Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Genome-Wide association studies in apple reveal loci for aroma volatiles, sugar composition, and harvest Date
Larsen, Bjarne ; Migicovsky, Zoë ; Jeppesen, Anne Aae ; Gardner, Kyle M. ; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo ; Myles, Sean ; Ørgaard, Marian ; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin ; Pedersen, Carsten - \ 2019
The Plant Genome 12 (2019)2. - ISSN 1940-3372

Understanding the genetic architecture of fruit quality traits is crucial to target breeding of apple (Malus domestica L.) cultivars. We linked genotype and phenotype information by combining genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) generated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers with fruit flavor volatile data, sugar and acid content, and historical trait data from a gene bank collection. Using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of apple juice samples, we identified 49 fruit volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We found a very variable content of VOCs, especially for the esters, among 149 apple cultivars. We identified convincing associations for the acetate esters especially butyl acetate and hexyl acetate on chromosome 2 in a region of several alcohol acyl-transferases including AAT1. For sucrose content and for fructose and sucrose in percentage of total sugars, we revealed significant SNP associations. Here, we suggest a vacuolar invertase close to significant SNPs for this association as candidate gene. Harvest date was in strong SNP association with a NAC transcription factor gene and sequencing identified two haplotypes associated with harvest date. The study shows that SNP marker characterization of a gene bank collection can be successfully combined with new and historical trait data for association studies. Suggested candidate genes may contribute to an improved understanding of the genetic basis for important traits and simultaneously provide tools for targeted breeding using marker-assisted selection (MAS).

Selection and gene flow shape niche-associated variation in pheromone response
Lee, Daehan ; Zdraljevic, Stefan ; Cook, Daniel E. ; Frézal, Lise ; Hsu, Jung-Chen ; Sterken, Mark G. ; Riksen, Joost A.G. ; Wang, John ; Kammenga, Jan E. ; Braendle, Christian ; Félix, Marie-Anne ; Schroeder, Frank C. ; Andersen, Erik C. - \ 2019
Nature Ecology & Evolution 3 (2019). - ISSN 2397-334X - p. 1455 - 1463.
From quorum sensing in bacteria to pheromone signalling in social insects, chemical communication mediates interactions among individuals in local populations. In Caenorhabditis elegans, ascaroside pheromones can dictate local population density; high levels of pheromones inhibit the reproductive maturation of individuals. Little is known about how natural genetic diversity affects the pheromone responses of individuals from diverse habitats. Here, we show that a niche-associated variation in pheromone receptor genes contributes to natural differences in pheromone responses. We identified putative loss-of-function deletions that impair duplicated pheromone receptor genes (srg-36 and srg-37), which were previously shown to be lost in population-dense laboratory cultures. A common natural deletion in srg-37 arose recently from a single ancestral population that spread throughout the world; this deletion underlies reduced pheromone sensitivity across the global C. elegans population. We found that many local populations harbour individuals with a wild-type or a deletion allele of srg-37, suggesting that balancing selection has maintained the recent variation in this pheromone receptor gene. The two srg-37 genotypes are associated with niche diversity underlying boom-and-bust population dynamics. We hypothesize that human activities likely contributed to the gene flow and balancing selection of srg-37 variation through facilitating the migration of species and providing a favourable niche for the recently arisen srg-37 deletion.

Efficiency of insect-proof net tunnels in reducing virus-related seed degeneration in sweet potato
Ogero, K.O. ; Kreuze, J.F. ; McEwan, M.A. ; Luambano, N.D. ; Bachwenkizi, H. ; Garrett, K.A. ; Andersen, K.F. ; Thomas-Sharma, S. ; Vlugt, R.A.A. van der - \ 2019
Plant Pathology 68 (2019)8. - ISSN 0032-0862 - p. 1472 - 1480.
farmer-multiplier - modelling - net tunnels - seed - sweet potato - virus-related degeneration

Virus-related degeneration constrains production of quality sweet potato seed, especially under open field conditions. Once in the open, virus-indexed seed is prone to virus infection leading to decline in performance. Insect-proof net tunnels have been proven to reduce virus infection under researcher management. However, their effectiveness under farmer-multiplier management is not known. This study investigated the ability of net tunnels to reduce degeneration in sweet potato under farmer-multiplier management. Infection and degeneration were assessed for two cultivars, Kabode and Polista, grown in net tunnels and open fields at two sites with varying virus pressures. There was zero virus incidence at both sites during the first five generations. Sweet potato feathery mottle virus and sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus were present in the last three generations, occurring singly or in combination to form sweet potato virus disease. Virus infection increased successively, with higher incidences recorded at the high virus pressure site. Seed degeneration modelling illustrated that for both varieties, degeneration was reduced by the maintenance of vines under net tunnel conditions. The time series of likely degeneration based on a generic model of yield loss suggested that, under the conditions experienced during the experimental period, infection and losses within the net tunnels would be limited. By comparison, in the open field most of the yield could be lost after a small number of generations without the input of seed with lower disease incidence. Adopting the technology at the farmer-multiplier level can increase availability of clean seed, particularly in high virus pressure areas.

The role of self-control and the presence of enactment models on sugar-sweetened beverage consumption: A pilot study
Wenzel, Mario ; Geelen, Anouk ; Wolters, Maike ; Hebestreit, Antje ; Laerhoven, Kristof Van; Lakerveld, Jeroen ; Andersen, Lene Frost ; van't Veer, Pieter ; Kubiak, Thomas - \ 2019
Frontiers in Psychology 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-1078
Diet - Ecological momentary assessment - Self-control - Social norms - Sugar-sweetened beverages

The objective of the present research was to investigate associations of dispositional and momentary self-control and the presence of other individuals consuming SSBs with the consumption frequency of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in a multi-country pilot study. We conducted an Ambulatory Assessment in which 75 university students (52 females) from four study sites carried smartphones and received prompts six times a day in their everyday environments to capture information regarding momentary self-control and the presence of other individuals consuming SSBs. Multilevel models revealed a statistically significant negative association between dispositional self-control and SSB consumption. Moreover, having more self-control than usual was only beneficial in regard to lower SSB consumption frequency, when other individuals consuming SSBs were not present but not when they were present. The findings support the hypothesis that self-control is an important factor regarding SSB consumption. This early evidence highlights self-control as a candidate to design interventions to promote healthier drinking through improved self-control.

Microbial evolutionary medicine: from theory to clinical practice
Andersen, Sandra B. ; Shapiro, B.J. ; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina ; Vos, Marjon G.J. de - \ 2019
The Lancet Infectious Diseases 19 (2019)8. - ISSN 1473-3099 - p. e273 - e283.

Medicine and clinical microbiology have traditionally attempted to identify and eliminate the agents that cause disease. However, this traditional approach is becoming inadequate for dealing with a changing disease landscape. Major challenges to human health are non-communicable chronic diseases, often driven by altered immunity and inflammation, and communicable infections from agents which harbour antibiotic resistance. This Review focuses on the so-called evolutionary medicine framework, to study how microbial communities influence human health. The evolutionary medicine framework aims to predict and manipulate microbial effects on human health by integrating ecology, evolutionary biology, microbiology, bioinformatics, and clinical expertise. We focus on the potential of evolutionary medicine to address three key challenges: detecting microbial transmission, predicting antimicrobial resistance, and understanding microbe–microbe and human–microbe interactions in health and disease, in the context of the microbiome.

Impact of maternal body mass index and gestational weight gain on pregnancy complications: an individual participant data meta-analysis of European, North American and Australian cohorts
Santos, S. ; Voerman, E. ; Amiano, P. ; Barros, H. ; Beilin, L.J. ; Bergström, A. ; Charles, M.A. ; Chatzi, L. ; Chevrier, C. ; Chrousos, G.P. ; Corpeleijn, E. ; Costa, O. ; Costet, N. ; Crozier, S. ; Devereux, G. ; Doyon, M. ; Eggesbø, M. ; Fantini, M.P. ; Farchi, S. ; Forastiere, F. ; Georgiu, V. ; Godfrey, K.M. ; Gori, D. ; Grote, V. ; Hanke, W. ; Hertz-Picciotto, I. ; Heude, B. ; Hivert, M.F. ; Hryhorczuk, D. ; Huang, R.C. ; Inskip, H. ; Karvonen, A.M. ; Kenny, L.C. ; Koletzko, B. ; Küpers, L.K. ; Lagström, H. ; Lehmann, I. ; Magnus, P. ; Majewska, R. ; Mäkelä, J. ; Manios, Y. ; McAuliffe, F.M. ; McDonald, S.W. ; Mehegan, J. ; Melén, E. ; Mommers, M. ; Morgen, C.S. ; Moschonis, G. ; Murray, D. ; Ní Chaoimh, C. ; Nohr, E.A. ; Nybo Andersen, A.M. ; Oken, E. ; Oostvogels, A.J.J.M. ; Pac, A. ; Papadopoulou, E. ; Pekkanen, J. ; Pizzi, C. ; Polanska, K. ; Porta, D. ; Richiardi, L. ; Rifas-Shiman, S.L. ; Roeleveld, N. ; Ronfani, L. ; Santos, A.C. ; Standl, M. ; Stigum, H. ; Stoltenberg, C. ; Thiering, E. ; Thijs, C. ; Torrent, M. ; Tough, S.C. ; Trnovec, T. ; Turner, S. ; Gelder, M.M.H.J. van; Rossem, L. van; Berg, A. von; Vrijheid, M. ; Vrijkotte, T.G.M. ; West, J. ; Wijga, A.H. ; Wright, J. ; Zvinchuk, O. ; Sørensen, T.I.A. ; Lawlor, D.A. ; Gaillard, R. ; Jaddoe, V.W.V. - \ 2019
BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology 126 (2019)8. - ISSN 1470-0328 - p. 984 - 995.
Birthweight - body mass index - pregnancy complications - preterm birth - weight gain

Objective: To assess the separate and combined associations of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain with the risks of pregnancy complications and their population impact. Design: Individual participant data meta-analysis of 39 cohorts. Setting: Europe, North America, and Oceania. Population: 265 270 births. Methods: Information on maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, and pregnancy complications was obtained. Multilevel binary logistic regression models were used. Main outcome measures: Gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, preterm birth, small and large for gestational age at birth. Results: Higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain were, across their full ranges, associated with higher risks of gestational hypertensive disorders, gestational diabetes, and large for gestational age at birth. Preterm birth risk was higher at lower and higher BMI and weight gain. Compared with normal weight mothers with medium gestational weight gain, obese mothers with high gestational weight gain had the highest risk of any pregnancy complication (odds ratio 2.51, 95% CI 2.31– 2.74). We estimated that 23.9% of any pregnancy complication was attributable to maternal overweight/obesity and 31.6% of large for gestational age infants was attributable to excessive gestational weight gain. Conclusions: Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain are, across their full ranges, associated with risks of pregnancy complications. Obese mothers with high gestational weight gain are at the highest risk of pregnancy complications. Promoting a healthy pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain may reduce the burden of pregnancy complications and ultimately the risk of maternal and neonatal morbidity. Tweetable abstract: Promoting a healthy body mass index and gestational weight gain might reduce the population burden of pregnancy complications.

Association of Gestational Weight Gain With Adverse Maternal and Infant Outcomes
Voerman, Ellis ; Santos, Susana ; Inskip, Hazel ; Amiano, Pilar ; Barros, Henrique ; Charles, Marie Aline ; Chatzi, Leda ; Chrousos, George P. ; Corpeleijn, Eva ; Crozier, Sarah ; Doyon, Myriam ; Eggesbø, Merete ; Fantini, Maria Pia ; Farchi, Sara ; Forastiere, Francesco ; Georgiu, Vagelis ; Gori, Davide ; Hanke, Wojciech ; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva ; Heude, Barbara ; Hivert, Marie France ; Hryhorczuk, Daniel ; Iñiguez, Carmen ; Karvonen, Anne M. ; Küpers, Leanne K. ; Lagström, Hanna ; Lawlor, Debbie A. ; Lehmann, Irina ; Magnus, Per ; Majewska, Renata ; Mäkelä, Johanna ; Manios, Yannis ; Mommers, Monique ; Morgen, Camilla S. ; Moschonis, George ; Nohr, Ellen A. ; Nybo Andersen, Anne Marie ; Oken, Emily ; Pac, Agnieszka ; Papadopoulou, Eleni ; Pekkanen, Juha ; Pizzi, Costanza ; Polanska, Kinga ; Porta, Daniela ; Richiardi, Lorenzo ; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L. ; Roeleveld, Nel ; Ronfani, Luca ; Santos, Ana C. ; Standl, Marie - \ 2019
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 321 (2019)17. - ISSN 0098-7484 - p. 1702 - 1715.

Importance: Both low and high gestational weight gain have been associated with adverse maternal and infant outcomes, but optimal gestational weight gain remains uncertain and not well defined for all prepregnancy weight ranges. Objectives: To examine the association of ranges of gestational weight gain with risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes and estimate optimal gestational weight gain ranges across prepregnancy body mass index categories. Design, Setting, and Participants: Individual participant-level meta-analysis using data from 196 670 participants within 25 cohort studies from Europe and North America (main study sample). Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were estimated for each prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) category by selecting the range of gestational weight gain that was associated with lower risk for any adverse outcome. Individual participant-level data from 3505 participants within 4 separate hospital-based cohorts were used as a validation sample. Data were collected between 1989 and 2015. The final date of follow-up was December 2015. Exposures: Gestational weight gain. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome termed any adverse outcome was defined as the presence of 1 or more of the following outcomes: preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, cesarean delivery, preterm birth, and small or large size for gestational age at birth. Results: Of the 196 670 women (median age, 30.0 years [quartile 1 and 3, 27.0 and 33.0 years] and 40 937 were white) included in the main sample, 7809 (4.0%) were categorized at baseline as underweight (BMI <18.5); 133 788 (68.0%), normal weight (BMI, 18.5-24.9); 38 828 (19.7%), overweight (BMI, 25.0-29.9); 11 992 (6.1%), obesity grade 1 (BMI, 30.0-34.9); 3284 (1.7%), obesity grade 2 (BMI, 35.0-39.9); and 969 (0.5%), obesity grade 3 (BMI, ≥40.0). Overall, any adverse outcome occurred in 37.2% (n = 73 161) of women, ranging from 34.7% (2706 of 7809) among women categorized as underweight to 61.1% (592 of 969) among women categorized as obesity grade 3. Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were 14.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for women categorized as underweight; 10.0 kg to less than 18.0 kg for normal weight; 2.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for overweight; 2.0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 1; weight loss or gain of 0 kg to less than 4.0 kg for obesity grade 2; and weight gain of 0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 3. These gestational weight gain ranges were associated with low to moderate discrimination between those with and those without adverse outcomes (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.55-0.76). Results for discriminative performance in the validation sample were similar to the corresponding results in the main study sample (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.51-0.79). Conclusions and Relevance: In this meta-analysis of pooled individual participant data from 25 cohort studies, the risk for adverse maternal and infant outcomes varied by gestational weight gain and across the range of prepregnancy weights. The estimates of optimal gestational weight gain may inform prenatal counseling; however, the optimal gestational weight gain ranges had limited predictive value for the outcomes assessed.

A probabilistic approach for risk-benefit assessment of food substitutions : A case study on substituting meat by fish
Thomsen, Sofie Theresa ; Boer, Waldo de; Pires, Sara M. ; Devleesschauwer, Brecht ; Fagt, Sisse ; Andersen, Rikke ; Poulsen, Morten ; Voet, Hilko van der - \ 2019
Food and Chemical Toxicology 126 (2019). - ISSN 0278-6915 - p. 79 - 96.
Disability-Adjusted Life Year(DALY) - Food-based dietary guidelines - Health impact - Risk-benefit assessment (RBA) - Substitution - Usual intake difference model

Accounting for substitution of foods is inevitable when evaluating health impact of dietary changes. But substitution behavior and the associated health impact may vary between individuals. We therefore propose the use of probabilistic methods to model substitution and assess health impact distributions in risk-benefit assessment (RBA) of foods. We investigated the health impact of substituting red and processed meat with fish in the Danish adult population and the variability in health impact. We applied probabilistic approaches in modeling the substitution to reflect variability between individual substitution behaviors. Furthermore, when multiple intake scenarios are compared, we propose a method for adjusting intake differences for individual day-to-day variability. We estimated that 134 (95% UI: 102; 169) Disability-Adjusted Life Years/100,000 were averted per year by the substitution. The health impact varied considerably by age and sex, with the largest health benefit of the substitution observed for young women in the child-bearing age and for the older generation, mainly men. This study provides further insight in how the health impact of substituting meat by fish varies between individuals and suggests a framework to be applied in RBAs of other food substitutions. Our results are relevant for policy makers in defining targeted public health strategies.

Maternal body mass index, gestational weight gain, and the risk of overweight and obesity across childhood : An individual participant data meta-analysis
Voerman, Ellis ; Santos, Susana ; Patro Golab, Bernadeta ; Amiano, Pilar ; Ballester, Ferran ; Barros, Henrique ; Bergström, Anna ; Charles, Marie Aline ; Chatzi, Leda ; Chevrier, Cécile ; Chrousos, George P. ; Corpeleijn, Eva ; Costet, Nathalie ; Crozier, Sarah ; Devereux, Graham ; Eggesbø, Merete ; Ekström, Sandra ; Fantini, Maria Pia ; Farchi, Sara ; Forastiere, Francesco ; Georgiu, Vagelis ; Godfrey, Keith M. ; Gori, Davide ; Grote, Veit ; Hanke, Wojciech ; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva ; Heude, Barbara ; Hryhorczuk, Daniel ; Huang, Rae Chi ; Inskip, Hazel ; Iszatt, Nina ; Karvonen, Anne M. ; Kenny, Louise C. ; Koletzko, Berthold ; Küpers, Leanne K. ; Lagström, Hanna ; Lehmann, Irina ; Magnus, Per ; Majewska, Renata ; Mäkelä, Johanna ; Manios, Yannis ; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M. ; McDonald, Sheila W. ; Mehegan, John ; Mommers, Monique ; Morgen, Camilla S. ; Mori, Trevor A. ; Moschonis, George ; Murray, Deirdre ; Chaoimh, Carol Ní ; Nohr, Ellen A. ; Nybo Andersen, Anne Marie ; Oken, Emily ; Oostvogels, Adriëtte J.J.M. ; Pac, Agnieszka ; Papadopoulou, Eleni ; Pekkanen, Juha ; Pizzi, Costanza ; Polanska, Kinga ; Porta, Daniela ; Richiardi, Lorenzo ; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L. ; Ronfani, Luca ; Santos, Ana C. ; Standl, Marie ; Stoltenberg, Camilla ; Thiering, Elisabeth ; Thijs, Carel ; Torrent, Maties ; Tough, Suzanne C. ; Trnovec, Tomas ; Turner, Steve ; Rossem, Lenie van; Berg, Andrea von; Vrijheid, Martine ; Vrijkotte, Tanja G.M. ; West, Jane ; Wijga, Alet ; Wright, John ; Zvinchuk, Oleksandr ; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A. ; Lawlor, Debbie A. ; Gaillard, Romy ; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V. - \ 2019
PLOS Medicine 16 (2019)2. - ISSN 1549-1676 - p. e1002744 - e1002744.

BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain may have persistent effects on offspring fat development. However, it remains unclear whether these effects differ by severity of obesity, and whether these effects are restricted to the extremes of maternal body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain. We aimed to assess the separate and combined associations of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain with the risk of overweight/obesity throughout childhood, and their population impact. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis of data from 162,129 mothers and their children from 37 pregnancy and birth cohort studies from Europe, North America, and Australia. We assessed the individual and combined associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain, both in clinical categories and across their full ranges, with the risks of overweight/obesity in early (2.0-5.0 years), mid (5.0-10.0 years) and late childhood (10.0-18.0 years), using multilevel binary logistic regression models with a random intercept at cohort level adjusted for maternal sociodemographic and lifestyle-related characteristics. We observed that higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain both in clinical categories and across their full ranges were associated with higher risks of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects in late childhood (odds ratios [ORs] for overweight/obesity in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively: OR 1.66 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.78], OR 1.91 [95% CI: 1.85, 1.98], and OR 2.28 [95% CI: 2.08, 2.50] for maternal overweight; OR 2.43 [95% CI: 2.24, 2.64], OR 3.12 [95% CI: 2.98, 3.27], and OR 4.47 [95% CI: 3.99, 5.23] for maternal obesity; and OR 1.39 [95% CI: 1.30, 1.49], OR 1.55 [95% CI: 1.49, 1.60], and OR 1.72 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.91] for excessive gestational weight gain). The proportions of childhood overweight/obesity prevalence attributable to maternal overweight, maternal obesity, and excessive gestational weight gain ranged from 10.2% to 21.6%. Relative to the effect of maternal BMI, excessive gestational weight gain only slightly increased the risk of childhood overweight/obesity within each clinical BMI category (p-values for interactions of maternal BMI with gestational weight gain: p = 0.038, p < 0.001, and p = 0.637 in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively). Limitations of this study include the self-report of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain for some of the cohorts, and the potential of residual confounding. Also, as this study only included participants from Europe, North America, and Australia, results need to be interpreted with caution with respect to other populations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain were associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects at later ages. The additional effect of gestational weight gain in women who are overweight or obese before pregnancy is small. Given the large population impact, future intervention trials aiming to reduce the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity should focus on maternal weight status before pregnancy, in addition to weight gain during pregnancy.

The observed diurnal cycle of low-level stratus clouds over southern West Africa : A case study
Babić, Karmen ; Adler, Bianca ; Kalthoff, Norbert ; Andersen, Hendrik ; Dione, Cheikh ; Lohou, Fabienne ; Lothon, Marie ; Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia, Xabier - \ 2019
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 19 (2019)2. - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 1281 - 1299.

This study presents the first detailed observational analysis of the complete diurnal cycle of stratiform low-level clouds (LLC) and involved atmospheric processes over southern West Africa (SWA). The data used here were collected during the comprehensive DACCIWA (Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud-Interactions in West Africa) ground-based campaign, which aimed at monitoring LLC characteristics and capturing the wide range of atmospheric conditions related to theWest African monsoon flow. In this study, in situ and remote sensing measurements from the supersite near Savè (Benin) collected during a typical day, which is characterized by the onset of a nocturnal lowlevel jet (NLLJ) and the formation of LLC, are analyzed. The associated dynamic and thermodynamic conditions allow the identification of five different phases related to the LLC diurnal cycle: the stable, jet, stratus I, stratus II, and convective phases. The analysis of relative humidity tendency shows that cooling is a dominant process for LLC formation, which leads to a continuous increase in relative humidity at a maximum rate of 6%h-1, until finally saturation is reached and LLC form with a cloud-base height near the height of NLLJ maximum. Results of heat budget analysis illustrate that horizontal cold-air advection, related to the maritime inflow, which brings the cool maritime air mass and a prominent NLLJ wind profile, has the dominant role in the observed strong cooling of-1.2Kh-1 during the jet phase. The contribution from horizontal cold advection is quantified to be up to 68 %, while radiative cooling and sensible heat flux divergence both contribute 16% to the observed heat budget below the NLLJ maximum. After the LLC form (stratus phases I and II), turbulent mixing is an important factor leading to the cooling below the cloud base, while strong radiative cooling at the cloud top helps to maintain thick stratus.

Nocturnal low-level clouds in the atmospheric boundary layer over southern West Africa : an observation-based analysis of conditions and processes
Adler, Bianca ; Babia, Karmen ; Kalthoff, Norbert ; Lohou, Fabienne ; Lothon, Marie ; Dione, Cheikh ; Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia, Xabier ; Andersen, Hendrik - \ 2019
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 19 (2019)1. - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 663 - 681.
During the West African summer monsoon season, extended nocturnal stratiform low-level clouds (LLCs) frequently form in the atmospheric boundary layer over southern West Africa and persist long into the following day affecting the regional climate. A unique data set was gathered within the framework of the Dynamics-Aerosol- Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) project, which allows, for the first time, for an observational analysis of the processes and parameters crucial for LLC formation. In this study, in situ and remote sensing measurements from radiosondes, ceilometer, cloud radar and energy balance stations from a measurement site near Save in Benin are analyzed amongst others for 11 nights. The aim is to study LLC characteristics, the intranight variability of boundary layer conditions and physical processes relevant for LLC formation, as well as to assess the importance of these processes. Based on the dynamic and thermodynamic conditions in the atmospheric boundary layer we distinguish typical nocturnal phases and calculate mean profiles for the individual phases. A stable surface inversion, which forms after sunset, is eroded by differential horizontal cold air advection with the Gulf of Guinea maritime inflow, a cool air mass propagating northwards from the coast in the late afternoon and the evening, and shear-generated turbulence related to a nocturnal low-level jet. The analysis of the contributions to the relative humidity changes before the LLC formation reveals that cooling in the atmospheric boundary layer is crucial to reach saturation, while specific humidity changes play a minor role.We quantify the heat budget terms and find that about 50% of the cooling prior to LLC formation is caused by horizontal cold air advection, roughly 20% by radiative flux divergence and about 22% by sensible heat flux divergence in the presence of a low-level jet. The outcomes of this study contribute to the development of a conceptual model on LLC formation, maintenance and dissolution over southern West Africa.
Performance of secondary wastewater treatment methods for the removal of contaminants of emerging concern implicated in crop uptake and antibiotic resistance spread : A review
Krzeminski, Pawel ; Tomei, Maria Concetta ; Karaolia, Popi ; Langenhoff, Alette ; Almeida, C.M.R. ; Felis, Ewa ; Gritten, Fanny ; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus ; Fernandes, Telma ; Manaia, Celia M. ; Rizzo, Luigi ; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 648 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1052 - 1081.
Antibiotic resistance - Biological processes - CEC removal - Crop uptake - EU Watch list - Secondary wastewater treatment

Contaminants of emerging concern (CEC) discharged in effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), not specifically designed for their removal, pose serious hazards to human health and ecosystems. Their impact is of particular relevance to wastewater disposal and re-use in agricultural settings due to CEC uptake and accumulation in food crops and consequent diffusion into the food-chain. This is the reason why the chemical CEC discussed in this review have been selected considering, besides recalcitrance, frequency of detection and entity of potential hazards, their relevance for crop uptake. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been included as microbial CEC because of the potential of secondary wastewater treatment to offer conditions favourable to the survival and proliferation of ARB, and dissemination of ARGs. Given the adverse effects of chemical and microbial CEC, their removal is being considered as an additional design criterion, which highlights the necessity of upgrading conventional WWTPs with more effective technologies. In this review, the performance of currently applied biological treatment methods for secondary treatment is analysed. To this end, technological solutions including conventional activated sludge (CAS), membrane bioreactors (MBRs), moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs), and nature-based solutions such as constructed wetlands (CWs) are compared for the achievable removal efficiencies of the selected CEC and their potential of acting as reservoirs of ARB&ARGs. With the aim of giving a picture of real systems, this review focuses on data from full-scale and pilot-scale plants treating real urban wastewater. To achieve an integrated assessment, technologies are compared considering also other relevant evaluation parameters such as investment and management costs, complexity of layout and management, present scale of application and need of a post-treatment. Comparison results allow the definition of design and operation strategies for the implementation of CEC removal in WWTPs, when agricultural reuse of effluents is planned.

Food systems for sustainable development : proposals for a profound four-part transformation
Caron, Patrick ; Ferrero y de Loma-Osorio, Gabriel ; Nabarro, David ; Hainzelin, Etienne ; Guillou, Marion ; Andersen, Inger ; Arnold, Tom ; Astralaga, Margarita ; Beukeboom, Marcel ; Bickersteth, Sam ; Bwalya, Martin ; Caballero, Paula ; Campbell, Bruce M. ; Divine, Ntiokam ; Fan, Shenggen ; Frick, Martin ; Friis, Anette ; Gallagher, Martin ; Halkin, Jean Pierre ; Hanson, Craig ; Lasbennes, Florence ; Ribera, Teresa ; Rockstrom, Johan ; Schuepbach, Marlen ; Steer, Andrew ; Tutwiler, Ann ; Verburg, Gerda - \ 2018
Agronomy for Sustainable Development 38 (2018)4. - ISSN 1774-0746
Agriculture - Climate change - Food systems - Koronivia - Nexus - Sustainable development - Transformation

Evidence shows the importance of food systems for sustainable development: they are at the nexus that links food security, nutrition, and human health, the viability of ecosystems, climate change, and social justice. However, agricultural policies tend to focus on food supply, and sometimes, on mechanisms to address negative externalities. We propose an alternative. Our starting point is that agriculture and food systems’ policies should be aligned to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This calls for deep changes in comparison with the paradigms that prevailed when steering the agricultural change in the XXth century. We identify the comprehensive food systems transformation that is needed. It has four parts: first, food systems should enable all people to benefit from nutritious and healthy food. Second, they should reflect sustainable agricultural production and food value chains. Third, they should mitigate climate change and build resilience. Fourth, they should encourage a renaissance of rural territories. The implementation of the transformation relies on (i) suitable metrics to aid decision-making, (ii) synergy of policies through convergence of local and global priorities, and (iii) enhancement of development approaches that focus on territories. We build on the work of the “Milano Group,” an informal group of experts convened by the UN Secretary General in Milan in 2015. Backed by a literature review, what emerges is a strategic narrative linking climate, agriculture and food, and calling for a deep transformation of food systems at scale. This is critical for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement. The narrative highlights the needed consistency between global actions for sustainable development and numerous local-level innovations. It emphasizes the challenge of designing differentiated paths for food systems transformation responding to local and national expectations. Scientific and operational challenges are associated with the alignment and arbitration of local action within the context of global priorities.

Raising the Stakes: Cassava Seed Networks at Multiple Scales in Cambodia and Vietnam
Delaquis, Erik ; Andersen, Kelsey F. ; Minato, Nami ; Cu, Thuy Thi Le ; Karssenberg, Maria Eleanor ; Sok, Sophearith ; Wyckhuys, Kris A.G. ; Newby, Jonathan C. ; Burra, Dharani Dhar ; Srean, Pao ; Phirun, Iv ; Le, Niem Duc ; Pham, Nhan Thi ; Garrett, Karen A. ; Almekinders, Conny J.M. ; Struik, Paul C. ; Haan, Stef de - \ 2018
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems 2 (2018). - ISSN 2571-581X - 21 p.
Cassava is one of the most important annual crops in Southeast Asia, and faces increasing seed borne pest and disease pressures. Despite this, cassava seed systems have received scant research attention. In a first analysis of Vietnamese and Cambodian cassava seed systems, we characterized existing cassava seed systems in 2016–2017 through a farmer survey based approach at both national and community scales, with particular focus on identifying seed system actors, planting material management, exchange mechanisms, geographies, and variety use, and performed a network analysis of detected seed movement at the provincial level. Despite their status as self-organized “informal” networks, the cassava seed systems used by farmers in Vietnam and Cambodia are complex, connected over multiple scales, and include links between geographically distant sites. Cassava planting material was exchanged through farmer seed systems, in which re-use of farm-saved supply and community-level exchanges dominated. At the national level, use of self-saved seed occurred in 47 and 64% of seed use cases in Cambodia and Vietnam, respectively. Movement within communes was prevalent, with 82 and 78% of seed provided to others being exchanged between family and acquaintances within the commune in Cambodia and Vietnam, respectively. Yet, meaningful proportions of seed flows, mediated mostly by traders, also formed inter-provincial and international exchange networks, with 20% of Cambodia's seed acquisitions imported from abroad, especially neighboring Vietnam and Thailand. Dedicated seed traders and local cassava collection points played important roles in the planting material distribution network at particular sites. Sales of planting material were important means of both acquiring and providing seed in both countries, and commercial sale was more prevalent in high-intensity than in low-intensity production sites. Considerable variability existed in local seed networks, depending on the intensity of production and integration with trader networks. Adapted innovations are needed to upgrade cassava seed systems in the face of emerging pests and diseases, taking into account and building on the strengths of the existing systems; including their social nature and ability to quickly and efficiently distribute planting materials at the regional level.
Assessment of impact of traffic-related air pollution on morbidity and mortality in Copenhagen Municipality and the health gain of reduced exposure
Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik ; Bender, Anne Mette ; Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana ; Sørensen, Jan ; Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort ; Boshuizen, Hendriek ; Becker, Thomas ; Diderichsen, Finn ; Loft, Steffen - \ 2018
Environment International 121 (2018). - ISSN 0160-4120 - p. 973 - 980.
Air pollution - Disease modelling - Effect modelling - Health impact assessment - Prevention

Background: Health impact assessment (HIA) of exposure to air pollution is commonly based on city level (fine) particle concentration and may underestimate health consequences of changing local traffic. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution can be assessed at a high resolution by modelling levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which together with ultrafine particles mainly originate from diesel-powered vehicles in urban areas. The purpose of this study was to estimate the health benefits of reduced exposure to vehicle emissions assessed as NO2 at the residence among the citizens of Copenhagen Municipality, Denmark. Methods: We utilized residential NO2 concentrations modelled by use of chemistry transport models to calculate contributions from emission sources to air pollution. The DYNAMO-HIA model was applied to the population of Copenhagen Municipality by using NO2 concentration estimates combined with demographic data and data from nationwide registers on incidence and prevalence of selected diseases, cause specific mortality, and total mortality of the population of Copenhagen. We used exposure-response functions linking NO2 concentration estimates at the residential address with the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and respiratory diseases derived from a large Danish cohort study with the majority of subjects residing in Copenhagen between 1971 and 2010. Different scenarios were modelled to estimate the dynamic impact of NO2 exposure on related diseases and the potential health benefits of lowering the NO2 level in the Copenhagen Municipality. Results: The annual mean NO2 concentration was 19.6 μg/m3 and for 70% of the population the range of exposure was between 15 and 21 μg/m3. If NO2 exposure was reduced to the annual mean rural level of 6 μg/m3, life expectancy in 2040 would increase by one year. The greatest gain in disease-free life expectancy would be lifetime without ischemic heart disease (1.4 years), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1.5 years for men and 1.6 years for women), and asthma (1.3 years for men and 1.5 years for women). Lowering NO2 exposure by 20% would increase disease-free life expectancy for the different diseases by 0.3–0.5 years. Using gender specific relative risks affected the results. Conclusions: Reducing the NO2 exposure by controlling traffic-related air pollution reduces the occurrence of some of the most prevalent chronic diseases and increases life expectancy. Such health benefits can be quantified by DYNAMO-HIA in a high resolution exposure modelling. This paper demonstrates how traffic planners can assess health benefits from reduced levels of traffic-related air pollution.

Prediagnostic serum Vitamin D levels and the risk of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in european populations : A nested case-control study
Opstelten, Jorrit L. ; Chan, Simon S.M. ; Hart, Andrew R. ; Schaik, Fiona D.M. Van; Siersema, Peter D. ; Lentjes, Eef G.W.M. ; Khaw, Kay Tee ; Luben, Robert ; Key, Timothy J. ; Boeing, Heiner ; Bergmann, Manuela M. ; Overvad, Kim ; Palli, Domenico ; Masala, Giovanna ; Racine, Antoine ; Carbonnel, Franck ; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine ; Tjønneland, Anne ; Olsen, Anja ; Andersen, Vibeke ; Kaaks, Rudolf ; Kuhn, Tilman ; Tumino, Rosario ; Trichopoulou, Antonia ; Peeters, Petra H.M. ; Verschuren, W.M.M. ; Witteman, Ben J.M. ; Oldenburg, Bas - \ 2018
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 24 (2018)3. - ISSN 1078-0998 - p. 633 - 640.
Crohn's disease - etiology - inflammatory bowel disease - ulcerative colitis - Vitamin D

Background A low vitamin D status has been put forward as a potential risk factor for the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study investigated the association between prediagnostic circulating vitamin D concentrations and dietary intakes of vitamin D, and the risk of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods Among 359,728 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, individuals who developed CD or UC after enrollment were identified. Each case was matched with2 controls by center, gender, age, date of recruitment, and follow-up time. At cohort entry, blood samples were collected and dietary vitamin D intakes were obtained from validated food frequency questionnaires. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Conditional logistic regression was performed to determine the odds of CD and UC. Results Seventy-two participants developed CD and 169 participants developed UC after a median follow-up of 4.7 and 4.1 years, respectively. Compared with the lowest quartile, no associations with the 3 higher quartiles of vitamin D concentrations were observed for CD (p trend = 0.34) or UC (p trend = 0.66). Similarly, no associations were detected when serum vitamin D levels were analyzed as a continuous variable. Dietary vitamin D intakes were not associated with CD (p trend = 0.39) or UC (p trend = 0.83). Conclusions Vitamin D status was not associated with the development of CD or UC. This does not suggest a major role for vitamin D deficiency in the etiology of IBD, although larger studies are needed to confirm these findings.

Author Correction: Diffusible repression of cytokinin signalling produces endodermal symmetry and passage cells
Andersen, Tonni G. ; Naseer, Sadaf ; Ursache, Robertas ; Wybouw, Brecht ; Smet, Wouter ; Rybel, Bert De; Vermeer, Joop E.M. ; Geldner, Niko - \ 2018
Nature 559 (2018)7714. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. E9 - E9.
A UAV-based active AirCore system for measurements of greenhouse gases
Andersen, Truls ; Scheeren, Bert ; Peters, Wouter ; Chen, Huilin - \ 2018
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 11 (2018)5. - ISSN 1867-1381 - p. 2683 - 2699.
We developed and field-tested an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based active AirCore for atmospheric mole fraction measurements of CO2, CH4, and CO. The system applies an alternative way of using the AirCore technique invented by NOAA. As opposed to the conventional concept of passively sampling air using the atmospheric pressure gradient during descent, the active AirCore collects atmospheric air samples using a pump to pull the air through the tube during flight, which opens up the possibility to spatially sample atmospheric air. The active AirCore system used for this study weighs ∼-1.1-kg. It consists of a ∼-50-m long stainless-steel tube, a small stainless-steel tube filled with magnesium perchlorate, a KNF micropump, and a 45-μm orifice working together to form a critical flow of dried atmospheric air through the active AirCore. A cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) was used to analyze the air samples on site not more than 7-min after landing for mole fraction measurements of CO2, CH4, and CO. We flew the active AirCore system on a UAV near the atmospheric measurement station at Lutjewad, located in the northwest of the city of Groningen in the Netherlands. Five consecutive flights took place over a 5-h period on the same morning, from sunrise until noon. We validated the measurements of CO2 and CH4 from the active AirCore against those from the Lutjewad station at 60-m. The results show a good agreement between the measurements from the active AirCore and the atmospheric station (N-Combining double low line-146; R2CO2: 0.97 and R2CH4: 0.94; and mean differences: CO2: 0.18-ppm and CH4: 5.13-ppb). The vertical and horizontal resolution (for CH4) at typical UAV speeds of 1.5 and 2.5-m-s-1 were determined to be ±24.7 to 29.3 and ±41.2 to 48.9-m, respectively, depending on the storage time. The collapse of the nocturnal boundary layer and the buildup of the mixed layer were clearly observed with three consecutive vertical profile measurements in the early morning hours. Besides this, we furthermore detected a CH4 hotspot in the coastal wetlands from a horizontal flight north to the dike, which demonstrates the potential of this new active AirCore method to measure at locations where other techniques have no practical access.
Diffusible repression of cytokinin signalling produces endodermal symmetry and passage cells
Andersen, Tonni Grube ; Naseer, Sadaf ; Ursache, Robertas ; Wybouw, Brecht ; Smet, Wouter ; Rybel, Bert De; Vermeer, Joop E.M. ; Geldner, Niko - \ 2018
Nature 555 (2018)7697. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 529 - 533.
In vascular plants, the root endodermis surrounds the central vasculature as a protective sheath that is analogous to the polarized epithelium in animals, and contains ring-shaped Casparian strips that restrict diffusion. After an initial lag phase, individual endodermal cells suberize in an apparently random fashion to produce 'patchy' suberization that eventually generates a zone of continuous suberin deposition. Casparian strips and suberin lamellae affect paracellular and transcellular transport, respectively. Most angiosperms maintain some isolated cells in an unsuberized state as so-called 'passage cells', which have previously been suggested to enable uptake across an otherwise-impermeable endodermal barrier. Here we demonstrate that these passage cells are late emanations of a meristematic patterning process that reads out the underlying non-radial symmetry of the vasculature. This process is mediated by the non-cell-autonomous repression of cytokinin signalling in the root meristem, and leads to distinct phloem- and xylem-pole-associated endodermal cells. The latter cells can resist abscisic acid-dependent suberization to produce passage cells. Our data further demonstrate that, during meristematic patterning, xylem-pole-associated endodermal cells can dynamically alter passage-cell numbers in response to nutrient status, and that passage cells express transporters and locally affect the expression of transporters in adjacent cortical cells.
The Essential Elements of a Risk Governance Framework for Current and Future Nanotechnologies
Stone, Vicki ; Führ, Martin ; Feindt, Peter H. ; Bouwmeester, Hans ; Linkov, Igor ; Sabella, Stefania ; Murphy, Finbarr ; Bizer, Kilian ; Tran, Lang ; Ågerstrand, Marlene ; Fito, Carlos ; Andersen, Torben ; Anderson, Diana ; Bergamaschi, Enrico ; Cherrie, John W. ; Cowan, Sue ; Dalemcourt, Jean Francois ; Faure, Michael ; Gabbert, Silke ; Gajewicz, Agnieszka ; Fernandes, Teresa F. ; Hristozov, Danail ; Johnston, Helinor J. ; Lansdown, Terry C. ; Linder, Stefan ; Marvin, Hans J.P. ; Mullins, Martin ; Purnhagen, Kai ; Puzyn, Tomasz ; Sanchez Jimenez, Araceli ; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J. ; Streftaris, George ; Tongeren, Martie van; Voelcker, Nicolas H. ; Voyiatzis, George ; Yannopoulos, Spyros N. ; Poortvliet, P.M. - \ 2018
Risk Analysis 38 (2018)7. - ISSN 0272-4332 - p. 1321 - 1331.
Decision making - Nano-regulation - Risk communication - Risk governance - Risk management
Societies worldwide are investing considerable resources into the safe development and use of nanomaterials. Although each of these protective efforts is crucial for governing the risks of nanomaterials, they are insufficient in isolation. What is missing is a more integrative governance approach that goes beyond legislation. Development of this approach must be evidence based and involve key stakeholders to ensure acceptance by end users. The challenge is to develop a framework that coordinates the variety of actors involved in nanotechnology and civil society to facilitate consideration of the complex issues that occur in this rapidly evolving research and development area. Here, we propose three sets of essential elements required to generate an effective risk governance framework for nanomaterials. (1) Advanced tools to facilitate risk-based decision making, including an assessment of the needs of users regarding risk assessment, mitigation, and transfer. (2) An integrated model of predicted human behavior and decision making concerning nanomaterial risks. (3) Legal and other (nano-specific and general) regulatory requirements to ensure compliance and to stimulate proactive approaches to safety. The implementation of such an approach should facilitate and motivate good practice for the various stakeholders to allow the safe and sustainable future development of nanotechnology.
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