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Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Genetic Variability of Morphological, Flowering, and Biomass Quality Traits in Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)
    Petit, Jordi ; Salentijn, Elma M.J. ; Paulo, Maria João ; Thouminot, Claire ; Dinter, Bert Jan van; Magagnini, Gianmaria ; Gusovius, Hans Jörg ; Tang, Kailei ; Amaducci, Stefano ; Wang, Shaoliang ; Uhrlaub, Birgit ; Müssig, Jörg ; Trindade, Luisa M. - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Plant Science 11 (2020). - ISSN 1664-462X
    Cannabis sativa - cell wall composition - fiber quality - flowering time - genetic variability - genotype-by-environment (G×E) interactions - hemp - sex determination

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a bast-fiber crop well-known for the great potential to produce sustainable fibers. Nevertheless, hemp fiber quality is a complex trait, and little is known about the phenotypic variability and heritability of fiber quality traits in hemp. The aim of this study is to gain insights into the variability in fiber quality within the hemp germplasm and to estimate the genetic components, environmental components, and genotype-by-environment (G×E) interactions on fiber quality traits in hemp. To investigate these parameters, a panel of 123 hemp accessions was phenotyped for 28 traits relevant to fiber quality at three locations in Europe, corresponding to climates of northern, central, and southern Europe. In general, hemp cultivated in northern latitudes showed a larger plant vigor while earlier flowering was characteristic of plants cultivated in southern latitudes. Extensive variability between accessions was observed for all traits. Most cell wall components (contents of monosaccharides derived from cellulose and hemicellulose; and lignin content), bast fiber content, and flowering traits revealed large genetic components with low G×E interactions and high broad-sense heritability values, making these traits suitable to maximize the genetic gains of fiber quality. In contrast, contents of pectin-related monosaccharides, most agronomic traits, and several fiber traits (fineness and decortication efficiency) showed low genetic components with large G×E interactions affecting the rankings across locations. These results suggest that pectin, agronomic traits, and fiber traits are unsuitable targets in breeding programs of hemp, as their large G×E interactions might lead to unexpected phenotypes in untested locations. Furthermore, all environmental effects on the 28 traits were statistically significant, suggesting a strong adaptive behavior of fiber quality in hemp to specific environments. The high variability in fiber quality observed in the hemp panel, the broad range in heritability, and adaptability among all traits prescribe positive prospects for the development of new hemp cultivars of excellent fiber quality.

    Agrivoltaic systems to optimise land use for electric energy production
    Amaducci, Stefano ; Yin, Xinyou ; Colauzzi, Michele - \ 2018
    Applied Energy 220 (2018). - ISSN 0306-2619 - p. 545 - 561.
    Agrivoltaic - Biogas - Land use efficiency - Maize - Modeling - Photovoltaic panels

    A system combining soil grown crops with photovoltaic panels (PV) installed several meters above the ground is referred to as agrivoltaic systems. In this work a patented agrivoltaic solar tracking system named Agrovoltaico® was examined in combination with a maize crop in a simulation study. To this purpose a software platform was developed coupling a radiation and shading model to the generic crop growth simulator GECROS. The simulation was conducted using a 40-year climate dataset from a location in North Italy, rainfed maize and different Agrovoltaico configurations (that differ according to panel density and sun-tracking set up). Control simulations for an irrigated maize crop under full light were added to results. Reduction of global radiation under the Agrovoltaico system was more affected by panel density (29.5% and 13.4% respectively for double density and single density), than by panel management (23.2% and 20.0% for sun-track and static panels, respectively). Radiation reduction, under Agrovoltaico, affected mean soil temperature, evapotranspiration and soil water balance, on average providing more favorable conditions for plant growth than in full light. As a consequence, in rainfed conditions, average grain yield was higher and more stable under agrivoltaic than under full light. The advantage of growing maize in the shade of Agrovoltaico increased proportionally to drought stress, which indicates that agrivoltaic systems could increase crop resilience to climate change. The benefit of producing renewable energy with Agrovoltaico was assessed using the Land Equivalent Ratio, comparing the electric energy produced by Agrovoltaico cultivated with biogas maize to that produced by a combination of conventional ground mounted PV systems and biogas maize in monoculture. Land Equivalent Ratio was always above 1, it increased with panel density and it was higher with sun tracking than with static panels. The best Agrivoltaico scenario produced twice as much energy, per unit area, as the combination of ground mounted PV systems and biogas maize in monoculture. For this Agrivoltaico can be considered a valuable system to produce renewable energy on farm without negatively affecting land productivity.

    Water-and nitrogen-use efficiencies of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) based on whole-canopy measurements and modeling
    Tang, Kailei ; Fracasso, Alessandra ; Struik, Paul C. ; Yin, Xinyou ; Amaducci, Stefano - \ 2018
    Frontiers in Plant Science 9 (2018). - ISSN 1664-462X
    Cannabis sativa L. - Canopy gas exchange - Hemp - Nitrogen use efficiency - Water use efficiency

    Interest in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) as a crop for the biobased economy is growing worldwide because hemp produces a high and valuable biomass while requiring low inputs. To understand the physiological basis of hemp’s resource-use efficiency, canopy gas exchange was assessed using a chamber technique on canopies exposed to a range of nitrogen (N) and water levels. Since canopy transpiration and carbon assimilation were very sensitive to variations in microclimate among canopy chambers, observations were adjusted for microclimatic differences using a physiological canopy model, with leaf-level parameters estimated for hemp from our previous study. Canopy photosynthetic water-use efficiency (PWUEc), defined as the ratio of gross canopy photosynthesis to canopy transpiration, ranged from 4.0 mmol CO2 (mol H2 O)−1 to 7.5 mmol CO2 (mol H2 O)−1. Canopy photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUEc), the ratio of the gross canopy photosynthesis to canopy leaf-N content, ranged from 0.3mol CO2 d−1 (g N)−1 to 0.7mol CO2 d−1 (g N)−1. The effect of N-input levels on PWUEc and PNUEc was largely determined by the N effect on canopy size or leaf area index (LAI), whereas the effect of water-input levels differed between short-and long-term stresses. The effect of short-term water stress was reflected by stomatal regulation. The long-term stress increased leaf senescence, decreased LAI but retained total canopy N content; however, the increased average leaf-N could not compensate for the lost LAI, leading to a decreased PNUEc. Although hemp is known as a resource-use efficient crop, its final biomass yield and nitrogen use efficiency may be restricted by water limitation during growth. Our results also suggest that crop models should take stress-induced senescence into account in addition to stomatal effects if crops experience a prolonged water stress during growth.

    Agronomy and photosynthesis physiology of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)
    Tang, Kailei - \ 2018
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): P.C. Struik, co-promotor(en): X. Yin; S. Amaducci. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438841 - 174

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a sustainable high-yielding crop that delivers valuable fibres, seeds and psychoactive substances. However, there is a lack of field experimental data on the cultivation of hemp because its production was largely abandoned in the last century. Hemp is now considered as an ideal crop to produce innovative biomaterials, and in particular, the dual-purpose hemp production (fibre + seed) is now the norm in European countries, driven by the shift of a rapidly expanding market for hemp seeds coupled with lower quality fibre requirements for innovative biomaterials. This study brought new information on the agronomy and photosynthesis physiology for the resurging production of hemp, particularly for dual-purpose production in Europe.

    The effects of important agronomic factors, i.e. cultivar, planting density, and nitrogen fertilization, on the performance of the hemp crop were investigated under contrasting European environments. Based on the experimental data, for dual-purpose hemp production, a planting density of 90–150 plants m-2 is recommended for a monoecious cultivar that gives a long vegetative phase while leaving enough time for seed growth. A nitrogen fertilization rate of 60 kg N ha-1 was generally sufficient in the tested environments whereas further optimization of nitrogen fertilization requires accurate and precise assessment of plant nutritional status. To facilitate assessing plant nutritional status, a critical nitrogen dilution curve was determined for hemp.

    The responses of leaf photosynthesis to nitrogen content and temperature were quantified using a biochemical model of C3 leaf photosynthesis, based on a complete set of photosynthetic measurements for hemp leaves. Then, by combining measurements and modelling, an upscaling was made from the leaf to the canopy level to analyse hemp’s photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) and water-use efficiency (WUE) in response to water and nitrogen supply. The effect of nitrogen supply level on hemp’s NUE and WUE was largely determined by its effect on canopy size or leaf area index (LAI). The effect of short-term water stress on WUE and NUE was reflected in the stomatal regulation, whereas long-term water stress enhanced leaf senescence, reduced LAI but retained total canopy nitrogen content, and thus resulted in a further increase in WUE.

    Findings in this thesis provided an improved understanding of the agronomy and photosynthesis physiology of hemp, particularly in relation to the dual-purpose production of hemp in Europe. Such understanding not only provides additional evidence that hemp can be grown as a sustainable crop over a wide range of climatic and agronomic conditions, but also provides essential information for parameterizing crop growth models. Prospects for further research were discussed in view of using the findings in this thesis in combination with a crop growth model to develop strategies for optimization of hemp cultivation and breeding.

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) leaf photosynthesis in relation to nitrogen content and temperature : implications for hemp as a bio-economically sustainable crop
    Tang, Kailei ; Struik, Paul C. ; Amaducci, Stefano ; Stomph, Tjeerd Jan ; Yin, Xinyou - \ 2017
    Global change biology Bioenergy 9 (2017)10. - ISSN 1757-1693 - p. 1573 - 1587.
    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) - model - nitrogen - photosynthesis - sustainable crop - temperature

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) may be a suitable crop for the bio-economy as it requires low inputs while producing a high and valuable biomass yield. With the aim of understanding the physiological basis of hemp's high resource-use efficiency and yield potential, photosynthesis was analysed on leaves exposed to a range of nitrogen and temperature levels. Light-saturated net photosynthesis rate (Amax) increased with an increase in leaf nitrogen up to 31.2 ± 1.9 μmol m−2 s−1 at 25 °C. The Amax initially increased with an increase in leaf temperature (TL), levelled off at 25–35 °C and decreased when TL became higher than 35 °C. Based on a C3 leaf photosynthesis model, we estimated mesophyll conductance (gm), efficiency of converting incident irradiance into linear electron transport under limiting light (κ2 LL), linear electron transport capacity (Jmax), Rubisco carboxylation capacity (Vcmax), triose phosphate utilization capacity (Tp) and day respiration (Rd), using data obtained from gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements at different leaf positions and various levels of incident irradiance, CO2 and O2. The effects of leaf nitrogen and temperature on photosynthesis parameters were consistent at different leaf positions and among different growth environments except for κ2 LL, which was higher for plants grown in the glasshouse than for those grown outdoors. Model analysis showed that compared with cotton and kenaf, hemp has higher photosynthetic capacity when leaf nitrogen is <2.0 g N m−2. The high photosynthetic capacity measured in this study, especially at low nitrogen level, provides additional evidence that hemp can be grown as a sustainable bioenergy crop over a wide range of climatic and agronomic conditions.

    A comprehensive study of planting density and nitrogen fertilization effect on dual-purpose hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivation
    Tang, K. ; Struik, P.C. ; Yin, X. ; Calzolari, D. ; Musio, S. ; Thouminot, C. ; Bjelková, M. ; Stramkale, V. ; Magagnini, G. ; Amaducci, S. - \ 2017
    Industrial Crops and Products 107 (2017). - ISSN 0926-6690 - p. 427 - 438.
    Critical dilution curve - Density - Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) - Nitrogen - Seed - Stem

    Harvesting hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) for both stems and seeds is now a common practice in Europe while crop management strategies for dual-purpose hemp cultivation have not been properly addressed so far. In the present study, the effects of planting density and nitrogen fertilization on hemp stem and seed yields were tested with the cultivars Futura 75 and/or Bialobrzeskie in eight contrasting environments (Italy in 2013; Italy and Latvia in 2014; Italy (two sites), Latvia, the Czech Republic, and France in 2015). Stem yield ranged between 1.3 and 22.3Mgha-1. The effects of planting density and nitrogen fertilization on stem yield did not interact significantly with each other, or with cultivar and harvest time. Increasing planting density from 30 to 120 plants m-2 and increasing nitrogen fertilization rate from 0 to 60kgNha-1 increased stem yield by 29% and 32%, respectively. Further increase in planting density and nitrogen fertilization did not result in a significant increase in stem yield. Seed yield ranged from 0.3 to 2.1Mgha-1. The seed yield was not affected significantly by planting density between 30 and 240 plants m-2. Although the seed yield showed an increasing trend with increasing nitrogen fertilization, the effects of nitrogen fertilization on seed yield were not statistically significant.To grow hemp as a dual-purpose crop it is recommended to plant 90-150 plants m-2 across all tested environments. Nitrogen fertilization rate at 60kg N ha-1 was generally sufficient in the tested environments whereas further optimization of nitrogen fertilization requires accurate assessment of plant nitrogen status. To facilitate assessing plant nutritional status, a critical nitrogen dilution curve was determined for hemp and a practical method to determine nitrogen nutritional status was discussed.

    Drought stress tolerance strategies revealed by RNA-Seq in two sorghum genotypes contrasting for WUE
    Fracasso, Alessandra ; Trindade, L.M. ; Amaducci, Stefano - \ 2016
    Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore
    Sorghum bicolor - GSE80699 - PRJNA319738
    Background: Drought stress is the major environmental stress that affects plant growth and productivity. It triggers in plants a wide range of responses detectable at different scales: molecular, biochemical and physiological levels. At the molecular level the response to drought stress results in the differential expression of several metabolic pathways. For this reason, explore the subtle differences existing in gene expression of drought sensitive and drought tolerant genotypes allows to identify drought-related genes that could be used for selection of drought tolerance traits. Genome-wide RNA-Seq technology was used to compare the drought response of two sorghum genotypes characterized by contrasting water use efficiency. Results: the physiological measurements carried out confirmed the drought sensitivity of IS20351 and the drought tolerance of IS22330 previously studied. The expression of drought-related genes was more abundant in the sensitive genotype IS20351 compared to the tolerant IS22330. The Gene Ontology enrichment highlighted a massive increase in transcript abundance in “response to stress” and “abiotic stimulus”, “oxidation-reduction reaction” in the sensitive genotype IS20351 under drought stress. “Antioxidant” and “secondary metabolism”, “photosynthesis and carbon fixation process”, “lipids” and “carbon metabolism” were the pathways most affected by drought in the sensitive genotype IS20351. The sensitive genotype IS20351 showed under well-watered conditions a lower constitutive expression level of “secondary metabolic process” (GO:0019748) and “glutathione transferase activity” (GO:000004364). Conclusions: RNA-Seq analysis revealed to be a very useful tool to explore differences between sensitive and tolerant sorghum genotypes. The transcriptomic results supported all the physiological measurements and were crucial to clarify the tolerance of the two genotypes studied. The connection between the differential gene expression and the physiological response to drought states unequivocally the drought tolerance of the genotype IS22330 and the strategy adopted to cope with drought stress.
    Drought stress tolerance strategies revealed by RNA-Seq in two sorghum genotypes with contrasting WUE
    Fracasso, Alessandra ; Trindade, Luisa M. ; Amaducci, Stefano - \ 2016
    BMC Plant Biology 16 (2016)1. - ISSN 1471-2229
    Drought stress - Drought tolerance - RNA-Seq - Sorghum bicolor - Water Use Efficiency

    Background: Drought stress is the major environmental stress that affects plant growth and productivity. It triggers a wide range of responses detectable at molecular, biochemical and physiological levels. At the molecular level the response to drought stress results in the differential expression of several metabolic pathways. For this reason, exploring the subtle differences in gene expression of drought sensitive and drought tolerant genotypes enables the identification of drought-related genes that could be used for selection of drought tolerance traits. Genome-wide RNA-Seq technology was used to compare the drought response of two sorghum genotypes characterized by contrasting water use efficiency. Results: The physiological measurements carried out confirmed the drought sensitivity of IS20351 and the drought tolerance of IS22330 genotypes, as previously studied. The expression of drought-related genes was more abundant in the drought sensitive genotype IS20351 compared to the tolerant genotype IS22330. Under drought stress Gene Ontology enrichment highlighted a massive increase in transcript abundance in the sensitive genotype IS20351 in "response to stress" and "abiotic stimulus", as well as for "oxidation-reduction reaction". "Antioxidant" and "secondary metabolism", "photosynthesis and carbon fixation process", "lipids" and "carbon metabolism" were the pathways most affected by drought in the sensitive genotype IS20351. In addition, genotype IS20351 showed a lower constitutive expression level of "secondary metabolic process" (GO:0019748) and "glutathione transferase activity" (GO:000004364) under well-watered conditions. Conclusions: RNA-Seq analysis proved to be a very useful tool to explore differences between sensitive and tolerant sorghum genotypes. Transcriptomics analysis results supported all the physiological measurements and were essential to clarify the tolerance of the two genotypes studied. The connection between differential gene expression and physiological response to drought unequivocally revealed the drought tolerance of genotype IS22330 and the strategy adopted to cope with drought stress.

    Comparing hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivars for dual-purpose production under contrasting environments
    Tang, Kailei ; Struik, P.C. ; Yin, X. ; Thouminot, C. ; Bjelková, M. ; Stramkale, V. ; Amaducci, S. - \ 2016
    Industrial Crops and Products 87 (2016). - ISSN 0926-6690 - p. 33 - 44.
    Cultivar - Fibre - Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) - Modelling - Phenology - Seed

    Interest in hemp as a multi-purpose crop is growing worldwide and for the first time in 2015 it was cultivated in Europe on more than 20.000 ha as a dual-purpose crop, for the seeds and for the fibre. In the present study, fibre and seed productivity of 14 commercial cultivars were tested in four contrasting European environments (Latvia, the Czech Republic, France, Italy). At full flowering, the stem yield ranged from 3.7 Mg ha-1 to 22.7 Mg ha-1, the bast fibre content ranged from 21% to 43%, and the bast fibre yield ranged from 1.3 Mg ha-1 to 7.4 Mg ha-1. When harvesting was postponed from full flowering until seed maturity, the stem yield of monoecious cultivars significantly increased but in dioecious cultivars it decreased at all tested sites, except for Italy. Only the early cultivars Fedora 17 and Markant produced seed in the most northern location Latvia. The seed yield ranged from 0.3 Mg ha-1 to 2.4 Mg ha-1 in Italy, France and the Czech Republic. The cultivar effect on stem and seed yield was mainly determined by the genetic variation in time of flowering. Stem yield at full flowering was strictly related to the duration of the vegetative phase while seed yield was lowest in the late flowering cultivar. The late cultivar CS is suitable for stem and fibre production as it had the highest stem yield at full flowering in all locations. Both Fedora 17 and Futura 75 are candidate cultivars for dual-purpose production in Italy, France and the Czech Republic, with Fedora 17 being more suitable for seed production and Futura 75 for fibre production.The application of modelling to design production strategies for dual-purpose hemp is promising. However, accurate parameterisation is needed based on large data sets and diverse genetic background.

    Drought tolerance strategies highlighted by two Sorghum bicolor races in a dry-down experiment
    Fracasso, Alessandra ; Trindade, Luisa ; Amaducci, Stefano - \ 2016
    Journal of Plant Physiology 190 (2016). - ISSN 0176-1617 - p. 1 - 14.
    Chlorophyll fluorescence - Drought stress - Gas exchange - qRT-PCR - Sorghum bicolor (Moench) - Tolerance indices

    Drought stress is the major environmental stress that affects more and more frequently plant growth and productivity due to the current climate change scenario. Unravelling the physiological mechanism underlying the response of plants to water stress and discover traits related to drought tolerance provide new and powerful tools for the selection in breeding programmes. Four genotypes of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench were screened in a dry-down experiment using different approaches to discover physiological and molecular indicators of drought tolerance.Different strategies were identified in response to drought among the four genotypes and the two Sorghum race allowing to state the tolerance of durra race compared to the caudatum one and, within the durra race, the drought tolerance of the genotype IS22330. It retained high biomass production and high tolerance index, it had a low threshold of fraction of transpirable soil water and high capacity to recover leaf apparatus after drought stress. Furthermore in this study, the expression levels of four genes highlighted that they could be used as proxy for drought tolerance. Dehdrine (DHN) could be used for screening drought tolerance both in durra and in caudatum races. NADP-Malic Enzyme, Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) and Plasma membrane Intrinsic Protein (PIP2-5), being up-regulated by drought stress only in durra race, have a more limited, though nonetheless useful application. In the tolerant durra genotype IS22330 in particular, the regulation of stomatal openings was strongly related to NADP-Malic Enzyme expression.

    New developments in fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) breeding
    Salentijn, E.M.J. ; Zhang, Qingying ; Amaducci, Stefano ; Yang, Ming ; Trindade, L.M. - \ 2015
    Industrial Crops and Products 68 (2015). - ISSN 0926-6690 - p. 32 - 41.
    Breeding - Fiber quality - Genetics - Hemp

    Fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a sustainable and high yielding industrial crop that can help to meet the high global demand for fibers. Hemp can be grown for fiber, seeds, and/or for dual purpose in a wide range of geographic zones and climates. Currently the main hemp producing regions in the world are China, Europe, and Canada. The number of new cultivars developed for each of these regions has gradually increased, with each region producing its own typical hemp cultivars for different purposes. In this article, the state of the art of fiber hemp breeding programs in Europe, China, and Canada are reviewed. The breeding strategies and tools used in the breeding of hemp cultivars are discussed. We also provide an overview of genetic diversity in hemp for different traits. In addition, the current knowledge of the main breeding goals for fiber hemp, which are an improvement of fiber quality and fiber yield, breeding for specific cannabinoid profiles, control of flowering behavior, male flowering control, and breeding of cultivars for specific environments are evaluated. Lastly, we discuss the inestimable value of next generation technologies to breed new hemp cultivars that are suitable for a biobased economy.

    Evaluation of a phenological model for strategic decisions for hemp (Cannabis Sativa L.) biomass production across European sites
    Amaducci, S. ; Colauzzi, M. ; Bellocchi, G. ; Cosentino, S.L. ; Pahkala, K. ; Stomph, T.J. ; Westerhuis, W. ; Zatta, A. ; Venturi, G. - \ 2012
    Industrial Crops and Products 37 (2012)1. - ISSN 0926-6690 - p. 100 - 110.
    flowering response - industrial hemp - growth stage - water-stress - fiber - temperature - quality - yield - time - components
    The optimal combination of yield and quality of hemp fibres from field grown crops is around flowering. Therefore prediction of flowering time would support in planning production and optimization of the cultivar choice for different agro-ecological zones. In the current paper the validation of a recently published model (Amaducci et al., 2008a) is carried out for four varieties across a wide range of sites and thus of air temperature–photoperiod combinations. The model was evaluated by comparing its output to field observations of the duration between emergence and 50% flowering. The model output and observed times from emergence to 50% of flowering generally corresponded well, but some discrepancies were apparent. The biggest discrepancies between estimates and actual data were observed at extreme latitudes. The level of accuracy of the model predictions is satisfactory for strategic decision regarding sowing and harvesting time and cultivar choice, but tactical decisions (e.g. time of harvest based on flowering time) cannot be accurately supported
    Sowing density and harvest time affect fibre content in hemp (Cannabis sativa) through their effects on stem weight
    Westerhuis, W. ; Amaducci, S. ; Struik, P.C. ; Zatta, A. ; Dam, J.E.G. van; Stomph, T.J. - \ 2009
    Annals of Applied Biology 155 (2009)2. - ISSN 0003-4746 - p. 225 - 244.
    nitrogen-fertilization - plant-density - yield - quality - l. - cultivar
    Sowing density and harvest time are considered important crop management factors influencing fibre quantity and quality in hemp (Cannabis sativa). We investigated whether the effects of these factors are essentially different or that both factors affect stem weight and thereby total and long-fibre content. The effects of all combinations of three sowing densities and three harvest times were studied for six different stem parts. Almost 500 samples consisting of stem parts from 50 plants and with a length of 50 cm were tested. Fibres were extracted by a controlled warm-water retting procedure, followed by breaking and scutching. The initial sample weight was fractionated into retting losses, wood, tow and long fibre. In both Italy and the Netherlands, crops were successfully established with different stem densities (99–283 m-2), plant heights (146–211 cm) and stem diameters (4.5–8.4 mm) at harvest. Stem dry matter yields (6.8–11.7 Mg ha-1) increased with a delay in harvest time but were not affected by sowing density. Retting loss percentages were lower in lower stem parts and decreased with later harvest because maturation was associated with increasing amounts of fibre and wood. Within a certain stem part, however, the absolute retting losses were constant with harvest time. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that the amount of fibre in a hemp stem is almost completely determined by the weight and the position of that stem part. When the plant grows, the increase in dry matter is split up into fibres and wood in a fixed way. This total fibre/wood ratio was highest in the middle part of the stem and lower towards both bottom and top. Sowing density and harvest time effects were indirect through stem weight. The long-fibre weight per stem increased with the total fibre weight and hence with stem weight. Stem weight increased with harvest time; as harvest time did not affect plant density, the highest long-fibre yields were obtained at the last harvest time. The long fibre/total fibre ratio was lowest in the bottom 5 cm of the stems but similar for all other parts. Sowing density and harvest time effects again were indirect. Fibre percentages in retted hemp decreased with increasing stem weights towards a level that is presumably a variety characteristic. The dry matter increase between harvests, however, is much more important with respect to total and long-fibre yield
    Plant morphology and fibre quality as affected by plant population in hemp for fibre production
    Amaducci, S. ; Errani, M. ; Struik, P.C. ; Terhürne, A. ; Venturi, G. - \ 2001
    In: Proceedings of the Second Global Workshop Bast plants in the New Millennium, 3-6 June 2001, Borovets, Bulgaria Poznan : - p. 256 - 263.
    Optimising cultivation techniques and fibre processing to improve yield and quality of hemp fibre
    Amaducci, S. ; Errani, M. ; Struik, P.C. ; Terhürne, A. ; Venturi, A. - \ 2001
    In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Bast fibrous plants on the turn of second and third millennium, Shenyang City, China 2001 Poznan : - p. 7 - 7.
    Agronomy of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)
    Struik, P.C. ; Amaducci, S. ; Bullard, M.J. ; Stutterheim, N.C. ; Venturi, G. ; Cromack, H.T.H. - \ 2000
    Industrial Crops and Products 11 (2000). - ISSN 0926-6690 - p. 2 - 3.
    Crop yield and quality parameters of 4 annual fibre crops (Hemp, Kenaf, Maize and Sorghum) in the North of Italy
    Amaducci, S. ; Amaducci, M.T. ; Benati, R. ; Venturi, G. - \ 2000
    Industrial Crops and Products 11 (2000). - ISSN 0926-6690 - p. 2 - 3.
    Four fibre crops (hemp, kenaf, maize and sorghum) considered amongst the most suitable for the conditions of Northern Italy were compared in 1995 and 1997, over two irrigation regimes (rainfed conditions and restoration of 100␎Tp) and in two locations (Bologna and Milano). Three harvests were carried out on each crop at different development stages. At each harvest time data on yield and yield components were collected. Sub-samples of stems of each crop and at each harvest time were analysed following the Van Soest method. On average, fibre sorghum proved to be the higher yielding crop. It produced 26.2 Mg ha−1 of total dry matter of which 18.1 Mg ha−1 was partitioned to the stems. Fibre maize produced more total dry matter than kenaf (19.0 Mg–15.7 Mg ha−1) but dry matter accumulated to stems was higher in kenaf (10.8 and 13.4 Mg ha−1). On average, fibre hemp yielded 14.0 Mg ha−1 of total dry matter and 10.9 Mg ha−1 of stems. This result was highly affected by the low hemp production in Bologna in 1995, where unfavourable conditions, in the first phases of cultivation, resulted in a stunted establishment of the crop (18.7 Mg ha−1 of total dry matter in Milano and only 8.3 Mg ha−1 of total dry matter in Bologna). On all crops, irrigation produced a slight increase in total biomass (7€and in stem dry matter (9€compared to the rainfed condition. In both locations, yield increase due to irrigation was larger in maize and kenaf, than in hemp while, in 1995, it caused a severe lodging on sorghum. The four species proved to be different for growth rates, patterns of development and particularly for cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin content of stems. Cellulose content varied between 56–66␘f stem dry matter in hemp, 46–57␒n kenaf, 35–45␒n maize and 39–47␒n sorghum. As harvest time was delayed, cellulose content tended to increase for hemp and kenaf while it decrease for sorghum and maize. Hemicellulose content of hemp and kenaf stems varied between 16–19°while it varied between 26–29␒n sorghum and maize. Hemicellulose content decreased with irrigation and with delay in harvest time. Lignin content in hemp stem ranged between 8 and 13°it was 6.9␒n kenaf and maize, and ca 8␒n sorghum.
    Quantified framework for hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) production throughout Europe as tool to fine-tune crop component quantity and quality
    Stutterheim, N.C. ; Amaducci, S. ; Gorchs Altarriba, S. ; Sankari, H. - \ 1999
    In: 6th Symposium on Renewable Resources and 4th European Symposium on Industrial Crops and Products. - Münster : Landwirtschaft Verlag, 1999. - (Schriftenreihe 'Nachwachsende Rohstoffe', Band 14.) - ISBN 3-7843-3019-3 - p. 337 - 341.
    Physical and economical bioresource production assessment of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)
    Stutterheim, N.C. ; Amaducci, S. - \ 1999
    In: Abstract in: Cost 814 Crop development for the cool and wet regions of Europe. Workshop Alternative crops for sustainable agriculture, 13-15 June, Turku, Finland - p. 71 - 71.
    Agronomy of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in Europe
    Struik, P.C. ; Amaducci, S. ; Bullard, M.J. ; Stutterheim, N.C. ; Venturi, G. ; Cromack, H.T.H. - \ 1999
    In: 6th Symposium on Renewable Resources and 4th European Symposium on Industrial Crops and Products. - Münster : Landwirtschaft Verlag, 1999. - (Schriftenreihe'Nachwachsende Rohstoffe', Band 14.) - ISBN 3-7843-3019-3 - p. 318 - 323.
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