Staff Publications

Staff Publications

  • external user (warningwarning)
  • Log in as
  • language uk
  • About

    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

    Records 1 - 50 / 193

    • help
    • print

      Print search results

    • export

      Export search results

    Check title to add to marked list
    The FLUXNET2015 dataset and the ONEFlux processing pipeline for eddy covariance data
    Pastorello, Gilberto ; Trotta, Carlo ; Canfora, Eleonora ; Chu, Housen ; Christianson, Danielle ; Cheah, You Wei ; Poindexter, Cristina ; Chen, Jiquan ; Elbashandy, Abdelrahman ; Humphrey, Marty ; Isaac, Peter ; Polidori, Diego ; Ribeca, Alessio ; Ingen, Catharine van; Zhang, Leiming ; Amiro, Brian ; Ammann, Christof ; Arain, M.A. ; Ardö, Jonas ; Arkebauer, Timothy ; Arndt, Stefan K. ; Arriga, Nicola ; Aubinet, Marc ; Aurela, Mika ; Baldocchi, Dennis ; Barr, Alan ; Beamesderfer, Eric ; Marchesini, Luca Belelli ; Bergeron, Onil ; Beringer, Jason ; Bernhofer, Christian ; Berveiller, Daniel ; Billesbach, Dave ; Black, Thomas Andrew ; Blanken, Peter D. ; Bohrer, Gil ; Boike, Julia ; Bolstad, Paul V. ; Bonal, Damien ; Bonnefond, Jean Marc ; Bowling, David R. ; Bracho, Rosvel ; Brodeur, Jason ; Brümmer, Christian ; Buchmann, Nina ; Burban, Benoit ; Burns, Sean P. ; Buysse, Pauline ; Cale, Peter ; Cavagna, Mauro ; Cellier, Pierre ; Chen, Shiping ; Chini, Isaac ; Christensen, Torben R. ; Cleverly, James ; Collalti, Alessio ; Consalvo, Claudia ; Cook, Bruce D. ; Cook, David ; Coursolle, Carole ; Cremonese, Edoardo ; Curtis, Peter S. ; Andrea, Ettore D'; Rocha, Humberto da; Dai, Xiaoqin ; Davis, Kenneth J. ; Cinti, Bruno De; Grandcourt, Agnes de; Ligne, Anne De; Oliveira, Raimundo C. De; Delpierre, Nicolas ; Desai, Ankur R. ; Bella, Carlos Marcelo Di; Tommasi, Paul di; Dolman, Han ; Domingo, Francisco ; Dong, Gang ; Dore, Sabina ; Duce, Pierpaolo ; Dufrêne, Eric ; Dunn, Allison ; Dušek, Jiří ; Eamus, Derek ; Eichelmann, Uwe ; ElKhidir, Hatim Abdalla M. ; Eugster, Werner ; Ewenz, Cacilia M. ; Ewers, Brent ; Famulari, Daniela ; Fares, Silvano ; Feigenwinter, Iris ; Feitz, Andrew ; Fensholt, Rasmus ; Filippa, Gianluca ; Fischer, Marc ; Frank, John ; Galvagno, Marta ; Gharun, Mana ; Gianelle, Damiano ; Gielen, Bert ; Gioli, Beniamino ; Gitelson, Anatoly ; Goded, Ignacio ; Goeckede, Mathias ; Goldstein, Allen H. ; Gough, Christopher M. ; Goulden, Michael L. ; Graf, Alexander ; Griebel, Anne ; Gruening, Carsten ; Grünwald, Thomas ; Hammerle, Albin ; Han, Shijie ; Han, Xingguo ; Hansen, Birger Ulf ; Hanson, Chad ; Hatakka, Juha ; He, Yongtao ; Hehn, Markus ; Heinesch, Bernard ; Hinko-Najera, Nina ; Hörtnagl, Lukas ; Hutley, Lindsay ; Ibrom, Andreas ; Ikawa, Hiroki ; Jackowicz-Korczynski, Marcin ; Janouš, Dalibor ; Jans, Wilma ; Jassal, Rachhpal ; Jiang, Shicheng ; Kato, Tomomichi ; Khomik, Myroslava ; Klatt, Janina ; Knohl, Alexander ; Knox, Sara ; Kobayashi, Hideki ; Koerber, Georgia ; Kolle, Olaf ; Kosugi, Yoshiko ; Kotani, Ayumi ; Kowalski, Andrew ; Kruijt, Bart ; Kurbatova, Julia ; Kutsch, Werner L. ; Kwon, Hyojung ; Launiainen, Samuli ; Laurila, Tuomas ; Law, Bev ; Leuning, Ray ; Li, Yingnian ; Liddell, Michael ; Limousin, Jean Marc ; Lion, Marryanna ; Liska, Adam J. ; Lohila, Annalea ; López-Ballesteros, Ana ; López-Blanco, Efrén ; Loubet, Benjamin ; Loustau, Denis ; Lucas-Moffat, Antje ; Lüers, Johannes ; Ma, Siyan ; Macfarlane, Craig ; Magliulo, Vincenzo ; Maier, Regine ; Mammarella, Ivan ; Manca, Giovanni ; Marcolla, Barbara ; Margolis, Hank A. ; Marras, Serena ; Massman, William ; Mastepanov, Mikhail ; Matamala, Roser ; Matthes, Jaclyn Hatala ; Mazzenga, Francesco ; McCaughey, Harry ; McHugh, Ian ; McMillan, Andrew M.S. ; Merbold, Lutz ; Meyer, Wayne ; Meyers, Tilden ; Miller, Scott D. ; Minerbi, Stefano ; Moderow, Uta ; Monson, Russell K. ; Montagnani, Leonardo ; Moore, Caitlin E. ; Moors, Eddy ; Moreaux, Virginie ; Moureaux, Christine ; Munger, J.W. ; Nakai, Taro ; Neirynck, Johan ; Nesic, Zoran ; Nicolini, Giacomo ; Noormets, Asko ; Northwood, Matthew ; Nosetto, Marcelo ; Nouvellon, Yann ; Novick, Kimberly ; Oechel, Walter ; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind ; Ourcival, Jean Marc ; Papuga, Shirley A. ; Parmentier, Frans Jan ; Paul-Limoges, Eugenie ; Pavelka, Marian ; Peichl, Matthias ; Pendall, Elise ; Phillips, Richard P. ; Pilegaard, Kim ; Pirk, Norbert ; Posse, Gabriela ; Powell, Thomas ; Prasse, Heiko ; Prober, Suzanne M. ; Rambal, Serge ; Rannik, Üllar ; Raz-Yaseef, Naama ; Reed, David ; Dios, Victor Resco de; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia ; Reverter, Borja R. ; Roland, Marilyn ; Sabbatini, Simone ; Sachs, Torsten ; Saleska, Scott R. ; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P. ; Sanchez-Mejia, Zulia M. ; Schmid, Hans Peter ; Schmidt, Marius ; Schneider, Karl ; Schrader, Frederik ; Schroder, Ivan ; Scott, Russell L. ; Sedlák, Pavel ; Serrano-Ortíz, Penélope ; Shao, Changliang ; Shi, Peili ; Shironya, Ivan ; Siebicke, Lukas ; Šigut, Ladislav ; Silberstein, Richard ; Sirca, Costantino ; Spano, Donatella ; Steinbrecher, Rainer ; Stevens, Robert M. ; Sturtevant, Cove ; Suyker, Andy ; Tagesson, Torbern ; Takanashi, Satoru ; Tang, Yanhong ; Tapper, Nigel ; Thom, Jonathan ; Tiedemann, Frank ; Tomassucci, Michele ; Tuovinen, Juha Pekka ; Urbanski, Shawn ; Valentini, Riccardo ; Molen, Michiel van der; Gorsel, Eva van; Huissteden, Ko van; Varlagin, Andrej ; Verfaillie, Joseph ; Vesala, Timo ; Vincke, Caroline ; Vitale, Domenico ; Vygodskaya, Natalia ; Walker, Jeffrey P. ; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth ; Wang, Huimin ; Weber, Robin ; Westermann, Sebastian ; Wille, Christian ; Wofsy, Steven ; Wohlfahrt, Georg ; Wolf, Sebastian ; Woodgate, William ; Li, Yuelin ; Zampedri, Roberto ; Zhang, Junhui ; Zhou, Guoyi ; Zona, Donatella ; Agarwal, Deb ; Biraud, Sebastien ; Torn, Margaret ; Papale, Dario - \ 2020
    Scientific Data 7 (2020)1. - ISSN 2052-4463 - 1 p.

    The FLUXNET2015 dataset provides ecosystem-scale data on CO2, water, and energy exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere, and other meteorological and biological measurements, from 212 sites around the globe (over 1500 site-years, up to and including year 2014). These sites, independently managed and operated, voluntarily contributed their data to create global datasets. Data were quality controlled and processed using uniform methods, to improve consistency and intercomparability across sites. The dataset is already being used in a number of applications, including ecophysiology studies, remote sensing studies, and development of ecosystem and Earth system models. FLUXNET2015 includes derived-data products, such as gap-filled time series, ecosystem respiration and photosynthetic uptake estimates, estimation of uncertainties, and metadata about the measurements, presented for the first time in this paper. In addition, 206 of these sites are for the first time distributed under a Creative Commons (CC-BY 4.0) license. This paper details this enhanced dataset and the processing methods, now made available as open-source codes, making the dataset more accessible, transparent, and reproducible.

    Meetrapport verzamelen van plastics van MSC Zoe: zeevogels, vissen, zeebodem, stranden : Beknopt verslag van werkzaamheden in 2019
    Baptist, Martin ; Volwater, Joey ; Hal, Ralf van; Zwol, Jetze van; Troost, Karin ; Franeker, Jan Andries van; Kühn, Suse ; Strietman, Wouter Jan - \ 2020
    Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C009/20) - 25
    In de nacht van 1 op 2 januari 2019 raakte het containerschip MSC Zoe ter hoogte van Terschelling de zeebodem waardoor in totaal 342 containers overboord geslagen zijn en verspreid geraakt over het gebied tussen Terschelling en Schiermonnikoog. Rijkswaterstaat heeft Wageningen University & Research opdracht gegeven onderzoek te doen naar de mogelijke gevolgen van de containerramp op het ecosysteem van de Noordzee en Waddenzee. De doelstelling van dit onderzoek is het in 2019 geregistreerd verzamelen van plastics en organismen die plastics kunnen hebben ingenomen, aansluitend bij bestaande monitoringprogramma’s. In 2019 is in het kader van deze opdracht zwerfvuil verzameld bij monitoring, en daarnaast zijn vissen, vismagen en vogels verzameld en veiliggesteld voor analyse op aanwezigheid van (micro)plastics. Zwerfvuil: Het registreren van zwerfvuil van de zeebodem is een reguliere activiteit tijdens visbestandsopnames met bodemtrawl netten in het IBTS-programma. Volgens hetzelfde protocol is aanvullend zwerfvuil op de zeebodem geregistreerd tijdens twee andere vissurveys en tijdens schelpdierinventarisaties. Ook is er een analyse gedaan naar zwerfvuil verzameld op Griend. Het zwerfvuilonderzoek richt zich op grotere objecten dan microplastics. Vogels: er zijn ten minste 43 dood gevonden Noordse Stormvogels verzameld, waarvan verreweg het grootste deel op de Waddeneilanden en de Fries-Groninger waddenkust. Daarnaast zijn ten minste 14 Zwarte Zee-eenden, 1 Grote Zee-eend en 4 Drieteenmeeuwen verzameld, allen dood aangetroffen in het Waddengebied. Vissen: er zijn tijdens reguliere visbestandsopnames in het gebied boven de Nederlandse eilanden tot aan Helgoland 211 magen van vissen uit de vangsten verzameld, en 4856 vissen uit de gehele Noordzee tijdens het reguliere onderzoek naar bijvangsten van de visserij. Begin 2020 gaf RWS opdracht aan WMR om (een deel van) de biologische monsters in 2020 te analyseren.
    A genomic view of trophic and metabolic diversity in clade-specific Lamellodysidea sponge microbiomes
    Podell, Sheila ; Blanton, Jessica M. ; Oliver, Aaron ; Schorn, Michelle A. ; Agarwal, Vinayak ; Biggs, Jason S. ; Moore, Bradley S. ; Allen, Eric E. - \ 2020
    Microbiome 8 (2020)1. - ISSN 2049-2618 - 1 p.
    Cyanosponge - Hormoscilla - Lamellodysidea - Methylospongia - PBDE - Prochloron - Sponge microbiome

    BACKGROUND: Marine sponges and their microbiomes contribute significantly to carbon and nutrient cycling in global reefs, processing and remineralizing dissolved and particulate organic matter. Lamellodysidea herbacea sponges obtain additional energy from abundant photosynthetic Hormoscilla cyanobacterial symbionts, which also produce polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) chemically similar to anthropogenic pollutants of environmental concern. Potential contributions of non-Hormoscilla bacteria to Lamellodysidea microbiome metabolism and the synthesis and degradation of additional secondary metabolites are currently unknown. RESULTS: This study has determined relative abundance, taxonomic novelty, metabolic capacities, and secondary metabolite potential in 21 previously uncharacterized, uncultured Lamellodysidea-associated microbial populations by reconstructing near-complete metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) to complement 16S rRNA gene amplicon studies. Microbial community compositions aligned with sponge host subgroup phylogeny in 16 samples from four host clades collected from multiple sites in Guam over a 3-year period, including representatives of Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Oligoflexia, and Bacteroidetes as well as Cyanobacteria (Hormoscilla). Unexpectedly, microbiomes from one host clade also included Cyanobacteria from the prolific secondary metabolite-producer genus Prochloron, a common tunicate symbiont. Two novel Alphaproteobacteria MAGs encoded pathways diagnostic for methylotrophic metabolism as well as type III secretion systems, and have been provisionally assigned to a new order, designated Candidatus Methylospongiales. MAGs from other taxonomic groups encoded light-driven energy production pathways using not only chlorophyll, but also bacteriochlorophyll and proteorhodopsin. Diverse heterotrophic capabilities favoring aerobic versus anaerobic conditions included pathways for degrading chitin, eukaryotic extracellular matrix polymers, phosphonates, dimethylsulfoniopropionate, trimethylamine, and benzoate. Genetic evidence identified an aerobic catabolic pathway for halogenated aromatics that may enable endogenous PBDEs to be used as a carbon and energy source. CONCLUSIONS: The reconstruction of high-quality MAGs from all microbial taxa comprising greater than 0.1% of the sponge microbiome enabled species-specific assignment of unique metabolic features that could not have been predicted from taxonomic data alone. This information will promote more representative models of marine invertebrate microbiome contributions to host bioenergetics, the identification of potential new sponge parasites and pathogens based on conserved metabolic and physiological markers, and a better understanding of biosynthetic and degradative pathways for secondary metabolites and halogenated compounds in sponge-associated microbiota. Video Abstract.

    Poverty or prosperity in northern India? New evidence on real wages, 1590s–1870s†
    Zwart, Pim de; Lucassen, Jan - \ 2020
    Economic History Review 73 (2020)3. - ISSN 0013-0117 - p. 644 - 667.

    This article introduces a new dataset on wages in northern India (from Gujarat in the west to Bengal in the east) from the 1590s to the 1870s. It follows Allen's subsistence basket methodology to compute internationally comparable real wages to shed light on developments in Indian living standards over time. It adjusts the comparative cost-of-living indices to take into account differences in climate and caloric intake due to variances in heights. The article also discusses the male/female wage gap in northern India. It demonstrates that the ‘great divergence’ started in the late seventeenth century, and widened further after the 1720s and especially after the 1800s. It was subsequently primarily England's spurt and India's stagnation in the first half of the nineteenth century that brought about most serious differences in the standard of living. If the British colonial state is to blame—as often suggested by the literature on India's persistent poverty—the fault lies in its failure to improve the situation after the British became near-undisputed masters of India in 1820.

    Regulation of endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria contacts and mitochondrial dynamics by Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD during thermogenesis
    Zhou, Zhangsen ; Torres, Mauricio ; Sha, Haibo ; Halbrook, Christopher J. ; Bergh, Françoise van den; Reinert, Rachel B. ; Yamada, Tatsuya ; Wang, Siwen ; Luo, Yingying ; Hunter, Allen H. ; Wang, Chunqing ; Sanderson, Thomas H. ; Liu, Meilian ; Taylor, Aaron ; Sesaki, Hiromi ; Lyssiotis, Costas A. ; Wu, Jun ; Kersten, Sander ; Beard, Daniel A. ; Qi, Ling - \ 2020
    Wageningen University
    GSE145895 - PRJNA608688 - Mus musculus
    Organelles such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria interact with each other at specialized domains on the ER known as mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs). Here, using three-dimensional high-resolution imaging techniques, we show that the Sel1LHrd1 protein complex, the most conserved branch of ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD), exerts a profound impact on ER-mitochondria contacts and mitochondrial dynamics, at least in part, by regulating the turnover and hence the abundance of the MAM protein sigma receptor 1 (SigmaR1). Sel1L or Hrd1 deficiency in brown adipocytes impairs dynamic interaction between ER and mitochondria, leading to the formation of pleomorphic “megamitochondria” and, in some cases with penetrating ER tubule(s), in response to acute cold challenge. Mice with ERAD deficiency are cold sensitive and exhibit mitochondrial dysfunction in brown adipocytes. Mechanistically, endogenous SigmaR1 is targeted for proteasomal degradation by Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD, whose accumulation in ERAD-deficient cells leads to mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) oligomerization, thereby linking ERAD to mitochondrial dynamics. Our study identifies Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD as a critical determinant of ER-mitochondria contacts, thereby regulating mitochondrial dynamics and thermogenesis.
    Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation regulates mitochondrial dynamics in brown adipocytes
    Zhou, Zhangsen ; Torres, Mauricio ; Sha, Haibo ; Halbrook, Christopher J. ; Bergh, Françoise van den; Reinert, Rachel B. ; Yamada, Tatsuya ; Wang, Siwen ; Luo, Yingying ; Hunter, Allen H. ; Wang, Chunqing ; Sanderson, Thomas H. ; Liu, Meilian ; Taylor, Aaron ; Sesaki, Hiromi ; Lyssiotis, Costas A. ; Wu, Jun ; Kersten, Sander ; Beard, Daniel A. ; Qi, Ling - \ 2020
    Science 368 (2020)6486. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 54 - 60.

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) engages mitochondria at specialized ER domains known as mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs). Here, we used three-dimensional high-resolution imaging to investigate the formation of pleomorphic “megamitochondria” with altered MAMs in brown adipocytes lacking the Sel1L-Hrd1 protein complex of ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD). Mice with ERAD deficiency in brown adipocytes were cold sensitive and exhibited mitochondrial dysfunction. ERAD deficiency affected ER-mitochondria contacts and mitochondrial dynamics, at least in part, by regulating the turnover of the MAM protein, sigma receptor 1 (SigmaR1). Thus, our study provides molecular insights into ER-mitochondrial cross-talk and expands our understanding of the physiological importance of Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD.

    The use of adverse outcome pathways in the safety evaluation of food additives
    Vinken, Mathieu ; Kramer, Nynke ; Allen, Timothy E.H. ; Hoffmans, Yvette ; Thatcher, Natalie ; Levorato, Sara ; Traussnig, Heinz ; Schulte, Stefan ; Boobis, Alan ; Thiel, Anette ; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. - \ 2020
    Archives of Toxicology 94 (2020). - ISSN 0340-5761
    Adverse outcome pathway - Food additive - Safety evaluation

    In the last decade, adverse outcome pathways have been introduced in the fields of toxicology and risk assessment of chemicals as pragmatic tools with broad application potential. While their use in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics sectors has been well documented, their application in the food area remains largely unexplored. In this respect, an expert group of the International Life Sciences Institute Europe has recently explored the use of adverse outcome pathways in the safety evaluation of food additives. A key activity was the organization of a workshop, gathering delegates from the regulatory, industrial and academic areas, to discuss the potentials and challenges related to the application of adverse outcome pathways in the safety assessment of food additives. The present paper describes the outcome of this workshop followed by a number of critical considerations and perspectives defined by the International Life Sciences Institute Europe expert group.

    Compositional turnover and variation in Eemian pollen sequences in Europe
    Felde, Vivian A. ; Flantua, Suzette G.A. ; Jenks, Cathy R. ; Benito, Blas M. ; Beaulieu, Jacques Louis de; Kuneš, Petr ; Magri, Donatella ; Nalepka, Dorota ; Risebrobakken, Bjørg ; Braak, Cajo J.F. ter; Allen, Judy R.M. ; Granoszewski, Wojciech ; Helmens, Karin F. ; Huntley, Brian ; Kondratienė, Ona ; Kalniņa, Laimdota ; Kupryjanowicz, Mirosława ; Malkiewicz, Małgorzata ; Milner, Alice M. ; Nita, Małgorzata ; Noryśkiewicz, Bożena ; Pidek, Irena A. ; Reille, Maurice ; Salonen, Sakari ; Šeirienė, Vaida ; Winter, Hanna ; Tzedakis, Polychronis C. ; Birks, John B. - \ 2020
    Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 29 (2020)1. - ISSN 0939-6314 - p. 101 - 109.
    Detrended canonical correspondence analysis - Extrinsic and intrinsic processes - Inertia - Last interglacial dataset - Multivariate regression trees - Neutral processes - Principal curves

    The Eemian interglacial represents a natural experiment on how past vegetation with negligible human impact responded to amplified temperature changes compared to the Holocene. Here, we assemble 47 carefully selected Eemian pollen sequences from Europe to explore geographical patterns of (1) total compositional turnover and total variation for each sequence and (2) stratigraphical turnover between samples within each sequence using detrended canonical correspondence analysis, multivariate regression trees, and principal curves. Our synthesis shows that turnover and variation are highest in central Europe (47–55°N), low in southern Europe (south of 45°N), and lowest in the north (above 60°N). These results provide a basis for developing hypotheses about causes of vegetation change during the Eemian and their possible drivers.

    Stakeholder management in SME open innovation: interdependences and strategic actions
    Albats, Ekaterina ; Alexander, Allen ; Mahdad, Maral ; Millerd, Kristel ; Post, Ger - \ 2019
    Journal of Business Research (2019). - ISSN 0148-2963
    This research explores how small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) manage external stakeholders during open innovation (OI) processes. To date, extensive literature has explored OI within large organisations, however, there is limited understanding of how SMEs can strategically manage stakeholders during different stages of OI projects. Using a multi-grounded theory approach, 11 cases of SME OI projects were analysed across four regions within Europe. The findings reveal a wide range of primary and secondary stakeholders with varying levels of power and dependency were leveraged across the different stages of the OI projects. A model is presented which advances knowledge on how to map, analyse and manage stakeholders strategically in a SME-OI context. Our research helps advance theory on SME-OI stakeholder management processes and reveals appropriate stakeholder management strategies, which will assist SME managers in alleviating the SME-OI paradox.
    Data from: Patterns of nitrogen-fixing tree abundance in forests across Asia and America
    Menge, Duncan N.L. ; Chisholm, Ryan A. ; Davies, Stuart J. ; Abu Salim, Kamariah ; Allen, David ; Alvarez, Mauricio ; Bourg, Norm ; Brockelman, Warren Y. ; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh ; Butt, Nathalie ; Ouden, Jan den; Jansen, Patrick - \ 2019
    Dryad
    Determinants of plant community diversity and structure - Forest - Smithsonian ForestGEO - legume - symbiosis - nutrient limitation - nitrogen fixation
    Symbiotic nitrogen (N)‐fixing trees can provide large quantities of new N to ecosystems, but only if they are sufficiently abundant. The overall abundance and latitudinal abundance distributions of N‐fixing trees are well characterised in the Americas, but less well outside the Americas. Here, we characterised the abundance of N‐fixing trees in a network of forest plots spanning five continents, ~5,000 tree species and ~4 million trees. The majority of the plots (86%) were in America or Asia. In addition, we examined whether the observed pattern of abundance of N‐fixing trees was correlated with mean annual temperature and precipitation. Outside the tropics, N‐fixing trees were consistently rare in the forest plots we examined. Within the tropics, N‐fixing trees were abundant in American but not Asian forest plots (~7% versus ~1% of basal area and stems). This disparity was not explained by mean annual temperature or precipitation. Our finding of low N‐fixing tree abundance in the Asian tropics casts some doubt on recent high estimates of N fixation rates in this region, which do not account for disparities in N‐fixing tree abundance between the Asian and American tropics. Synthesis. Inputs of nitrogen to forests depend on symbiotic nitrogen fixation, which is constrained by the abundance of N‐fixing trees. By analysing a large dataset of ~4 million trees, we found that N‐fixing trees were consistently rare in the Asian tropics as well as across higher latitudes in Asia, America and Europe. The rarity of N‐fixing trees in the Asian tropics compared with the American tropics might stem from lower intrinsic N limitation in Asian tropical forests, although direct support for any mechanism is lacking. The paucity of N‐fixing trees throughout Asian forests suggests that N inputs to the Asian tropics might be lower than previously thought.
    Global patterns and drivers of ecosystem functioning in rivers and riparian zones
    Tiegs, Scott D. ; Costello, David M. ; Isken, Mark W. ; Woodward, Guy ; McIntyre, Peter B. ; Gessner, Mark O. ; Chauvet, Eric ; Griffiths, Natalie A. ; Flecker, Alex S. ; Acuña, Vicenç ; Albariño, Ricardo ; Allen, Daniel C. ; Alonso, Cecilia ; Andino, Patricio ; Arango, Clay ; Aroviita, Jukka ; Barbosa, Marcus V.M. ; Barmuta, Leon A. ; Baxter, Colden V. ; Bell, Thomas D.C. ; Bellinger, Brent ; Boyero, Luz ; Brown, Lee E. ; Bruder, Andreas ; Bruesewitz, Denise A. ; Burdon, Francis J. ; Callisto, Marcos ; Canhoto, Cristina ; Capps, Krista A. ; Castillo, María M. ; Clapcott, Joanne ; Colas, Fanny ; Colón-Gaud, Checo ; Cornut, Julien ; Crespo-Pérez, Verónica ; Cross, Wyatt F. ; Culp, Joseph M. ; Danger, Michael ; Dangles, Olivier ; Eyto, Elvira De; Derry, Alison M. ; Villanueva, Veronica Díaz ; Douglas, Michael M. ; Elosegi, Arturo ; Encalada, Andrea C. ; Entrekin, Sally ; Espinosa, Rodrigo ; Ethaiya, Diana ; Ferreira, Verónica ; Ferriol, Carmen ; Flanagan, Kyla M. ; Fleituch, Tadeusz ; Follstad Shah, Jennifer J. ; Barbosa, André Frainer ; Friberg, Nikolai ; Frost, Paul C. ; Garcia, Erica A. ; Lago, Liliana García ; Soto, Pavel Ernesto García ; Ghate, Sudeep ; Giling, Darren P. ; Gilmer, Alan ; Gonçalves, José Francisco ; Gonzales, Rosario Karina ; Graça, Manuel A.S. ; Grace, Mike ; Grossart, Hans Peter ; Guérold, François ; Gulis, Vlad ; Hepp, Luiz U. ; Higgins, Scott ; Hishi, Takuo ; Huddart, Joseph ; Hudson, John ; Imberger, Samantha ; Iñiguez-Armijos, Carlos ; Iwata, Tomoya ; Janetski, David J. ; Jennings, Eleanor ; Kirkwood, Andrea E. ; Koning, Aaron A. ; Kosten, Sarian ; Kuehn, Kevin A. ; Laudon, Hjalmar ; Leavitt, Peter R. ; Lemes Da Silva, Aurea L. ; Leroux, Shawn J. ; LeRoy, Carri J. ; Lisi, Peter J. ; MacKenzie, Richard ; Marcarelli, Amy M. ; Masese, Frank O. ; McKie, Brendan G. ; Medeiros, Adriana Oliveira ; Meissner, Kristian ; Miliša, Marko ; Mishra, Shailendra ; Miyake, Yo ; Moerke, Ashley ; Mombrikotb, Shorok ; Mooney, Rob ; Moulton, Tim ; Muotka, Timo ; Negishi, Junjiro N. ; Neres-Lima, Vinicius ; Nieminen, Mika L. ; Nimptsch, Jorge ; Ondruch, Jakub ; Paavola, Riku ; Pardo, Isabel ; Patrick, Christopher J. ; Peeters, Edwin T.H.M. ; Pozo, Jesus ; Pringle, Catherine ; Prussian, Aaron ; Quenta, Estefania ; Quesada, Antonio ; Reid, Brian ; Richardson, John S. ; Rigosi, Anna ; Rincón, José ; Rîşnoveanu, Geta ; Robinson, Christopher T. ; Rodríguez-Gallego, Lorena ; Royer, Todd V. ; Rusak, James A. ; Santamans, Anna C. ; Selmeczy, Géza B. ; Simiyu, Gelas ; Skuja, Agnija ; Smykla, Jerzy ; Sridhar, Kandikere R. ; Sponseller, Ryan ; Stoler, Aaron ; Swan, Christopher M. ; Szlag, David ; Teixeira-De Mello, Franco ; Tonkin, Jonathan D. ; Uusheimo, Sari ; Veach, Allison M. ; Vilbaste, Sirje ; Vought, Lena B.M. ; Wang, Chiao Ping ; Webster, Jackson R. ; Wilson, Paul B. ; Woelfl, Stefan ; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A. ; Yates, Adam G. ; Yoshimura, Chihiro ; Yule, Catherine M. ; Zhang, Yixin X. ; Zwart, Jacob A. - \ 2019
    Science Advances 5 (2019)1. - ISSN 2375-2548 - p. 14966 - 14973.

    River ecosystems receive and process vast quantities of terrestrial organic carbon, the fate of which depends strongly on microbial activity. Variation in and controls of processing rates, however, are poorly characterized at the global scale. In response, we used a peer-sourced research network and a highly standardized carbon processing assay to conduct a global-scale field experiment in greater than 1000 river and riparian sites. We found that Earth's biomes have distinct carbon processing signatures. Slow processing is evident across latitudes, whereas rapid rates are restricted to lower latitudes. Both the mean rate and variability decline with latitude, suggesting temperature constraints toward the poles and greater roles for other environmental drivers (e.g., nutrient loading) toward the equator. These results and data set the stage for unprecedented "next-generation biomonitoring" by establishing baselines to help quantify environmental impacts to the functioning of ecosystems at a global scale.

    Investigating the role of the eurasian badger (Meles meles) in the nationwide distribution of the western european hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) in England
    Hof, Anouschka R. ; Allen, Andrew M. ; Bright, Paul W. - \ 2019
    Animals 9 (2019)10. - ISSN 2076-2615
    Citizen science - Conservation - Displacement - Predator-prey interaction - Spatial use

    Biodiversity is declining globally, which calls for effective conservation measures. It is, therefore, important to investigate the drivers behind species presence at large spatial scales. The Western European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) is one of the species facing declines in parts of its range. Yet, drivers of Western European hedgehog distribution at large spatial scales remain largely unknown. At local scales, the Eurasian badger (Meles meles), an intraguild predator of the Western European hedgehog, can affect both the abundance and the distribution of the latter. However, the Western European hedgehog and the Eurasian badger have shown to be able to co-exist at a landscape scale. We investigated whether the Eurasian badger may play a role in the likelihood of the presence of the Western European hedgehog throughout England by using two nationwide citizen science surveys. Although habitat-related factors explained more variation in the likelihood of Western European hedgehog presence, our results suggest that Eurasian badger presence negatively impacts the likelihood of Western European hedgehog presence. Intraguild predation may, therefore, be influencing the nationwide distribution of hedgehogs in England, and further research is needed about how changes in badger densities and intensifying agricultural practices that remove shelters like hedgerows may influence hedgehog presence.

    Disturbance increases high tide travel distance of a roosting shorebird but only marginally affects daily energy expenditure
    Linssen, Hans ; De Pol, Martijn Van; Allen, Andrew M. ; Jans, Mitzi ; Ens, Bruno J. ; Krijgsveld, Karen L. ; Frauendorf, Magali ; Kolk, Henk Jan Van Der - \ 2019
    Avian Research 10 (2019)1. - ISSN 2053-7166
    Biologging - Disturbance - Haematopus ostralegus - High tide roost - Movement ecology - Shorebird

    Background: Anthropogenic disturbance can negatively affect an animal's energy budget by evoking movement responses. Existing research focuses mainly on immediate displacement as a disturbance effect, since this can be easily observed in the field. However, effects on movement over longer timescales are poorly examined and it is largely unknown if and to what extent they reflect immediate responses. Longer-term responses could for example be larger than immediate responses if birds, after disturbance, return to the original location and thereby travel twice the immediate disturbed distance. Methods: We combined GPS tracking data with observational data to quantify the effects of anthropogenic (air force and walkers) and non-anthropogenic disturbances on distances travelled by roosting Eurasian Oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus) during the non-breeding season. We compared immediate displacement after a disturbance with distance travelled during the entire high tide period (longer-term response), while accounting for environmental factors. Additionally, we calculated energy expenditure due to disturbance based on observed disturbance frequencies. Results: Disturbance resulted in an immediate displacement response of ~ 200 m (median). Air force disturbances tended to yield larger immediate responses than walker and, especially, than non-anthropogenic disturbances. Longer-term responses and immediate responses were approximately similar, suggesting that, over longer timescales, spatial disturbance effects in the study area remain confined to immediate effects. However, disturbances were infrequent (0.17 disturbances per bird per hour) and most disturbances were of natural origin (62%). Consequently, anthropogenic disturbance of roosting oystercatchers in the study area on average costs 0.08% of the daily energy expenditure. Conclusions: Our results suggest that immediate spatial responses to disturbance can be a useful proxy for spatial responses over longer timescales. Over the non-exhaustive range of conditions investigated, energetic consequences of spatial disturbance responses for an oystercatcher in the study area are marginal due to low disturbance levels.

    Characterizing the coverage of critical effects relevant in the safety evaluation of food additives by AOPs
    Kramer, Nynke I. ; Hoffmans, Yvette ; Wu, Siyao ; Thiel, Anette ; Thatcher, Natalie ; Allen, Timothy E.H. ; Levorato, Sara ; Traussnig, Heinz ; Schulte, Stefan ; Boobis, Alan ; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. ; Vinken, Mathieu - \ 2019
    Archives of Toxicology 93 (2019)8. - ISSN 0340-5761 - p. 2115 - 2125.
    3Rs - Acceptable daily intake - Adverse outcome pathway - Critical adverse effect - Food additives

    There is considerable interest in adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) as a means of organizing biological and toxicological information to assist in data interpretation and method development. While several chemical sectors have shown considerable progress in applying this approach, this has not been the case in the food sector. In the present study, safety evaluation reports of food additives listed in Annex II of Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 of the European Union were screened to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize toxicity induced in laboratory animals. The resulting database was used to identify the critical adverse effects used for risk assessment and to investigate whether food additives share common AOPs. Analysis of the database revealed that often such scrutiny of AOPs was not possible or necessary. For 69% of the food additives, the report did not document any adverse effects in studies based on which the safety evaluation was performed. For the remaining 31% of the 326 investigated food additives, critical adverse effects and related points of departure for establishing health-based guidance values could be identified. These mainly involved effects on the liver, kidney, cardiovascular system, lymphatic system, central nervous system and reproductive system. AOPs are available for many of these apical endpoints, albeit to different degrees of maturity. For other adverse outcomes pertinent to food additives, including gastrointestinal irritation and corrosion, AOPs are lacking. Efforts should focus on developing AOPs for these particular endpoints.

    Twenty-three unsolved problems in hydrology (UPH)–a community perspective
    Blöschl, Günter ; Bierkens, Marc F.P. ; Chambel, Antonio ; Cudennec, Christophe ; Destouni, Georgia ; Fiori, Aldo ; Kirchner, James W. ; McDonnell, Jeffrey J. ; Savenije, Hubert H.G. ; Sivapalan, Murugesu ; Stumpp, Christine ; Toth, Elena ; Volpi, Elena ; Carr, Gemma ; Lupton, Claire ; Salinas, Josè ; Széles, Borbála ; Viglione, Alberto ; Aksoy, Hafzullah ; Allen, Scott T. ; Amin, Anam ; Andréassian, Vazken ; Arheimer, Berit ; Aryal, Santosh K. ; Baker, Victor ; Bardsley, Earl ; Barendrecht, Marlies H. ; Bartosova, Alena ; Batelaan, Okke ; Berghuijs, Wouter R. ; Beven, Keith ; Blume, Theresa ; Bogaard, Thom ; Borges de Amorim, Pablo ; Böttcher, Michael E. ; Boulet, Gilles ; Breinl, Korbinian ; Brilly, Mitja ; Brocca, Luca ; Buytaert, Wouter ; Castellarin, Attilio ; Castelletti, Andrea ; Chen, Xiaohong ; Chen, Yangbo ; Chen, Yuanfang ; Chifflard, Peter ; Claps, Pierluigi ; Clark, Martyn P. ; Collins, Adrian L. ; Croke, Barry ; Dathe, Annette ; David, Paula C. ; Barros, Felipe P.J. de; Rooij, Gerrit de; Baldassarre, Giuliano Di; Driscoll, Jessica M. ; Duethmann, Doris ; Dwivedi, Ravindra ; Eris, Ebru ; Farmer, William H. ; Feiccabrino, James ; Ferguson, Grant ; Ferrari, Ennio ; Ferraris, Stefano ; Fersch, Benjamin ; Finger, David ; Foglia, Laura ; Fowler, Keirnan ; Gartsman, Boris ; Gascoin, Simon ; Gaume, Eric ; Gelfan, Alexander ; Geris, Josie ; Gharari, Shervan ; Gleeson, Tom ; Glendell, Miriam ; Gonzalez Bevacqua, Alena ; González-Dugo, María P. ; Grimaldi, Salvatore ; Gupta, A.B. ; Guse, Björn ; Han, Dawei ; Hannah, David ; Harpold, Adrian ; Haun, Stefan ; Heal, Kate ; Helfricht, Kay ; Herrnegger, Mathew ; Hipsey, Matthew ; Hlaváčiková, Hana ; Hohmann, Clara ; Holko, Ladislav ; Hopkinson, Christopher ; Hrachowitz, Markus ; Illangasekare, Tissa H. ; Inam, Azhar ; Innocente, Camyla ; Istanbulluoglu, Erkan ; Jarihani, Ben ; Kalantari, Zahra ; Kalvans, Andis ; Khanal, Sonu ; Khatami, Sina ; Kiesel, Jens ; Kirkby, Mike ; Knoben, Wouter ; Kochanek, Krzysztof ; Kohnová, Silvia ; Kolechkina, Alla ; Krause, Stefan ; Kreamer, David ; Kreibich, Heidi ; Kunstmann, Harald ; Lange, Holger ; Liberato, Margarida L.R. ; Lindquist, Eric ; Link, Timothy ; Liu, Junguo ; Loucks, Daniel Peter ; Luce, Charles ; Mahé, Gil ; Makarieva, Olga ; Malard, Julien ; Mashtayeva, Shamshagul ; Maskey, Shreedhar ; Mas-Pla, Josep ; Mavrova-Guirguinova, Maria ; Mazzoleni, Maurizio ; Mernild, Sebastian ; Misstear, Bruce Dudley ; Montanari, Alberto ; Müller-Thomy, Hannes ; Nabizadeh, Alireza ; Nardi, Fernando ; Neale, Christopher ; Nesterova, Nataliia ; Nurtaev, Bakhram ; Odongo, Vincent O. ; Panda, Subhabrata ; Pande, Saket ; Pang, Zhonghe ; Papacharalampous, Georgia ; Perrin, Charles ; Pfister, Laurent ; Pimentel, Rafael ; Polo, María J. ; Post, David ; Prieto Sierra, Cristina ; Ramos, Maria Helena ; Renner, Maik ; Reynolds, José Eduardo ; Ridolfi, Elena ; Rigon, Riccardo ; Riva, Monica ; Robertson, David E. ; Rosso, Renzo ; Roy, Tirthankar ; Sá, João H.M. ; Salvadori, Gianfausto ; Sandells, Mel ; Schaefli, Bettina ; Schumann, Andreas ; Scolobig, Anna ; Seibert, Jan ; Servat, Eric ; Shafiei, Mojtaba ; Sharma, Ashish ; Sidibe, Moussa ; Sidle, Roy C. ; Skaugen, Thomas ; Smith, Hugh ; Spiessl, Sabine M. ; Stein, Lina ; Steinsland, Ingelin ; Strasser, Ulrich ; Su, Bob ; Szolgay, Jan ; Tarboton, David ; Tauro, Flavia ; Thirel, Guillaume ; Tian, Fuqiang ; Tong, Rui ; Tussupova, Kamshat ; Tyralis, Hristos ; Uijlenhoet, Remko ; Beek, Rens van; Ent, Ruud J. van der; Ploeg, Martine van der; Loon, Anne F. Van; Meerveld, Ilja van; Nooijen, Ronald van; Oel, Pieter R. van; Vidal, Jean Philippe ; Freyberg, Jana von; Vorogushyn, Sergiy ; Wachniew, Przemyslaw ; Wade, Andrew J. ; Ward, Philip ; Westerberg, Ida K. ; White, Christopher ; Wood, Eric F. ; Woods, Ross ; Xu, Zongxue ; Yilmaz, Koray K. ; Zhang, Yongqiang - \ 2019
    Hydrological Sciences Journal 64 (2019)10. - ISSN 0262-6667 - p. 1141 - 1158.
    hydrology - interdisciplinary - knowledge gaps - research agenda - science questions

    This paper is the outcome of a community initiative to identify major unsolved scientific problems in hydrology motivated by a need for stronger harmonisation of research efforts. The procedure involved a public consultation through online media, followed by two workshops through which a large number of potential science questions were collated, prioritised, and synthesised. In spite of the diversity of the participants (230 scientists in total), the process revealed much about community priorities and the state of our science: a preference for continuity in research questions rather than radical departures or redirections from past and current work. Questions remain focused on the process-based understanding of hydrological variability and causality at all space and time scales. Increased attention to environmental change drives a new emphasis on understanding how change propagates across interfaces within the hydrological system and across disciplinary boundaries. In particular, the expansion of the human footprint raises a new set of questions related to human interactions with nature and water cycle feedbacks in the context of complex water management problems. We hope that this reflection and synthesis of the 23 unsolved problems in hydrology will help guide research efforts for some years to come.

    Patterns of nitrogen-fixing tree abundance in forests across Asia and America
    Menge, Duncan N.L. ; Chisholm, Ryan A. ; Davies, Stuart J. ; Abu Salim, Kamariah ; Allen, David ; Alvarez, Mauricio ; Bourg, Norm ; Brockelman, Warren Y. ; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh ; Butt, Nathalie ; Cao, Min ; Chanthorn, Wirong ; Chao, Wei Chun ; Clay, Keith ; Condit, Richard ; Cordell, Susan ; Silva, João Batista da; Dattaraja, H.S. ; Andrade, Ana Cristina Segalin de; Oliveira, Alexandre A. de; Ouden, Jan den; Drescher, Michael ; Fletcher, Christine ; Giardina, Christian P. ; Savitri Gunatilleke, C.V. ; Gunatilleke, I.A.U.N. ; Hau, Billy C.H. ; He, Fangliang ; Howe, Robert ; Hsieh, Chang Fu ; Hubbell, Stephen P. ; Inman-Narahari, Faith M. ; Jansen, Patrick A. ; Johnson, Daniel J. ; Kong, Lee Sing ; Král, Kamil ; Ku, Chen Chia ; Lai, Jiangshan ; Larson, Andrew J. ; Li, Xiankun ; Li, Yide ; Lin, Luxiang ; Lin, Yi Ching ; Liu, Shirong ; Lum, Shawn K.Y. ; Lutz, James A. ; Ma, Keping ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; McMahon, Sean ; McShea, William ; Mi, Xiangcheng ; Morecroft, Michael ; Myers, Jonathan A. ; Nathalang, Anuttara ; Novotny, Vojtech ; Ong, Perry ; Orwig, David A. ; Ostertag, Rebecca ; Parker, Geoffrey ; Phillips, Richard P. ; Abd. Rahman, Kassim ; Sack, Lawren ; Sang, Weiguo ; Shen, Guochun ; Shringi, Ankur ; Shue, Jessica ; Su, Sheng Hsin ; Sukumar, Raman ; Fang Sun, I. ; Suresh, H.S. ; Tan, Sylvester ; Thomas, Sean C. ; Toko, Pagi S. ; Valencia, Renato ; Vallejo, Martha I. ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Vrška, Tomáš ; Wang, Bin ; Wang, Xihua ; Weiblen, George D. ; Wolf, Amy ; Xu, Han ; Yap, Sandra ; Zhu, Li ; Fung, Tak - \ 2019
    Journal of Ecology 107 (2019)6. - ISSN 0022-0477 - p. 2598 - 2610.
    forest - legume - nitrogen fixation - nutrient limitation - Smithsonian ForestGEO - symbiosis

    Symbiotic nitrogen (N)-fixing trees can provide large quantities of new N to ecosystems, but only if they are sufficiently abundant. The overall abundance and latitudinal abundance distributions of N-fixing trees are well characterised in the Americas, but less well outside the Americas. Here, we characterised the abundance of N-fixing trees in a network of forest plots spanning five continents, ~5,000 tree species and ~4 million trees. The majority of the plots (86%) were in America or Asia. In addition, we examined whether the observed pattern of abundance of N-fixing trees was correlated with mean annual temperature and precipitation. Outside the tropics, N-fixing trees were consistently rare in the forest plots we examined. Within the tropics, N-fixing trees were abundant in American but not Asian forest plots (~7% versus ~1% of basal area and stems). This disparity was not explained by mean annual temperature or precipitation. Our finding of low N-fixing tree abundance in the Asian tropics casts some doubt on recent high estimates of N fixation rates in this region, which do not account for disparities in N-fixing tree abundance between the Asian and American tropics. Synthesis. Inputs of nitrogen to forests depend on symbiotic nitrogen fixation, which is constrained by the abundance of N-fixing trees. By analysing a large dataset of ~4 million trees, we found that N-fixing trees were consistently rare in the Asian tropics as well as across higher latitudes in Asia, America and Europe. The rarity of N-fixing trees in the Asian tropics compared with the American tropics might stem from lower intrinsic N limitation in Asian tropical forests, although direct support for any mechanism is lacking. The paucity of N-fixing trees throughout Asian forests suggests that N inputs to the Asian tropics might be lower than previously thought.

    Association between vitamin content, plant morphology and geographical origin in a worldwide collection of the orphan crop Gynandropsis gynandra (Cleomaceae)
    Sogbohossou, E.O.D. ; Kortekaas, Dieke ; Achigan-Dako, Enoch G. ; Maundu, Patrick ; Stoilova, Tsvetilina ; Deynze, Allen Van; Vos, C.H. de; Schranz, M.E. - \ 2019
    Planta 250 (2019)3. - ISSN 0032-0935 - p. 933 - 947.
    Main conclusion: The variability in nutrient content and morphology in Gynandropsis gynandra is associated with the geographic origin of the accessions and provides a basis for breeding for higher levels of vitamin C, carotenoids or tocopherols in higher-yielding cultivars.We examined the variation in carotenoids, tocopherols and ascorbic acid as well as morphological traits in a worldwide germplasm of 76 accessions of the orphan leafy vegetable Gynandropsis gynandra (Cleomaceae) using greenhouse experiments and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The levels of carotenoids and tocopherols accumulating in the leaves varied significantly across accessions and were linked with the geographical origin and morphological variation. The main carotenoids included lutein, β-carotene, α-carotene and violaxanthin. A twofold to threefold variation was observed for these compounds. The main tocopherols detected were α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol with a 20-fold variation. A ninefold variation in vitamin C concentration and independent of geographical origin was observed. Overall, the accessions were grouped into three clusters based on variation in nutrient content and morphology. West African accessions were short plants with small leaves and with high tocopherol contents and relatively low carotenoid contents, Asian accessions were short plants with broad leaves and with relatively low carotenoid and high tocopherol contents, while East–Southern African plants were tall with high contents of both carotenoids and chlorophylls and low tocopherol contents. Carotenoids were positively correlated with plant height as well as foliar and floral traits but negatively correlated with tocopherols. The absence of a significant correlation between vitamin C and other traits indicated that breeding for high carotenoids or tocopherols content may be coupled with improved leaf yield and vitamin C content. Our study provides baseline information on the natural variation available for traits of interest for breeding for enhanced crop yield and nutrient content in Gynandropsis gynandra.
    Medical travel/tourism and the city
    Ormond, M.E. ; Kaspar, Heidi - \ 2019
    In: Global Urban Health / Vojnovic, I., Asiki, G., DeVerteuil, G., Allen, A., Abingdon : Routledge - ISBN 9781138206250 - 19 p.
    Transnational medical travel/tourism, by and large, involves travel to cities and metropolitan areas. Only urban areas possess the sufficient volume and variety of world-class medical expertise, cutting-edge technology, transportation infrastructure, communication and mediation facilities and hospitality services and infrastructure to be able to emerge as transnational medical travel destinations. Yet how cities and transnational flows of patients, standards and capital interact to generate new urban assemblages and new assemblages of health care is a story that has yet to really be told. While research on transnational medical travel/tourism is becoming more nuanced, involving a broader variety of perspectives, actors and medical mobilities, any attention given thus far to urban areas has been largely implicit and, thus, conceptually under-explored and -utilised. In this chapter, we argue for a relational approach on the urban as well as on transnational health care. Our focus was on how elements become mobile, circulate and assemble to form medical travel/tourism and how this assembling entangles with the elements and relations that constitute the urban. The presented cases show that networks are fluid and constantly being made, as elements entangle and disentangle and, through relational processes of dissociation and re-association, themselves transform. Through the assembling of medical travel/tourism, hospitals’ incomes can rise and their interiors can be ‘internationalised’; neighbours and hotels can learn to accommodate the presence of ‘sick’ bodies; patients can become health consumers and, perhaps, evangelise the benefits of travelling abroad for medical purposes; penniless refugees and wealthy doctors alike can become care brokers; and, last but not least, hopeless, ignored ‘medical cases’ at home can become hopeful, desired customers abroad.
    Meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies in neonates reveals widespread differential DNA methylation associated with birthweight
    Küpers, Leanne K. ; Monnereau, Claire ; Sharp, Gemma C. ; Yousefi, Paul ; Salas, Lucas A. ; Ghantous, Akram ; Page, Christian M. ; Reese, Sarah E. ; Wilcox, Allen J. ; Czamara, Darina ; Starling, Anne P. ; Novoloaca, Alexei ; Lent, Samantha ; Roy, Ritu ; Hoyo, Cathrine ; Breton, Carrie V. ; Allard, Catherine ; Just, Allan C. ; Bakulski, Kelly M. ; Holloway, John W. ; Everson, Todd M. ; Xu, Cheng Jian ; Huang, Rae Chi ; Plaat, Diana A. van der; Wielscher, Matthias ; Merid, Simon Kebede ; Ullemar, Vilhelmina ; Rezwan, Faisal I. ; Lahti, Jari ; Dongen, Jenny van; Langie, Sabine A.S. ; Richardson, Tom G. ; Magnus, Maria C. ; Nohr, Ellen A. ; Xu, Zongli ; Duijts, Liesbeth ; Zhao, Shanshan ; Zhang, Weiming ; Plusquin, Michelle ; DeMeo, Dawn L. ; Solomon, Olivia ; Heimovaara, Joosje H. ; Jima, Dereje D. ; Gao, Lu ; Bustamante, Mariona ; Perron, Patrice ; Wright, Robert O. ; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva ; Zhang, Hongmei ; Karagas, Margaret R. ; Gehring, Ulrike ; Marsit, Carmen J. ; Beilin, Lawrence J. ; Vonk, Judith M. ; Jarvelin, Marjo Riitta ; Bergström, Anna ; Örtqvist, Anne K. ; Ewart, Susan ; Villa, Pia M. ; Moore, Sophie E. ; Willemsen, Gonneke ; Standaert, Arnout R.L. ; Håberg, Siri E. ; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A. ; Taylor, Jack A. ; Räikkönen, Katri ; Yang, Ivana V. ; Kechris, Katerina ; Nawrot, Tim S. ; Silver, Matt J. ; Gong, Yun Yun ; Richiardi, Lorenzo ; Kogevinas, Manolis ; Litonjua, Augusto A. ; Eskenazi, Brenda ; Huen, Karen ; Mbarek, Hamdi ; Maguire, Rachel L. ; Dwyer, Terence ; Vrijheid, Martine ; Bouchard, Luigi ; Baccarelli, Andrea A. ; Croen, Lisa A. ; Karmaus, Wilfried ; Anderson, Denise ; Vries, Maaike de; Sebert, Sylvain ; Kere, Juha ; Karlsson, Robert ; Arshad, Syed Hasan ; Hämäläinen, Esa ; Routledge, Michael N. ; Boomsma, Dorret I. ; Feinberg, Andrew P. ; Newschaffer, Craig J. ; Govarts, Eva ; Moisse, Matthieu ; Fallin, M.D. ; Melén, Erik ; Prentice, Andrew M. ; Kajantie, Eero ; Almqvist, Catarina ; Oken, Emily ; Dabelea, Dana ; Boezen, H.M. ; Melton, Phillip E. ; Wright, Rosalind J. ; Koppelman, Gerard H. ; Trevisi, Letizia ; Hivert, Marie France ; Sunyer, Jordi ; Munthe-Kaas, Monica C. ; Murphy, Susan K. ; Corpeleijn, Eva ; Wiemels, Joseph ; Holland, Nina ; Herceg, Zdenko ; Binder, Elisabeth B. ; Davey Smith, George ; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V. ; Lie, Rolv T. ; Nystad, Wenche ; London, Stephanie J. ; Lawlor, Debbie A. ; Relton, Caroline L. ; Snieder, Harold ; Felix, Janine F. - \ 2019
    Nature Communications 10 (2019)1. - ISSN 2041-1723

    Birthweight is associated with health outcomes across the life course, DNA methylation may be an underlying mechanism. In this meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies of 8,825 neonates from 24 birth cohorts in the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics Consortium, we find that DNA methylation in neonatal blood is associated with birthweight at 914 sites, with a difference in birthweight ranging from −183 to 178 grams per 10% increase in methylation (P Bonferroni < 1.06 x 10 −7 ). In additional analyses in 7,278 participants, <1.3% of birthweight-associated differential methylation is also observed in childhood and adolescence, but not adulthood. Birthweight-related CpGs overlap with some Bonferroni-significant CpGs that were previously reported to be related to maternal smoking (55/914, p = 6.12 x 10 −74 ) and BMI in pregnancy (3/914, p = 1.13x10 −3 ), but not with those related to folate levels in pregnancy. Whether the associations that we observe are causal or explained by confounding or fetal growth influencing DNA methylation (i.e. reverse causality) requires further research.

    Paying the price for the meat we eat
    Allen, Andrew M. ; Hof, Anouschka R. - \ 2019
    Environmental Science & Policy 97 (2019). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 90 - 94.
    Biodiversity offsetting - Climate change - Ecological compensation - Intensive agriculture - Meat consumption

    An increasingly gloomy picture is painted by research focusing on the environmental challenges faced by our planet. Biodiversity loss is ongoing, landscapes continue to transform, and predictions on the effects of climate change worsen. Calls have been made for urgent action to avoid pushing our planet into a new system state. One of the principal threats to biodiversity is intensive agriculture, and in particular the livestock industry, which is an important driver of greenhouse gas emissions, habitat degradation and habitat loss. Ongoing intensification of agricultural practices mean that farmland no longer provides a habitat for many species. We suggest the use of a growing policy tool, biodiversity offsetting, to tackle these challenges. Biodiversity offsetting, or ecological compensation, assesses the impacts of new development projects and seeks to avoid, minimise and otherwise compensate for the ecological impacts of these development projects. By applying biodiversity offsetting to agriculture, the impacts of progressively intensifying farming practices can be compensated to achieve conservation outcomes by using tools like environmental taxes or agri-environment schemes. Low intensity, traditional, farming systems provide a number of benefits to biodiversity and society, and we suggest that the consumer and the agriculture industry compensate for the devastating ecological impacts of intensive farming so that we can once again preserve biodiversity in our landscapes and attempt to limit global temperature rise below 2°c.

    Local host-tick coextinction in neotropical forest fragments
    Esser, Helen J. ; Herre, Edward Allen ; Kays, Roland ; Liefting, Yorick ; Jansen, Patrick A. - \ 2019
    International Journal for Parasitology 49 (2019)3-4. - ISSN 0020-7519 - p. 225 - 233.
    Biodiversity loss - Defaunation - Extinction cascade - Forest fragmentation - Host specificity - Host-parasite interactions - Panama

    Ticks are obligatory parasites with complex life cycles that often depend on larger bodied vertebrates as final hosts. These traits make them particularly sensitive to local coextinction with their host. Loss of wildlife abundance and diversity should thus lead to loss of tick abundance and diversity to the point where only generalist tick species remain. However, direct empirical tests of these hypotheses are lacking, despite their relevance to our understanding of tick-borne disease emergence in disturbed environments. Here, we compare vertebrate and tick communities across 12 forest islands and peninsulas in the Panama Canal that ranged 1000-fold in size (2.6–2811.3 ha). We used drag sampling and camera trapping to directly assess the abundance and diversity of communities of questing ticks and vertebrate hosts. We found that the abundance and species richness of ticks were positively related to those of wildlife. Specialist tick species were only present in fragments where their final hosts were found. Further, less diverse tick communities had a higher relative abundance of the generalist tick species Amblyomma oblongoguttatum, a potential vector of spotted fever group rickettsiosis. These findings support the host-parasite coextinction hypothesis, and indicate that loss of wildlife can indeed have cascading effects on tick communities. Our results also imply that opportunities for pathogen transmission via generalist ticks may be higher in habitats with degraded tick communities. If these patterns are general, then tick identities and abundances serve as useful bioindicators of ecosystem health, with low tick diversity reflecting low wildlife diversity and a potentially elevated risk of interspecific disease transmission via remaining host species and generalist ticks.

    An uncertain future for the endemic Galliformes of the Caucasus
    Hof, Anouschka R. ; Allen, Andrew M. - \ 2019
    Science of the Total Environment 651 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 725 - 735.
    Birds - Climate change - Conservation - Land use - Species distribution modelling

    Impacts of climate change are already evident in ecosystems worldwide. High-latitude and altitude regions are at greatest risk because the effects of climate change are greater in these regions, and species from these areas have limited ability to track their climate envelopes. The Caucasian snowcock (Tetraogallus caucasicus) and the Caucasian grouse (Lyrurus mlokosiewiczi) are both high-altitude specialists that are endemic to a restricted range in the Caucasus mountains of Europe. Little research has been performed to determine the status of the populations or the potential impacts of climate change. We investigated how climate and land use change may impact both species in future and determined whether their life history traits may increase their vulnerability using a combined exposure and trait-based index. We compared several climate models, and in all instances, both species showed drastic range contractions although the extent of the contraction varied with each model. Traits like habitat specialism, ground nesting and incubation period meant that both species may be considered “most vulnerable” in the exposure and trait-based index. Given that both species already occur near the maximum elevations of the Caucasus, and that they lack any dispersal capabilities due to the isolation from alternative mountainous areas, research efforts need to be prioritized to improve our knowledge about their population status, to monitor future trends and to begin developing species action plans that conserve these endemic and iconic species of Europe. Both species are flagship and umbrella species and may serve as indicator species, their protection may therefore benefit a whole range of other species inhabiting this vulnerable Alpine ecosystem. Especially the Caucasian grouse has a high aesthetic value and is favoured by hunters in the region. The potential demise of this species may therefore also be negative for local communities.

    Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND): Vitamin B-12 Review
    Allen, L.H. ; Miller, J. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Rosenberg, I.H. ; Smith, A.D. ; Refsum, H. ; Raiten, D.J. - \ 2018
    The Journal of Nutrition 148 (2018)suppl. 4. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 1995S - 2027S.
    This report on vitamin B-12 (B12) is part of the Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND) Project, which provides state-of-the art information and advice on the selection, use, and interpretation of biomarkers of nutrient exposure, status, and function. As with the other 5 reports in this series, which focused on iodine, folate, zinc, iron, and vitamin A, this B12 report was developed with the assistance of an expert panel (BOND B12 EP) and other experts who provided information during a consultation. The experts reviewed the existing literature in depth in order to consolidate existing relevant information on the biology of B12, including known and possible effects of insufficiency, and available and potential biomarkers of status. Unlike the situation for the other 5 nutrients reviewed during the BOND project, there has been relatively little previous attention paid to B12 status and its biomarkers, so this report is a landmark in terms of the consolidation and interpretation of the available information on B12 nutrition. Historically, most focus has been on diagnosis and treatment of clinical symptoms of B12 deficiency, which result primarily from pernicious anemia or strict vegetarianism. More recently, we have become aware of the high prevalence of B12 insufficiency in populations consuming low amounts of animal-source foods, which can be detected with ≥1 serum biomarker but presents the new challenge of identifying functional consequences that may require public health interventions.
    Is het leven maakbaar? 3.3 Welzijn voor allen
    Tramper, J. - \ 2018
    Bio Based Press
    Radiofrequency identification systems: Advantages and constraints for tracking and monitoring of individual animals
    Sluis, M. van der; Ellen, E.D. ; Haas, Y. de; Rodenburg, T.B. - \ 2018
    In: Measuring behavior 2018. - Manchester : - ISBN 9781910029398 - p. 193 - 195.
    To track and monitor individual animals in groups, it is possible to use radiofrequency identification (RFID) systems. RFID encompasses all wireless communication systems that use radiofrequency fields [1]. RFID systems consist of tags and readers [2]. The tags contain unique identification data and can be attached to the item or, in the proposed application, to the animal that needs to be tracked [2]. The readers are used to read and identify the tags via radiofrequency fields [2]. The development of RFID technology started in the late 1960s and RFID systems are currently used for a large range of applications, including electronic door locking systems, contactless smart cards, and animal identification [2,3,4]. Further progress in the technology of chip manufacturing now makes RFID suitable for novel applications and available at a lower cost [4,5]. Therefore, the existing RFID technology may be applicable for animal tracking and monitoring as well. Here, different types of RFID systems will first be discussed for their applicability in individual animal tracking and monitoring, after which future work using RFID to track individual animals will be presented.
    Engineering the unicellular alga Phaeodactylum tricornutum for high-value plant triterpenoid production
    Adamo, Sarah D'; Schiano di Visconte, Gino ; Lowe, Gavin ; Szaub-Newton, Joanna ; Beacham, Tracey ; Landels, Andrew ; Allen, Michael J. ; Spicer, Andrew ; Matthijs, Michiel - \ 2018
    Plant Biotechnology Journal 17 (2018)1. - ISSN 1467-7644 - p. 75 - 87.
    algal synthetic biology - betulin - blue biotechnology - diatoms - lupeol - microalgae - natural product - triterpenoid biosynthesis

    Plant triterpenoids constitute a diverse class of organic compounds that play a major role in development, plant defence and environmental interaction. Several triterpenes have demonstrated potential as pharmaceuticals. One example is betulin, which has shown promise as a pharmaceutical precursor for the treatment of certain cancers and HIV. Major challenges for triterpenoid commercialization include their low production levels and their cost-effective purification from the complex mixtures present in their natural hosts. Therefore, attempts to produce these compounds in industrially relevant microbial systems such as bacteria and yeasts have attracted great interest. Here, we report the production of the triterpenes betulin and its precursor lupeol in the photosynthetic diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, a unicellular eukaryotic alga. This was achieved by introducing three plant enzymes in the microalga: a Lotus japonicus oxidosqualene cyclase and a Medicago truncatula cytochrome P450 along with its native reductase. The introduction of the L. japonicus oxidosqualene cyclase perturbed the mRNA expression levels of the native mevalonate and sterol biosynthesis pathway. The best performing strains were selected and grown in a 550-L pilot-scale photobioreactor facility. To our knowledge, this is the most extensive pathway engineering undertaken in a diatom and the first time that a sapogenin has been artificially produced in a microalga, demonstrating the feasibility of the photo-bio-production of more complex high-value, metabolites in microalgae.

    Coffee value chain analysis in the southern highlands of Tanzania : Final report
    Ruben, Ruerd ; Allen, Catherine ; Boureima, Fayçal ; Gongwe Mhando, David ; Dijkxhoorn, Youri - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 155
    Andromonoecy in Gynandropsis gynandra (L.) Briq. (Cleomaceae) and effects on fruit and seed production
    Zohoungbogbo, Herbaud P.F. ; Houdegbe, Carlos A. ; Sogbohossou, Dêêdi E.O. ; Tossou, Monique G. ; Maundu, Patrick ; Schranz, Eric M. ; Deynze, Allen Van; Zoundjihekpon, Jeanne ; Achigan-Dako, Enoch G. - \ 2018
    Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 65 (2018)8. - ISSN 0925-9864 - p. 2231 - 2239.
    Andromonoecy - Anthesis - Gynandropsis gynandra - Hermaphroditism - Pollination systems

    Spider plant (Gynandropsis gynandra) is a traditional leafy vegetable widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and tropical Asia that is also valued for its medicinal properties. Developing a breeding program for the species requires detailed knowledge of its phenology, floral morphology and pollination system. This study investigates the effects of floral morphology and pollination mechanisms on the reproductive success in G. gynandra. The experiments were conducted in two locations in Benin. A split-plot design was used with four randomized complete blocks. Three accessions were randomly assigned to the whole plots and five treatments including natural self-pollination, hand self-pollination, geitonogamy, open pollination and hand cross-pollination were randomized over the sub-plots. We observed that individual plant exhibited 70% of staminate (male) flowers and 30% of hermaphrodite flowers. G. gynandra was andromonoecious. Open pollination and hand cross-pollination led to higher fruit and seed set. Natural self-pollination and hand self-pollination resulted in lower fruit and seed production. G. gynandra is a self-compatible and predominantly out-crossing species. Cross-pollination resulted in a significant increase in fruit set. This study set the ground for the development of improved cultivars in G. gynandra.

    The ecology of Black Guillemot Cepphus grylle grylle chicks in the Baltic Sea region : insights into their diet, survival, nest predation and moment of fledging
    Hof, Anouschka R. ; Crombag, Joep A.H.M. ; Allen, Andrew M. - \ 2018
    Bird Study 65 (2018)3. - ISSN 0006-3657 - p. 357 - 364.

    Capsule: The diet of Black Guillemot Cepphus grylle grylle chicks in the Baltic Sea region was dominated by Viviparous Eelpout Zoarces viviparus. Risk of nest predation by avian and mammalian predators was perceived to be low, and hatching and fledging success were high. Aims: To gain insight into the ecology of nestling Black Guillemots in the Baltic Sea region to fill knowledge gaps and benefit its conservation. Methods: Two island groups in the Baltic Sea were visited several times during the breeding season of 2014 and 2015 to monitor nestling survival and fledging. In addition, camera traps were used in 2014 to monitor prey brought to chicks by adults and record possible nest predation events. Results: Hatching success was 0.89 and 0.73 in 2014 and 2015, respectively, and fledging success was very high (0.95 and 0.97). No incidences of avian or mammalian predation were observed. Chicks fledged at night between 32 and 38 days after hatching. Viviparous Eelpout made up 95% of the prey items brought to the chicks by adults. Conclusions: The hatching rate and fledging rate of the Black Guillemot was high in our study region. Juveniles seemed highly dependent on the availability of eelpout. Changes in the abundance of this species may therefore have negative effects on chick survival.

    Pictures or pellets? Comparing camera trapping and dung counts as methods for estimating population densities of ungulates
    Pfeffer, Sabine E. ; Spitzer, Robert ; Allen, Andrew M. ; Hofmeester, Tim R. ; Ericsson, Göran ; Widemo, Fredrik ; Singh, Navinder J. ; Cromsigt, Joris P.G.M. - \ 2018
    Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation 4 (2018)2. - ISSN 2056-3485 - p. 173 - 183.
    Camera traps - pellet counts - population estimates - random encounter model - ungulates - wildlife monitoring

    Across the northern hemisphere, land use changes and, possibly, warmer winters are leading to more abundant and diverse ungulate communities causing increased socioeconomic and ecological consequences. Reliable population estimates are crucial for sustainable management, but it is currently unclear which monitoring method is most suitable to track changes in multi-species assemblages. We compared dung counts and camera trapping as two non-invasive census methods to estimate population densities of moose Alces alces and roe deer Capreolus capreolus in Northern Sweden. For camera trapping, we tested the random encounter model (REM) which can estimate densities without the need to recognize individual animals. We evaluated different simplification options of the REM in terms of estimates of detection distance and angle (raw data vs. modelled) and of daily movement rate (camera trap based vs. telemetry based). In comparison to density estimates from camera traps, we found that, dung counts appeared to underestimate population density for roe deer, but not for moose. Estimates of detection distance and angle from modelled versus raw camera data resulted in nearly identical outcomes. The telemetry-derived daily movement rate for moose and roe deer resulted in much higher density estimates than the camera trap-derived estimates. We suggest that camera trapping may be a robust complement to dung counts when monitoring ungulate communities, particularly when similarities between dung pellets from sympatric deer species make unambiguous assignment difficult. Moreover, we show that a simplified use of the REM method holds great potential for large-scale citizen science-based programmes (e.g. involving hunters) that can track the rapidly changing European wildlife landscape. We suggest to include camera trapping in management programmes, where the analysis can be verified via web-based applications.

    The effect of vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on routine haematological parameters in older people : an individual participant data meta-analysis
    Smelt, Antonia F.H. ; Gussekloo, Jacobijn ; Bermingham, Lynette W. ; Allen, Elizabeth ; Dangour, Alan D. ; Eussen, Simone J.P.M. ; Favrat, Bernard ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. de; Kok, Frans J. ; Kwok, Timothy ; Mangoni, Arduino A. ; Ntaios, George ; Rest, Ondine van de; Seal, Eric ; Vaucher, Paul ; Verhoef, Petra ; Stijnen, Theo ; Elzen, Wendy P.J. Den - \ 2018
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 72 (2018)6. - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 785 - 795.
    Background/objectives: Low vitamin B12 and folate levels in community-dwelling older people are usually corrected with supplements. However, the effect of this supplementation on haematological parameters in older persons is not known. Therefore, we executed a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis of randomised placebo-controlled trials (RCTs). Subjects/methods: We performed a systematic search in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane and CENTRAL for RCTs published between January 1950 and April 2016, where community-dwelling elderly (60+ years) who were treated with vitamin B12 or folic acid or placebo. The presence of anaemia was not required. We analysed the data on haematological parameters with a two-stage IPD meta-analysis. Results: We found 494 full papers covering 14 studies. Data were shared by the authors of four RCTs comparing vitamin B12 with placebo (n = 343) and of three RCTs comparing folic acid with placebo (n = 929). We found no effect of vitamin B12 supplementation on haemoglobin (change 0.00 g/dL, 95% CI: −0.19;0.18), and no effect of folic acid supplementation (change −0.09 g/dL, 95% CI: −0.19;0.01). The effects of supplementation on other haematological parameters were similar. The effects did not differ by sex or by age group. Also, no effect was found in a subgroup of patients with anaemia and a subgroup of patients who were treated >4 weeks. Conclusions: Evidence on the effects of supplementation of low concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate on haematological parameters in community-dwelling older people is inconclusive. Further research is needed before firm recommendations can be made concerning the supplementation of vitamin B12 and folate.
    A roadmap for breeding orphan leafy vegetable species : A case study of Gynandropsis gynandra (Cleomaceae)
    Sogbohossou, E.O.D. ; Achigan-Dako, Enoch G. ; Maundu, Patrick ; Solberg, Svein ; Deguenon, Edgar M.S. ; Mumm, Rita H. ; Hale, Iago ; Deynze, Allen van; Schranz, M.E. - \ 2018
    Horticulture Research 5 (2018)1. - ISSN 2052-7276
    Despite an increasing awareness of the potential of "orphan" or unimproved crops to contribute to food security and enhanced livelihoods for farmers, coordinated research agendas to facilitate production and use of orphan crops by local communities are generally lacking. We provide an overview of the current knowledge on leafy vegetables with a focus on Gynandropsis gynandra, a highly nutritious species used in Africa and Asia, and highlight general and species-specific guidelines for participatory, genomics-assisted breeding of orphan crops. Key steps in genome-enabled orphan leafy vegetables improvement are identified and discussed in the context of Gynandropsis gynandra breeding, including: (1) germplasm collection and management; (2) product target definition and refinement; (3) characterization of the genetic control of key traits; (4) design of the 'process' for cultivar development; (5) integration of genomic data to optimize that 'process'; (6) multi-environmental participatory testing and end-user evaluation; and (7) crop value chain development. The review discusses each step in detail, with emphasis on improving leaf yield, phytonutrient content, organoleptic quality, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and post-harvest management.
    Metabolomics of tomato xylem sap during bacterial wilt reveals Ralstonia solanacearum produces abundant putrescine, a metabolite that accelerates wilt disease
    Lowe-Power, Tiffany M. ; Hendrich, Connor G. ; Roepenack-Lahaye, Edda von; Li, Bin ; Wu, Dousheng ; Mitra, Raka ; Dalsing, Beth L. ; Ricca, Patrizia ; Naidoo, Jacinth ; Cook, David ; Jancewicz, Amy ; Masson, Patrick ; Thomma, Bart ; Lahaye, Thomas ; Michael, Anthony J. ; Allen, Caitilyn - \ 2018
    Environmental Microbiology 20 (2018)4. - ISSN 1462-2912 - p. 1330 - 1349.
    Ralstonia solanacearum thrives in plant xylem vessels and causes bacterial wilt disease despite the low nutrient content of xylem sap. We found that R. solanacearum manipulates its host to increase nutrients in tomato xylem sap, enabling it to grow better in sap from infected plants than in sap from healthy plants. Untargeted GC/MS metabolomics identified 22 metabolites enriched in R. solanacearum-infected sap. Eight of these could serve as sole carbon or nitrogen sources for R. solanacearum. Putrescine, a polyamine that is not a sole carbon or nitrogen source for R. solanacearum, was enriched 76-fold to 37 μM in R. solanacearum-infected sap. R. solanacearum synthesized putrescine via a SpeC ornithine decarboxylase. A ΔspeC mutant required≥15 μM exogenous putrescine to grow and could not grow alone in xylem even when plants were treated with putrescine. However, co-inoculation with wildtype rescued ΔspeC growth, indicating R. solanacearum produced and exported putrescine to xylem sap. Intriguingly, treating plants with putrescine before inoculation accelerated wilt symptom development and R. solanacearum growth and systemic spread. Xylem putrescine concentration was unchanged in putrescine-treated plants, so the exogenous putrescine likely accelerated disease indirectly by affecting host physiology. These results indicate that putrescine is a pathogen-produced virulence metabolite.
    Integrated ecological-economic fisheries models-Evaluation, review and challenges for implementation
    Nielsen, J.R. ; Thunberg, Eric ; Holland, Daniel S. ; Schmidt, Jorn O. ; Fulton, Elizabeth A. ; Bastardie, Francois ; Punt, Andre E. ; Allen, Icarus ; Bartelings, Heleen ; Bertignac, Michel ; Groeneveld, Rolf A. ; Hamon, Katell G. ; Dijk, Diana van - \ 2018
    Fish and Fisheries 19 (2018)1. - ISSN 1467-2960 - p. 1 - 29.
    Bio-economic models - Comparative model evaluation - Fisheries management advice - Integrated ecological-economic fisheries models - Marine spatial planning and cross-sector management - Performance criteria and scales and risks - Use and acceptance and implementation and communication and flexibility and complexity

    Marine ecosystems evolve under many interconnected and area-specific pressures. To fulfil society's intensifying and diversifying needs while ensuring ecologically sustainable development, more effective marine spatial planning and broader-scope management of marine resources is necessary. Integrated ecological-economic fisheries models (IEEFMs) of marine systems are needed to evaluate impacts and sustainability of potential management actions and understand, and anticipate ecological, economic and social dynamics at a range of scales from local to national and regional. To make these models most effective, it is important to determine how model characteristics and methods of communicating results influence the model implementation, the nature of the advice that can be provided and the impact on decisions taken by managers. This article presents a global review and comparative evaluation of 35 IEEFMs applied to marine fisheries and marine ecosystem resources to identify the characteristics that determine their usefulness, effectiveness and implementation. The focus is on fully integrated models that allow for feedbacks between ecological and human processes although not all the models reviewed achieve that. Modellers must invest more time to make models user friendly and to participate in management fora where models and model results can be explained and discussed. Such involvement is beneficial to all parties, leading to improvement of mo-dels and more effective implementation of advice, but demands substantial resources which must be built into the governance process. It takes time to develop effective processes for using IEEFMs requiring a long-term commitment to integrating multidisciplinary modelling advice into management decision-making.

    Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 333 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016 : A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
    Hay, Simon I. ; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu ; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen ; Abbafati, Cristiana ; Abbas, Kaja M. ; Abd-Allah, Foad ; Abdulle, Abdishakur M. ; Abebo, Teshome Abuka ; Abera, Semaw Ferede ; Aboyans, Victor ; Abu-Raddad, Laith J. ; Ackerman, Ilana N. ; Adedeji, Isaac A. ; Adetokunboh, Olatunji ; Afshin, Ashkan ; Aggarwal, Rakesh ; Agrawal, Sutapa ; Agrawal, Anurag ; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad ; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir ; Aichour, Amani Nidhal ; Aichour, Ibtihel ; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine ; Aiyar, Sneha ; Akinyemiju, Tomi F. ; Akseer, Nadia ; Lami, Faris Hasan Al; Alahdab, Fares ; Al-Aly, Ziyad ; Alam, Khurshid ; Alam, Noore ; Alam, Tahiya ; Alasfoor, Deena ; Alene, Kefyalew Addis ; Ali, Raghib ; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza ; Alkaabi, Juma M. ; Alkerwi, A. ; Alla, François ; Allebeck, Peter ; Allen, Christine ; Al-Maskari, Fatma ; Almazroa, Mohammad Abdulaziz ; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa ; Geleijnse, J.M. - \ 2017
    The Lancet 390 (2017)10100. - ISSN 0140-6736 - p. 1260 - 1344.

    Background: Measurement of changes in health across locations is useful to compare and contrast changing epidemiological patterns against health system performance and identify specific needs for resource allocation in research, policy development, and programme decision making. Using the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we drew from two widely used summary measures to monitor such changes in population health: disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE). We used these measures to track trends and benchmark progress compared with expected trends on the basis of the Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Methods: We used results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 for all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, and non-fatal disease burden to derive HALE and DALYs by sex for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016. We calculated DALYs by summing years of life lost and years of life lived with disability for each location, age group, sex, and year. We estimated HALE using age-specific death rates and years of life lived with disability per capita. We explored how DALYs and HALE difered from expected trends when compared with the SDI: the geometric mean of income per person, educational attainment in the population older than age 15 years, and total fertility rate. Findings: The highest globally observed HALE at birth for both women and men was in Singapore, at 75·2 years (95% uncertainty interval 71·9-78·6) for females and 72·0 years (68·8-75·1) for males. The lowest for females was in the Central African Republic (45·6 years [42·0-49·5]) and for males was in Lesotho (41·5 years [39·0-44·0]). From 1990 to 2016, global HALE increased by an average of 6·24 years (5·97-6·48) for both sexes combined. Global HALE increased by 6·04 years (5·74-6·27) for males and 6·49 years (6·08-6·77) for females, whereas HALE at age 65 years increased by 1·78 years (1·61-1·93) for males and 1·96 years (1·69-2·13) for females. Total global DALYs remained largely unchanged from 1990 to 2016 (-2·3% [-5·9 to 0·9]), with decreases in communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) disease DALYs ofset by increased DALYs due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The exemplars, calculated as the fve lowest ratios of observed to expected age-standardised DALY rates in 2016, were Nicaragua, Costa Rica, the Maldives, Peru, and Israel. The leading three causes of DALYs globally were ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and lower respiratory infections, comprising 16·1% of all DALYs. Total DALYs and age-standardised DALY rates due to most CMNN causes decreased from 1990 to 2016. Conversely, the total DALY burden rose for most NCDs; however, age-standardised DALY rates due to NCDs declined globally. Interpretation: At a global level, DALYs and HALE continue to show improvements. At the same time, we observe that many populations are facing growing functional health loss. Rising SDI was associated with increases in cumulative years of life lived with disability and decreases in CMNN DALYs ofset by increased NCD DALYs. Relative compression of morbidity highlights the importance of continued health interventions, which has changed in most locations in pace with the gross domestic product per person, education, and family planning. The analysis of DALYs and HALE and their relationship to SDI represents a robust framework with which to benchmark location-specific health performance. Country-specific drivers of disease burden, particularly for causes with higher-than-expected DALYs, should inform health policies, health system improvement initiatives, targeted prevention eforts, and development assistance for health, including fnancial and research investments for all countries, regardless of their level of sociodemographic development. The presence of countries that substantially outperform others suggests the need for increased scrutiny for proven examples of best practices, which can help to extend gains, whereas the presence of underperforming countries suggests the need for devotion of extra attention to health systems that need more robust support.

    Global, regional, and national age-sex specifc mortality for 264 causes of death, 1980-2016: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
    Naghavi, Mohsen ; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu ; Abbafati, Cristiana ; Abbas, Kaja M. ; Abd-Allah, Foad ; Abera, Semaw Ferede ; Aboyans, Victor ; Adetokunboh, Olatunji ; Ärnlöv, Johan ; Afshin, Ashkan ; Agrawal, Anurag ; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad ; Ahmadi, Alireza ; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir ; Aichour, Amani Nidhal ; Aichour, Ibtihel ; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine ; Aiyar, Sneha ; Al-Eyadhy, Ayman ; Alahdab, Fares ; Al-Aly, Ziyad ; Alam, Khurshid ; Alam, Noore ; Alam, Tahiya ; Alene, Kefyalew Addis ; Ali, Syed Danish ; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza ; Alkaabi, Juma M. ; Alkerwi, A. ; Alla, François ; Allebeck, Peter ; Allen, Christine ; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa ; Alsharif, Ubai ; Altirkawi, Khalid A. ; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson ; Amare, Azmeraw T. ; Amini, Erfan ; Ammar, Walid ; Amoako, Yaw Ampem ; Anber, Nahla ; Andersen, Hjalte H. ; Andrei, Catalina Liliana ; Androudi, Sofa ; Ansari, Hossein ; Hoek, Hans W. ; Liu, Yang ; Nguyen, Cuong Tat ; Nguyen, Quyen Le ; Nguyen, Trang Huyen ; Geleijnse, J.M. - \ 2017
    The Lancet 390 (2017)10100. - ISSN 0140-6736 - p. 1151 - 1210.

    Background: Monitoring levels and trends in premature mortality is crucial to understanding how societies can address prominent sources of early death. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specifc mortality for 264 causes in 195 locations from 1980 to 2016. This assessment includes evaluation of the expected epidemiological transition with changes in development and where local patterns deviate from these trends. Methods: We estimated cause-specifc deaths and years of life lost (YLLs) by age, sex, geography, and year. YLLs were calculated from the sum of each death multiplied by the standard life expectancy at each age. We used the GBD cause of death database composed of: vital registration (VR) data corrected for under-registration and garbage coding; national and subnational verbal autopsy (VA) studies corrected for garbage coding; and other sources including surveys and surveillance systems for specifc causes such as maternal mortality. To facilitate assessment of quality, we reported on the fraction of deaths assigned to GBD Level 1 or Level 2 causes that cannot be underlying causes of death (major garbage codes) by location and year. Based on completeness, garbage coding, cause list detail, and time periods covered, we provided an overall data quality rating for each location with scores ranging from 0 stars (worst) to 5 stars (best). We used robust statistical methods including the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) to generate estimates for each location, year, age, and sex. We assessed observed and expected levels and trends of cause-specifc deaths in relation to the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of average income per capita, educational attainment, and total fertility, with locations grouped into quintiles by SDI. Relative to GBD 2015, we expanded the GBD cause hierarchy by 18 causes of death for GBD 2016. Findings: The quality of available data varied by location. Data quality in 25 countries rated in the highest category (5 stars), while 48, 30, 21, and 44 countries were rated at each of the succeeding data quality levels. Vital registration or verbal autopsy data were not available in 27 countries, resulting in the assignment of a zero value for data quality. Deaths from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represented 72·3% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 71·2-73·2) of deaths in 2016 with 19·3% (18·5-20·4) of deaths in that year occurring from communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) diseases and a further 8·43% (8·00-8·67) from injuries. Although age-standardised rates of death from NCDs decreased globally between 2006 and 2016, total numbers of these deaths increased; both numbers and age-standardised rates of death from CMNN causes decreased in the decade 2006-16 - age-standardised rates of deaths from injuries decreased but total numbers varied little. In 2016, the three leading global causes of death in children under-5 were lower respiratory infections, neonatal preterm birth complications, and neonatal encephalopathy due to birth asphyxia and trauma, combined resulting in 1·80 million deaths (95% UI 1·59 million to 1·89 million). Between 1990 and 2016, a profound shift toward deaths at older ages occurred with a 178% (95% UI 176-181) increase in deaths in ages 90-94 years and a 210% (208-212) increase in deaths older than age 95 years. The ten leading causes by rates of age-standardised YLL signifcantly decreased from 2006 to 2016 (median annualised rate of change was a decrease of 2·89%); the median annualised rate of change for all other causes was lower (a decrease of 1·59%) during the same interval. Globally, the fve leading causes of total YLLs in 2016 were cardiovascular diseases; diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and other common infectious diseases; neoplasms; neonatal disorders; and HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. At a fner level of disaggregation within cause groupings, the ten leading causes of total YLLs in 2016 were ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, lower respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases, road injuries, malaria, neonatal preterm birth complications, HIV/AIDS, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and neonatal encephalopathy due to birth asphyxia and trauma. Ischaemic heart disease was the leading cause of total YLLs in 113 countries for men and 97 countries for women. Comparisons of observed levels of YLLs by countries, relative to the level of YLLs expected on the basis of SDI alone, highlighted distinct regional patterns including the greater than expected level of YLLs from malaria and from HIV/AIDS across sub-Saharan Africa; diabetes mellitus, especially in Oceania; interpersonal violence, notably within Latin America and the Caribbean; and cardiomyopathy and myocarditis, particularly in eastern and central Europe. The level of YLLs from ischaemic heart disease was less than expected in 117 of 195 locations. Other leading causes of YLLs for which YLLs were notably lower than expected included neonatal preterm birth complications in many locations in both south Asia and southeast Asia, and cerebrovascular disease in western Europe. Interpretation: The past 37 years have featured declining rates of communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases across all quintiles of SDI, with faster than expected gains for many locations relative to their SDI. A global shift towards deaths at older ages suggests success in reducing many causes of early death. YLLs have increased globally for causes such as diabetes mellitus or some neoplasms, and in some locations for causes such as drug use disorders, and confict and terrorism. Increasing levels of YLLs might refect outcomes from conditions that required high levels of care but for which efective treatments remain elusive, potentially increasing costs to health systems.

    Analysis of LULUCF actions in EU member states as reported under Art. 10 of the LULUCF Decision : final study
    Paquel, Kamila ; Bowyer, C. ; Allen, Ben ; Nesbit, Martin ; Martineau, Hugh ; Lesschen, J.P. ; Arets, E.J.M.M. - \ 2017
    Institute for European Environmental Policy IEEP - 163 p.
    Towards standards for human fecal sample processing in metagenomic studies
    Costea, Paul I. ; Zeller, Georg ; Sunagawa, Shinichi ; Pelletier, Eric ; Alberti, Adriana ; Levenez, Florence ; Tramontano, Melanie ; Driessen, Marja ; Hercog, Rajna ; Jung, Ferris Elias ; Kultima, Jens Roat ; Hayward, Matthew R. ; Coelho, Luis Pedro ; Allen-Vercoe, Emma ; Bertrand, Laurie ; Blaut, Michael ; Brown, Jillian R.M. ; Carton, Thomas ; Cools-Portier, Stéphanie ; Daigneault, Michelle ; Derrien, Muriel ; Druesne, Anne ; Vos, Willem M. De; Finlay, B.B. ; Flint, Harry J. ; Guarner, Francisco ; Hattori, Masahira ; Heilig, Hans ; Luna, Ruth Ann ; Hylckama Vlieg, Johan Van; Junick, Jana ; Klymiuk, Ingeborg ; Langella, Philippe ; Chatelier, Emmanuelle Le; Mai, Volker ; Manichanh, Chaysavanh ; Martin, Jennifer C. ; Mery, Clémentine ; Morita, Hidetoshi ; O'Toole, Paul W. ; Orvain, Céline ; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb ; Penders, John ; Persson, Søren ; Pons, Nicolas ; Popova, Milena ; Salonen, Anne ; Saulnier, Delphine ; Scott, Karen P. ; Singh, Bhagirath ; Slezak, Kathleen ; Veiga, Patrick ; Versalovic, James ; Zhao, Liping ; Zoetendal, Erwin G. ; Ehrlich, S.D. ; Dore, Joel ; Bork, Peer - \ 2017
    Nature Biotechnology 35 (2017)11. - ISSN 1087-0156 - p. 1069 - 1076.
    Technical variation in metagenomic analysis must be minimized to confidently assess the contributions of microbiota to human health. Here we tested 21 representative DNA extraction protocols on the same fecal samples and quantified differences in observed microbial community composition. We compared them with differences due to library preparation and sample storage, which we contrasted with observed biological variation within the same specimen or within an individual over time. We found that DNA extraction had the largest effect on the outcome of metagenomic analysis. To rank DNA extraction protocols, we considered resulting DNA quantity and quality, and we ascertained biases in estimates of community diversity and the ratio between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We recommend a standardized DNA extraction method for human fecal samples, for which transferability across labs was established and which was further benchmarked using a mock community of known composition. Its adoption will improve comparability of human gut microbiome studies and facilitate meta-analyses.
    Citizen science for hydrological risk reduction and resilience building
    Paul, Jonathan D. ; Buytaert, Wouter ; Allen, Simon ; Ballesteros‐Cánovas, Juan A. ; Bhusal, Jagat K. ; Cieslik, Katarzyna ; Clark, Julian ; Dugar, Sumit ; Hannah, David M. ; Stoffel, M. ; Dewulf, A.R.P.J. ; Dhital, Megh R. ; Liu, Wei ; Nayaval, Janak Lal ; Neupane, Bhanu ; Schiller, Arnulf ; Smith, P.J. ; Supper, Robert - \ 2017
    Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Water 2017 (2017). - ISSN 2049-1948 - 15 p.
    In disaster risk management (DRM), an emerging shift has been noted from broad-scale, top-down assessments toward more participatory, community-based, bottom-up approaches. Arguably, nonscientist local stakeholders have always played an important role in knowledge risk management and resilience building within a hydrological context, such as flood response and drought alleviation. However, rapidly developing information and communication technologies such as the Internet, smartphones, and social media have already demonstrated their sizeable potential to make knowledge creation more multidirectional, decentralized, diverse, and inclusive. Combined with technologies for robust and low-cost sensor networks, a ‘citizen science’ approach has recently emerged as a promising direction in the provision of extensive, real-time information for risk management. Such projects work best when there is community buy-in, when their purpose(s) are clearly defined at the outset, and when the motivations and skillsets of all participants and stakeholders are well understood. They have great potential to enhance knowledge creation, not only for data collection, but also for analysis or interpretation. In addition, they can serve as a means of educating and empowering communities and stakeholders that are bypassed by more traditional knowledge generation processes. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of citizen science within the context of hydrological risk reduction and resilience building. Particularly when embedded within a polycentric approach toward risk governance, we argue that citizen science could complement more traditional knowledge generation practices, and also enhance innovation, adaptation, multidirectional information provision, risk management, and local resilience building.
    Migratory preferences of humpback whales between feeding and breeding grounds in the eastern South Pacific
    Acevedo, Jorge ; Aguayo-lobo, Anelio ; Allen, Judith ; Botero-acosta, Natalia ; Capella, Juan ; Castro, Cristina ; Rosa, Luciano Dalla ; Denkinger, Judith ; Félix, Fernando ; Flórez-gonzález, Lilian ; Garita, Frank ; Guzmán, Héctor M. ; Haase, Ben ; Kaufman, Gregory ; Llano, Martha ; Olavarría, Carlos ; Pacheco, Aldo S. ; Plana, Jordi ; Rasmussen, Kristin ; Scheidat, Meike ; Secchi, Eduardo R. ; Silva, Sebastian ; Stevick, Peter T. - \ 2017
    Marine Mammal Science 33 (2017)4. - ISSN 0824-0469 - p. 1035 - 1052.
    megaptera novaeangliae - migratory destinations - breeding stock G - photo-identifiaction - feeding ground - Antarctic Peninsula - Fueguian Archipelago
    Latitudinal preferences within the breeding range have been suggested for Breeding Stock G humpback whales that summer in different feeding areas of the eastern South Pacific. To address this hypothesis, humpback whales photo-identified from the Antarctic Peninsula and the Fueguian Archipelago (southern Chile) were compared with whales photo-identified from lower latitudes extending from northern Peru to Costa Rica. This comparison was performed over a time span that includes 18 austral seasons. A total of 238 whales identified from the Antarctic Peninsula and 25 whales from the Fueguian Archipelago were among those photo-identified at the breeding grounds. Our findings showed that humpback whales from each feeding area were resighted unevenly across the breeding grounds, which suggests a degree of spatial structuring in the migratory pathway. Humpback whales that feed at the
    Antarctic Peninsula were more likely to migrate to the southern breeding range
    between northern Peru and Colombia, whereas whales that feed at the Fueguian
    Archipelago were more likely to be found in the northern range of the breeding
    ground off Panama. Further photo-identification efforts and genetic sampling from poorly sampled or unsampled areas are recommended to confirm these reported connectivity patterns.
    Crops in silico : Generating virtual crops using an integrative and multi-scale modeling platform
    Marshall-Colon, Amy ; Long, Stephen P. ; Allen, Douglas K. ; Allen, Gabrielle ; Beard, Daniel A. ; Benes, Bedrich ; Caemmerer, Susanne Von; Christensen, A.J. ; Cox, Donna J. ; Yin, Xinyou - \ 2017
    Frontiers in Plant Science 8 (2017). - ISSN 1664-462X
    Computational framework - Crop yield - Integration - Model - Multiscale

    Multi-scale models can facilitate whole plant simulations by linking gene networks, protein synthesis, metabolic pathways, physiology, and growth. Whole plant models can be further integrated with ecosystem, weather, and climate models to predict how various interactions respond to environmental perturbations. These models have the potential to fill in missing mechanistic details and generate new hypotheses to prioritize directed engineering efforts. Outcomes will potentially accelerate improvement of crop yield, sustainability, and increase future food security. It is time for a paradigm shift in plant modeling, from largely isolated efforts to a connected community that takes advantage of advances in high performance computing and mechanistic understanding of plant processes. Tools for guiding future crop breeding and engineering, understanding the implications of discoveries at the molecular level for whole plant behavior, and improved prediction of plant and ecosystem responses to the environment are urgently needed. The purpose of this perspective is to introduce Crops in silico (cropsinsilico.org), an integrative and multi-scale modeling platform, as one solution that combines isolated modeling efforts toward the generation of virtual crops, which is open and accessible to the entire plant biology community. The major challenges involved both in the development and deployment of a shared, multi-scale modeling platform, which are summarized in this prospectus, were recently identified during the first Crops in silico Symposium and Workshop.

    Strong linkage of polar cod ( Boreogadus saida ) to sea ice algae-produced carbon: Evidence from stomach content, fatty acid and stable isotope analyses
    Kohlbach, Doreen ; Schaafsma, Fokje L. ; Graeve, Martin ; Lebreton, Benoit ; Lange, Benjamin Allen ; David, Carmen ; Vortkamp, Martina ; Flores, Hauke - \ 2017
    Progress in Oceanography 152 (2017). - ISSN 0079-6611 - p. 62 - 74.
    Ice-water interface - Stomach content - Compound-specific stable isotope analysis - Marker fatty acids - Carbon flux - Carbon isotope ratio
    The polar cod (Boreogadus saida) is considered an ecological key species, because it reaches high stock biomasses and constitutes an important carbon source for seabirds and marine mammals in high-Arctic ecosystems. Young polar cod (1–2 years) are often associated with the underside of sea ice. To evaluate the impact of changing Arctic sea ice habitats on polar cod, we examined the diet composition and quantified the contribution of ice algae-produced carbon (αIce) to the carbon budget of polar cod. Young polar cod were sampled in the ice-water interface layer in the central Arctic Ocean during late summer 2012. Diets and carbon sources of these fish were examined using 4 approaches: (1) stomach content analysis, (2) fatty acid (FA) analysis, (3) bulk nitrogen and carbon stable isotope analysis (BSIA) and (4) compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) of FAs. The ice-associated (sympagic) amphipod Apherusa glacialis dominated the stomach contents by mass, indicating a high importance of sympagic fauna in young polar cod diets. The biomass of food measured in stomachs implied constant feeding at daily rates of ∼1.2% body mass per fish, indicating the potential for positive growth. FA profiles of polar cod indicated that diatoms were the primary carbon source, indirectly obtained via amphipods and copepods. The αIce using bulk isotope data from muscle was estimated to be >90%. In comparison, αIce based on CSIA ranged from 34 to 65%, with the highest estimates from muscle and the lowest from liver tissue. Overall, our results indicate a strong dependency of polar cod on ice-algae produced carbon. This suggests that young polar cod may be particularly vulnerable to changes in the distribution and structure of sea ice habitats. Due to the ecological key role of polar cod, changes at the base of the sea ice-associated food web are likely to affect the higher trophic levels of high-Arctic ecosystems.
    Quick scan beheersmaatregelen van Tetrodotoxine in schelpdierproductie in de Oosterschelde
    Poelman, M. ; Blanco Garcia, A. ; Kamermans, P. ; Wijsman, J.W.M. ; Bolman, B.C. ; Strietman, W.J. - \ 2016
    IMARES (Rapport / IMARES C064/16) - 39
    oesterteelt - mosselteelt - tetrodotoxine - oosterschelde - milieumonitoring - oyster culture - mussel culture - tetrodotoxin - eastern scheldt - environmental monitoring
    In 2015 is een onderzoek naar het voorkomen en de meetbaarheid van Tetrodotoxine (TTX) in de Nederlandse schelpdierproductiegebieden uitgevoerd. De analyses zijn een gevolg van internationale rapportages over TTX in schelpdieren, zowel mosselen als oesters (voornamelijk in Griekenland en Groot Brittannië). Het onderzoek in Nederland laat zien dat er in verschillende schelpdiermonsters uit de Oosterschelde TTX aanwezig was. Het voorkomen van TTX in Nederland lijkt, op basis van feitelijke metingen, beperkt te zijn. Echter, door het gebrek aan; a) voldoende inzicht in het voorkomen van toxinen, b) inzicht in de kans op toxine aanwezigheid in Nederland en c) inzicht in de oorzaak (de bron) van TTX in Nederland, wordt het voorzorgsprincipe gehanteerd. Het huidige voedselveiligheidsmanagement systeem voorziet niet in het voldoende gericht managen van risico’s met onbekende bron. Hiervoor is aanvullend of specifiekere monitoring nodig, ook om data te verzamelen voor toekomstige management maatregelen. Dit biedt mogelijkheden om de productie- (Oosterschelde) en verwatergebieden voor schelpdieren te analyseren op mogelijke verschillen in potentiele aanwezigheid van TTX. Hierdoor is een monitoring- en managementsysteem ontwikkeld dat aansluit bij de onbekendheden van de toxine aanwezigheid en productie in Nederland. Om dit te bereiken is beoordeeld wat de mogelijke karakteristieken zijn voor de toxine producenten en is er een indeling voorgesteld voor de Oosterschelde die rekening houdt met de verschillen in omgevingsfactoren. Zodat een beeld ontstaat van de mogelijke indeling van een dergelijk gebied voor toepassing in monitoring en management. De oorzaak van het voorkomen van TTX in de Oosterschelde is niet bekend. Mogelijke oorzaken zijn te vinden in Vibrio en andere bacteriën, eventueel in symbiose met andere vectoren. Van de bekende TTX producenten uit de literatuur komt alleen de snoerworm Cephalothrix simula in de Oosterschelde voor. De exemplaren van Cephalothrix simula zijn op de bodem aangetroffen in dichte populaties van schelpkokerwormen en spinragwormen, die mogelijk als voedsel voor deze soort dienen (natuurbericht.nl). Daarnaast komt een Gibbula soort (de Asgrauwe tolhoren Gibbula cineraria) voor in de Oosterschelde. Het is minder waarschijnlijk dat er een direct verband is tussen deze soorten en TTX in schelpdieren, waar een indirecte route (via sediment) niet is uitgesloten. Het huidige monitoring programma houdt onvoldoende rekening met management van risico’s verbonden aan een onbekende bron. De gegevens over de mogelijke bronnen van TTX in schelpdieren en de karakteristieken hiervan geven de volgende criteria (mede op basis van beschikbaarheid van fysische informatie) om een gebiedsindeling te rechtvaardigen:  Temperatuur (mede een functie van o.a. diepte)  Saliniteit  Troebelheid  Verblijftijd water  Stroming / stroomsnelheid  Bodemsoort  Schelpdiersoort (soort schelpdier i.v.m. accumulatie en depuratie tijd) Op basis van verschillen in de fysische gegevens in de deelgebieden betekent dit dat de Oosterschelde opgesplitst kan worden in 16 deelgebieden die allen in meer of minder mate van elkaar te onderscheiden zijn. Een eerste indeling kan gemaakt worden op soort niveau, waarbij de verwaterpercelen en de Oesterproductie percelen in drie gebieden van elkaar gescheiden worden (waardoor 19 verschillende gebieden ontstaan). De gebieden voorzien allen in mogelijk verschil in toxine productie, accumulatie en risico op aanwezigheid van TTX. De verschillen zijn niet kwantificeerbaar, echter vanuit een risicomanagement perspectief zijn de gebieden te benutten voor verbetering van de trefkans, rekening houdend met spreiding. Het is zeer waarschijnlijk dat er verschillen in accumulatie per schelpdiersoort zijn, waardoor het mogelijk lijkt om soortspecifieke monitoring en management toe te passen. Er kan geen indicator IMARES rapport C064/16| 5 van 39 organisme (hoogste trefkans) worden aangewezen bij gebrek aan informatie over accumulatie van TTX. De kosten voor monitoring van productiegebieden die rekening houdt met de mogelijke verschillen in aanwezigheid van TTX in schelpdieren is berekend voor een wekelijkse meting en monitoring gedurende twee maanden. De wekelijkse kosten voor monitoring van de Oosterschelde bedragen 9 – 13 keuro. Dit is een bedrag van 70-103 keuro over een periode van 8 weken. Het is niet uitgesloten dat ook buiten het zomerseizoen monitoring noodzakelijk is. Het is aan te bevelen TTX standaard in het monitoringprogramma op te nemen om meer data te verzamelen. Voor de mosselsector wordt de sociaal-economische waarde van de Yerseke bank in de eerste twee weken van juli geschat op € 5 miljoen met een geschatte werkgelegenheid van 37 fte. Van half juli tot en met eind augustus wordt de waarde geschat op € 3,4 tot € 6,8 miljoen met een geschatte werkgelegenheid van 30 tot 45 fte. Voor de oestersector wordt de sociaal-economische waarde geschat op € 2 miljoen op jaarbasis en een werkgelegenheid van ca 67 fte. Op basis van de analyse kan een managementsysteem worden ingericht dat rekening houdt met de mogelijke bronnen van TTX. Dit systeem kan gebruikt worden om duidelijke inzichten te verkrijgen in de aanwezigheid van TTX in schelpdieren in de Oosterschelde. Daarnaast is het mogelijk om de gebiedsindeling (of delen ervan) te benutten voor een goede beheersing van de mogelijke voedselveiligheid of economische risico’s die het TTX dossier kent.
    Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015
    Wang, Haidong ; Naghavi, Mohsen ; Allen, Christine ; Barber, R.M. ; Bhutta, Zulfiqar ; Carter, Austin ; Casey, Daniel C. ; Charlson, Fiona J. ; Chen, Alan Z. ; Coates, M. ; Geleijnse, J.M. - \ 2016
    The Lancet 388 (2016)10053. - ISSN 0140-6736 - p. 1459 - 1544.
    Background
    Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures.

    Methods
    We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010. Improvements included refinements to the estimation of child and adult mortality and corresponding uncertainty, parameter selection for under-5 mortality synthesis by spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression, and sibling history data processing. We also expanded the database of vital registration, survey, and census data to 14 294 geography–year datapoints. For GBD 2015, eight causes, including Ebola virus disease, were added to the previous GBD cause list for mortality. We used six modelling approaches to assess cause-specific mortality, with the Cause of Death Ensemble Model (CODEm) generating estimates for most causes. We used a series of novel analyses to systematically quantify the drivers of trends in mortality across geographies. First, we assessed observed and expected levels and trends of cause-specific mortality as they relate to the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Second, we examined factors affecting total mortality patterns through a series of counterfactual scenarios, testing the magnitude by which population growth, population age structures, and epidemiological changes contributed to shifts in mortality. Finally, we attributed changes in life expectancy to changes in cause of death. We documented each step of the GBD 2015 estimation processes, as well as data sources, in accordance with Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER).

    Findings
    Globally, life expectancy from birth increased from 61·7 years (95% uncertainty interval 61·4–61·9) in 1980 to 71·8 years (71·5–72·2) in 2015. Several countries in sub-Saharan Africa had very large gains in life expectancy from 2005 to 2015, rebounding from an era of exceedingly high loss of life due to HIV/AIDS. At the same time, many geographies saw life expectancy stagnate or decline, particularly for men and in countries with rising mortality from war or interpersonal violence. From 2005 to 2015, male life expectancy in Syria dropped by 11·3 years (3·7–17·4), to 62·6 years (56·5–70·2). Total deaths increased by 4·1% (2·6–5·6) from 2005 to 2015, rising to 55·8 million (54·9 million to 56·6 million) in 2015, but age-standardised death rates fell by 17·0% (15·8–18·1) during this time, underscoring changes in population growth and shifts in global age structures. The result was similar for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), with total deaths from these causes increasing by 14·1% (12·6–16·0) to 39·8 million (39·2 million to 40·5 million) in 2015, whereas age-standardised rates decreased by 13·1% (11·9–14·3). Globally, this mortality pattern emerged for several NCDs, including several types of cancer, ischaemic heart disease, cirrhosis, and Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. By contrast, both total deaths and age-standardised death rates due to communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional conditions significantly declined from 2005 to 2015, gains largely attributable to decreases in mortality rates due to HIV/AIDS (42·1%, 39·1–44·6), malaria (43·1%, 34·7–51·8), neonatal preterm birth complications (29·8%, 24·8–34·9), and maternal disorders (29·1%, 19·3–37·1). Progress was slower for several causes, such as lower respiratory infections and nutritional deficiencies, whereas deaths increased for others, including dengue and drug use disorders. Age-standardised death rates due to injuries significantly declined from 2005 to 2015, yet interpersonal violence and war claimed increasingly more lives in some regions, particularly in the Middle East. In 2015, rotaviral enteritis (rotavirus) was the leading cause of under-5 deaths due to diarrhoea (146 000 deaths, 118 000–183 000) and pneumococcal pneumonia was the leading cause of under-5 deaths due to lower respiratory infections (393 000 deaths, 228 000–532 000), although pathogen-specific mortality varied by region. Globally, the effects of population growth, ageing, and changes in age-standardised death rates substantially differed by cause. Our analyses on the expected associations between cause-specific mortality and SDI show the regular shifts in cause of death composition and population age structure with rising SDI. Country patterns of premature mortality (measured as years of life lost [YLLs]) and how they differ from the level expected on the basis of SDI alone revealed distinct but highly heterogeneous patterns by region and country or territory. Ischaemic heart disease, stroke, and diabetes were among the leading causes of YLLs in most regions, but in many cases, intraregional results sharply diverged for ratios of observed and expected YLLs based on SDI. Communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases caused the most YLLs throughout sub-Saharan Africa, with observed YLLs far exceeding expected YLLs for countries in which malaria or HIV/AIDS remained the leading causes of early death.

    Interpretation
    At the global scale, age-specific mortality has steadily improved over the past 35 years; this pattern of general progress continued in the past decade. Progress has been faster in most countries than expected on the basis of development measured by the SDI. Against this background of progress, some countries have seen falls in life expectancy, and age-standardised death rates for some causes are increasing. Despite progress in reducing age-standardised death rates, population growth and ageing mean that the number of deaths from most non-communicable causes are increasing in most countries, putting increased demands on health systems.
    Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990–2015 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015
    Vos, Theo ; Allen, Christine ; Arora, Megha ; Barber, R.M. ; Bhutta, Zulfiqar ; Brown, Alexandria ; Carter, Austin ; Casey, Daniel C. ; Charlson, Fiona J. ; Chen, Alan Z. ; Geleijnse, J.M. - \ 2016
    The Lancet 388 (2016)10053. - ISSN 0140-6736 - p. 1545 - 1602.

    Background

    Non-fatal outcomes of disease and injury increasingly detract from the ability of the world's population to live in full health, a trend largely attributable to an epidemiological transition in many countries from causes affecting children, to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) more common in adults. For the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we estimated the incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for diseases and injuries at the global, regional, and national scale over the period of 1990 to 2015.


    Methods

    We estimated incidence and prevalence by age, sex, cause, year, and geography with a wide range of updated and standardised analytical procedures. Improvements from GBD 2013 included the addition of new data sources, updates to literature reviews for 85 causes, and the identification and inclusion of additional studies published up to November, 2015, to expand the database used for estimation of non-fatal outcomes to 60 900 unique data sources. Prevalence and incidence by cause and sequelae were determined with DisMod-MR 2.1, an improved version of the DisMod-MR Bayesian meta-regression tool first developed for GBD 2010 and GBD 2013. For some causes, we used alternative modelling strategies where the complexity of the disease was not suited to DisMod-MR 2.1 or where incidence and prevalence needed to be determined from other data. For GBD 2015 we created a summary indicator that combines measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility (the Socio-demographic Index [SDI]) and used it to compare observed patterns of health loss to the expected pattern for countries or locations with similar SDI scores.


    Findings

    We generated 9·3 billion estimates from the various combinations of prevalence, incidence, and YLDs for causes, sequelae, and impairments by age, sex, geography, and year. In 2015, two causes had acute incidences in excess of 1 billion: upper respiratory infections (17·2 billion, 95% uncertainty interval [UI] 15·4–19·2 billion) and diarrhoeal diseases (2·39 billion, 2·30–2·50 billion). Eight causes of chronic disease and injury each affected more than 10% of the world's population in 2015: permanent caries, tension-type headache, iron-deficiency anaemia, age-related and other hearing loss, migraine, genital herpes, refraction and accommodation disorders, and ascariasis. The impairment that affected the greatest number of people in 2015 was anaemia, with 2·36 billion (2·35–2·37 billion) individuals affected. The second and third leading impairments by number of individuals affected were hearing loss and vision loss, respectively. Between 2005 and 2015, there was little change in the leading causes of years lived with disability (YLDs) on a global basis. NCDs accounted for 18 of the leading 20 causes of age-standardised YLDs on a global scale. Where rates were decreasing, the rate of decrease for YLDs was slower than that of years of life lost (YLLs) for nearly every cause included in our analysis. For low SDI geographies, Group 1 causes typically accounted for 20–30% of total disability, largely attributable to nutritional deficiencies, malaria, neglected tropical diseases, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis. Lower back and neck pain was the leading global cause of disability in 2015 in most countries. The leading cause was sense organ disorders in 22 countries in Asia and Africa and one in central Latin America; diabetes in four countries in Oceania; HIV/AIDS in three southern sub-Saharan African countries; collective violence and legal intervention in two north African and Middle Eastern countries; iron-deficiency anaemia in Somalia and Venezuela; depression in Uganda; onchoceriasis in Liberia; and other neglected tropical diseases in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.


    Interpretation

    Ageing of the world's population is increasing the number of people living with sequelae of diseases and injuries. Shifts in the epidemiological profile driven by socioeconomic change also contribute to the continued increase in years lived with disability (YLDs) as well as the rate of increase in YLDs. Despite limitations imposed by gaps in data availability and the variable quality of the data available, the standardised and comprehensive approach of the GBD study provides opportunities to examine broad trends, compare those trends between countries or subnational geographies, benchmark against locations at similar stages of development, and gauge the strength or weakness of the estimates available
    Review of approaches and datasets to categorise and map Public Goods and Ecosystem Services at EU level : Deliverable 2.1. EU-Horizon 2020 project PEGASUS, project ID: 633814
    Paracchini, M.L. ; Barredo, J.I. ; Rega, Carlo ; Caudullo, G. ; Perez-Soba, M. ; Cormont, A. ; Hendriks, C.M.A. ; Miguel Ayala, L. ; Nabuurs, G.J. ; Guiomar, Nuno ; Cruz, David ; Pinto-Correia, Teresa ; Allen, Ben ; Underwood, Evelyn - \ 2016
    PEGASUS - 148 p.
    Informed debate on the use of fire for peatland management means acknowledging the complexity of socio-ecological systems
    Davies, G.M. ; Kettridge, Nicholas ; Stoof, Cathelijne R. ; Gray, Alan ; Marrs, Rob ; Ascoli, Davide ; Fernandes, Paulo M. ; Allen, Katherine A. ; Doerr, Stefan H. ; Clay, Gareth D. - \ 2016
    Nature Conservation 16 (2016). - ISSN 1314-6947 - p. 59 - 77.
    Adaptive management - Diversity - Heathland - Managed burning - Moorland - Participatory - Scale

    The effects of fire and its use on European peatlands and heaths are the focus of considerable research and debate due to the important services these ecosystems provide and the threats they face from climatic and land-use change. Whilst in some countries ecologists are actively promoting the restoration of historic fire management regimes, in the UK the debate has become increasingly acrimonious. Positions seem entrenched between continuing the intensive form of management associated with grouse moors or ceasing burning and seeking to eliminate fire altogether. In a recent paper we argued that participants' positions appeared influenced by political and philosophical beliefs associated with, for example, private land-ownership, hunting, and associated conservation conflicts such as raptor persecution. We also suggested there was inadequate engagement with key concepts and evidence from fire and peatland ecology. We argued that management debates should aim to be inclusive and evidence-based, and to understand the benefits and costs of different fire regimes. In a strongly-worded critique of our paper, George Monbiot (author of "Feral: Searching for Enchantment on the Frontiers of Rewilding") suggested we: i) framed our research question too narrowly; ii) made the implicit assumption that moorlands were the "right" ecosystem for the UK countryside; and iii) failed to adequately engage with arguments put forward for cessation of managed burning. Here we critically examine each of these issues to provide further insight into how adaptive, participatory land-management could develop. We argue that a productive debate must acknowledge that complex trade-offs are inevitable during ecological management. Choosing the "right" ecosystem is difficult, especially in a landscape with a long history of human influence, and the answer depends on the values and ecosystem services we prioritize. Natural resource management decisions will be improved if based on an understanding and valuation of the multiple scales and levels of organization at which ecological diversity exists, the role of disturbance in controlling ecosystem composition and function, and the need for participatory action.

    Eén voor allen, allen voor één
    Zoethout, H. ; Bouwmans, M.H.C.F. ; Runhaar, P.R. ; Wesselink, R. - \ 2016
    Opleiding en Ontwikkeling 29 (2016)2. - ISSN 0922-0895 - p. 22 - 26.
    Solutions for ecosystem-level protection of ocean systems under climate change
    Queirós, Ana M. ; Huebert, Klaus B. ; Keyl, Friedemann ; Fernandes, Jose A. ; Stolte, Willem ; Maar, Marie ; Kay, Susan ; Jones, Miranda C. ; Hamon, Katell G. ; Hendriksen, Gerrit ; Vermard, Youen ; Marchal, Paul ; Teal, Lorna R. ; Somerfield, Paul J. ; Austen, Melanie C. ; Barange, Manuel ; Sell, Anne F. ; Allen, Icarus ; Peck, Myron A. - \ 2016
    Global Change Biology 22 (2016)12. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 3927 - 3936.
    climate change - conservation - COP21 - ecosystem model - habitat - marine spatial planning - ocean - ocean acidification - species distribution - warming
    The Paris Conference of Parties (COP21) agreement renewed momentum for action against climate change, creating the space for solutions for conservation of the ocean addressing two of its largest threats: climate change and ocean
    acidification (CCOA). Recent arguments that ocean policies disregard a mature conservation research field and that protected areas cannot address climate change may be oversimplistic at this time when dynamic solutions for the
    management of changing oceans are needed. We propose a novel approach, based on spatial meta-analysis of climate impact models, to improve the positioning of marine protected areas to limit CCOA impacts. We do this by estimating the vulnerability of ocean ecosystems to CCOA in a spatially explicit manner and then co-mapping human activities such as the placement of renewable energy developments and the distribution of marine protected areas. We test this approach in the NE Atlantic considering also how CCOA impacts the base of the food web which supports protected species, an aspect often neglected in conservation studies. We found that, in this case, current regional conservation plans protect areas with low ecosystem-level vulnerability to CCOA, but disregard how species may redistribute to new, suitable and productive habitats. Under current plans, these areas remain open to commercial
    extraction and other uses. Here, and worldwide, ocean conservation strategies under CCOA must recognize the longterm importance of these habitat refuges, and studies such as this one are needed to identify them. Protecting these
    areas creates adaptive, climate-ready and ecosystem-level policy options for conservation, suitable for changing oceans.
    Host body size and the diversity of tick assemblages on Neotropical vertebrates
    Esser, Helen J. ; Foley, Janet E. ; Bongers, Frans ; Herre, Edward Allen ; Miller, Matthew J. ; Prins, Herbert H.T. ; Jansen, Patrick A. - \ 2016
    International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife 5 (2016)3. - ISSN 2213-2244 - p. 295 - 304.
    20/80 Rule - Panama - Parasite fauna - Pareto principle - Proportional similarity - Species richness

    Identifying the factors that influence the species diversity and distribution of ticks (Acari: Ixodida) across vertebrate host taxa is of fundamental ecological and medical importance. Host body size is considered one of the most important determinants of tick abundance, with larger hosts having higher tick burdens. The species diversity of tick assemblages should also be greater on larger-bodied host species, but empirical studies testing this hypothesis are lacking. Here, we evaluate this relationship using a comparative dataset of feeding associations from Panama between 45 tick species and 171 host species that range in body size by three orders of magnitude. We found that tick species diversity increased with host body size for adult ticks but not for immature ticks. We also found that closely related host species tended to have similar tick species diversity, but correcting for host phylogeny did not alter the relationships between host body size and tick species diversity. The distribution of tick species was highly aggregated, with approximately 20% of the host species harboring 80% of all tick species, following the Pareto principle or 20/80 Rule. Thus, the aggregated pattern commonly observed for tick burdens and disease transmission also holds for patterns of tick species richness. Our finding that the adult ticks in this system preferentially parasitize large-bodied host species suggests that the ongoing anthropogenic loss of large-bodied vertebrates is likely to result in host-tick coextinction events, even when immature stages feed opportunistically. As parasites play critical roles in ecological and evolutionary processes, such losses may profoundly affect ecosystem functioning and services.

    Check title to add to marked list
    << previous | next >>

    Show 20 50 100 records per page

     
    Please log in to use this service. Login as Wageningen University & Research user or guest user in upper right hand corner of this page.