Food insecurity in the age of neoliberalism in Turkey and its neighbors
Öztürk, Murat ; Gür, Faik ; Jongerden, J.P. - \ 2020
In: Food Insecurity: A Matter of Justice, Sovereignty, and Survival / Mayer, Tamar, Anderson, Molly, Abingdon : Routledge - ISBN 9781138358850 - p. 77 - 95.
Drawing on national and international data sets, we argue in this chapter that food security is weaker in countries and regions where conflict (military unrest, civil war, etc.) and neoliberal agricultural policies coincide, regardless of how powerful their agriculture has been in the past. We contend that while high input prices and liberalized market conditions negatively affect food accessibility much more than production, the production itself is fragile because of high prices of inputs and the cost of waste, transportation, and storage, particularly in a country like Turkey, where small-scale producers dominate agrarian structures. This inevitably transforms food accessibility into a structural problem. Given that putting burdens on small-scale farming triggers rural-to-urban flight and increases unemployment rates and thus poverty, abandoning neoliberal agricultural policies and supporting small-scale farming cannot be considered just an ethical position; on the contrary, it is the solution to the food security issues in Turkey and in the region.
Epigenome-wide meta-analysis of blood DNA methylation in newborns and children identifies numerous loci related to gestational age
Merid, Simon Kebede ; Novoloaca, Alexei ; Sharp, Gemma C. ; Küpers, Leanne K. ; Kho, Alvin T. ; Roy, Ritu ; Gao, Lu ; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella ; Jain, Pooja ; Plusquin, Michelle ; Kogevinas, Manolis ; Allard, Catherine ; Vehmeijer, Florianne O. ; Kazmi, Nabila ; Salas, Lucas A. ; Rezwan, Faisal I. ; Zhang, Hongmei ; Sebert, Sylvain ; Czamara, Darina ; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L. ; Melton, Phillip E. ; Lawlor, Debbie A. ; Pershagen, Göran ; Breton, Carrie V. ; Huen, Karen ; Baiz, Nour ; Gagliardi, Luigi ; Nawrot, Tim S. ; Corpeleijn, Eva ; Perron, Patrice ; Duijts, Liesbeth ; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard ; Bustamante, Mariona ; Ewart, Susan L. ; Karmaus, Wilfried ; Zhao, Shanshan ; Page, Christian M. ; Herceg, Zdenko ; Jarvelin, Marjo Riitta ; Lahti, Jari ; Baccarelli, Andrea A. ; Anderson, Denise ; Kachroo, Priyadarshini ; Relton, Caroline L. ; Bergström, Anna ; Eskenazi, Brenda ; Soomro, Munawar Hussain ; Vineis, Paolo ; Snieder, Harold ; Bouchard, Luigi ; Jaddoe, Vincent W. ; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A. ; Vrijheid, Martine ; Arshad, S.H. ; Holloway, John W. ; Håberg, Siri E. ; Magnus, Per ; Dwyer, Terence ; Binder, Elisabeth B. ; Demeo, Dawn L. ; Vonk, Judith M. ; Newnham, John ; Tantisira, Kelan G. ; Kull, Inger ; Wiemels, Joseph L. ; Heude, Barbara ; Sunyer, Jordi ; Nystad, Wenche ; Munthe-Kaas, Monica C. ; Raïkkönen, Katri ; Oken, Emily ; Huang, Rae Chi ; Weiss, Scott T. ; Antó, Josep Maria ; Bousquet, Jean ; Kumar, Ashish ; Söderhäll, Cilla ; Almqvist, Catarina ; Cardenas, Andres ; Gruzieva, Olena ; Xu, Cheng Jian ; Reese, Sarah E. ; Kere, Juha ; Brodin, Petter ; Solomon, Olivia ; Wielscher, Matthias ; Holland, Nina ; Ghantous, Akram ; Hivert, Marie France ; Felix, Janine F. ; Koppelman, Gerard H. ; London, Stephanie J. ; Melén, Erik - \ 2020
Genome Medicine 12 (2020)1. - ISSN 1756-994X
Development - Epigenetics - Gestational age - Preterm birth - Transcriptomics
Background: Preterm birth and shorter duration of pregnancy are associated with increased morbidity in neonatal and later life. As the epigenome is known to have an important role during fetal development, we investigated associations between gestational age and blood DNA methylation in children. Methods: We performed meta-analysis of Illumina's HumanMethylation450-array associations between gestational age and cord blood DNA methylation in 3648 newborns from 17 cohorts without common pregnancy complications, induced delivery or caesarean section. We also explored associations of gestational age with DNA methylation measured at 4-18 years in additional pediatric cohorts. Follow-up analyses of DNA methylation and gene expression correlations were performed in cord blood. DNA methylation profiles were also explored in tissues relevant for gestational age health effects: Fetal brain and lung. Results: We identified 8899 CpGs in cord blood that were associated with gestational age (range 27-42 weeks), at Bonferroni significance, P < 1.06 × 10-7, of which 3343 were novel. These were annotated to 4966 genes. After restricting findings to at least three significant adjacent CpGs, we identified 1276 CpGs annotated to 325 genes. Results were generally consistent when analyses were restricted to term births. Cord blood findings tended not to persist into childhood and adolescence. Pathway analyses identified enrichment for biological processes critical to embryonic development. Follow-up of identified genes showed correlations between gestational age and DNA methylation levels in fetal brain and lung tissue, as well as correlation with expression levels. Conclusions: We identified numerous CpGs differentially methylated in relation to gestational age at birth that appear to reflect fetal developmental processes across tissues. These findings may contribute to understanding mechanisms linking gestational age to health effects.
TRY plant trait database – enhanced coverage and open access
Kattge, Jens ; Bönisch, Gerhard ; Díaz, Sandra ; Lavorel, Sandra ; Prentice, Iain Colin ; Leadley, Paul ; Tautenhahn, Susanne ; Werner, Gijsbert D.A. ; Aakala, Tuomas ; Abedi, Mehdi ; Acosta, Alicia T.R. ; Adamidis, George C. ; Adamson, Kairi ; Aiba, Masahiro ; Albert, Cécile H. ; Alcántara, Julio M. ; Alcázar C, Carolina ; Aleixo, Izabela ; Ali, Hamada ; Amiaud, Bernard ; Ammer, Christian ; Amoroso, Mariano M. ; Anand, Madhur ; Anderson, Carolyn ; Anten, Niels ; Antos, Joseph ; Apgaua, Deborah Mattos Guimarães ; Ashman, Tia Lynn ; Asmara, Degi Harja ; Asner, Gregory P. ; Aspinwall, Michael ; Atkin, Owen ; Aubin, Isabelle ; Baastrup-Spohr, Lars ; Bahalkeh, Khadijeh ; Bahn, Michael ; Bekker, Renee ; Cromsigt, Joris P.G.M. ; Finegan, Bryan ; Kramer, Koen ; Lohbeck, Madelon ; Onoda, Yusuke ; Ozinga, Wim A. ; Prinzing, Andreas ; Robroek, Bjorn ; Slot, Martijn ; Sterck, Frank ; Beest, Mariska te; Bodegom, Peter M. van; Sande, Masha T. van der - \ 2020
Global Change Biology 26 (2020)1. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 119 - 188.
data coverage - data integration - data representativeness - functional diversity - plant traits - TRY plant trait database
Plant traits—the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants—determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, and influence ecosystem properties and their benefits and detriments to people. Plant trait data thus represent the basis for a vast area of research spanning from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology, to biodiversity conservation, ecosystem and landscape management, restoration, biogeography and earth system modelling. Since its foundation in 2007, the TRY database of plant traits has grown continuously. It now provides unprecedented data coverage under an open access data policy and is the main plant trait database used by the research community worldwide. Increasingly, the TRY database also supports new frontiers of trait-based plant research, including the identification of data gaps and the subsequent mobilization or measurement of new data. To support this development, in this article we evaluate the extent of the trait data compiled in TRY and analyse emerging patterns of data coverage and representativeness. Best species coverage is achieved for categorical traits—almost complete coverage for ‘plant growth form’. However, most traits relevant for ecology and vegetation modelling are characterized by continuous intraspecific variation and trait–environmental relationships. These traits have to be measured on individual plants in their respective environment. Despite unprecedented data coverage, we observe a humbling lack of completeness and representativeness of these continuous traits in many aspects. We, therefore, conclude that reducing data gaps and biases in the TRY database remains a key challenge and requires a coordinated approach to data mobilization and trait measurements. This can only be achieved in collaboration with other initiatives.
Life cycle assessment of food products
Fraval, Simon ; Middelaar, Corina E. van; Ridoutt, Brad G. ; Opio, Carolyn - \ 2019
In: Encyclopedia of Food Security and Sustainability / Ferranti, P., Berry, E.M., Anderson, J.R., Elsevier - ISBN 9780128126875 - p. 488 - 496.
Acidification - Agriculture - Biodiversity - Crops - Eutrophication - Food security - Global warming - Impact assessment - Livestock - Packaging - Product environmental footprinting - Science communication - Sustainability - Water scarcity
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) provides a rigorous framework to assess a product against a range of environmental impact categories from the ‘cradle to the grave’. LCA sets out a clear method for analysis, including goal and scope definition, Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) development, Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) and interpretation. This article provides an overview of each of these LCA phases, with a specific focus on food and agriculture. We provide a summary of LCAs applied to food and agriculture, as well as insights into LCA’s function in providing a more food secure future.
Soil on moon and Mars likely to support crops
Wamelink, Wieger ; Frissel, J.Y. ; Krijnen, W.H.J. ; Verwoert, M. - \ 2019
Artikel van Wieger Wamelink et. al. wordt aangehaald in diverse media
Introducing rewilding to restoration to expand the conservation effort: a response to Hayward et al.
Anderson, Robert M. ; Buitenwerf, Robert ; Driessen, Clemens ; Genes, Luísa ; Lorimer, Jamie ; Svenning, Jens Christian - \ 2019
Biodiversity and Conservation 28 (2019)13. - ISSN 0960-3115 - p. 3691 - 3693.
Estimating aboveground net biomass change for tropical and subtropical forests: refinement of IPCC default rates using forest plot data
Requena Suarez, Daniela ; Rozendaal, Danaë M.A. ; Sy, Veronique De; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Alvarez‐Dávila, Esteban ; Anderson‐teixeira, Kristina ; Araujo‐murakami, Alejandro ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Bongers, Frans ; Brienen, Roel J.W. ; Carter, Sarah ; Cook‐Patton, Susan C. ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Griscom, Bronson W. ; Harris, Nancy ; Hérault, Bruno ; Honorio Coronado, Eurídice N. ; Leavitt, Sara M. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Marimon, Beatriz S. ; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel ; N'dja, Justin Kassi ; N'guessan, Anny Estelle ; Poorter, Lourens ; Qie, Lan ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Sist, Plinio ; Sonké, Bonaventure ; Sullivan, Martin J.P. ; Vilanova, Emilio ; Wang, Maria M.H. ; Martius, Christopher ; Herold, Martin - \ 2019
Global Change Biology 25 (2019)11. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 3609 - 3624.
As countries advance in greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting for climate change mitigation, consistent estimates of aboveground net biomass change (∆AGB) are needed. Countries with limited forest monitoring capabilities in the tropics and subtropics rely on IPCC 2006 default ∆AGB rates, which are values per ecological zone, per continent. Similarly, research on forest biomass change at large scale also make use of these rates. IPCC 2006 default rates come from a handful of studies, provide no uncertainty indications, and do not distinguish between older secondary forests and old‐growth forests. As part of the 2019 Refinement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, we incorporate ∆AGB data available from 2006 onwards, comprising 176 chronosequences in secondary forests and 536 permanent plots in old‐growth and managed/logged forests located in 42 countries in Africa, North and South America, and Asia. We generated ∆AGB rate estimates for younger secondary forests (≤20 years), older secondary forests (>20 years and up to 100 years) and old‐growth forests, and accounted for uncertainties in our estimates. In tropical rainforests, for which data availability was the highest, our ∆AGB rate estimates ranged from 3.4 (Asia) to 7.6 (Africa) Mg ha‐1 yr‐1 in younger secondary forests, from 2.3 (North and South Ameri09ca) to 3.5 (Africa) Mg ha‐1 yr‐1 in older secondary forests, and 0.7 (Asia) to 1.3 (Africa) Mg ha‐1 yr‐1 in old‐growth forests. We provide a rigorous and traceable refinement of the IPCC 2006 default rates in tropical and subtropical ecological zones, and identify which areas require more research on ∆AGB. In this respect, this study should be considered as an important step towards quantifying the role of tropical and subtropical forests as carbon sinks with higher accuracy; our new rates can be used for large‐scale GHG accounting by governmental bodies, non‐governmental organisations and in scientific research.
Viability of recalcitrant Araucaria angustifolia seeds in storage and in a soil seed bank
Gasparin, Ezequiel ; Faria, José M.R. ; José, Anderson C. ; Tonetti, Olivia A.O. ; Melo, Rodrigo A. de; Hilhorst, Henk W.M. - \ 2019
Journal of Forestry Research (2019). - ISSN 1007-662X
Brazilian pine - Desiccation sensitivity - Forest cover - Soil seed bank - Storability
Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze is a representative species of the Mixed Ombrophilous Forest in the Atlantic Forest Biome of Brazil. The development of a germplasm conservation protocol for long-term seed bank storage is compromised for this species, as it is sensitive to desiccation. Furthermore, in situ establishment of a soil seed bank in its natural habitat may be limited. This study evaluates the storability of two provenances of A. angustifolia seeds and their behavior in an artificial soil seed bank in two forest environments (understory and edge). Results show that both seed provenances may be stored at 5 °C for approximately 12 months, retaining high viability. The subsequent decrease in germination was associated with a reduction and an increase in seed water content, as well as with increased electrical conductivity. In the understory environment, seed viability was above 85% for the first 60 days, and at the end of the experiment (270 days), seedlings emerged. However, at the forest edge, there was a total loss of seed viability after 120 days associated with a reduction in water content and high predation. It is concluded, therefore, that short-term storage of A. angustifolia seeds is possible in a cold room, which is fundamental to supply seed demand outside the production period. Forest cover conservation is important for regeneration and conservation of the species.
Nature and mental health: An ecosystem service perspective
Bratman, Gregory N. ; Anderson, Christopher B. ; Berman, Marc G. ; Cochran, Bobby ; Vries, Sjerp De; Flanders, Jon ; Folke, Carl ; Frumkin, Howard ; Gross, James J. ; Hartig, Terry ; Kahn, Peter H. ; Kuo, Ming ; Lawler, Joshua J. ; Levin, Phillip S. ; Lindahl, Therese ; Meyer-lindenberg, Andreas ; Mitchell, Richard ; Ouyang, Zhiyun ; Roe, Jenny ; Scarlett, Lynn ; Smith, Jeffrey R. ; Bosch, Matilda Van Den; Wheeler, Benedict W. ; White, Mathew P. ; Zheng, Hua ; Daily, Gretchen C. - \ 2019
Science Advances 5 (2019)7. - ISSN 2375-2548 - 15 p.
A growing body of empirical evidence is revealing the value of nature experience for mental health. With rapid urbanization and declines in human contact with nature globally, crucial decisions must be made about how to preserve and enhance opportunities for nature experience. Here, we first provide points of consensus across the natural, social, and health sciences on the impacts of nature experience on cognitive functioning, emotional well-being, and other dimensions of mental health. We then show how ecosystem service assessments can be expanded to include mental health, and provide a heuristic, conceptual model for doing so.
Meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies in neonates reveals widespread differential DNA methylation associated with birthweight
Küpers, Leanne K. ; Monnereau, Claire ; Sharp, Gemma C. ; Yousefi, Paul ; Salas, Lucas A. ; Ghantous, Akram ; Page, Christian M. ; Reese, Sarah E. ; Wilcox, Allen J. ; Czamara, Darina ; Starling, Anne P. ; Novoloaca, Alexei ; Lent, Samantha ; Roy, Ritu ; Hoyo, Cathrine ; Breton, Carrie V. ; Allard, Catherine ; Just, Allan C. ; Bakulski, Kelly M. ; Holloway, John W. ; Everson, Todd M. ; Xu, Cheng Jian ; Huang, Rae Chi ; Plaat, Diana A. van der; Wielscher, Matthias ; Merid, Simon Kebede ; Ullemar, Vilhelmina ; Rezwan, Faisal I. ; Lahti, Jari ; Dongen, Jenny van; Langie, Sabine A.S. ; Richardson, Tom G. ; Magnus, Maria C. ; Nohr, Ellen A. ; Xu, Zongli ; Duijts, Liesbeth ; Zhao, Shanshan ; Zhang, Weiming ; Plusquin, Michelle ; DeMeo, Dawn L. ; Solomon, Olivia ; Heimovaara, Joosje H. ; Jima, Dereje D. ; Gao, Lu ; Bustamante, Mariona ; Perron, Patrice ; Wright, Robert O. ; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva ; Zhang, Hongmei ; Karagas, Margaret R. ; Gehring, Ulrike ; Marsit, Carmen J. ; Beilin, Lawrence J. ; Vonk, Judith M. ; Jarvelin, Marjo Riitta ; Bergström, Anna ; Örtqvist, Anne K. ; Ewart, Susan ; Villa, Pia M. ; Moore, Sophie E. ; Willemsen, Gonneke ; Standaert, Arnout R.L. ; Håberg, Siri E. ; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A. ; Taylor, Jack A. ; Räikkönen, Katri ; Yang, Ivana V. ; Kechris, Katerina ; Nawrot, Tim S. ; Silver, Matt J. ; Gong, Yun Yun ; Richiardi, Lorenzo ; Kogevinas, Manolis ; Litonjua, Augusto A. ; Eskenazi, Brenda ; Huen, Karen ; Mbarek, Hamdi ; Maguire, Rachel L. ; Dwyer, Terence ; Vrijheid, Martine ; Bouchard, Luigi ; Baccarelli, Andrea A. ; Croen, Lisa A. ; Karmaus, Wilfried ; Anderson, Denise ; Vries, Maaike de; Sebert, Sylvain ; Kere, Juha ; Karlsson, Robert ; Arshad, Syed Hasan ; Hämäläinen, Esa ; Routledge, Michael N. ; Boomsma, Dorret I. ; Feinberg, Andrew P. ; Newschaffer, Craig J. ; Govarts, Eva ; Moisse, Matthieu ; Fallin, M.D. ; Melén, Erik ; Prentice, Andrew M. ; Kajantie, Eero ; Almqvist, Catarina ; Oken, Emily ; Dabelea, Dana ; Boezen, H.M. ; Melton, Phillip E. ; Wright, Rosalind J. ; Koppelman, Gerard H. ; Trevisi, Letizia ; Hivert, Marie France ; Sunyer, Jordi ; Munthe-Kaas, Monica C. ; Murphy, Susan K. ; Corpeleijn, Eva ; Wiemels, Joseph ; Holland, Nina ; Herceg, Zdenko ; Binder, Elisabeth B. ; Davey Smith, George ; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V. ; Lie, Rolv T. ; Nystad, Wenche ; London, Stephanie J. ; Lawlor, Debbie A. ; Relton, Caroline L. ; Snieder, Harold ; Felix, Janine F. - \ 2019
Nature Communications 10 (2019)1. - ISSN 2041-1723
Birthweight is associated with health outcomes across the life course, DNA methylation may be an underlying mechanism. In this meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies of 8,825 neonates from 24 birth cohorts in the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics Consortium, we find that DNA methylation in neonatal blood is associated with birthweight at 914 sites, with a difference in birthweight ranging from −183 to 178 grams per 10% increase in methylation (P Bonferroni < 1.06 x 10 −7 ). In additional analyses in 7,278 participants, <1.3% of birthweight-associated differential methylation is also observed in childhood and adolescence, but not adulthood. Birthweight-related CpGs overlap with some Bonferroni-significant CpGs that were previously reported to be related to maternal smoking (55/914, p = 6.12 x 10 −74 ) and BMI in pregnancy (3/914, p = 1.13x10 −3 ), but not with those related to folate levels in pregnancy. Whether the associations that we observe are causal or explained by confounding or fetal growth influencing DNA methylation (i.e. reverse causality) requires further research.
A systematic analysis of social, economic and environmental sustainability metrics for the range of activities and world views encompassed in the EU food systems : Deliverable No. D6.3
Achterbosch, T.J. ; Verma, Monika ; Leip, Adrian ; Zurek, Monika ; Oudendag, D.A. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Latka, Catharina ; Havlík, Petr ; Kuijsten, A. ; Kuiper, M.H. ; Farell, David ; Anderson, Ross ; Ruto, Elias - \ 2019
SUSFANS - 119 p.
Measurement of effective diffusion coefficients in dairy powders by confocal microscopy and sorption kinetic profiles
Maidannyk, Valentyn ; Lutjes, Eva ; Montgomery, Sharon ; McCarthy, Noel ; Auty, Mark A.E. - \ 2019
Food Structure 20 (2019). - ISSN 2213-3291
Confocal - Diffusion - Food powders - Microscopy - Rehydration
A new method for the visualisation and determination of local diffusion coefficients in dairy powders is described based on real-time visualisation of penetration of fluorescent dyes into individual particles of spray-dried dairy powders including skim milk powder, milk protein concentrate and whey protein isolate. The rehydration process was controlled by adding polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a viscosity modifier to the aqueous phase in ratios of 1:0, 1:1, 1:3 and 1:4 aqueous rhodamine to PEG, respectively. Real-time effective diffusivity values were obtained from analysis of confocal laser scanning microscope images. Particle size was measured optically. Results indicated that for all dairy powders, rehydration rates were highly dependent on particle size. Effective diffusivity increased linearly with increasing particle size and average effective diffusivity of the liquid phase was calculated for all particle size distributions using this dependence. The Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) water sorption relationship was used to model water sorption isotherms over a broad range of water activities. Vapour phase systems had significantly higher effective diffusivity than liquid phase systems. The results obtained by this new method is broadly in agreement with previously published works, suggesting this new method may be used to measure the hydration of individual powder particles.
Gas-liquid phase equilibrium of a model Langmuir monolayer captured by a multiscale approach
Moghimikheirabadi, Ahmad ; Sagis, Leonard M.C. ; Kröger, Martin ; Ilg, Patrick - \ 2019
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 21 (2019)5. - ISSN 1463-9076 - p. 2295 - 2306.
The gas-liquid expanded phase transition of a Langmuir monolayer happens at very low surface concentrations which makes this phenomenon extremely expensive to explore in finite three-dimensional (3D) atomistic simulations. Starting with a 3D model reference system of amphiphilic surfactants at a 2D vapor-liquid interface, we apply our recently developed approach (Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2018, 20, 16238) and map the entire system to an effective 2D system of surfactant center-of-masses projected onto the interface plane. The coarse-grained interaction potential obtained via a force-matching scheme from the 3D simulations is then used to predict the 2D gas-liquid phase equilibrium of the corresponding Langmuir monolayer. Monte Carlo simulations in the Gibbs ensemble are performed to calculate areal densities, chemical potentials and surface pressures of the gaseous and liquid coexisting phases within the monolayer. We compare these simulations to the results of a 2D density functional approach based on Weeks-Chandler-Anderson perturbation theory. We furthermore use this approach to determine the density profiles across the equilibrium gas-liquid dividing line and the corresponding line tensions.
Roots, Tubers and Bananas: Contributions to Food Security
Kennedy, G. ; Raneri, Jessica ; Stoian, Dietmar ; Attwood, S. ; Burgos, Gabriela ; Ceballos, Herman ; Ekesa, Beatrice ; Johnson, V. ; Low, Jan W. ; Talsma, E.F. - \ 2019
In: Encyclopedia of Food Security and Sustainability / Ferranti, Pasquale, Anderson, Jack R., Berry, Elliot M., Elsevier - ISBN 9780128126882 - p. 231 - 256.
The class of root, tuber and banana (RTB) crops encompasses banana and plantain, cassava, potato, sweet potato, taro, yam and a number of lesser cultivated and consumed root and tuber crops. RTB are the second most important group of crops in LDCs after cereals. RTB are vital for food security, with parts of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America relying on RTB as main staple foods in their diets. They provide up to 15% or more of the daily per capita dietary energy for the 763 million people living in the least developed countries. Production, yield and area planted for most RTB are showing increasing trends. While most RTB are used for food, feed and biofuel uses are growing. With vast genetic diversity RTB play an important role in the food systems of countries worldwide. The CGIAR has been actively working within this genetic diversity to improve the nutritional content of some RTB. Most notably varieties of banana, cassava and sweet potato have been successfully identified for higher pro-vitamin A content, while potatoes with higher iron and zinc content are also available. The use of varieties with higher pro-vitamin A, iron and zinc will contribute to reductions in micronutrient deficiencies. Many of the leaves of RTB, most notably cassava and sweet potato are also consumed, sometimes in large amounts and contribute to both diversity of the diet as well as increased intake of essential micronutrients. Threats from pests and disease to which these crops are susceptible are among the largest concerns. The impact of changing climate on resistance to disease/pest threats as well as yield and longer-term sustainability issues is also of concern. Finally, greater research and development on propagation and post-harvest storage and processing is needed for some of the lesser RTB crops.
Natural capital must be defended: green growth as neoliberal biopolitics
Fletcher, Robert ; Dressler, Wolfram H. ; Anderson, Zachary R. ; Büscher, Bram - \ 2019
The Journal of Peasant Studies 46 (2019)5. - ISSN 0306-6150 - p. 1 - 28.
biopower - conservation - environmental markets - Natural capital - neoliberalism
This contribution addresses the growing global trend to promote ‘natural capital accounting’ (NCA) in support of environmental conservation. NCA seeks to harness the economic value of conserved nature to incentivize local resource users to forgo the opportunity costs of extractive activities. We suggest that this represents a form of neoliberal biopower/biopolitics seeking to defend life by demonstrating its ‘profitability’ and hence right to exist. While little finance actually reaches communities through this strategy, substantial funding still flows into the idea of ‘natural capital’ as the basis of improving rural livelihoods. Drawing on two cases in Southeast Asia, we show that NCA initiatives may compel some local people to value ecosystem services in financial terms, yet in most cases this perspective remains partial and fragmented in communities where such initiatives produce a range of unintended outcomes. When the envisioned environmental markets fail to develop and benefits remain largely intangible, NCA fails to meet the growing material aspirations of farmers while also offering little if any bulwark against their using forests more intensively and/or enrolling in lucrative extractive enterprise. We thus conclude that NCA in practice may become the antithesis of conservation by actually encouraging the resource extraction it intends to combat.
Standard method performance requirements (SMPRs®) 2017.017 : Determination of 2-and 3-MCPD, 2-and 3-MCPD esters, and glycidyl esters in infant and adult/pediatric nutritional formula
Kuhlmann, Jan ; Anderson, Warwick ; Bandong, Grace ; Bratinova, Stefanka ; Burger, Dominik ; Cook, Jo Marie ; Cruijsen, Hans ; Dominicis, Emiliano De; Vreeze, Marcel De; Ehling, Stefan ; Empl, Anna Maria ; Evers, Jaap ; Gude, Thomas ; Hanlon, Paul ; Jaudzems, Greg ; Koesukwiwat, Urairat ; Lesueur, Celine ; MacMahon, Shaun ; Manti, Vicky ; Mastovska, Katerina ; Mikkelsen, Aase ; Myers, Rick ; Paolillo, Paola ; Parisi, Salvatore ; Pinkston, J.D. ; Rankin, Robert ; Reuther, John ; Romano, Joe ; Schulz, Claudia ; Stanley, Glenn ; Stephenson, Cheryl ; Sullivan, Darryl ; Szpylka, John ; Tennyson, Steve ; Leeuwen, Stefan Van; Yadlapalli, Sudhakar ; Yeung, Jupiter - \ 2018
Journal of AOAC International 101 (2018)1. - ISSN 1060-3271 - p. 324 - 326.
Principles for Fisheries Management in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction—the Essential Role of Incentive-Based Approaches
Anderson, James ; Asche, Frank ; Barnes, Richard ; Bush, S.R. ; Gentner, Brad ; Hufflett, Charles ; Libecap, Gary ; Maharaj, Vishwanie ; Nelson, Lindie ; Norris, Wez ; Perotti, Giansandro ; Tietze, Uwe ; Wachowicz, Kelly - \ 2018
Washington DC : World Wildlife Fund - 70 p.
Fisheries that intersect with the high seas, or areas beyond national jurisdictions (ABNJ), are ecologically, institutionally, and politically complex. These fisheries also generate enormous economic and social benefits, and have the potential to generate even greater benefits and wealth under improved management regimes
that incorporate incentives. Governance gaps within international instruments
for ABNJ fisheries are well recognized. However, reform through a global process is slow and highly contingent upon political will. While the need for incentives is critical to make up for the gaps in governance, the gaps themselves and the
multilateral nature of ABNJ fisheries management make it impossible to achieve first best solutions. Thus, a new theory of change for ABNJ fisheries is
needed that mixes State regulation and economic incentives in a way that achieves “smart,” sustainable, and equitable management. Drawing on the vast multidisciplinary literature and insights from the Common Oceans Global
Think Tank on ABNJ fisheries, this publication presents nine principles for utilizing “smart mixes” of regulatory and incentive-based tools (instruments). The following nine principles for smart instrument mixes are explained further in
the publication, bolstered by examples and case studies:
1. Ensure compatible instrument combinations
2. Calibrate interventions towards points of least resistance, lowest cost, and maximum impact
3. Sequence or scale interventions as necessary to achieve goals
4. Empower participants to act as surrogate regulators and enable voluntary initiatives
5. Maximize opportunities for net gain outcomes
6. Consider and harness the responsiveness of stakeholders (bottom-up matters)
7. Consider top-down relationships, opportunities, and constraints
8. Monitor and adapt the smart mix in light of its effectiveness
9. Assess performance and adoption of better interventions
ABNJ fisheries are broad in scope and scale, and are composed of heterogeneous States and fishers with varied incomes and motivations. The result is that risks, expected costs, speed of transformation, scale of investments, and returns from these fisheries are highly variable. Thus, the nine principles should not be viewed
as prescriptive. Instead, the principles provide guidelines for managers and policy makers to reflect on existing management, and steer stakeholders through an adaptive process to effect change. The biggest takeaway is that there
is no single solution or path. Instead, these principles indicate solid directions to proceed, tempered by general conditions found across case studies presented here and in the wider OPP body of knowledge.
Reply to Anderson, Ellen, Hanazaki, Hunn, Rival, Si, Slater, Weiskopf
Ludwig, D.J. - \ 2018
Current Anthropology 59 (2018)4. - ISSN 0011-3204 - p. 430 - 438.
Microorganisms in Foods 7 : Microbiological Testing in Food Safety Management
Buchanan, R.L. ; Anderson, W. ; Anelich, L. ; Cordier, J.L. ; Dewanti-Hariyadi, R. ; Ross, T. ; Zwietering, M.H. - \ 2018
Cham : Springer International Publishing Switzerland - ISBN 9783319684581 - 479 p.
The second edition of Microorganisms in Foods 7: Microbiological Testing in Food Safety Management updates and expands on information on the role of microbiological testing in modern food safety management systems. After helping the reader understand the often confusing statistical concepts underlying microbiological sampling, the second edition explores how risk assessment and risk management can be used to establish goals such as a “tolerable levels of risk,” Appropriate Levels of Protection, Food Safety Objectives or Performance Objectives for use in controlling foodborne illness. Guidelines for establishing effective management systems for control of specific hazards in foods are also addressed, including new examples for pathogens and indicator organisms in powdered infant formula, Listeria monocytogenes in deli-meats, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in leafy green vegetables, viruses in oysters and Campylobacter in poultry. In addition, a new chapter on application of sampling concept to microbiological methods, expanded chapters covering statistical process control, investigational sampling, environmental sampling, and alternative sampling schemes.
Discovery of common and rare genetic risk variants for colorectal cancer
Huyghe, Jeroen R. ; Bien, Stephanie A. ; Harrison, Tabitha A. ; Kang, Hyun Min ; Chen, Sai ; Schmit, Stephanie L. ; Conti, David V. ; Qu, Conghui ; Jeon, Jihyoun ; Edlund, Christopher K. ; Greenside, Peyton ; Wainberg, Michael ; Schumacher, Fredrick R. ; Smith, Joshua D. ; Levine, David M. ; Nelson, Sarah C. ; Sinnott-armstrong, Nasa A. ; Albanes, Demetrius ; Alonso, M.H. ; Anderson, Kristin ; Arnau-Collell, Coral ; Arndt, Volker ; Bamia, Christina ; Banbury, Barbara L. ; Baron, John A. ; Berndt, Sonja I. ; Bézieau, Stéphane ; Bishop, D.T. ; Boehm, Juergen ; Boeing, Heiner ; Brenner, Hermann ; Brezina, Stefanie ; Buch, Stephan ; Buchanan, Daniel D. ; Burnett-hartman, Andrea ; Butterbach, Katja ; Caan, Bette J. ; Campbell, Peter T. ; Carlson, Christopher S. ; Castellví-Bel, Sergi ; Chan, Andrew T. ; Chang-Claude, Jenny ; Chanock, Stephen J. ; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores ; Cho, Sang Hee ; Connolly, Charles M. ; Cross, Amanda J. ; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Li, Li ; Huang, Wen-Yi - \ 2018
Nature Genetics 51 (2018). - ISSN 1061-4036 - p. 76 - 87.
To further dissect the genetic architecture of colorectal cancer (CRC), we performed whole-genome sequencing of 1,439 cases and 720 controls, imputed discovered sequence variants and Haplotype Reference Consortium panel variants into genome-wide association study data, and tested for association in 34,869 cases and 29,051 controls. Findings were followed up in an additional 23,262 cases and 38,296 controls. We discovered a strongly protective 0.3% frequency variant signal at CHD1. In a combined meta-analysis of 125,478 individuals, we identified 40 new independent signals at P < 5 × 10−8, bringing the number of known independent signals for CRC to ~100. New signals implicate lower-frequency variants, Krüppel-like factors, Hedgehog signaling, Hippo-YAP signaling, long noncoding RNAs and somatic drivers, and support a role for immune function. Heritability analyses suggest that CRC risk is highly polygenic, and larger, more comprehensive studies enabling rare variant analysis will improve understanding of biology underlying this risk and influence personalized screening strategies and drug development.