Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Local host-tick coextinction in neotropical forest fragments
    Esser, Helen J. ; Herre, Edward Allen ; Kays, Roland ; Liefting, Yorick ; Jansen, Patrick A. - \ 2019
    International Journal for Parasitology 49 (2019)3-4. - ISSN 0020-7519 - p. 225 - 233.
    Biodiversity loss - Defaunation - Extinction cascade - Forest fragmentation - Host specificity - Host-parasite interactions - Panama

    Ticks are obligatory parasites with complex life cycles that often depend on larger bodied vertebrates as final hosts. These traits make them particularly sensitive to local coextinction with their host. Loss of wildlife abundance and diversity should thus lead to loss of tick abundance and diversity to the point where only generalist tick species remain. However, direct empirical tests of these hypotheses are lacking, despite their relevance to our understanding of tick-borne disease emergence in disturbed environments. Here, we compare vertebrate and tick communities across 12 forest islands and peninsulas in the Panama Canal that ranged 1000-fold in size (2.6–2811.3 ha). We used drag sampling and camera trapping to directly assess the abundance and diversity of communities of questing ticks and vertebrate hosts. We found that the abundance and species richness of ticks were positively related to those of wildlife. Specialist tick species were only present in fragments where their final hosts were found. Further, less diverse tick communities had a higher relative abundance of the generalist tick species Amblyomma oblongoguttatum, a potential vector of spotted fever group rickettsiosis. These findings support the host-parasite coextinction hypothesis, and indicate that loss of wildlife can indeed have cascading effects on tick communities. Our results also imply that opportunities for pathogen transmission via generalist ticks may be higher in habitats with degraded tick communities. If these patterns are general, then tick identities and abundances serve as useful bioindicators of ecosystem health, with low tick diversity reflecting low wildlife diversity and a potentially elevated risk of interspecific disease transmission via remaining host species and generalist ticks.

    An uncertain future for the endemic Galliformes of the Caucasus
    Hof, Anouschka R. ; Allen, Andrew M. - \ 2019
    Science of the Total Environment 651 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 725 - 735.
    Birds - Climate change - Conservation - Land use - Species distribution modelling

    Impacts of climate change are already evident in ecosystems worldwide. High-latitude and altitude regions are at greatest risk because the effects of climate change are greater in these regions, and species from these areas have limited ability to track their climate envelopes. The Caucasian snowcock (Tetraogallus caucasicus) and the Caucasian grouse (Lyrurus mlokosiewiczi) are both high-altitude specialists that are endemic to a restricted range in the Caucasus mountains of Europe. Little research has been performed to determine the status of the populations or the potential impacts of climate change. We investigated how climate and land use change may impact both species in future and determined whether their life history traits may increase their vulnerability using a combined exposure and trait-based index. We compared several climate models, and in all instances, both species showed drastic range contractions although the extent of the contraction varied with each model. Traits like habitat specialism, ground nesting and incubation period meant that both species may be considered “most vulnerable” in the exposure and trait-based index. Given that both species already occur near the maximum elevations of the Caucasus, and that they lack any dispersal capabilities due to the isolation from alternative mountainous areas, research efforts need to be prioritized to improve our knowledge about their population status, to monitor future trends and to begin developing species action plans that conserve these endemic and iconic species of Europe. Both species are flagship and umbrella species and may serve as indicator species, their protection may therefore benefit a whole range of other species inhabiting this vulnerable Alpine ecosystem. Especially the Caucasian grouse has a high aesthetic value and is favoured by hunters in the region. The potential demise of this species may therefore also be negative for local communities.

    Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND): Vitamin B-12 Review
    Allen, L.H. ; Miller, J. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Rosenberg, I.H. ; Smith, A.D. ; Refsum, H. ; Raiten, D.J. - \ 2018
    The Journal of Nutrition 148 (2018)suppl. 4. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 1995S - 2027S.
    This report on vitamin B-12 (B12) is part of the Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND) Project, which provides state-of-the art information and advice on the selection, use, and interpretation of biomarkers of nutrient exposure, status, and function. As with the other 5 reports in this series, which focused on iodine, folate, zinc, iron, and vitamin A, this B12 report was developed with the assistance of an expert panel (BOND B12 EP) and other experts who provided information during a consultation. The experts reviewed the existing literature in depth in order to consolidate existing relevant information on the biology of B12, including known and possible effects of insufficiency, and available and potential biomarkers of status. Unlike the situation for the other 5 nutrients reviewed during the BOND project, there has been relatively little previous attention paid to B12 status and its biomarkers, so this report is a landmark in terms of the consolidation and interpretation of the available information on B12 nutrition. Historically, most focus has been on diagnosis and treatment of clinical symptoms of B12 deficiency, which result primarily from pernicious anemia or strict vegetarianism. More recently, we have become aware of the high prevalence of B12 insufficiency in populations consuming low amounts of animal-source foods, which can be detected with ≥1 serum biomarker but presents the new challenge of identifying functional consequences that may require public health interventions.
    Is het leven maakbaar? 3.3 Welzijn voor allen
    Tramper, J. - \ 2018
    Bio Based Press
    Radiofrequency identification systems: Advantages and constraints for tracking and monitoring of individual animals
    Sluis, M. van der; Ellen, E.D. ; Haas, Y. de; Rodenburg, T.B. - \ 2018
    In: Measuring behavior 2018. - Manchester : - ISBN 9781910029398 - p. 193 - 195.
    To track and monitor individual animals in groups, it is possible to use radiofrequency identification (RFID) systems. RFID encompasses all wireless communication systems that use radiofrequency fields [1]. RFID systems consist of tags and readers [2]. The tags contain unique identification data and can be attached to the item or, in the proposed application, to the animal that needs to be tracked [2]. The readers are used to read and identify the tags via radiofrequency fields [2]. The development of RFID technology started in the late 1960s and RFID systems are currently used for a large range of applications, including electronic door locking systems, contactless smart cards, and animal identification [2,3,4]. Further progress in the technology of chip manufacturing now makes RFID suitable for novel applications and available at a lower cost [4,5]. Therefore, the existing RFID technology may be applicable for animal tracking and monitoring as well. Here, different types of RFID systems will first be discussed for their applicability in individual animal tracking and monitoring, after which future work using RFID to track individual animals will be presented.
    Engineering the unicellular alga Phaeodactylum tricornutum for high-value plant triterpenoid production
    Adamo, Sarah D'; Schiano di Visconte, Gino ; Lowe, Gavin ; Szaub-Newton, Joanna ; Beacham, Tracey ; Landels, Andrew ; Allen, Michael J. ; Spicer, Andrew ; Matthijs, Michiel - \ 2018
    Plant Biotechnology Journal 17 (2018)1. - ISSN 1467-7644 - p. 75 - 87.
    algal synthetic biology - betulin - blue biotechnology - diatoms - lupeol - microalgae - natural product - triterpenoid biosynthesis

    Plant triterpenoids constitute a diverse class of organic compounds that play a major role in development, plant defence and environmental interaction. Several triterpenes have demonstrated potential as pharmaceuticals. One example is betulin, which has shown promise as a pharmaceutical precursor for the treatment of certain cancers and HIV. Major challenges for triterpenoid commercialization include their low production levels and their cost-effective purification from the complex mixtures present in their natural hosts. Therefore, attempts to produce these compounds in industrially relevant microbial systems such as bacteria and yeasts have attracted great interest. Here, we report the production of the triterpenes betulin and its precursor lupeol in the photosynthetic diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, a unicellular eukaryotic alga. This was achieved by introducing three plant enzymes in the microalga: a Lotus japonicus oxidosqualene cyclase and a Medicago truncatula cytochrome P450 along with its native reductase. The introduction of the L. japonicus oxidosqualene cyclase perturbed the mRNA expression levels of the native mevalonate and sterol biosynthesis pathway. The best performing strains were selected and grown in a 550-L pilot-scale photobioreactor facility. To our knowledge, this is the most extensive pathway engineering undertaken in a diatom and the first time that a sapogenin has been artificially produced in a microalga, demonstrating the feasibility of the photo-bio-production of more complex high-value, metabolites in microalgae.

    Coffee value chain analysis in the southern highlands of Tanzania : Final report
    Ruben, Ruerd ; Allen, Catherine ; Boureima, Fayçal ; Gongwe Mhando, David ; Dijkxhoorn, Youri - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 155
    Andromonoecy in Gynandropsis gynandra (L.) Briq. (Cleomaceae) and effects on fruit and seed production
    Zohoungbogbo, Herbaud P.F. ; Houdegbe, Carlos A. ; Sogbohossou, Dêêdi E.O. ; Tossou, Monique G. ; Maundu, Patrick ; Schranz, Eric M. ; Deynze, Allen Van; Zoundjihekpon, Jeanne ; Achigan-Dako, Enoch G. - \ 2018
    Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 65 (2018)8. - ISSN 0925-9864 - p. 2231 - 2239.
    Andromonoecy - Anthesis - Gynandropsis gynandra - Hermaphroditism - Pollination systems

    Spider plant (Gynandropsis gynandra) is a traditional leafy vegetable widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and tropical Asia that is also valued for its medicinal properties. Developing a breeding program for the species requires detailed knowledge of its phenology, floral morphology and pollination system. This study investigates the effects of floral morphology and pollination mechanisms on the reproductive success in G. gynandra. The experiments were conducted in two locations in Benin. A split-plot design was used with four randomized complete blocks. Three accessions were randomly assigned to the whole plots and five treatments including natural self-pollination, hand self-pollination, geitonogamy, open pollination and hand cross-pollination were randomized over the sub-plots. We observed that individual plant exhibited 70% of staminate (male) flowers and 30% of hermaphrodite flowers. G. gynandra was andromonoecious. Open pollination and hand cross-pollination led to higher fruit and seed set. Natural self-pollination and hand self-pollination resulted in lower fruit and seed production. G. gynandra is a self-compatible and predominantly out-crossing species. Cross-pollination resulted in a significant increase in fruit set. This study set the ground for the development of improved cultivars in G. gynandra.

    The ecology of Black Guillemot Cepphus grylle grylle chicks in the Baltic Sea region : insights into their diet, survival, nest predation and moment of fledging
    Hof, Anouschka R. ; Crombag, Joep A.H.M. ; Allen, Andrew M. - \ 2018
    Bird Study 65 (2018)3. - ISSN 0006-3657 - p. 357 - 364.

    Capsule: The diet of Black Guillemot Cepphus grylle grylle chicks in the Baltic Sea region was dominated by Viviparous Eelpout Zoarces viviparus. Risk of nest predation by avian and mammalian predators was perceived to be low, and hatching and fledging success were high. Aims: To gain insight into the ecology of nestling Black Guillemots in the Baltic Sea region to fill knowledge gaps and benefit its conservation. Methods: Two island groups in the Baltic Sea were visited several times during the breeding season of 2014 and 2015 to monitor nestling survival and fledging. In addition, camera traps were used in 2014 to monitor prey brought to chicks by adults and record possible nest predation events. Results: Hatching success was 0.89 and 0.73 in 2014 and 2015, respectively, and fledging success was very high (0.95 and 0.97). No incidences of avian or mammalian predation were observed. Chicks fledged at night between 32 and 38 days after hatching. Viviparous Eelpout made up 95% of the prey items brought to the chicks by adults. Conclusions: The hatching rate and fledging rate of the Black Guillemot was high in our study region. Juveniles seemed highly dependent on the availability of eelpout. Changes in the abundance of this species may therefore have negative effects on chick survival.

    Pictures or pellets? Comparing camera trapping and dung counts as methods for estimating population densities of ungulates
    Pfeffer, Sabine E. ; Spitzer, Robert ; Allen, Andrew M. ; Hofmeester, Tim R. ; Ericsson, Göran ; Widemo, Fredrik ; Singh, Navinder J. ; Cromsigt, Joris P.G.M. - \ 2018
    Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation 4 (2018)2. - ISSN 2056-3485 - p. 173 - 183.
    Camera traps - pellet counts - population estimates - random encounter model - ungulates - wildlife monitoring

    Across the northern hemisphere, land use changes and, possibly, warmer winters are leading to more abundant and diverse ungulate communities causing increased socioeconomic and ecological consequences. Reliable population estimates are crucial for sustainable management, but it is currently unclear which monitoring method is most suitable to track changes in multi-species assemblages. We compared dung counts and camera trapping as two non-invasive census methods to estimate population densities of moose Alces alces and roe deer Capreolus capreolus in Northern Sweden. For camera trapping, we tested the random encounter model (REM) which can estimate densities without the need to recognize individual animals. We evaluated different simplification options of the REM in terms of estimates of detection distance and angle (raw data vs. modelled) and of daily movement rate (camera trap based vs. telemetry based). In comparison to density estimates from camera traps, we found that, dung counts appeared to underestimate population density for roe deer, but not for moose. Estimates of detection distance and angle from modelled versus raw camera data resulted in nearly identical outcomes. The telemetry-derived daily movement rate for moose and roe deer resulted in much higher density estimates than the camera trap-derived estimates. We suggest that camera trapping may be a robust complement to dung counts when monitoring ungulate communities, particularly when similarities between dung pellets from sympatric deer species make unambiguous assignment difficult. Moreover, we show that a simplified use of the REM method holds great potential for large-scale citizen science-based programmes (e.g. involving hunters) that can track the rapidly changing European wildlife landscape. We suggest to include camera trapping in management programmes, where the analysis can be verified via web-based applications.

    The effect of vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on routine haematological parameters in older people : an individual participant data meta-analysis
    Smelt, Antonia F.H. ; Gussekloo, Jacobijn ; Bermingham, Lynette W. ; Allen, Elizabeth ; Dangour, Alan D. ; Eussen, Simone J.P.M. ; Favrat, Bernard ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. de; Kok, Frans J. ; Kwok, Timothy ; Mangoni, Arduino A. ; Ntaios, George ; Rest, Ondine van de; Seal, Eric ; Vaucher, Paul ; Verhoef, Petra ; Stijnen, Theo ; Elzen, Wendy P.J. Den - \ 2018
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 72 (2018)6. - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 785 - 795.
    Background/objectives: Low vitamin B12 and folate levels in community-dwelling older people are usually corrected with supplements. However, the effect of this supplementation on haematological parameters in older persons is not known. Therefore, we executed a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis of randomised placebo-controlled trials (RCTs). Subjects/methods: We performed a systematic search in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane and CENTRAL for RCTs published between January 1950 and April 2016, where community-dwelling elderly (60+ years) who were treated with vitamin B12 or folic acid or placebo. The presence of anaemia was not required. We analysed the data on haematological parameters with a two-stage IPD meta-analysis. Results: We found 494 full papers covering 14 studies. Data were shared by the authors of four RCTs comparing vitamin B12 with placebo (n = 343) and of three RCTs comparing folic acid with placebo (n = 929). We found no effect of vitamin B12 supplementation on haemoglobin (change 0.00 g/dL, 95% CI: −0.19;0.18), and no effect of folic acid supplementation (change −0.09 g/dL, 95% CI: −0.19;0.01). The effects of supplementation on other haematological parameters were similar. The effects did not differ by sex or by age group. Also, no effect was found in a subgroup of patients with anaemia and a subgroup of patients who were treated >4 weeks. Conclusions: Evidence on the effects of supplementation of low concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate on haematological parameters in community-dwelling older people is inconclusive. Further research is needed before firm recommendations can be made concerning the supplementation of vitamin B12 and folate.
    A roadmap for breeding orphan leafy vegetable species : A case study of Gynandropsis gynandra (Cleomaceae)
    Sogbohossou, E.O.D. ; Achigan-Dako, Enoch G. ; Maundu, Patrick ; Solberg, Svein ; Deguenon, Edgar M.S. ; Mumm, Rita H. ; Hale, Iago ; Deynze, Allen van; Schranz, M.E. - \ 2018
    Horticulture Research 5 (2018)1. - ISSN 2052-7276
    Despite an increasing awareness of the potential of "orphan" or unimproved crops to contribute to food security and enhanced livelihoods for farmers, coordinated research agendas to facilitate production and use of orphan crops by local communities are generally lacking. We provide an overview of the current knowledge on leafy vegetables with a focus on Gynandropsis gynandra, a highly nutritious species used in Africa and Asia, and highlight general and species-specific guidelines for participatory, genomics-assisted breeding of orphan crops. Key steps in genome-enabled orphan leafy vegetables improvement are identified and discussed in the context of Gynandropsis gynandra breeding, including: (1) germplasm collection and management; (2) product target definition and refinement; (3) characterization of the genetic control of key traits; (4) design of the 'process' for cultivar development; (5) integration of genomic data to optimize that 'process'; (6) multi-environmental participatory testing and end-user evaluation; and (7) crop value chain development. The review discusses each step in detail, with emphasis on improving leaf yield, phytonutrient content, organoleptic quality, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and post-harvest management.
    Metabolomics of tomato xylem sap during bacterial wilt reveals Ralstonia solanacearum produces abundant putrescine, a metabolite that accelerates wilt disease
    Lowe-Power, Tiffany M. ; Hendrich, Connor G. ; Roepenack-Lahaye, Edda von; Li, Bin ; Wu, Dousheng ; Mitra, Raka ; Dalsing, Beth L. ; Ricca, Patrizia ; Naidoo, Jacinth ; Cook, David ; Jancewicz, Amy ; Masson, Patrick ; Thomma, Bart ; Lahaye, Thomas ; Michael, Anthony J. ; Allen, Caitilyn - \ 2018
    Environmental Microbiology 20 (2018)4. - ISSN 1462-2912 - p. 1330 - 1349.
    Ralstonia solanacearum thrives in plant xylem vessels and causes bacterial wilt disease despite the low nutrient content of xylem sap. We found that R. solanacearum manipulates its host to increase nutrients in tomato xylem sap, enabling it to grow better in sap from infected plants than in sap from healthy plants. Untargeted GC/MS metabolomics identified 22 metabolites enriched in R. solanacearum-infected sap. Eight of these could serve as sole carbon or nitrogen sources for R. solanacearum. Putrescine, a polyamine that is not a sole carbon or nitrogen source for R. solanacearum, was enriched 76-fold to 37 μM in R. solanacearum-infected sap. R. solanacearum synthesized putrescine via a SpeC ornithine decarboxylase. A ΔspeC mutant required≥15 μM exogenous putrescine to grow and could not grow alone in xylem even when plants were treated with putrescine. However, co-inoculation with wildtype rescued ΔspeC growth, indicating R. solanacearum produced and exported putrescine to xylem sap. Intriguingly, treating plants with putrescine before inoculation accelerated wilt symptom development and R. solanacearum growth and systemic spread. Xylem putrescine concentration was unchanged in putrescine-treated plants, so the exogenous putrescine likely accelerated disease indirectly by affecting host physiology. These results indicate that putrescine is a pathogen-produced virulence metabolite.
    Integrated ecological-economic fisheries models-Evaluation, review and challenges for implementation
    Nielsen, J.R. ; Thunberg, Eric ; Holland, Daniel S. ; Schmidt, Jorn O. ; Fulton, Elizabeth A. ; Bastardie, Francois ; Punt, Andre E. ; Allen, Icarus ; Bartelings, Heleen ; Bertignac, Michel ; Groeneveld, Rolf A. ; Hamon, Katell G. ; Dijk, Diana van - \ 2018
    Fish and Fisheries 19 (2018)1. - ISSN 1467-2960 - p. 1 - 29.
    Bio-economic models - Comparative model evaluation - Fisheries management advice - Integrated ecological-economic fisheries models - Marine spatial planning and cross-sector management - Performance criteria and scales and risks - Use and acceptance and implementation and communication and flexibility and complexity

    Marine ecosystems evolve under many interconnected and area-specific pressures. To fulfil society's intensifying and diversifying needs while ensuring ecologically sustainable development, more effective marine spatial planning and broader-scope management of marine resources is necessary. Integrated ecological-economic fisheries models (IEEFMs) of marine systems are needed to evaluate impacts and sustainability of potential management actions and understand, and anticipate ecological, economic and social dynamics at a range of scales from local to national and regional. To make these models most effective, it is important to determine how model characteristics and methods of communicating results influence the model implementation, the nature of the advice that can be provided and the impact on decisions taken by managers. This article presents a global review and comparative evaluation of 35 IEEFMs applied to marine fisheries and marine ecosystem resources to identify the characteristics that determine their usefulness, effectiveness and implementation. The focus is on fully integrated models that allow for feedbacks between ecological and human processes although not all the models reviewed achieve that. Modellers must invest more time to make models user friendly and to participate in management fora where models and model results can be explained and discussed. Such involvement is beneficial to all parties, leading to improvement of mo-dels and more effective implementation of advice, but demands substantial resources which must be built into the governance process. It takes time to develop effective processes for using IEEFMs requiring a long-term commitment to integrating multidisciplinary modelling advice into management decision-making.

    Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 333 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016 : A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
    Hay, Simon I. ; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu ; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen ; Abbafati, Cristiana ; Abbas, Kaja M. ; Abd-Allah, Foad ; Abdulle, Abdishakur M. ; Abebo, Teshome Abuka ; Abera, Semaw Ferede ; Aboyans, Victor ; Abu-Raddad, Laith J. ; Ackerman, Ilana N. ; Adedeji, Isaac A. ; Adetokunboh, Olatunji ; Afshin, Ashkan ; Aggarwal, Rakesh ; Agrawal, Sutapa ; Agrawal, Anurag ; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad ; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir ; Aichour, Amani Nidhal ; Aichour, Ibtihel ; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine ; Aiyar, Sneha ; Akinyemiju, Tomi F. ; Akseer, Nadia ; Lami, Faris Hasan Al; Alahdab, Fares ; Al-Aly, Ziyad ; Alam, Khurshid ; Alam, Noore ; Alam, Tahiya ; Alasfoor, Deena ; Alene, Kefyalew Addis ; Ali, Raghib ; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza ; Alkaabi, Juma M. ; Alkerwi, A. ; Alla, François ; Allebeck, Peter ; Allen, Christine ; Al-Maskari, Fatma ; Almazroa, Mohammad Abdulaziz ; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa ; Geleijnse, J.M. - \ 2017
    The Lancet 390 (2017)10100. - ISSN 0140-6736 - p. 1260 - 1344.

    Background: Measurement of changes in health across locations is useful to compare and contrast changing epidemiological patterns against health system performance and identify specific needs for resource allocation in research, policy development, and programme decision making. Using the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we drew from two widely used summary measures to monitor such changes in population health: disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE). We used these measures to track trends and benchmark progress compared with expected trends on the basis of the Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Methods: We used results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 for all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, and non-fatal disease burden to derive HALE and DALYs by sex for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016. We calculated DALYs by summing years of life lost and years of life lived with disability for each location, age group, sex, and year. We estimated HALE using age-specific death rates and years of life lived with disability per capita. We explored how DALYs and HALE difered from expected trends when compared with the SDI: the geometric mean of income per person, educational attainment in the population older than age 15 years, and total fertility rate. Findings: The highest globally observed HALE at birth for both women and men was in Singapore, at 75·2 years (95% uncertainty interval 71·9-78·6) for females and 72·0 years (68·8-75·1) for males. The lowest for females was in the Central African Republic (45·6 years [42·0-49·5]) and for males was in Lesotho (41·5 years [39·0-44·0]). From 1990 to 2016, global HALE increased by an average of 6·24 years (5·97-6·48) for both sexes combined. Global HALE increased by 6·04 years (5·74-6·27) for males and 6·49 years (6·08-6·77) for females, whereas HALE at age 65 years increased by 1·78 years (1·61-1·93) for males and 1·96 years (1·69-2·13) for females. Total global DALYs remained largely unchanged from 1990 to 2016 (-2·3% [-5·9 to 0·9]), with decreases in communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) disease DALYs ofset by increased DALYs due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The exemplars, calculated as the fve lowest ratios of observed to expected age-standardised DALY rates in 2016, were Nicaragua, Costa Rica, the Maldives, Peru, and Israel. The leading three causes of DALYs globally were ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and lower respiratory infections, comprising 16·1% of all DALYs. Total DALYs and age-standardised DALY rates due to most CMNN causes decreased from 1990 to 2016. Conversely, the total DALY burden rose for most NCDs; however, age-standardised DALY rates due to NCDs declined globally. Interpretation: At a global level, DALYs and HALE continue to show improvements. At the same time, we observe that many populations are facing growing functional health loss. Rising SDI was associated with increases in cumulative years of life lived with disability and decreases in CMNN DALYs ofset by increased NCD DALYs. Relative compression of morbidity highlights the importance of continued health interventions, which has changed in most locations in pace with the gross domestic product per person, education, and family planning. The analysis of DALYs and HALE and their relationship to SDI represents a robust framework with which to benchmark location-specific health performance. Country-specific drivers of disease burden, particularly for causes with higher-than-expected DALYs, should inform health policies, health system improvement initiatives, targeted prevention eforts, and development assistance for health, including fnancial and research investments for all countries, regardless of their level of sociodemographic development. The presence of countries that substantially outperform others suggests the need for increased scrutiny for proven examples of best practices, which can help to extend gains, whereas the presence of underperforming countries suggests the need for devotion of extra attention to health systems that need more robust support.

    Global, regional, and national age-sex specifc mortality for 264 causes of death, 1980-2016: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
    Naghavi, Mohsen ; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu ; Abbafati, Cristiana ; Abbas, Kaja M. ; Abd-Allah, Foad ; Abera, Semaw Ferede ; Aboyans, Victor ; Adetokunboh, Olatunji ; Ärnlöv, Johan ; Afshin, Ashkan ; Agrawal, Anurag ; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad ; Ahmadi, Alireza ; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir ; Aichour, Amani Nidhal ; Aichour, Ibtihel ; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine ; Aiyar, Sneha ; Al-Eyadhy, Ayman ; Alahdab, Fares ; Al-Aly, Ziyad ; Alam, Khurshid ; Alam, Noore ; Alam, Tahiya ; Alene, Kefyalew Addis ; Ali, Syed Danish ; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza ; Alkaabi, Juma M. ; Alkerwi, A. ; Alla, François ; Allebeck, Peter ; Allen, Christine ; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa ; Alsharif, Ubai ; Altirkawi, Khalid A. ; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson ; Amare, Azmeraw T. ; Amini, Erfan ; Ammar, Walid ; Amoako, Yaw Ampem ; Anber, Nahla ; Andersen, Hjalte H. ; Andrei, Catalina Liliana ; Androudi, Sofa ; Ansari, Hossein ; Hoek, Hans W. ; Liu, Yang ; Nguyen, Cuong Tat ; Nguyen, Quyen Le ; Nguyen, Trang Huyen ; Geleijnse, J.M. - \ 2017
    The Lancet 390 (2017)10100. - ISSN 0140-6736 - p. 1151 - 1210.

    Background: Monitoring levels and trends in premature mortality is crucial to understanding how societies can address prominent sources of early death. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specifc mortality for 264 causes in 195 locations from 1980 to 2016. This assessment includes evaluation of the expected epidemiological transition with changes in development and where local patterns deviate from these trends. Methods: We estimated cause-specifc deaths and years of life lost (YLLs) by age, sex, geography, and year. YLLs were calculated from the sum of each death multiplied by the standard life expectancy at each age. We used the GBD cause of death database composed of: vital registration (VR) data corrected for under-registration and garbage coding; national and subnational verbal autopsy (VA) studies corrected for garbage coding; and other sources including surveys and surveillance systems for specifc causes such as maternal mortality. To facilitate assessment of quality, we reported on the fraction of deaths assigned to GBD Level 1 or Level 2 causes that cannot be underlying causes of death (major garbage codes) by location and year. Based on completeness, garbage coding, cause list detail, and time periods covered, we provided an overall data quality rating for each location with scores ranging from 0 stars (worst) to 5 stars (best). We used robust statistical methods including the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) to generate estimates for each location, year, age, and sex. We assessed observed and expected levels and trends of cause-specifc deaths in relation to the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of average income per capita, educational attainment, and total fertility, with locations grouped into quintiles by SDI. Relative to GBD 2015, we expanded the GBD cause hierarchy by 18 causes of death for GBD 2016. Findings: The quality of available data varied by location. Data quality in 25 countries rated in the highest category (5 stars), while 48, 30, 21, and 44 countries were rated at each of the succeeding data quality levels. Vital registration or verbal autopsy data were not available in 27 countries, resulting in the assignment of a zero value for data quality. Deaths from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represented 72·3% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 71·2-73·2) of deaths in 2016 with 19·3% (18·5-20·4) of deaths in that year occurring from communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) diseases and a further 8·43% (8·00-8·67) from injuries. Although age-standardised rates of death from NCDs decreased globally between 2006 and 2016, total numbers of these deaths increased; both numbers and age-standardised rates of death from CMNN causes decreased in the decade 2006-16 - age-standardised rates of deaths from injuries decreased but total numbers varied little. In 2016, the three leading global causes of death in children under-5 were lower respiratory infections, neonatal preterm birth complications, and neonatal encephalopathy due to birth asphyxia and trauma, combined resulting in 1·80 million deaths (95% UI 1·59 million to 1·89 million). Between 1990 and 2016, a profound shift toward deaths at older ages occurred with a 178% (95% UI 176-181) increase in deaths in ages 90-94 years and a 210% (208-212) increase in deaths older than age 95 years. The ten leading causes by rates of age-standardised YLL signifcantly decreased from 2006 to 2016 (median annualised rate of change was a decrease of 2·89%); the median annualised rate of change for all other causes was lower (a decrease of 1·59%) during the same interval. Globally, the fve leading causes of total YLLs in 2016 were cardiovascular diseases; diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and other common infectious diseases; neoplasms; neonatal disorders; and HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. At a fner level of disaggregation within cause groupings, the ten leading causes of total YLLs in 2016 were ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, lower respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases, road injuries, malaria, neonatal preterm birth complications, HIV/AIDS, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and neonatal encephalopathy due to birth asphyxia and trauma. Ischaemic heart disease was the leading cause of total YLLs in 113 countries for men and 97 countries for women. Comparisons of observed levels of YLLs by countries, relative to the level of YLLs expected on the basis of SDI alone, highlighted distinct regional patterns including the greater than expected level of YLLs from malaria and from HIV/AIDS across sub-Saharan Africa; diabetes mellitus, especially in Oceania; interpersonal violence, notably within Latin America and the Caribbean; and cardiomyopathy and myocarditis, particularly in eastern and central Europe. The level of YLLs from ischaemic heart disease was less than expected in 117 of 195 locations. Other leading causes of YLLs for which YLLs were notably lower than expected included neonatal preterm birth complications in many locations in both south Asia and southeast Asia, and cerebrovascular disease in western Europe. Interpretation: The past 37 years have featured declining rates of communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases across all quintiles of SDI, with faster than expected gains for many locations relative to their SDI. A global shift towards deaths at older ages suggests success in reducing many causes of early death. YLLs have increased globally for causes such as diabetes mellitus or some neoplasms, and in some locations for causes such as drug use disorders, and confict and terrorism. Increasing levels of YLLs might refect outcomes from conditions that required high levels of care but for which efective treatments remain elusive, potentially increasing costs to health systems.

    Analysis of LULUCF actions in EU member states as reported under Art. 10 of the LULUCF Decision : final study
    Paquel, Kamila ; Bowyer, C. ; Allen, Ben ; Nesbit, Martin ; Martineau, Hugh ; Lesschen, J.P. ; Arets, E.J.M.M. - \ 2017
    Institute for European Environmental Policy IEEP - 163 p.
    Towards standards for human fecal sample processing in metagenomic studies
    Costea, Paul I. ; Zeller, Georg ; Sunagawa, Shinichi ; Pelletier, Eric ; Alberti, Adriana ; Levenez, Florence ; Tramontano, Melanie ; Driessen, Marja ; Hercog, Rajna ; Jung, Ferris Elias ; Kultima, Jens Roat ; Hayward, Matthew R. ; Coelho, Luis Pedro ; Allen-Vercoe, Emma ; Bertrand, Laurie ; Blaut, Michael ; Brown, Jillian R.M. ; Carton, Thomas ; Cools-Portier, Stéphanie ; Daigneault, Michelle ; Derrien, Muriel ; Druesne, Anne ; Vos, Willem M. De; Finlay, B.B. ; Flint, Harry J. ; Guarner, Francisco ; Hattori, Masahira ; Heilig, Hans ; Luna, Ruth Ann ; Hylckama Vlieg, Johan Van; Junick, Jana ; Klymiuk, Ingeborg ; Langella, Philippe ; Chatelier, Emmanuelle Le; Mai, Volker ; Manichanh, Chaysavanh ; Martin, Jennifer C. ; Mery, Clémentine ; Morita, Hidetoshi ; O'Toole, Paul W. ; Orvain, Céline ; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb ; Penders, John ; Persson, Søren ; Pons, Nicolas ; Popova, Milena ; Salonen, Anne ; Saulnier, Delphine ; Scott, Karen P. ; Singh, Bhagirath ; Slezak, Kathleen ; Veiga, Patrick ; Versalovic, James ; Zhao, Liping ; Zoetendal, Erwin G. ; Ehrlich, S.D. ; Dore, Joel ; Bork, Peer - \ 2017
    Nature Biotechnology 35 (2017)11. - ISSN 1087-0156 - p. 1069 - 1076.
    Technical variation in metagenomic analysis must be minimized to confidently assess the contributions of microbiota to human health. Here we tested 21 representative DNA extraction protocols on the same fecal samples and quantified differences in observed microbial community composition. We compared them with differences due to library preparation and sample storage, which we contrasted with observed biological variation within the same specimen or within an individual over time. We found that DNA extraction had the largest effect on the outcome of metagenomic analysis. To rank DNA extraction protocols, we considered resulting DNA quantity and quality, and we ascertained biases in estimates of community diversity and the ratio between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We recommend a standardized DNA extraction method for human fecal samples, for which transferability across labs was established and which was further benchmarked using a mock community of known composition. Its adoption will improve comparability of human gut microbiome studies and facilitate meta-analyses.
    Citizen science for hydrological risk reduction and resilience building
    Paul, Jonathan D. ; Buytaert, Wouter ; Allen, Simon ; Ballesteros‐Cánovas, Juan A. ; Bhusal, Jagat K. ; Cieslik, Katarzyna ; Clark, Julian ; Dugar, Sumit ; Hannah, David M. ; Stoffel, M. ; Dewulf, A.R.P.J. ; Dhital, Megh R. ; Liu, Wei ; Nayaval, Janak Lal ; Neupane, Bhanu ; Schiller, Arnulf ; Smith, P.J. ; Supper, Robert - \ 2017
    Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Water 2017 (2017). - ISSN 2049-1948 - 15 p.
    In disaster risk management (DRM), an emerging shift has been noted from broad-scale, top-down assessments toward more participatory, community-based, bottom-up approaches. Arguably, nonscientist local stakeholders have always played an important role in knowledge risk management and resilience building within a hydrological context, such as flood response and drought alleviation. However, rapidly developing information and communication technologies such as the Internet, smartphones, and social media have already demonstrated their sizeable potential to make knowledge creation more multidirectional, decentralized, diverse, and inclusive. Combined with technologies for robust and low-cost sensor networks, a ‘citizen science’ approach has recently emerged as a promising direction in the provision of extensive, real-time information for risk management. Such projects work best when there is community buy-in, when their purpose(s) are clearly defined at the outset, and when the motivations and skillsets of all participants and stakeholders are well understood. They have great potential to enhance knowledge creation, not only for data collection, but also for analysis or interpretation. In addition, they can serve as a means of educating and empowering communities and stakeholders that are bypassed by more traditional knowledge generation processes. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of citizen science within the context of hydrological risk reduction and resilience building. Particularly when embedded within a polycentric approach toward risk governance, we argue that citizen science could complement more traditional knowledge generation practices, and also enhance innovation, adaptation, multidirectional information provision, risk management, and local resilience building.
    Migratory preferences of humpback whales between feeding and breeding grounds in the eastern South Pacific
    Acevedo, Jorge ; Aguayo-lobo, Anelio ; Allen, Judith ; Botero-acosta, Natalia ; Capella, Juan ; Castro, Cristina ; Rosa, Luciano Dalla ; Denkinger, Judith ; Félix, Fernando ; Flórez-gonzález, Lilian ; Garita, Frank ; Guzmán, Héctor M. ; Haase, Ben ; Kaufman, Gregory ; Llano, Martha ; Olavarría, Carlos ; Pacheco, Aldo S. ; Plana, Jordi ; Rasmussen, Kristin ; Scheidat, Meike ; Secchi, Eduardo R. ; Silva, Sebastian ; Stevick, Peter T. - \ 2017
    Marine Mammal Science 33 (2017)4. - ISSN 0824-0469 - p. 1035 - 1052.
    megaptera novaeangliae - migratory destinations - breeding stock G - photo-identifiaction - feeding ground - Antarctic Peninsula - Fueguian Archipelago
    Latitudinal preferences within the breeding range have been suggested for Breeding Stock G humpback whales that summer in different feeding areas of the eastern South Pacific. To address this hypothesis, humpback whales photo-identified from the Antarctic Peninsula and the Fueguian Archipelago (southern Chile) were compared with whales photo-identified from lower latitudes extending from northern Peru to Costa Rica. This comparison was performed over a time span that includes 18 austral seasons. A total of 238 whales identified from the Antarctic Peninsula and 25 whales from the Fueguian Archipelago were among those photo-identified at the breeding grounds. Our findings showed that humpback whales from each feeding area were resighted unevenly across the breeding grounds, which suggests a degree of spatial structuring in the migratory pathway. Humpback whales that feed at the
    Antarctic Peninsula were more likely to migrate to the southern breeding range
    between northern Peru and Colombia, whereas whales that feed at the Fueguian
    Archipelago were more likely to be found in the northern range of the breeding
    ground off Panama. Further photo-identification efforts and genetic sampling from poorly sampled or unsampled areas are recommended to confirm these reported connectivity patterns.
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