperature limit of 2 °C relative to pre-industrial levels, the most appropriate carbon budget estimate is 590-1,240 GtCO2 from 2015 onwards. Variations within this range depend on the probability of staying below 2 °C and on end-of-century non-CO2 warming. Current CO2 emissions are about 40 GtCO2 yr -1, and global CO2 emissions thus have to be reduced urgently to keep within a 2 °C-compatible budget.

    Labor, wages and living standards in Java, 1680-1914
    Zwart, P. de; Zanden, J.L. van - \ 2015
    European Review of Economic History 19 (2015)3. - ISSN 1361-4916 - p. 215 - 234.
    The development of living standards in Java has long been a subject of scholarly interest. A number of scholars have suggested that between 1600 and 1900 Southeast Asian living standards declined significantly. The present article contributes to these issues by calculating long-term real wages for Java between 1680 and 1914, following Allen's subsistence basket methodology. New data on wages and prices were collected from the Dutch East India Company (VOC) archives and connected to data on the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The resultant long-term real wage developments show a slightly different picture of Javanese living standards than that which has emerged from the literature to date.
    Simulating distal gut mucosal and luminal communities using packed-column biofilm reactors and an in vitro chemostat model
    McDonald, J.A. ; Fuentes, S. ; Schroeter, K. ; Heikamp-de Jong, G.A.M. ; Khursigara, C.M. ; Vos, W.M. de; Allen-Vercoe, E. - \ 2015
    Journal of Microbiological Methods 108 (2015). - ISSN 0167-7012 - p. 36 - 44.
    human intestinal microbiota - motile bacteria - clindamycin - mucin - diversity - colonization - resistance - stability - system - akkermansia
    In vivo studies of human mucosal gut microbiota are often limited to end-point analyses and confounded by bowel cleansing procedures. Therefore, we used biofilm reactors to incorporate a simulated mucosal environment into an in vitro gut chemostat model. Communities developed were complex, reproducible, distinct, and representative of in vivo communities.
    Iodbedarf und Risiken und Nutzen einer Korrektur des Iodmangels in Populationen
    Zimmermann, Michael B. - \ 2014
    Perspectives in Medicine 2 (2014)1-4. - ISSN 2211-968X - p. 56 - 67.
    Iodmangel hat aufgrund der sich daraus ergebenden unzureichenden Synthese von Schilddrüsenhormonen eine Vielzahl negativer Auswirkungen auf Wachstum und Entwicklung, die als Iodmangelerkrankungen bezeichnet werden. Iodmangelerkrankungen bilden immer noch die häufigste vermeidbare Ursache für mentale Beeinträchtigungen weltweit. Zur Beurteilung von Iodmangelerkrankungen dienen Methoden wie die Messung der Iodkonzentration im Urin, des Thyreoglobulins, des Thyreotropins bei Neugeborenen sowie eine evtl. vorhandene Struma. In nahezu allen Ländern, in denen Iodmangel herrscht, ist die wirkungsvollste Strategie zur Kontrolle von Iodmangelerkrankungen die Salziodierung, eine der kostengünstigsten Möglichkeiten, die ökonomische und soziale Entwicklung zu fördern. Ist eine Salziodierung nicht möglich, können Risikogruppen gezielt mit Iodsupplementen versorgt werden. Die Einführung von iodiertem Salz in Regionen mit chronischen Iodmangelerkrankungen kann u. U. die Inzidenz von Schilddrüsenerkrankungen vorübergehend erhöhen; bei entsprechenden Programmen sollten daher sowohl Iodmangel als auch Iodexzess überwacht werden. Sicherlich sind noch weitere Daten zur Epidemiologie von Schilddrüsenerkrankungen, die infolge von Unterschieden bei der Iodaufnahme entstehen, erforderlich. Im Allgemeinen fallen jedoch die vergleichsweise geringen, mit einem Iodexzess verbundenen Risiken gegenüber den beträchtlichen Risiken eines Iodmangels kaum ins Gewicht.
    How ICT is changing the nature of the farm : a research agenda on the economics of big data
    Poppe, K.J. ; Wolfert, J. ; Verdouw, C.N. - \ 2014
    In: Farming systems facing global challenges. - IFSA - p. 1801 - 1812.
    Modern information-based technologies, such as self-driving tractors, GPS, milk robots, automated egg production, satellite data and social media, will change farm practices and agricultural structure and contribute to the prosperity and resilience of farming systems. Based on macro-trends and niche developments we argue that the food chain will become much more datadriven, based on up to date ICT. It will move away from a situation characterised by a low level of integration of data. This has a large potential impact on issues like sustainability, food safety, resource efficiency and waste reduction.
    The economic effects of such developments are still to be explored. At first sight it could lead to more closely integrated supply chains that makes the farmer act as a franchisee with limited freedom. But the opposite could be true as well, with more transparency and easier options for direct sales in consumer food webs, using social media and smart solutions for the ‘last mile’ delivery. Like with previous technological developments, not all farmers will invest in new skills and
    where technologies are saving labour, farms will get bigger. Some farms or regions will become less competitive if the basic infrastructure (e.g. in broad band internet or GPS systems) lacks. Competition between advisors could increase, if they are able to serve farmers digitally. That could also mean that a part of such value added activities moves from the most remote rural areas
    to regions with clusters of knowledge. As Allen and Lueck (2002) showed in their “Nature of the farm”, that family farms are characterised by a low level of specialisation of the farmer’s tasks, as the markets does not provide enough
    incentives to specialise. Due to a low profitability with a high level of risk and especially high transaction costs in factor markets as a result of moral hazard, family farms are competitive over more industrial holdings in most types of farming. ICT, higher food prices and demography could change that.
    'Rode draad is dat kosten zuivering naar beneden moeten' (interview met Ellen Beerling en Jim van Ruijven0
    Velden, P. van; Beerling, E.A.M. ; Ruijven, J.P.M. van - \ 2014
    Onder Glas 11 (2014)1. - p. 42 - 43.
    glastuinbouw - oppervlaktewater - waterzuivering - methodologie - irrigatiewater - technieken - recirculatiesystemen - kostenbeheersing - efficiëntie - greenhouse horticulture - surface water - water treatment - methodology - irrigation water - techniques - recirculating systems - cost control - efficiency
    Actief kool, ozon, waterstofperoxide en UV zijn allen bruikbaar om er voor te zorgen dat er geen resten van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen in het oppervlaktewater terecht komen. Watervlooien waarschuwen of er misschien toch nog een toxische stof is achtergebleven. Onderzoekers Ellen Beerling en Jim van Ruijven vervolgen hun zoektocht naar een goede en betaalbare zuiveringsmethode.
    Acute and Non-acute Effects of Cannabis on Human Memory Function: A Critical Review of Neuroimaging Studies
    Bossong, M.G. ; Jager, G. ; Bhattacharyya, S. ; Allen, P. - \ 2014
    Current Pharmaceutical Design 20 (2014)13. - ISSN 1381-6128 - p. 2114 - 2125.
    spatial working-memory - adolescent marijuana users - cerebral-blood-flow - prefrontal cortex - default network - fmri response - recognition memory - striatal function - drug-addiction - brain-function
    Smoking cannabis produces a diverse range of effects, including impairments in learning and memory. These effects are exerted through action on the endocannabinoid system, which suggests involvement of this system in human cognition. Learning and memory deficits are core symptoms of psychiatric and neurological disorders such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease, and may also be related to endocannabinoid dysfunction in these disorders. However, before new research can focus on potential treatments that work by manipulating the endocannabinoid system, it needs to be elucidated how this system is involved in symptoms of psychiatric disorders. Here we review neuroimaging studies that investigated acute and non-acute effects of cannabis on human learning and memory function, both in adults and in adolescents. Overall, results of these studies show that cannabis use is associated with a pattern of increased activity and a higher level of deactivation in different memory-related areas. This could reflect either increased neural effort ('neurophysiological inefficiency') or a change in strategy to maintain good task performance. However, the interpretation of these findings is significantly hampered by large differences between study populations in cannabis use in terms of frequency, age of onset, and time that subjects were abstinent from cannabis. Future neuroimaging studies should take these limitations into account, and should focus on the potential of cannabinoid compounds for treatment of cognitive symptoms in psychiatric disorders.
    Carbon and Other Biogeochemical Cycles
    Ciais, P. ; Sabine, C. ; Bala, G. ; Peters, W. - \ 2013
    In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change / Stocker, T.F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.K., Tignor, M., Allen, S.K., Boschung, J., Nauels, A., Xia, Y., Bex, V., Midgley, P.M., United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA : Cambridge University Press - ISBN 9781107661820 - p. 465 - 570.
    Smoking and the risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
    Rohrmann, S. ; Linseisen, J. ; Allen, N. ; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B. ; Johnsen, N.F. ; Tjonneland, A. ; Overvad, K. ; Kaaks, R. ; Teucher, B. ; Boeing, H. ; Pischon, T. ; Lagiou, P. ; Trichopoulou, A. ; Trichopoulos, D. ; Palli, D. ; Krogh, V. ; Tunnino, R. ; Ricceri, F. ; Suarez, M.V.A. ; Agudo, A. ; Sanchez, M.J. ; Chirlaque, M.D. ; Barricarte, A. ; Larranaga, N. ; Boshuizen, H.C. ; Kranen, H.J. ; Stettin, P. ; Johansson, M. ; Bjartell, A. ; Ulmert, D. ; Khaw, K.T. ; Wareham, N.J. ; Ferrari, P. ; Romieux, I. ; Gunter, M.J.R. ; Riboli, E. ; Key, T.J. - \ 2013
    British Journal of Cancer 108 (2013)3. - ISSN 0007-0920 - p. 708 - 714.
    cigarette-smoking - follow-up - health-professionals - prospective us - tobacco use - cohort - men - recurrence - association - mortality
    Background: Smoking is not associated with prostate cancer incidence in most studies, but associations between smoking and fatal prostate cancer have been reported. Methods: During 1992 and 2000, lifestyle information was assessed via questionnaires and personal interview in a cohort of 145112 European men. Until 2009, 4623 incident cases of prostate cancer were identified, including 1517 cases of low-grade, 396 cases of high grade, 1516 cases of localised, 808 cases of advanced disease, and 432 fatal cases. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to examine the association of smoking status, smoking intensity, and smoking duration with the risk of incident and fatal prostate cancer. Results: Compared with never smokers, current smokers had a reduced risk of prostate cancer (RR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.83-0.97), which was statistically significant for localised and low-grade disease, but not for advanced or high-grade disease. In contrast, heavy smokers (25+ cigarettes per day) and men who had smoked for a long time (40+ years) had a higher risk of prostate cancer death (RR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.11-2.93; RR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.01-1.87, respectively). Conclusion: The observation of an increased prostate cancer mortality among heavy smokers confirms the results of previous prospective studies.
    Tellen en meten, de pijlers onder het weten (interview met Martin Poot, Cindy van Damme en Corina Hinrichs)
    Bijnsdorp, R. ; Poot, M.C. ; Damme, C.J.G. van; Hinrichs, C.S. - \ 2013
    Magazine Over de Zee 1 (2013)October 2013. - p. 27 - 31.
    mariene gebieden - marien milieu - kennisvalorisatie - kennissystemen - kennisoverdracht - monitoring - strategisch management - marine areas - marine environment - knowledge exploitation - knowledge systems - knowledge transfer - monitoring - strategic management
    Alles wat op en in de zee gebeurt, is de moeite van het weten waard. Maar er is ook een soort kennis die niet allen nice to know is, maar ‘verplicht ‘voor elk land dat aan zee grenst. Kennis om te kunnen beoordelen of economische of maatschappelijke activiteiten schade (kunnen) toebrengen aan het milieu of het ecosysteem van de zee. Die kennis omvat veel verschillende terreinen en je kunt hem niet ad hoc even boven water halen wanneer je hem nodig hebt. Weten hoe het ervoor staat met de natuur en het milieu van de zee is een zaak van jaren achtereen, systematisch, dezelfde waarnemingen doen. Dan pas zijn trendmatige ontwikkelingen in kaart te brengen.
    Evaluation of microbial community reproducibility, stability and composition in a human distal gut chemostat model
    McDonald, J.A. ; Schroeter, K. ; Fuentes Enriquez de Salamanca, S. ; Heikamp-de Jong, G.A.M. ; Khursigara, C.M. ; Vos, W.M. de; Allen-Vercoe, E. - \ 2013
    Journal of Microbiological Methods 95 (2013)2. - ISSN 0167-7012 - p. 167 - 174.
    phylogenetic microarray analysis - gel-electrophoresis analysis - continuous-culture system - 16s ribosomal-rna - intestinal microbiota - human colon - bacterial-populations - mixed populations - retention time - fermentation
    In vitro gut models provide several advantages over in vivo models for the study of the human gut microbiota. However, because communities developed in these models are inevitably simplified simulations of the in vivo environment, it is necessary to broadly define the differences between in vitro consortia and the communities from which they are derived. In this study we characterized microbial community development in a twin-vessel single-stage chemostat model of the human distal gut ecosystem using both gel (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) and phylogenetic microarray (Human Intestinal Tract Chip) based techniques. Five different sets of twin-vessels were inoculated with feces from three different healthy adult donors and allowed to reach steady state compositions. We found that twin-vessel single-stage chemostats could develop and maintain stable, diverse, and reproducible communities that reach steady state compositions in all five runs by at most 36 days post-inoculation. As noted in other in vitro studies, steady state communities were enriched in Bacteroidetes but not Clostridium cluster XIVa, Bacilli or other Firmicutes relative to the fecal inocula. Communities developed within this model had higher within-run reproducibility than between-run repeatability when using consecutive fecal donations. Both fecal inocula and steady state chemostat communities seeded with feces from different donors had distinct compositions. We conclude that twin-vessel single-stage chemostat models represent a valid simulation of the human distal gut environment and can support complex, representative microbial communities ideal for experimental manipulation
    Hormonal, Metabolic, and Inflammatory Profiles and Endometrial Cancer Risk Within the EPIC Cohort-A Factor Analysis
    Dossus, L. ; Lukanova, A. ; Rinaldi, S. ; Allen, N. ; Cust, A.E. ; Becker, S. ; Tjonneland, A. ; Hansen, L. ; Overvad, K. ; Chabbert-Buffet, N. ; Mesrine, S. ; Clavel-Chapelon, F. ; Teucher, B. ; Duijnhoven, F.J.B. van - \ 2013
    American Journal of Epidemiology 177 (2013)8. - ISSN 0002-9262 - p. 787 - 799.
    growth-factor-i - postmenopausal women - insulin-resistance - adipose-tissue - c-peptide - nutrition - obesity - premenopausal - pathogenesis - adiponectin
    A “Western” lifestyle characterized by physical inactivity and excess weight is associated with a number of metabolic and hormonal dysregulations, including increased circulating estrogen levels, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and chronic inflammation. The same hormonal and metabolic axes might mediate the association between this lifestyle and the development of endometrial cancer. Using data collected within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a prospective cohort study carried out in 10 European countries during 1992–2000, we conducted a factor analysis to delineate important components that summarize the variation explained by a set of biomarkers and to examine their association with endometrial cancer risk. Prediagnostic levels of testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, sex hormone-binding globulin, estrone, estradiol, C-peptide, insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins 1 and 2, adiponectin, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) a, soluble TNF receptors 1 and 2, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist were measured in 233 incident endometrial cancer cases and 446 matched controls. Factor analysis identified 3 components associated with postmenopausal endometrial cancer risk that could be labeled “insulin resistance/metabolic syndrome,” “steroids,” and “inflammation” factors. A fourth component, “lipids,” was not significantly associated with endometrial cancer. In conclusion, besides the well-known associations of risk with sex hormones and insulin-regulated physiological axes, our data further support the hypothesis that inflammation factors play a role in endometrial carcinogenesis.
    België wil door met Dairyman in Euro-Dairy
    Aarts, Frans - \ 2013

    De Vlaamse voorloperbedrijven die deelnamen aan project Dairyman zijn allen positief over de manier van kennis vergaren en delen zoals dat in het project gebeurt. Dat meldt het Belgische ILVO (Instituut voor Landbouw- en Visserijonderzoek).

    Biomass and bioenergy in the wider land-use context of the European Union
    Allen, B.R. ; Keegan, D. ; Elbersen, B.S. - \ 2013
    Biofuels Bioproducts and Biorefining 7 (2013)2. - ISSN 1932-104X - p. 207 - 216.
    biofuels - energy - food
    Demands from land are increasing within the EU. Targets set out under the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) are driving the production of energetic biomass for use within the energy sector and, at the same time, changing populations, diets, and societal preferences are leading to increased demands for other types of biomass including food, feed, and fiber. As an inherently multifunctional natural resource, land is already meeting many of these demands as well as providing a wider range of services to society including clean and reliable water, carbon sequestration, and cultural services. However, as demands from land increase, its continued ability to support a range of different sectors sustainably is called into question.
    De grote ambities van PicknPack - Slimme verwerkingslijnen die alles aankunnen (interview met Erik Pekkeriet)
    Janssen, A. ; Pekkeriet, E.J. - \ 2013
    Voedingsmiddelentechnologie 2013 (2013)10. - ISSN 0042-7934 - p. 18 - 19.
    voedselindustrie - verpakking - apparatuur voor de voedselverwerking - automatische regeling - innovaties - productieprocessen - projecten - universitair onderzoek - publiek-private samenwerking - agrarische productiesystemen - Nederland - food industry - packaging - food processing equipment - automatic control - innovations - production processes - projects - university research - public-private cooperation - agricultural production systems - Netherlands
    Intelligente camerasystemen, slimme robots en flexibele verpakkingsmachines maken de mens straks overbodig. Niet allen bij het verpakken van trostomaten en druiven, maar ook voor het samenstellen en verpakken van kant-en-klaarmaaltijden en pizza's. Duur hoeft dit niet te zijn met de flexibele standaardmodules uit het PicknPack-project.
    Long-term resightings of humpback whales off Ecuador
    Castro, C. ; Acevedo, J. ; Aguayo-Lobo, A. ; Allen, J. ; Capella, J. ; Rosa, L. Dalla; Flores-González, L. ; Kaufman, G. ; Forestell, P. ; Scheidat, M. ; Secchi, E.R. ; Stevick, P. ; Santos, M.C.O. - \ 2012
    International Whaling Commission - 7 p.
    This paper reports on the long-term re-sight histories of fifteen photo-identified humpback whales encountered to date transiting Ecuadorian waters. It also provides information about connections to feeding area destinations. Whale EC1261 has been resighted over a 26 year span and provides insight into age and potential longevity of this species in the stock G. The resighting of whale EC1261 provides the earliest connection from Ecuador to Antarctica. and supports previous findings that Antarctic Peninsula is the main feeding area of humpback whales migrating to Ecuadorian waters. Although there are only a low percentage of re-sighted animals between Ecuador and the Strait of Magellan, two records represent long-term observations of 17 and 21 years. Resightings of these whales previously confirmed the Straits of Magellan as a feeding area (Gibbons et al, 1998; Gibbons et al, 2003; Acevedo et al. 2007; Capella et al. 2008). These results are based on the individual identification of the ventral surface of humpback whale tails. This method has been used extensively by researchers, NGO’s and government institutions in Antarctica, Chile, and Colombia
    New EU Policies Towards Animal Welfare: The Relative Importance of Pig Castration
    Kallas, Z. ; Gil, J.M. ; Panella-Riera, N. ; Blanch, M. ; Tacken, G.M.L. ; Chevillon, P. ; Roest, K. de; Oliver, M.A. - \ 2012
    EuroChoices 11 (2012)3. - ISSN 1478-0917 - p. 36 - 43.
    Animal welfare is becoming one of the most contentious issues in animal husbandry and meat production industries. We assess the relative importance of animal welfare, with respect to pig castration and the avoidance of boar taint, alongside different attributes of pork meat, amongst consumers in six EU countries. We use the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) as a multi-criteria decision-support method aimed at deconstructing the purchasing decisions of consumers. Our results show that in all surveyed countries, consumers are generally not concerned about the ‘gender of the animal’. This particular attribute represented approximately 10 per cent or less of the final buying decision, while ‘flavour and odour’ was the most important attribute, representing approximately 45 per cent of the final buying decision. The results also demonstrated that pig castration is not necessarily perceived as a relevant aspect of animal welfare. However, any future regulation on banning castration to increase pig welfare could undesirably affect the ‘flavour and odour’ of the meat and thus might negatively impact the most important factor in consumers’ purchasing decisions. Thus, effective public awareness campaigns about the relationship between pig welfare and castration and between castration and sensory meat qualities are needed to help policymakers address the true interests of consumers in future food policies. Le bien-être animal est en train de devenir l’une des questions les plus controversées dans les industries de l’élevage et de la production de viande. Nous évaluons l’importance relative du bien-être animal, en ce qui concerne la castration des porcelets et la suppression de l’odeur de verrat, en termes des différentes caractéristiques de la viande porcine, parmi les consommateurs de six pays de l’Union européenne. Nous utilisons une procédure analytique de hiérarchisation (AHP) comme méthode de prise de décision multicritère visant à déconstruire les décisions des consommateurs en matière d’achat. Nos résultats montrent que dans tous les pays de l’enquête, les consommateurs ne s’intéressent en général pas au sexe de l’animal. Cette caractéristique compte pour environ 10 pour cent ou moins de la décision finale d’achat, tandis que la caractéristique ‘goût et odeur’ domine avec une contribution d’environ 45 pour cent à la décision finale. Les résultats montrent également que la castration des porcelets n’est pas nécessairement perçue comme un aspect pertinent du bien-être animal. Cependant, toute future réglementation interdisant la castration pour améliorer le bien-être des porcs pourrait affecter négativement ‘le goût et l’odeur’ de la viande et donc le facteur d’achat le plus important pour les consommateurs. Il est donc nécessaire de mener des campagnes publiques d’information sur la relation entre le bien-être des porcs et la castration, et entre la castration et la qualité observée de la viande, afin d’aider les décideurs en matière d’action publique à s’intéresser réellement aux préoccupations des consommateurs dans les politiques alimentaires futures. Das Wohlergehen der Tiere entwickelt sich zu einer der umstrittensten Fragen in der Tierzucht und der Fleischproduktion. Wir bewerten die relative Bedeutung des Tierwohls für Verbraucher in sechs EU-Lndern im Hinblick auf Ferkelkastration und Vermeidung von Ebergeruch sowie verschiedene Eigenschaften von Schweinefleisch. Wir bedienen uns eines Analytischen Hierarchieprozesses (AHP), ein multikriterielles Verfahren zur Entscheidungsfindung, das die Kaufentscheidungen von Verbrauchern analysieren soll. Unsere Ergebnisse zeigen, dass sich die Verbraucher in allen betrachteten Lndern im Allgemeinen nicht mit dem Geschlecht der Tiere befassen. Dieses bestimmte Merkmal trug etwa zehn Prozent oder weniger zu der endgültigen Kaufentscheidung bei, whrend “Geschmack und Geruch” das wichtigste Merkmal darstellte und mit etwa 45 Prozent in die endgültige Kaufentscheidung einging. Die Ergebnisse verdeutlichen ebenfalls, dass Ferkelkastration im Hinblick auf das Tierwohl nicht unbedingt als relevant erachtet wird. Zukünftige Bestimmungen in Bezug auf die Kastration zum Schutze der Ferkel könnten sich jedoch in unerwünschter Weise auf den Geschmack und den Geruch des Fleisches auswirken und somit das wichtigste Merkmal für die Kaufentscheidung der Verbraucher negativ beeinflussen. Daher sind effektive Kampagnen zur Schrfung des öffentlichen Bewusstseins über den Zusammenhang zwischen Ferkelschutz und Kastration sowie Kastration und wahrnehmbare Fleischqualitt erforderlich, um die Politikakteure darin zu unterstützen, die wahren Verbraucherinteressen im Rahmen zukünftiger Lebensmittelpolitiken zu vertreten
    State-of-the-Art bewaarsysteem tulpenbollen : Resultaten 2011
    Wildschut, J. ; Dam, M.F.N. van; Kok, M. ; Gulik, T. van der - \ 2012
    Lisse : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Bollen en Bomen - 33 p.
    bloembollen - tulpen - opslag - ventilatie - temperatuur - energiebesparing - landbouwkundig onderzoek - ornamental bulbs - tulips - storage - ventilation - temperature - energy saving - agricultural research
    Resultaten van het op 5e jaar State-of-Art bewaren van tulpenbollen op 12 bedrijven waarvan de energie- en achtergrondgegevens verzameld zijn. De 12 bedrijven hadden allen dit jaar een zeer laag berekend percentage zure bollen (0.06 % tot maximaal 1,3%). Door geheel of gedeeltelijk de ventilatie op ethyleenmetingen te sturen en ook de circulatie hierop aan te passen kon hierdoor veel energie bespaard worden. Op gas is er gemiddeld 27% bespaard, variërend van -15% (op het bedrijf dat de ventilatie niet stuurt op basis van de ethyleenmeting) tot 80%. Bij volledige sturing van de ventilatie op basis van een ethyleengrens van 100 ppb had de gemiddelde besparing 79% kunnen zijn. Op elektra is door terugtoeren gemiddeld 53% bespaard, variërend van -17% (op het bedrijf dat continue op voltoeren circuleert) tot 95%. Bij terugtoeren evenredig met verminderde ventilatie a.g.v. de lage ethyleenproductie, maar met een minimum frequentie-instelling van 15 Hz, had gemiddeld 84% bespaard kunnen worden. Op elektra is dus meer bespaard dan op gas. Op het totale energieverbruik (gas voor het opwarmen van buitenlucht voor ventilatie + elektra voor circulatieventilatoren) is bij de bewaring gemiddeld 44% bespaard, variërend van -17% tot 76%.
    Book review of Robert Allen, Global Economic History: A very short introduction
    Frankema, E.H.P. - \ 2012
    Tijdschrift voor Sociale en Economische Geschiedenis = The Low Countries Journal of Social and Economic History 9 (2012). - ISSN 1572-1701 - p. 104 - 105.
    Versterking en stimulering biogas productie in Flevoland : een plan van aanpak voor de ontwikkeling van een instrument voor monitoring, beheren en ontwikkelen van reststromen in Flevoland
    Leeuwen, M.A.E. van; Voort, M.P.J. van der - \ 2012
    Lelystad : PPO AGV (PPO 525) - 27
    gasproductie - biogas - stimulatie - flevoland - biomassa - marktprijzen - co-vergisting - rendement - biobased economy - gas production - biogas - stimulation - flevoland - biomass - market prices - co-fermentation - returns - biobased economy
    Dit project is onderdeel van het RINGG Flevoland project wat tot doel heeft de versterking van het agrarische ondernemerschap in biogasproductie in Oostelijk en Zuidelijk Flevoland. De doelstelling van dit deelproject is om specificaties en een plan van aanpak voor de ontwikkeling van een instrument voor monitoring, beheren en ontwikkelen van reststromen in de regio op te stellen. Om de informatiebehoefte van de ondernemers(groepen) helder te krijgen, om hiermee specificaties voor een instrument te kunnen opstellen, zijn onder andere interviews gehouden. De ondernemers zijn allen helder in hun eisen en wensen. Hierin komt de optie van een instrument of tool voor biomassavoorziening niet naar boven. Uit de interviews en de workshop komen de knelpunten en andere oplossingsrichtingen naar voren. Opvallend is dat de ondernemers (met covergisting) veelal de oplossing van de huidige marktsituatie voor biomassa niet willen oplossen met opties voor de biomassamarkt. De meest gesteunde oplossingsrichtingen betroffen meer inkomsten creëren uit energie en verlagen van kosten voor afvoer van digestaat. Belangrijkste reden hiervoor is het maken van een rendementsverbetering. Deze rendementsverbetering kan tevens de concurrentiepositie op de biomassamarkt sterk verbeteren.
    Verlagen van uitval bij leghennen
    Niekerk, T.G.C.M. van; Bestman, M.W.P. ; Wagenaar, J.P. ; Reuvekamp, B.F.J. ; Bronneberg, R. ; Vriens, R. ; Westerbeek, F. ; Westendorp, S. - \ 2012
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research - 48
    pluimveehouderij - pluimvee - hennen - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - dierziektepreventie - pluimveeziekten - kippenziekten - biologische landbouw - poultry farming - poultry - hens - animal welfare - animal health - animal disease prevention - poultry diseases - fowl diseases - organic farming
    Dit boekje geeft informatie waarmee uitval bij leghennen voorkomen kan worden. Het boekje is opgedeeld in twee delen: 1. Preventie en herkenning van uitval; 2. Belangrijke uitvalsoorzaken. Uitval is het resultaat van iets dat in het voorliggende traject fout gegaan is. Om uitval zoveel mogelijk te verminderen, is het dan ook van belang om dit voortraject zo goed mogelijk te laten verlopen. Dit kan gerealiseerd worden via houderij en management, en daarmee optimalisatie van dierenwelzijn en diergezondheid. Het eerste deel van dit boekje richt zich op een aantal specifieke aandachtspunten ter preventie van gezondheidsproblemen. Ook wordt aandacht besteed aan vroege herkenning van problemen. Het tweede deel van het boekje gaat over de meest voorkomende uitvalsoorzaken. Het blijkt in de praktijk niet altijd even makkelijk voor pluimveehouders om een goede oorzaak en gevolg vast te stellen bij uitval van dieren. Hoewel het te allen tijde belangrijk is om bij problemen een dierenarts in te schakelen, is het goed dat u als pluimveehouder zelf ook enige anatomische en ziektekundige basiskennis heeft. Het voorkomen of terugdringen van uitval is immers lang niet altijd een kwestie van medicatie, maar vaak en vooral een kwestie van het nemen van de juiste management-maatregelen. Het juist inschatten van de oorzaak van uitval of van de mogelijke ernst van een bepaalde situatie is belangrijk, omdat dit doorgaans al een indicatie geeft van waar het management bijgestuurd of aangescherpt moet worden.
    A risk model for lung cancer incidence
    Hoggart, C. ; Brennan, P. ; Tjonneland, A. ; Vogel, U. ; Overvad, K. ; Ostergaard, J.N. ; Kaaks, R. ; Canzian, F. ; Boeing, H. ; Steffen, A. ; Trichopoulou, A. ; Bamia, C. ; Trichopoulos, D. ; Johansson, M. ; Palli, D. ; Krogh, V. ; Tumino, R. ; Sacerdote, C. ; Panico, S. ; Boshuizen, H.C. ; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B. ; Peeters, P.H. ; Lund, E. ; Gram, I.T. ; Braaten, T. ; Rodrígues, L. ; Agudo, A. ; Sánchez-Cantalejo, E. ; Arriola, L. ; Chirlaque, M.D. ; Barricarte, A. ; Rasmuson, T. ; Khaw, K.T. ; Wareham, N. ; Allen, N.E. ; Riboli, E. ; Vineis, P. - \ 2012
    Cancer Prevention Research / American Association for Cancer Research 5 (2012)6. - ISSN 1940-6207 - p. 834 - 846.
    body-mass index - susceptibility locus - smoking-cessation - cigarette-smoking - prediction model - smokers - mortality - women - association - 5p15.33
    Risk models for lung cancer incidence would be useful for prioritizing individuals for screening and participation in clinical trials of chemoprevention. We present a risk model for lung cancer built using prospective cohort data from a general population which predicts individual incidence in a given time period. We build separate risk models for current and former smokers using 169,035 ever smokers from the multicenter European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and considered a model for never smokers. The data set was split into independent training and test sets. Lung cancer incidence was modeled using survival analysis, stratifying by age started smoking, and for former smokers, also smoking duration. Other risk factors considered were smoking intensity, 10 occupational/environmental exposures previously implicated with lung cancer, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms at two loci identified by genome-wide association studies of lung cancer. Individual risk in the test set was measured by the predicted probability of lung cancer incidence in the year preceding last follow-up time, predictive accuracy was measured by the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC). Using smoking information alone gave good predictive accuracy: the AUC and 95% confidence interval in ever smokers was 0.843 (0.810-0.875), the Bach model applied to the same data gave an AUC of 0.775 (0.737-0.813). Other risk factors had negligible effect on the AUC, including never smokers for whom prediction was poor. Our model is generalizable and straightforward to implement. Its accuracy can be attributed to its modeling of lifetime exposure to smoking.
    Comparative genomics of plant-asssociated Pseudomonas spp.: Insights into diversity and inheritance of traits involved in multitrophic interactions
    Loper, J.E. ; Hassan, K.A. ; Mavrodi, D.V. ; Davis II, E.W. ; Lim, C.K. ; Shaffer, B.T. ; Elbourne, L.D.H. ; Stockwell, V.O. ; Hartney, S.L. ; Breakwell, K. ; Henkels, M.D. ; Tetu, S.G. ; Rangel, L.I. ; Kidarsa, T.A. ; Wilson, N.L. ; Mortel, J.E. van de; Song, C. ; Blumhagen, R. ; Radune, D. ; Hostetler, J.B. ; Brinkac, L.M. ; Durkin, A.C. ; Kluepfel, D.A. ; Wechter, W.P. ; Anderson, A.J. ; Kim, Y.C. ; Pierson III, L.S. ; Pierson, E.A. ; Lindow, S.E. ; Kobayashi, D.Y. ; Raaijmakers, J. ; Weller, D.M. ; Thomashow, L.S. ; Allen, A.E. ; Paulsen, I.T. - \ 2012
    Plos Genetics 8 (2012)7. - ISSN 1553-7404
    iii secretion system - syringae pv. syringae - gamma-aminobutyric-acid - biological-control - fluorescens pf-5 - biocontrol strain - antibiotic production - secondary metabolite - phenylacetic acid - chlororaphis o6
    We provide here a comparative genome analysis of ten strains within the Pseudomonas fluorescens group including seven new genomic sequences. These strains exhibit a diverse spectrum of traits involved in biological control and other multitrophic interactions with plants, microbes, and insects. Multilocus sequence analysis placed the strains in three sub-clades, which was reinforced by high levels of synteny, size of core genomes, and relatedness of orthologous genes between strains within a sub-clade. The heterogeneity of the P. fluorescens group was reflected in the large size of its pan-genome, which makes up approximately 54% of the pan-genome of the genus as a whole, and a core genome representing only 45–52% of the genome of any individual strain. We discovered genes for traits that were not known previously in the strains, including genes for the biosynthesis of the siderophores achromobactin and pseudomonine and the antibiotic 2-hexyl-5-propyl-alkylresorcinol; novel bacteriocins; type II, III, and VI secretion systems; and insect toxins. Certain gene clusters, such as those for two type III secretion systems, are present only in specific sub-clades, suggesting vertical inheritance. Almost all of the genes associated with multitrophic interactions map to genomic regions present in only a subset of the strains or unique to a specific strain. To explore the evolutionary origin of these genes, we mapped their distributions relative to the locations of mobile genetic elements and repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) elements in each genome. The mobile genetic elements and many strain-specific genes fall into regions devoid of REP elements (i.e., REP deserts) and regions displaying atypical tri-nucleotide composition, possibly indicating relatively recent acquisition of these loci. Collectively, the results of this study highlight the enormous heterogeneity of the P. fluorescens group and the importance of the variable genome in tailoring individual strains to their specific lifestyles and functional repertoire
    Transport verlaagt mondiale voetafdruk
    Scheer, F.P. - \ 2012
    Kennis Online 2012 (2012)jan. - p. 8 - 8.
    transport - verse producten - landbouw en milieu - broeikasgassen - emissie - transport - fresh products - agriculture and environment - greenhouse gases - emission
    Voor het fruit dat we in Nederland met z’n allen consumeren, worden veel transportkilometers afgelegd ten opzichte van de kilo’s die we er jaarlijks van verorberen. We eten namelijk ook graag het hele jaar door banaan en sinaasappelen. Maar wat van ver komt, heeft niet per se een grote CO2-voetafdruk, maakt Wagenings onderzoek duidelijk.
    Proliferation assays for estrogenicity testing with high predictive value for the in vivo uterotrophic effect
    Wang, S. ; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G. ; Evers, N.M. ; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M. ; Rietjens, I. ; Bovee, T.F.H. - \ 2012
    Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 128 (2012)3-5. - ISSN 0960-0760 - p. 98 - 106.
    breast-cancer-cells - reporter gene assay - receptor expression - androgen receptor - growth-factor - vitro assays - line - beta - tamoxifen - alpha
    Proliferation assays based on human cell lines are the most used in vitro tests to determine estrogenic properties of compounds. Our objective was to characterise to what extent these in vitro tests provide alternatives for the in vivo Allen and Doisy test, a uterotrophic assay in immature or ovariectomised rodents with uterus weight as a crucial read-out parameter. In the present study four different human cell lines derived from three different female estrogen-sensitive tissues, i.e. breast (MCF-7/BOS and T47D), endometrial (ECC-1) and ovarian (BG-1) cells, were characterised by investigating their relative ERa and ERß amounts, as the ERa/ERß ratio is a dominant factor determining their estrogen-dependent proliferative responses. All four cell lines clearly expressed the ERa type and a very low but detectable amount of ERß on both the mRNA and protein level, with the T47D cell line expressing the highest level of the ERß type. Subsequently, a set of reference compounds representing different modes of estrogen action and estrogenic potency were used to investigate the proliferative response in the four cell lines, to determine which cell line most accurately predicts the effect observed in vivo. All four cell lines revealed a reasonable to good correlation with the in vivo uterotrophic effect, with the correlation being highest for the MCF-7/BOS cell line (R2 = 0.85). The main differences between the in vivo uterotrophic assay and the in vitro proliferation assays were observed for tamoxifen and testosterone. The proliferative response of the MCF-7/BOS cells to testosterone was partially caused by its conversion to estradiol by aromatase or via androstenedione to estrone. It is concluded that of the four cell lines tested, the best assay to include in an integrated testing strategy for replacement of the in vivo uterotrophic assay is the human MCF-7/BOS breast cancer cell line. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Duurzaam restaurant - (interview met A.J. van der Goot)
    Goot, Atze Jan van der - \ 2011
    Van Mullems vraag is een reden om eens op antwoord uit te gaan. Aan Wageningen Universiteit weten ze er vast meer van. Atze-Jan van der Goot, bijvoorbeeld, universitair hoofddocent levensmiddelenproceskunde. Heeft hij een definitie van duurzaamheid? "Daar zitten we met z'n allen op te wachten", zegt hij. Een sluitende beschrijving is er nog niet. 'Goederen die de aarde niet uitputten' is een beschrijving met voetangels en klemmen. Neem de spaarlamp; die bespaart misschien wel iets aan elektriciteit, maar de gloeilamp geeft warmte af waardoor de centrale verwarming minder hoog hoeft. In spaarlampen zitten zeldzame metalen die moeilijk terug te winnen zijn.
    Consumption of meat and fish and risk of lung cancer: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
    Linseisen, J. ; Rohrmann, S. ; Bueno-de-Mesquita, B. ; Büchner, F.L. ; Boshuizen, H.C. ; Agudo, A. ; Gram, I.T. ; Dahm, C.C. ; Overvad, K. ; Egeberg, R. ; Tjonneland, A. ; Boeing, H. ; Steffen, A. ; Kaaks, R. ; Lukanova, A. ; Berrino, F. ; Palli, D. ; Panico, S. ; Tumino, R. ; Ardanaz, E. ; Dorronsoro, M. ; Huerta, J.M. ; Rodríguez, L. ; Sánchez, M.J. ; Rasmuson, T. ; Hallmans, G. ; Manjer, J. ; Wirfält, E. ; Engeset, D. ; Skeie, G. ; Katsoulis, M. ; Oikonomou, E. ; Trichopoulou, A. ; Peeters, P.H. ; Khaw, K.T. ; Wareham, N. ; Allen, N. ; Key, T. ; Brennan, P. ; Romieu, I. ; Slimani, N. ; Vergnaud, A.C. ; Xun, W.W. ; Vineis, P. ; Riboli, E. - \ 2011
    Cancer Causes and Control 22 (2011)6. - ISSN 0957-5243 - p. 909 - 918.
    heterocyclic amines - dietary habits - heme iron - women - calibration - cohort - recalls - mortality - mutagens - fat
    Evidence from case–control studies, but less so from cohort studies, suggests a positive association between meat intake and risk of lung cancer. Therefore, this association was evaluated in the frame of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, EPIC. Data from 478,021 participants, recruited from 10 European countries, who completed a dietary questionnaire in 1992–2000 were evaluated; 1,822 incident primary lung cancer cases were included in the present evaluation. Relative risk estimates were calculated for categories of meat intake using multi-variably adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. In addition, the continuous intake variables were calibrated by means of 24-h diet recall data to account for part of the measurement error. There were no consistent associations between meat consumption and the risk of lung cancer. Neither red meat (RR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.89–1.27 per 50 g intake/day; calibrated model) nor processed meat (RR = 1.13, 95% CI 0.95–1.34 per 50 g/day; calibrated model) was significantly related to an increased risk of lung cancer. Also, consumption of white meat and fish was not associated with the risk of lung cancer. These findings do not support the hypothesis that a high intake of red and processed meat is a risk factor for lung cancer
    Effectieve communicatie : over het verleidelijke van wensmodellen
    Woerkum, C.M.J. van - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - ISBN 9789461731630 - 23
    communicatie - efficiëntie - communication - efficiency
    Communicatiewetenschappers kunnen gemakkelijk verleid worden om met communicatie van alles te willen bereiken. Dat geldt ook voor allen die professioneel communiceren, zoals bijvoorbeeld de overheid. Zij gaan uit van wenselijkheden in plaats van beter inzicht in wat met communicatie kan en niet kan. Ze hebben nauwelijks weet van wat de zogenaamde ontvanger ontvankelijk voor de boodschap maakt en wat er bij communicatie feitelijk gebeurt. Het wensmodel in de communicatiewetenschap is even verleidelijk als hardnekkig, maar ook gevaarlijk en weinig effectief, aldus prof. Cees van Woerkum bij zijn afscheid op 17 november als hoogleraar Communicatiestrategieën aan Wageningen University, onderdeel van Wageningen UR. Al jaren verzet Van Woerkum zich , legt hij uit in zijn afscheidsrede Effectieve communicatie; over het verleidelijke van wensmodellen, tegen het klassieke communicatiemodel: een zender stuurt een boodschap via een medium naar een ontvanger, resulterend in een effect. “We weten dat het zo niet gaat”, zegt hij: “Mensen ontvangen niets maar construeren aan de hand van waargenomen boodschappen bepaalde betekenissen.” Die constructie is ‘eigen werk’ - een proces van associatie en visualisatie op grond van eigen waarneming, kennis en ervaring - van de ontvanger, die dus eigenlijk niet als ontvanger gezien mag worden. In zijn rede legt Van Woerkum uit hoe hij ook zelf met grote regelmaat aan de verleidelijke wensmodellen toegaf. Hij vindt ze ook gevaarlijk, ‘wetenschappelijke femmes fatales’. Zo heeft in zijn tak van wetenschap het normatieve – in de zin van ‘voorschrijvend’ – vaak de overhand boven het empirische onderzoek. Maar, zegt Van Woerkum: “Wie normatief naar de praktijk kijkt, dus vooral denkt te weten wat daar moet gebeuren, ziet veelal niet goed wat er feitelijk gebeurt”. Overigens baseert niet alleen wetenschap zich op wensmodellen. Ook bij de overheid is die houding hardnekkig ingebakken. In zijn denken over communicatiewetenschap heeft Van Woerkum ook de overstap gemaakt van het factorenmodel naar het procesmodel. Rond het denken in factoren die gedrag bepalen en die deels aan te sturen zijn, is zijn conclusie dat het maar een deel is van het verhaal. Je moet ook weten hoe het proces verloopt, hoe het mechanisme werkt bij gedragsverandering, zegt hij. Als voorbeeld noemt hij het drinkgedrag van jongeren, dat naar zijn mening zwaar wordt onderschat. Wat gebeurt er in een groep jongeren als er op een moment meer wordt gedronken. Er zijn groepen die dit gedrag zelf intern corrigeren en groepen waar daarentegen een ware drankcultuur ontstaat. “Mij interesseert vooral die eerste groep”, zegt Van Woerkum: “Hoe komt het zelfreinigend vermogen van die groep tot stand? Welk soort gesprek ontstaat daar? Als we dit soort discussies begrijpen kunnen we in de communicatie naar jongeren toe veel dichter bij de actie komen waaruit wenselijke veranderingen ontstaan.”
    Farming for the Future: towards better information-based decision-making and communication - Phase I: Australasian stocktake of farm management tools used by farmers and rural professionals. New Zealand Centre of Excellence in Farm Business Management, Palmerston North.
    Allen, J. ; Wolfert, J. - \ 2011
    Netherlands : AgFirst Consultancy / Wageningen University and Research Centre - 48
    MEFEPO North Sea Atlas
    Bloomfield, H.J. ; Allcock, Z. ; Bos, O.G. ; Paramor, O.A.L. ; Allen, K.A. ; Aanesen, M. ; Armstrong, C. ; Hegland, T. ; Quense, W. Le; Piet, G.J. ; Raakaer, J. ; Rogers, S. ; Hal, R. van; Hoof, L.J.W. van; Overzee, H.M.J. van; Frid, C. - \ 2011
    Liverpool : University of Liverpool - ISBN 9780906370674 - 118 p.
    Comparison of the humpback whale catalogues between Ecuador, Peru and american Samoa. Evidence of the enlargement of the Breeding Stock G to Perus
    Castro, C. ; Alcorta, B. ; Allen, J. ; Scheidat, M. - \ 2011
    Tromso : International Whaling Commission
    Evolution of sexual dimorphism in the Lepidoptera
    Allen, C.E. ; Zwaan, B.J. ; Brakefield, P.M. - \ 2011
    Annual Review of Entomology 56 (2011). - ISSN 0066-4170 - p. 445 - 464.
    butterfly bicyclus-anynana - western white butterflies - wing pattern evolution - life-history traits - female mate choice - size dimorphism - papilio-polyxenes - neotropical butterflies - heliconius butterflies - phenotypic plasticity
    Among the animals, the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) are second only to beetles in number of described species and are known for their striking intra- and interspecific diversity. Within species, sexual dimorphism is a source of variation in life history (e.g., sexual size dimorphism and protandry), morphology (e.g., wing shape and color pattern), and behavior (e.g., chemical and visual signaling). Sexual selection and mating systems have been considered the primary forces driving the evolution of sexual dimorphism in the Lepidoptera, and alternative hypotheses have been neglected. Here, we examine opportunities for sexual selection, natural selection, and the interplay between the two forces in the evolution of sexual differences in the moths and butterflies. Our primary goal is to identify mechanisms that either facilitate or constrain the evolution of sexual dimorphism, rather than to resolve any perceived controversy between hypotheses that may not be mutually exclusive
    Forest ecosystem genomics and adaptation: EVOLTREE conference report
    Kremer, A. ; Vinceti, B. ; Alia, R. ; Burczyk, J. ; Cavers, S. ; Degen, B. ; Finkeldey, R. ; Fluch, S. ; Gömöry, D. ; Gugerli, F. ; Koelewijn, H.P. ; Koskela, J. ; Lefèvre, F. ; Morgante, M. ; Mueller-Starck, G. ; Plomion, C. ; Taylor, G. ; Turok, J. ; Savolainen, O. ; Ziegenhagen, B. - \ 2011
    Tree Genetics and Genomes 7 (2011)4. - ISSN 1614-2942 - p. 869 - 875.
    This article is a summary report of the international conference "Forest ecosystem genomics and adaptation" organized by the EVOLTREE Network of Excellence in San Lorenzo de El Escorial (Madrid), Spain, from 9 to 11 June 2010. Main achievements and results of the network are presented for the eight thematic sessions and a stakeholder session. The conference has shown that adaptive responses of trees to biotic or abiotic selection pressures can now be investigated at the gene level for traits of adaptive significance. Candidate genes have been catalogued for phenological and drought-related traits in important tree families (Salicaceae, Fagaceaea and Pinaceae), and their variation in natural populations is being explored. Genomics can now be integrated in ecological research to investigate evolutionary response to climate changes in a wide range of species. New avenues of research were also highlighted as the exploration of gene networks involved in adaptive responses and the combination of experimental and modelling approaches to disentangle components of evolutionary changes triggered by climate change. The main focus of the conference was the adaptation of trees to environmental changes. The conference was organized in eight thematic sessions ranging from genomic approaches aiming at identifying genes of adaptive significance to practical issues regarding mitigation options for combating climate change. A dialogue between scientists and end users took place in the form of an ad hoc stakeholder session. A panel of end users from various forest and policy-making institutions expressed their expectations, and the discussions with the scientists addressed the potential applications of research findings to the management of genetic resources in the context of climate changes. The conference was introduced by two keynote speakers Dr. Pierre Mathy from the European Commission, Directorate General of Research, and Dr. Allen Solomon, former National Program Leader for Global Change, US Forest Service. All the thematic sessions were introduced by high-level invited speakers from the respective fields.
    ‘bOZ boerderijproject’: zoeken naar groene pedagogiek
    Schuler, Y. ; Elings, M. - \ 2011
    [S.l.] : S.n. - 42
    zorgboerderijen - basisonderwijs - basisscholen - jeugdzorg - social care farms - elementary education - elementary schools - child welfare
    Binnen het TransForum project Green Care Amsterdam, dat in 2007 gestart is, is ervaring opgedaan met het bezoeken van boerderijen door kinderen van speciaal basisonderwijs uit Zaanstad. De scholen werkten in dit project met een atelierconcept; kinderen konden er voor kiezen om een ochtend in de week naar de boerderij te gaan. Uit dit project blijkt dat het bezoek aan een boerderij een effectief concept kan zijn voor kinderen met leer-, ontwikkel- en gedragproblemen. Verschillende onderwijs- en zorginstellingen hebben samen met een boerderij uit de regio vijf pilot projecten opgezet. Deze projecten varieerden allen in doelgroep, begeleidingsvorm en aanpak. De uitkomsten van deze vijf pilot projecten dienen als voorbeeld voor samenwerkingsverbanden tussen stad en platteland op het gebied van onderwijs en jeugdzorg. De projecten dragen bij aan nieuwe begeleidingsvormen op de boerderij. De ervaringen uit deze projecten worden gedeeld met partners binnen en buiten brede onderwijs zorg concepten (bOZ). Specifiek richten de bOZ boerderijprojecten zich op het vernieuwen van samenwerkingsrelaties met agrarische bedrijven en bieden zij een groene ontwikkelomgeving voor speciale doelgroepen.
    Bananen met een aidsvaccin?
    Bosch, H.J. ; Schots, A. - \ 2011
    In: NIBI-conferentie : Kunnen we het maken?. - Lunteren : NIBI - p. 49 - 49.
    Bananen met een aidsvaccin? Dirk Bosch – hoofd onderzoek bioscience (WUR/UU) Arjen Schots – hoofddocent plantenwetenschappen (WUR) Doelgroep: Alle docenten biologie Werkvorm: Lezing en interactieve zoektocht naar toepassing ervan in de klas Materiaal: Keynote presentatie met lesideeën voor in de klas Bananen met een aidsvaccin? Klinkt prachtig maar is dit ook realistisch? Door gewassen genetisch te veranderen is het mogelijk om de plant medicijnen te laten maken. Dit zogeheten molecular farming maakt het mogelijk om planten eiwitten zoals antilichamen of groeifactoren te laten produceren. Ook is het mogelijk om eiwitten te produceren die een immuunreacite opwekken zoals bij een vaccin. Tijdens deze sessie zal ingegaan worden op hoe je planten dergelijke medicijnen kunt laten maken. Waarom zou je dit trouwens in planten willen doen? En in welke plant: eendenkroos, banaan of tabak? Wat zijn de voor- en nadelen van medicijnen uit planten? Mag dit alles zomaar, is het veilig voor milieu en patiënt? Hoever staan we, zijn er al patiënten behandeld? Tijdens deze interactieve lezing zullen we dit biotechnologisch onderwerp vanuit verschillende hoeken belichten: biotechnologisch, medisch, wet- en regelgeving, economisch en natuurlijk ethisch/maatschappelijk. Molecular farming biedt een combinatie van het nieuwste onderzoek, met de daarbij horende biologische en technische vragen, maar ook de maatschappelijke en ethische vragen. Deze vragen zijn realistisch en deels nog niet beantwoord (!). Op dit moment verkennen we de mogelijkheid of er vraag naar is in de klas om het onderwerp farmagewassen centraal te stellen in een lesmodule NLT of biologie voor bovenbouw havo/vwo. Aan het eind van de lezing gaan we met zijn allen na aan welke eisen een dergelijke lesmodule zou moeten voldoen om het een succes in de klas te maken. Farmagewassen bieden naar onze mening een mooie realistische casus van toegepast wetenschappelijk onderzoek met een impact voor onze maatschappij.
    Minder honger door minder verspilling? Het kan!
    Waarts, Y.R. ; Meijerink, G.W. ; Timmermans, T. - \ 2010
    Den Haag : Schuttelaar & Partners
    voedselvoorziening - voedselverspilling - voedselafval - verliezen - honger - wereldvoedselproblemen - food supply - food wastage - food wastes - losses - hunger - world food problems
    Publieksgerichte brochure voor Wereldvoedseldag 16 oktober 2010. Hebben mensen die honger lijden er wat aan als bij ons thuis minder eten verspild wordt? Ja, als we in westerse landen minder voedsel weggooien en er aan wennen dat goed voedsel er niet perfect uit hoeft te zien, dan zorgen we er met z'n allen voor dat consumenten in ontwikkelingslanden meer en beter eten kunnen kopen.
    Eko vreest voor zijn positie
    Vré, Kees de; Ingenbleek, P.T.M. - \ 2010
    Trouw (2010).
    SAMENVATTING Steeds meer gangbare bedrijven maken werk van duurzaamheid. Het brengt de echte biologische producten in de verdrukking. Veel consumenten vinden een beetje eko al goed genoeg. VOLLEDIGE TEKST: Steeds meer consumenten houden zich bezig met duurzame voeding, geraakt als ze zijn door bijna leeggeviste zeeën, op elkaar gepropte kippen en varkens en gesleep met eten over de hele wereld. Een kleine maar groeiende en zeer gemotiveerde groep is zelfs doende om een eigen moestuintje te beginnen. Anderen halen hun dagelijkse voeding steeds vaker bij een boer in de buurt of op een boerenmarkt. De meesten gaan echter nog steeds naar de supermarkt, maar letten daar meer dan voorheen op zaken als scharrelvlees, scharreleieren en regionaal geteelde groenten. Er zijn zelfs supermarkten waar alleen de scharrelvariant van vlees of eieren te koop is. Ook de industrie is meer en meer bezig haar toeleveranciers te sorteren op basis van duurzame werkwijzen. Natuurlijk zien deze bedrijven vooral commerciële kansen, maar die groengerande houding zet wel zoden aan de dijk richting duurzaamheid omdat het gaat om grote hoeveelheden. Jarenlang heeft er een gat bestaan tussen de kiloknaller enerzijds, gekenmerkt door veel voor weinig, en de biologische sector anderzijds, met aandacht voor kwaliteit en de harmonie tussen productieproces en omgeving. De toenemende aandacht voor milieu en dierenwelzijn vult dat gat inmiddels behoorlijk op. De consument heeft nu een uitgebreide keuze als het gaat om milieu- en diervriendelijke voeding. Daar komt nog een niet onbelangrijk kenmerk bij. Het grote tussensegment aan duurzame voedingsmiddelen is goedkoper dan levensmiddelen met het Eko-keurmerk. Ook blijkt uit steeds meer onderzoek dat biologisch niet te allen tijde synoniem is aan duurzaam. Een biologische kip bijvoorbeeld loopt vrij rond, verbrandt daardoor meer en eet daardoor meer dan haar gangbare zuster. Extra voer betekent extra bewerkingen en meer vervoer, want biologische maïs komt deels van ver. Wordt de biologische sector hierdoor weer in de marge gedrukt waar deze ooit begon of moeten we zelfs vrezen voor zijn voortbestaan? Martin Wiersema, voorzitter van de vakgroep biologische landbouw van boerenkoepel LTO, liet vorige maand op de Biovak-beurs in Zwolle weten er niet gerust op te zijn. ,,De kans bestaat dat de opkomst van het duurzame tussensegment de biologische producten verdringt'', aldus Wiersema, die zelf ook biologische boer is. ,,Het is echter niet alleen een bedreiging hoor'', zegt hij desgevraagd. ,,De consument schuift op richting duurzaamheid. Er is een kans dat die middengroep van lichtgroene gebruikers door het groeiende aanbod weer een stap verder gaat en uiteindelijk toch bij biologisch uitkomt." Het feit dat de biologische sector moet vrezen voor zijn positie is eigenlijk een compliment, vindt Paul Ingenbleek, onderzoeker bij het Landbouw-economisch instituut. ,,Dat grote bedrijven zich meer en meer gaan richten op duurzaamheid is mede de verdienste van de biologische sector. Maar het is zeker een bedreiging. De sector moet iets gaan doen, een duidelijke strategische beslissing nemen." Volgens Ingenbleek moeten ze zich blijven richten op hun doelgroep. ,,Het idee, deels door de politiek ingestoken, om in 2010 naar 10 procent marktaandeel te groeien heeft niet gewerkt. Zo'n 5 procent lijkt een natuurlijke grens. Daarmee blijft het een beperkte groep, maar die is wel lucratief. Het alternatief is de concurrentie aangaan met grote bedrijven." Die slag is bijna niet haalbaar. Ingenbleeks advies is regionaal te blijven en voortdurend te innoveren. ,,Dat is toch de kracht van de Eko-sector. Die is het geweten van de voedingsbranche en vervult daarmee een voorbeeldfunctie. Hun kennis van milieuvriendelijkheid is de top. Blijf die kennis vermeerderen, zorg dat je de duurzaamste partij blijft, maar aarzel niet om dat uit te venten aan het tussensegment, door bij voorbeeld biologische ingrediënten te verkopen aan bedrijven die willen verduurzamen. Er zijn vele kansen. Kijk eens naar bedrijven als Unilever. Die zijn doende om concernbreed te verduurzamen. Dat levert ook kansen op voor de biologische sector. Tel uit je winst." Udo Prins, onderzoeker bij het Louis Bolk Instituut voor biologische landbouw en voeding, voorziet een wedergeboorte van de biologische sector. ,,Je ziet een verwatering optreden bij vooral de nieuwe instromers. Dat zijn bedrijven die kiezen voor biologisch vanwege de mogelijkheden om geld te verdienen. Economische vluchtelingen zeg maar. Die zetten in op grootschalige productie en voldoen net aan de biologische normen, maar niet veel meer. Dat kun je zien als een bedreiging doordat het gat met de duurzame, gangbare landbouw kleiner wordt. Toch blijft het winst omdat de hele agrarische sector richting duurzaam opschuift. Voor de biologische sector wordt het echter tijd om weer een volgende stap voorwaarts te maken. Zo ontstaat bio-plus." Prins ziet aan de randen van de IJsselmeerpolders, die grote hoeveelheden voor de wereldmarkt produceren, een regionaal gebonden voedselsector ontstaan met een meer slow-food-inslag. Het zijn boeren die naast de voeding met een verhaal tevens andere diensten aanbieden als een aantrekkelijk landschap, natuurontwikkeling en recreatie. ,,Dat is bij uitstek geschikt voor innoverende biologische boeren. Dat geeft echt kansen, want een groep consumenten en topkoks gaan daarvoor. Consumenten worden almaar kritischer en prikken met behulp van organisaties als Wakker Dier de verhalen door van bedrijven die mooie sier maken met duurzaamheid maar echt aan de rand opereren." Een afscheiding van bio-plus ziet Prins nog niet. ,,Voorlopig zijn de pogingen gericht op het binnenboord houden van bio-minimaal-bedrijven. De komende jaren moeten dat duidelijk maken. Als de bio-minimaal-bedrijven niet verder willen - daarbij gesteund door het ministerie van landbouw want die vindt bio-minimaal wel genoeg - dan gaat bio-plus zijn eigen weg." Biologica is de belangenbehartiger van de biologische sector. Directeur Peter Jens voorziet geen afscheiding. ,,Veel bedrijven maken serieus werk van duurzaamheid. Er is veel interessants gaande. Het is weliswaar niet biologisch, maar we moeten dat wel belonen. Het goede moet niet in de weg staan van het betere. Aan de andere kant kent onze sector ook boeren die zich houden aan de regels van het Eko-keurmerk, maar niet verder willen dan dat. Die moet je niet lastig vallen met discussies over CO2 of minder vlees eten. Wat ik dus zie is dat we minder onderscheidend zouden kunnen worden. Daar moet je wat aan doen, maar Eko stond ook niet in één keer. Met vallen en opstaan hebben we onze weg gevonden. Dat blijft zo. De groeiende onderstroom van mensen die vat willen krijgen op de voedselvoorziening staat er garant voor dat de biologische sector blijft bestaan."
    Milieu en economie kunnen goed samengaan
    Ham, A. van den - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit (BO-12.07 infobladen 14) - 2
    milieubeheer - agrarische economie - stikstofmeststoffen - stikstofbalans - landbouw en milieu - environmental management - agricultural economics - nitrogen fertilizers - nitrogen balance - agriculture and environment
    Milieu en economie kunnen op bedrijfsniveau goed samengaan. Dat blijkt uit de resultaten van het Landelijk Meetnet effecten Mestbeleid (LMM). Er zijn melkveehouder-deelnemers die zowel goede economische resultaten als goede milieuresultaten halen. Bovendien blijkt dat zo’n combinatie niet aan één bepaalde bedrijfsstrategie is gebonden. Wel blijven er grote verschillen tussen bedrijven met een vergelijkbare strategie, zowel qua economische resultaten als qua milieuresultaten. Al houden melkveehouders zich in grote lijnen allen aan dezelfde wettelijke gebruiksnormen, ze doen dat dus toch niet allen op dezelfde wijze.
    MEFEPO North Sea Atlas
    Paramor, O.A.L. ; Allen, K.A. ; Aanesen, M. ; Armstrong, C. ; Piet, G.J. ; Hal, R. van; Hoof, L.J.W. van; Overzee, H.M.J. van - \ 2009
    Liverpool : University of Liverpool - ISBN 9780906370605 - 79 p.
    Met z'n allen werken aan dierenwelzijn
    Spoolder, H.A.M. - \ 2009
    V-focus 6 (2009)5. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 32 - 33.
    veehouderij - veehouderijbedrijven - veehouders - projecten - dierenwelzijn - onderzoek - livestock farming - livestock enterprises - stockmen - projects - animal welfare - research
    Op allerlei niveaus en op verschillende manieren wordt iets aan dierenwelzijn gedaan. Maar welke initiatieven zijn nu voor het dier, de veehouder, de retailer en de Europese maatschappij het meest geschikt om welzijn naar een hoger niveau te tillen? Het onderzoek EconWelfare probeert hier antwoord op te vinden
    Alleen in een nat jaar is bestrijding zinvol
    Hoek, H. ; Korthals, G.W. - \ 2009
    Boerderij/Akkerbouw 94 (2009)35. - ISSN 0169-0116 - p. E16 - E17.
    plantenparasitaire nematoden - droogte - nat seizoen - geïntegreerde plagenbestrijding - controle - plant parasitic nematodes - drought - wet season - integrated pest management - control
    In een droog voorjaar ondervinden gewassen weinig schade van paratrichodorus pachydermus. Volgens PPO is bestrijding van dit aaltje dan ook niet rendabel, dat is het allen in een nat jaar
    Migratory movements of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) between Machalilla National Park, Ecuador and Southeast Pacific
    Castro, C. ; Acevedo, J. ; Allen, J. ; Scheidat, M. - \ 2008
    Santiago : International Whaling Commission
    Migratory destination of humpback whales from the Eastern South Pacific population as revealed by photo identification analysis
    Acevedo, J. ; Allen, J. ; Castro, C. ; Scheidat, M. - \ 2008
    Santiago : International Whaling Commission
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