Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Naar Drachten, dus twee zakken afval mee
Thoden van Velzen, Ulphard ; Brouwer, Marieke ; Alvarado Chacon, Fresia - \ 2019
Identifying Dietary Strategies to Improve Nutrient Adequacy among Ethiopian Infants and Young Children Using Linear Modelling
Samuel, Aregash ; Osendarp, Saskia J.M. ; Ferguson, Elaine ; Borgonjen, Karin ; Alvarado, Brenda M. ; Neufeld, Lynnette M. ; Adish, Abdulaziz ; Kebede, Amha ; Brouwer, Inge D. - \ 2019
Nutrients 11 (2019)6. - ISSN 2072-6643
complementary food - Ethiopia - food-based dietary recommendations - nutrient adequacy - Optifood analysis

Nutrient adequacy of young children's diet and best possible strategies to improve nutrient adequacy were assessed. Data from the Ethiopian National Food Consumption Survey were analysed using Optifood (software for linear programming) to identify nutrient gaps in diets for children (6-8, 9-11 and 12-23 months), and to formulate feasible Food-Based Dietary Recommendations (FBDRs) in four regions which differ in culture and food practices. Alternative interventions including a local complementary food, micronutrient powders (MNPs), Small quantity Lipid-based Nutrient Supplement (Sq-LNS) and combinations of these were modelled in combination with the formulated FBDRs to compare their relative contributions. Risk of inadequate and excess nutrient intakes was simulated using the Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method and the full probability approach. Optimized local diets did not provide adequate zinc in all regions and age groups, iron for infants <12 months of age in all regions, and calcium, niacin, thiamine, folate, vitamin B12 and B6 in some regions and age-groups. The set of regional FBDRs, considerably different for four regions, increased nutrient adequacy but some nutrients remained sub-optimal. Combination of regional FBDRs with daily MNP supplementation for 6-12 months of age and every other day for 12-23 months of age, closed the identified nutrient gaps without leading to a substantial increase in the risk of excess intakes.

Verkenning verwerkingsopties bedrijfsmatig gemengd kunststofverpakkingsafval
Thoden van Velzen, E.U. ; Smeding, I. ; Brouwer, M.T. ; Alvarado Chacon, F. - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Wageningen Food &amp; Biobased Research rapport 1941) - ISBN 9789463439701 - 39
Within this project, an inventory has been made of the suitable processing options for processing plastic packaging waste of the Dutch state government. Hereby the technical feasibility of different options is analysed, but also readiness in the Netherlands (within the next 5 years), related cost and environmental impact. The separately collected plastic packaging waste of the Dutch state government has been studied during the last months of 2018. The composition was studied both with regard to the material composition and the types of packages and objects that are present. This material was sampled from five different locations in twofold. The separately collected material is composed of 60% plastics, small amounts of beverage cartons and metals (both 3%) and two non-targeted materials – paper & board and organic materials – in relatively large amounts (both approximately 17%). Currently, this material cannot be processed in conventional sorting facilities for post-consumer plastic packaging waste due to the relatively high concentrations of both contaminants. Ideally, the collection method is adapted in such a manner that the concentration of both contaminants is lowered below 15% or even better below 10%. This can potentially be achieved by information campaigns towards the users, a change in the waste collection system (the size of the opening of the waste collection bins, use of icons and the grouping of the waste bins for the various materials). Subsequently, the separately collected plastic waste can be treated at conventional sorting facilities for post-consumer lightweight packaging waste. An existing model for post-consumer plastic packaging waste was used to approximate the flows of the plastic packages through conventional sorting and recycling companies. The model predicts that roughly 58 tons of washed milled goods can be made from the separately collected plastic packaging waste. In case these recycled plastics are used in applications where virgin plastics are replaced then this will approximately result in a reduction of the greenhouse gases of 239 tons CO2 equivalents. The research of alternative methods shows that only the mechanical recovery of plastics from residual waste is ready in the Netherlands. This demands that the residual waste of the Dutch government will be processed in a central waste sorting facility and this is financially less attractive. Magnetic density separation is likely to develop within 5 years’ time to a robust alternative, but with currently unknown financial consequences. Other alternative processing options are not yet ready or are only a partial solution. Therefore the current system of separate collection, sorting and mechanical recycling is – based on our current knowledge – the most suitable processing option for the next 5 years.
International Environmental Agreements for biodiversity conservation : a game-theoretic analysis
Alvarado-Quesada, Irene ; Weikard, Hans Peter - \ 2017
International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics 17 (2017)5. - ISSN 1567-9764 - p. 731 - 754.
Asymmetric countries - Coalition formation - Game theory - Hyperbolic cost functions - Local benefits - Subadditivity
This paper contributes to the emerging literature on International Environmental Agreements with an analysis of key characteristics for biodiversity conservation. We study three features that are specific to an international conservation agreement: the existence of a natural upper bound of conservation in each country, the importance of local benefits, and the subadditivity of the global conservation function. We consider asymmetries in benefits and costs of conservation and, separately, in the upper bound of conservation in each country, and we examine the impacts of these features on coalition stability and on the effectiveness of biodiversity agreements. Results show that subadditivity of the global conservation function can lead to larger stable coalitions. The inclusion of a transfer scheme that might be implemented through, e.g., international trade of biodiversity credits, can have an impact on coalition composition and can improve conservation outcomes and the size of stable coalitions in certain ranges of the parameter space.
International cooperation on biodiversity conservation when spatial structures matter
Alvarado-Quesada, Irene ; Weikard, Hans Peter - \ 2017
Spatial Economic Analysis 12 (2017)1. - ISSN 1742-1772 - p. 27 - 49.
biodiversity conservation - coalition formation - international environmental agreements - spatial structure of cooperation
International cooperation on biodiversity conservation when spatial structures matter. Spatial Economic Analysis. This paper considers the stability of international environmental agreements (IEAs) for biodiversity conservation with an explicit spatial structure. It studies the impact of distance between countries on coalition stability. It analyses a circular spatial structure with different spatial patterns. Robust results are obtained for a wide range of cost-and-benefit parameters: stable coalitions have a maximum size of two members. The best global payoff is obtained when coalitions are composed of neighbouring countries with the smallest possible distance. A ‘remoteness effect’ is observed, i.e., some coalitions of two members are unstable when one of the signatory countries is far away from the other coalition member and from the singletons.
SPECIFIC: Starch – Poly Ethylene Compounds in Films with Improved barrier Characteristics
Kappen, F.H.J. ; Alvarado Chacon, F.M. ; Schennink, G.G.J. ; Beukelaer, H.J. de; Martens, H. ; Soliman, Maria ; Buwalda, P.L. - \ 2016
This consortium is working on the development of industrial films from blends of thermoplastic starch and polyethylene. The great advantage of the combination of these materials is that they together improve the barrier properties of plastic films. Polyethylene is known for its excellent waterproof properties, but it is permeable to oxygen and other gases. Starch is a good oxygen barrier, but is not water resistant. A good mixture of both materials should result in products with high water and oxygen barrier. The combination of both materials in a blend is currently not used for the production of films, but is potentially very interesting. Gradually bio-based films can replace the existing petroleum-made films.
International cooperation for biodiversity conservation : an economic analysis
Alvarado Quesada, I. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ekko van Ierland, co-promotor(en): Hans-Peter Weikard. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576124 - 151
biodiversiteit - natuurbescherming - uitsterven - biodiversity - nature conservation - extinction

Biodiversity decline poses significant threats to current and future generations. Although species extinction has been a natural process since the formation of Earth, recent rates of extinction are estimated to be from 100 to 1000 times larger when compared to fossil records. Almost all of the Earth’s ecosystems have been dramatically transformed and some of them are being pushed towards critical thresholds that could risk overall livelihoods and wellbeing of human population. Implications of severe biodiversity loss include irreversible alterations of ecosystem services, vulnerability to natural disasters, human health risks, threats to food and energy security, depletion of natural resources and damage to social relations.

There is an urgent need to study and develop efficient conservation instruments that decision makers can implement to halt the ongoing rate of biodiversity loss. However, this is a complex task due to i) the multidimensional nature of biodiversity conservation in terms of the different levels of biological organisation, and also to ii) the diverse geographical scales of concern at stake (from local to global). The objective of this thesis is to examine the functioning and effectiveness of different economic instruments for biodiversity conservation at diverse scales. In order to achieve this objective, different methodological approaches such as market theory, contract theory, and game theory are implemented.

In Chapter 2, I develop an assessment of economic characteristics for biodiversity markets to work efficiently. I first introduce a set of general conditions to guarantee market efficiency. These conditions are derived from market and contract theory. In the light of these conditions, I analyse the efficiency of five selected market schemes for biodiversity conservation that have been implemented in different countries. An assessment of the upscaling potential of the existing markets reveals that obstacles such as the lack of a standardised unit of measurement for biodiversity and the difficulty to ensure long-term conservation make it difficult to scale up any of the selected mechanisms as they are currently performing. I argue that the creation of a global credit registry for biodiversity would facilitate measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of biodiversity credits to support market-based mechanisms.

In Chapter 3, I present a game-theoretic model for an international environmental agreement (IEA) for biodiversity conservation. I first introduce three key characteristics that differentiate the case of biodiversity conservation from the conventional emission abatement model: the existence of a natural upper bound of conservation per country, the importance of local benefits, and the subadditivity of the global conservation function. Then, I consider asymmetries in benefits and costs of biodiversity conservation, and separately, in the natural upper bound of conservation per country. Results show that there is scope to achieve a higher degree of cooperation in a potential IEA for biodiversity conservation when subadditivity in the global conservation function is considered. Furthermore, the inclusion of an optimal transfer rule allows not only for larger stable coalitions and higher potential gains of cooperation and conservation, but also for a different composition of coalition structures (in term of country types).

In Chapter 4, I analyse the inclusion of an explicit spatial structure in the modelling of an IEA for conservation. I assess the role of distance and location between countries on coalition formation and overall coalition stability. First, to explain cooperation among neighbouring countries I make use of a specific setting: a circular spatial structure. Furthermore, I employ a notion of distance between countries in terms of their ecosystem dissimilarity: two countries are closer the more species they have in common. I argue that, for the purpose of exploring the stability of conservation agreements, geographical distance may be less important than the dissimilarity of the sets of species that two countries host. Results show that the maximum size of a stable coalition in the model with a spatial structure is of two members. These results are robust with respect to the different spatial patterns assessed within the circular structure. I conclude that the stable coalition with the best global payoff is obtained when stable coalitions are composed of two countries with the smallest possible distance between them. Also, the study shows evidence of a ‘remoteness effect’. Highest payoffs in a stable biodiversity agreement are attained when member countries are the closest to each other, but also to the rest of the countries in the spatial structure.

In Chapter 5, the model for an IEA for conservation with an embedded spatial structure is applied to a case study on regional conservation of the non-breeding habitat of the Golden-winged warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera). I study the incentives of countries to join an agreement for the protection of wintering habitats by calibrating the game theoretical model with empirical data. Also, I include a spatial setting that best describes specific aspects of the migratory behaviour of the species. Results show that when there is a positive willingness to pay of US households to improve the chance of survival of the population of the Golden-winged Warbler, and when allowing for the implementation of a transfer scheme, there is scope for a stable conservation agreement between the United States and the Latin American countries with wintering habitat of the bird species (i.e. full cooperation). For all scenarios of our study, the United States transfers part of its payoff to the Latin American countries to incentivise conservation and stabilise the coalition.

This thesis has shown the importance of taking into account asymmetries between countries – both in their biodiversity endowments as well as in benefits and costs of conservation activities – in the design and application on economic instruments for biodiversity conservation. Furthermore, the implementation of transfer schemes as instruments to incentivise conservation have the potential to contribute to effective biodiversity management.

Colloidal liquid crystals in rectangular confinement: theory and experiment
Lewis, A.H. ; Garlea, I. ; Alvarado, J. ; Dammone, O.J. ; Howell, P.D. ; Majumdar, A. ; Mulder, B. ; Lettinga, M.P. ; Koenderink, G.H. ; Aarts, D.G.A.L. - \ 2014
Soft Matter 10 (2014)39. - ISSN 1744-683X - p. 7865 - 7873.
cell-sized confinement - de-gennes theory - alignment - phases - interfaces - surfaces - defects
We theoretically and experimentally study nematic liquid crystal equilibria within shallow rectangular wells. We model the wells within a two-dimensional Oseen-Frank framework, with strong tangent anchoring, and obtain explicit analytical expressions for the director fields and energies of the 'diagonal' and 'rotated' solutions reported in the literature. These expressions separate the leading-order defect energies from the bulk distortion energy for both families of solutions. The continuum Oseen-Frank study is complemented by a microscopic mean-field approach. We numerically minimize the mean-field functional, including the effects of weak anchoring, variable order and random initial conditions. In particular, these simulations suggest the existence of higher-energy metastable states with internal defects. We compare our theoretical results to experimental director profiles, obtained using two types of filamentous virus particles, wild-type fd-virus and a modified stiffer variant (Y21M), which display nematic ordering in rectangular chambers, as found by confocal scanning laser microscopy. We combine our analytical energy expressions with experimentally recorded frequencies of the different equilibrium states to obtain explicit estimates for the extrapolation length, defined to be the ratio of the nematic elastic constant to the anchoring coefficient, of the fd-virus.
Fungal Planet description sheets: 214–280
Crous, P.W. ; Shivas, R.G. ; Quaedvlieg, W. ; Bank, M. van der; Zhang, Y. ; Summerell, B.A. ; Guarro, J. ; Wingfield, M.J. ; Wood, A.R. ; Alfenas, A.C. ; Braun, U. ; Cano-Lira, J.F. ; Garcia, D. ; Marin-Felix, Y. ; Alvarado, P. ; Andrade, J.P. ; Armengol, J. ; Assefa, A. ; Breeÿen, A. den; Camele, I. ; Cheewangkoon, R. ; Souza, J.T. De; Duong, T.A. ; Esteve-Raventós, F. ; Fournier, J. ; Frisullo, S. ; García-Jiménez, J. ; Gardiennet, A. ; Gené, J. ; Hernández-Restrepo, M. ; Hirooka, Y. ; Hospenthal, D.R. ; King, A. ; Lechat, C. ; Lombard, L. ; Mang, S.M. ; Marbach, P.A.S. ; Marincowitz, S. ; Montaño-Mata, N.J. ; Moreno, G. ; Perez, C.A. ; Pérez Sierra, A.M. ; Robertson, J.L. ; Roux, J. ; Rubio, E. ; Schumacher, R.K. ; Stchigel, A.M. ; Sutton, D.A. ; Tan, Y.P. ; Thompson, E.H. ; Vanderlinde, E. ; Walker, A.K. ; Walker, D.M. ; Wickes, B.L. ; Wong, P.T.W. ; Groenewald, J.Z. - \ 2014
Persoonia 32 (2014). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 184 - 306.
sp-nov - phylogeny reveals - eucalyptus-microfungi - host-associations - gene phylogeny - sequence data - diaporthales - morphology - gnomoniaceae - conioscypha
Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Cercosporella dolichandrae from Dolichandra unguiscati, Seiridium podocarpi from Podocarpus latifolius, Pseudocercospora parapseudarthriae from Pseudarthria hookeri, Neodevriesia coryneliae from Corynelia uberata on leaves of Afrocarpus falcatus, Ramichloridium eucleae from Euclea undulata and Stachybotrys aloeticola from Aloe sp. (South Africa), as novel member of the Stachybotriaceae fam. nov. Several species were also described from Zambia, and these include Chaetomella zambiensis on unknown Fabaceae, Schizoparme pseudogranati from Terminalia stuhlmannii, Diaporthe isoberliniae from Isoberlinia angolensis, Peyronellaea combreti from Combretum mossambiciensis, Zasmidium rothmanniae and Phaeococcomyces rothmanniae from Rothmannia engleriana, Diaporthe vangueriae from Vangueria infausta and Diaporthe parapterocarpi from Pterocarpus brenanii. Novel species from the Netherlands include: Stagonospora trichophoricola, Keissleriella trichophoricola and Dinemasporium trichophoricola from Trichophorum cespitosum, Phaeosphaeria poae, Keissleriella poagena, Phaeosphaeria poagena, Parastagonospora poagena and Pyrenochaetopsis poae from Poa sp., Septoriella oudemansii from Phragmites australis and Dendryphion europaeum from Hedera helix (Germany) and Heracleum sphondylium (the Netherlands). Novel species from Australia include: Anungitea eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus leaf litter, Beltraniopsis neolitseae and Acrodontium neolitseae from Neolitsea australiensis, Beltraniella endiandrae from Endiandra introrsa, Phaeophleospora parsoniae from Parsonia straminea, Penicillifer martinii from Cynodon dactylon, Ochroconis macrozamiae from Macrozamia leaf litter, Triposporium cycadicola, Circinotrichum cycadis, Cladosporium cycadicola and Acrocalymma cycadis from Cycas spp. Furthermore, Vermiculariopsiella dichapetali is described from Dichapetalum rhodesicum (Botswana), Marasmius vladimirii from leaf litter (India), Ophiognomonia acadiensis from Picea rubens (Canada), Setophoma vernoniae from Vernonia polyanthes and Penicillium restingae from soil (Brazil), Pseudolachnella guaviyunis from Myrcianthes pungens (Uruguay) and Pseudocercospora neriicola from Nerium oleander (Italy). Novelties from Spain include: Dendryphiella eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus globulus, Conioscypha minutispora from dead wood, Diplogelasinospora moalensis and Pseudoneurospora canariensis from soil and Inocybe lanatopurpurea from reforested woodland of Pinus spp. Novelties from France include: Kellermania triseptata from Agave angustifolia, Zetiasplozna acaciae from Acacia melanoxylon, Pyrenochaeta pinicola from Pinus sp. and Pseudonectria rusci from Ruscus aculeatus. New species from China include: Dematiocladium celtidicola from Celtis bungeana, Beltrania pseudorhombica, Chaetopsina beijingensis and Toxicocladosporium pini from Pinus spp. and Setophaeosphaeria badalingensis from Hemerocallis fulva. Novel genera of Ascomycetes include Alfaria from Cyperus esculentus (Spain), Rinaldiella from a contaminated human lesion (Georgia), Hyalocladosporiella from Tectona grandis (Brazil), Pseudoacremonium from Saccharum spontaneum and Melnikomyces from leaf litter (Vietnam), Annellosympodiella from Juniperus procera (Ethiopia), Neoceratosperma from Eucalyptus leaves (Thailand), Ramopenidiella from Cycas calcicola (Australia), Cephalotrichiella from air in the Netherlands, Neocamarosporium from Mesembryanthemum sp. and Acervuloseptoria from Ziziphus mucronata (South Africa) and Setophaeosphaeria from Hemerocallis fulva (China). Several novel combinations are also introduced, namely for Phaeosphaeria setosa as Setophaeosphaeria setosa, Phoma heteroderae as Peyronellaea heteroderae and Phyllosticta maydis as Peyronellaea maydis. Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa.
Market-based mechanisms for biodiversity conservation: a review of existing schemes and an outline for a global mechanism
Alvarado Quesada, I. ; Hein, L.G. ; Weikard, H.P. - \ 2014
Biodiversity and Conservation 23 (2014)1. - ISSN 0960-3115 - p. 1 - 21.
ecosystem services - banking - management - offsets
Continuous decline of biodiversity over the past decades suggests that efforts to decrease biodiversity loss have been insufficient. One option to deal with this problem is the use of market-based mechanisms for biodiversity conservation. Several studies have analysed such mechanisms individually, but there is no comprehensive review with a comparative assessment of the performance of various mechanisms. This paper presents (i) an analysis of the economic conditions under which markets for biodiversity can be expected to function; (ii) an analysis of the efficiency of five selected biodiversity markets in the light of market and contract theory; and (iii) an assessment of the potential to scale up local or national payment mechanisms for biodiversity conservation. Our analysis shows the difficulties that market-based mechanisms face, among which are the need to ensure long-term conservation and the lack of a standardized unit of measurement for biodiversity. We provide a number of recommendations on how to overcome these difficulties. We argue that the set-up of a global registry embedded within the framework of the Convention on Biological Diversity would facilitate measurement, reporting and verification of biodiversity credits to support market-based mechanisms.
Search for Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Antigens for the Diagnosis of Paratuberculosis
Mon, M.L. ; Vale, M. ; Baschetti, G. ; Alvarado Pinedo, F. ; Gioffre, A. ; Traveria, G. ; Willemsen, P. ; Bakker, D. ; Romano, M.I. - \ 2012
Veterinary Medicine International 2012 (2012). - ISSN 2090-8113 - 9 p.
The aim of this study was to evaluate a wide panel of antigens of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) to select candidates for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis (PTB). A total of 54 recombinant proteins were spotted onto nitrocellulose membranes and exposed to sera from animals with PTB (), healthy animals (), and animals experimentally infected with M. bovis (). This initial screening allowed us to select seven antigens: MAP 2513, MAP 1693, MAP 2020, MAP 0038, MAP 1272, MAP 0209c, and MAP 0210c, which reacted with sera from animals with PTB and showed little cross-reactivity with sera from healthy animals and animals experimentally infected with M. bovis. The second step was to evaluate the antigen cocktail of these seven antigens by ELISA. For this evaluation, we used sera from animals with PTB (), healthy animals (), and animals experimentally infected with M. bovis (). Using ELISA, the cocktail of the seven selected MAP antigens reacted with sera from 18 of the 25 animals with PTB and did not exhibit cross-reactivity with healthy animals and only low reactivity with animals with bovine tuberculosis. The combined application of these antigens could form part of a test which may help in the diagnosis of PTB.
The predictive value of a small consumer panel for coffee-cupper judgment
Arce Alvarado, R.M. ; Linnemann, A.R. - \ 2010
British Food Journal 112 (2010)9. - ISSN 0007-070X - p. 1023 - 1032.
wine - quality - tasters - expert
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether consumers can discriminate coffees in the same way as a professional coffee judge, a cupper, to assess the relevance of cuppers' evaluations for taste differences perceived by consumers. Design/methodology/approach – In total, 23 samples sold in international stores as Tarrazú coffee were bought. A cupper evaluated these samples using the international cupping procedures for the quality attributes aroma, fragrance, body and acidity. Of the 23 samples, five were used in a triangle test carried out by a panel of 12 non-expert consumers to determine if their discriminations matched the expert's judgment. Findings – Results from the cupper gave a high variability of the coffees evaluated. The results of the consumer panel demonstrated that discrimination between coffees by consumers was predicted by acidity differences assessed by the cupper. The same held for body but not necessarily for fragrance and aroma. Originality/value – The paper revealed that discrimination between the coffees by the consumer panel matched the coffee cupper's evaluation differences. The high consistency of the results obtained from the consumer panel underpins that the respondents did not have much difficulty in rating the coffees with the same scores as the professional coffee judge. Thus, differences in coffee quality, notably with respect to acidity, are important to consider in coffee production and marketing as consumers can perceive them and thus use this information when deciding whether or not to buy the product again
Characterization of different groups of elderly according to social engagement activity patterns
Croezen, S. ; Haveman-Nies, A. ; Alvarado, V.J. ; Veer, P. van 't; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2009
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging 13 (2009)9. - ISSN 1279-7707 - p. 776 - 781.
audience segmentation - health - community - integration - population
Objective The aim of this research was to segment older people in subgroups with similar social engagement activity patterns in order to better target public health interventions. Design Cross-sectional data, collected in 2005 by Dutch community health services (response 79%), from 22026 independently living elderly aged 65 or older were used. Cluster analysis was performed to derive subgroups with common social engagement activity patterns, which were compared for their self-perceived health, mental health, physical health, and loneliness. Results Among the independently living older people, five subgroups were identified with different patterns of social engagement activities: less social engaged elderly, less social engaged caregivers, social engaged caregivers, leisure engaged elderly, and productive engaged elderly. The subgroups differed significantly in social engagement activities, socio-demographics, and health (p
Genome sequence and analysis of the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans
Haas, B.J. ; Kamoun, S. ; Zody, M.C. ; Jiang, R.H.Y. ; Handsaker, R.E. ; Cano, L.M. ; Grabherr, M. ; Kodira, C.D. ; Raffaele, S. ; Torto-Alalibo, T. ; Bozkurt, T.O. ; Ah-Fong, A.M.V. ; Alvarado, L. ; Anderson, V.L. ; Armstrong, M.R. ; Avrova, A. ; Baxter, L. ; Beynon, J. ; Boevink, P.C. ; Bollmann, S.R. ; Bos, J.I.B. ; Bulone, V. ; Cai, G. ; Cakir, C. ; Carrington, J.C. ; Chawner, M. ; Conti, L. ; Costanzo, S. ; Ewan, R. ; Fahlgren, N. ; Fischbach, M.A. ; Fugelstad, J. ; Gilroy, E.M. ; Gnerre, S. ; Green, P.J. ; Grenville-Briggs, L.J. ; Griffith, J. ; Grunwald, N.J. ; Horn, K. ; Horner, N.R. ; Hu, C.H. ; Huitema, E. ; Jeong, D.H. ; Jones, A.M.E. ; Jones, J.D.G. ; Jones, R.W. ; Karlsson, E.K. ; Kunjeti, S.G. ; Lamour, K. ; Liu, Z. ; Ma, L. ; Maclean, D. ; Chibucos, M.C. ; McDonald, H. ; McWalters, J. ; Meijer, H.J.G. ; Morgan, W. ; Morris, P.F. ; Munro, C.A. ; O'Neill, K. ; Ospina-Giraldo, M. ; Pinzon, A. ; Pritchard, L. ; Ramsahoye, B. ; Ren, Q. ; Restrepo, S. ; Roy, S. ; Sadanandom, A. ; Savidor, A. ; Schornack, S. ; Schwartz, D.C. ; Schumann, U.D. ; Schwessinger, B. ; Seyer, L. ; Sharpe, T. ; Silvar, C. ; Song, J. ; Studholme, D.J. ; Sykes, S. ; Thines, M. ; Vondervoort, P.J.I. van de; Phuntumart, V. ; Wawra, S. ; Weide, R. ; Win, J. ; Young, C. ; Zhou, S. ; Fry, W. ; Meyers, B.C. ; West, P. van; Ristaino, J. ; Govers, F. ; Birch, P.R.J. ; Whisson, S.C. ; Judelson, H.S. ; Nusbaum, C. - \ 2009
Nature 461 (2009). - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 393 - 398.
effector proteins - rxlr effectors - cell-death - plant - avirulence - avr3a - resistance - infection - genes
Phytophthora infestans is the most destructive pathogen of potato and a model organism for the oomycetes, a distinct lineage of fungus-like eukaryotes that are related to organisms such as brown algae and diatoms. As the agent of the Irish potato famine in the mid-nineteenth century, P. infestans has had a tremendous effect on human history, resulting in famine and population displacement(1). To this day, it affects world agriculture by causing the most destructive disease of potato, the fourth largest food crop and a critical alternative to the major cereal crops for feeding the world's population(1). Current annual worldwide potato crop losses due to late blight are conservatively estimated at $6.7 billion(2). Management of this devastating pathogen is challenged by its remarkable speed of adaptation to control strategies such as genetically resistant cultivars(3,4). Here we report the sequence of the P. infestans genome, which at similar to 240 megabases (Mb) is by far the largest and most complex genome sequenced so far in the chromalveolates. Its expansion results from a proliferation of repetitive DNA accounting for similar to 74% of the genome. Comparison with two other Phytophthora genomes showed rapid turnover and extensive expansion of specific families of secreted disease effector proteins, including many genes that are induced during infection or are predicted to have activities that alter host physiology. These fast-evolving effector genes are localized to highly dynamic and expanded regions of the P. infestans genome. This probably plays a crucial part in the rapid adaptability of the pathogen to host plants and underpins its evolutionary potential.
Ethylene and tropical fruits
Vries, H.S.M. de; Harren, F.J.M. ; Parker, D.H. ; Reuss, J. ; Wasono, M.A.J. ; Muslim, D. ; Acosta-Avalos, J.J. ; Alvarado-Gil, J.J. ; Vargas, H. - \ 1996
In: Proceedings of the EUCARPIA meeting on Tropical Plants, Montpellier, March 11-15 - p. 221 - 225.
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