Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

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    Setting a baseline for global urban virome surveillance in sewage
    Nieuwenhuijse, David F. ; Oude Munnink, Bas B. ; Phan, My V.T. ; Hendriksen, Rene S. ; Bego, Artan ; Rees, Catherine ; Neilson, Elizabeth Heather ; Coventry, Kris ; Collignon, Peter ; Allerberger, Franz ; Rahube, Teddie O. ; Oliveira, Guilherme ; Ivanov, Ivan ; Sopheak, Thet ; Vuthy, Yith ; Yost, Christopher K. ; Tabo, Djim Adjim ; Cuadros-Orellana, Sara ; Ke, Changwen ; Zheng, Huanying ; Baisheng, Li ; Jiao, Xiaoyang ; Donado-Godoy, Pilar ; Coulibaly, Kalpy Julien ; Hrenovic, Jasna ; Jergović, Matijana ; Karpíšková, Renáta ; Elsborg, Bodil ; Legesse, Mengistu ; Eguale, Tadesse ; Heikinheimo, Annamari ; Villacis, Jose Eduardo ; Sanneh, Bakary ; Malania, Lile ; Nitsche, Andreas ; Brinkmann, Annika ; Saba, Courage Kosi Setsoafia ; Kocsis, Bela ; Solymosi, Norbert ; Thorsteinsdottir, Thorunn R. ; Hatha, Abdulla Mohamed ; Alebouyeh, Masoud ; Morris, Dearbhaile ; O’Connor, Louise ; Cormican, Martin ; Moran-Gilad, Jacob ; Passel, Mark van; Schans, Milou G.M. van de; Zuidema, Tina ; Koopmans, Marion P.G. - \ 2020
    Scientific Reports 10 (2020)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

    The rapid development of megacities, and their growing connectedness across the world is becoming a distinct driver for emerging disease outbreaks. Early detection of unusual disease emergence and spread should therefore include such cities as part of risk-based surveillance. A catch-all metagenomic sequencing approach of urban sewage could potentially provide an unbiased insight into the dynamics of viral pathogens circulating in a community irrespective of access to care, a potential which already has been proven for the surveillance of poliovirus. Here, we present a detailed characterization of sewage viromes from a snapshot of 81 high density urban areas across the globe, including in-depth assessment of potential biases, as a proof of concept for catch-all viral pathogen surveillance. We show the ability to detect a wide range of viruses and geographical and seasonal differences for specific viral groups. Our findings offer a cross-sectional baseline for further research in viral surveillance from urban sewage samples and place previous studies in a global perspective.

    Stefano Bellucci and Andreas Eckert, eds., General labour history of Africa: workers, employers and governments, 20th–21st centuries : (International Labour Organization: Boydell & Brewer, 2019. Pp. v+761. 3 maps. 4 figs. 6 tabs. ISBN 9781847012180 Hbk. £95)
    Haas, Michiel De - \ 2020
    Economic History Review 73 (2020)2. - ISSN 0013-0117 - p. 616 - 618.
    The FLUXNET2015 dataset and the ONEFlux processing pipeline for eddy covariance data
    Pastorello, Gilberto ; Trotta, Carlo ; Canfora, Eleonora ; Chu, Housen ; Christianson, Danielle ; Cheah, You Wei ; Poindexter, Cristina ; Chen, Jiquan ; Elbashandy, Abdelrahman ; Humphrey, Marty ; Isaac, Peter ; Polidori, Diego ; Ribeca, Alessio ; Ingen, Catharine van; Zhang, Leiming ; Amiro, Brian ; Ammann, Christof ; Arain, M.A. ; Ardö, Jonas ; Arkebauer, Timothy ; Arndt, Stefan K. ; Arriga, Nicola ; Aubinet, Marc ; Aurela, Mika ; Baldocchi, Dennis ; Barr, Alan ; Beamesderfer, Eric ; Marchesini, Luca Belelli ; Bergeron, Onil ; Beringer, Jason ; Bernhofer, Christian ; Berveiller, Daniel ; Billesbach, Dave ; Black, Thomas Andrew ; Blanken, Peter D. ; Bohrer, Gil ; Boike, Julia ; Bolstad, Paul V. ; Bonal, Damien ; Bonnefond, Jean Marc ; Bowling, David R. ; Bracho, Rosvel ; Brodeur, Jason ; Brümmer, Christian ; Buchmann, Nina ; Burban, Benoit ; Burns, Sean P. ; Buysse, Pauline ; Cale, Peter ; Cavagna, Mauro ; Cellier, Pierre ; Chen, Shiping ; Chini, Isaac ; Christensen, Torben R. ; Cleverly, James ; Collalti, Alessio ; Consalvo, Claudia ; Cook, Bruce D. ; Cook, David ; Coursolle, Carole ; Cremonese, Edoardo ; Curtis, Peter S. ; Andrea, Ettore D'; Rocha, Humberto da; Dai, Xiaoqin ; Davis, Kenneth J. ; Cinti, Bruno De; Grandcourt, Agnes de; Ligne, Anne De; Oliveira, Raimundo C. De; Delpierre, Nicolas ; Desai, Ankur R. ; Bella, Carlos Marcelo Di; Tommasi, Paul di; Dolman, Han ; Domingo, Francisco ; Dong, Gang ; Dore, Sabina ; Duce, Pierpaolo ; Dufrêne, Eric ; Dunn, Allison ; Dušek, Jiří ; Eamus, Derek ; Eichelmann, Uwe ; ElKhidir, Hatim Abdalla M. ; Eugster, Werner ; Ewenz, Cacilia M. ; Ewers, Brent ; Famulari, Daniela ; Fares, Silvano ; Feigenwinter, Iris ; Feitz, Andrew ; Fensholt, Rasmus ; Filippa, Gianluca ; Fischer, Marc ; Frank, John ; Galvagno, Marta ; Gharun, Mana ; Gianelle, Damiano ; Gielen, Bert ; Gioli, Beniamino ; Gitelson, Anatoly ; Goded, Ignacio ; Goeckede, Mathias ; Goldstein, Allen H. ; Gough, Christopher M. ; Goulden, Michael L. ; Graf, Alexander ; Griebel, Anne ; Gruening, Carsten ; Grünwald, Thomas ; Hammerle, Albin ; Han, Shijie ; Han, Xingguo ; Hansen, Birger Ulf ; Hanson, Chad ; Hatakka, Juha ; He, Yongtao ; Hehn, Markus ; Heinesch, Bernard ; Hinko-Najera, Nina ; Hörtnagl, Lukas ; Hutley, Lindsay ; Ibrom, Andreas ; Ikawa, Hiroki ; Jackowicz-Korczynski, Marcin ; Janouš, Dalibor ; Jans, Wilma ; Jassal, Rachhpal ; Jiang, Shicheng ; Kato, Tomomichi ; Khomik, Myroslava ; Klatt, Janina ; Knohl, Alexander ; Knox, Sara ; Kobayashi, Hideki ; Koerber, Georgia ; Kolle, Olaf ; Kosugi, Yoshiko ; Kotani, Ayumi ; Kowalski, Andrew ; Kruijt, Bart ; Kurbatova, Julia ; Kutsch, Werner L. ; Kwon, Hyojung ; Launiainen, Samuli ; Laurila, Tuomas ; Law, Bev ; Leuning, Ray ; Li, Yingnian ; Liddell, Michael ; Limousin, Jean Marc ; Lion, Marryanna ; Liska, Adam J. ; Lohila, Annalea ; López-Ballesteros, Ana ; López-Blanco, Efrén ; Loubet, Benjamin ; Loustau, Denis ; Lucas-Moffat, Antje ; Lüers, Johannes ; Ma, Siyan ; Macfarlane, Craig ; Magliulo, Vincenzo ; Maier, Regine ; Mammarella, Ivan ; Manca, Giovanni ; Marcolla, Barbara ; Margolis, Hank A. ; Marras, Serena ; Massman, William ; Mastepanov, Mikhail ; Matamala, Roser ; Matthes, Jaclyn Hatala ; Mazzenga, Francesco ; McCaughey, Harry ; McHugh, Ian ; McMillan, Andrew M.S. ; Merbold, Lutz ; Meyer, Wayne ; Meyers, Tilden ; Miller, Scott D. ; Minerbi, Stefano ; Moderow, Uta ; Monson, Russell K. ; Montagnani, Leonardo ; Moore, Caitlin E. ; Moors, Eddy ; Moreaux, Virginie ; Moureaux, Christine ; Munger, J.W. ; Nakai, Taro ; Neirynck, Johan ; Nesic, Zoran ; Nicolini, Giacomo ; Noormets, Asko ; Northwood, Matthew ; Nosetto, Marcelo ; Nouvellon, Yann ; Novick, Kimberly ; Oechel, Walter ; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind ; Ourcival, Jean Marc ; Papuga, Shirley A. ; Parmentier, Frans Jan ; Paul-Limoges, Eugenie ; Pavelka, Marian ; Peichl, Matthias ; Pendall, Elise ; Phillips, Richard P. ; Pilegaard, Kim ; Pirk, Norbert ; Posse, Gabriela ; Powell, Thomas ; Prasse, Heiko ; Prober, Suzanne M. ; Rambal, Serge ; Rannik, Üllar ; Raz-Yaseef, Naama ; Reed, David ; Dios, Victor Resco de; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia ; Reverter, Borja R. ; Roland, Marilyn ; Sabbatini, Simone ; Sachs, Torsten ; Saleska, Scott R. ; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P. ; Sanchez-Mejia, Zulia M. ; Schmid, Hans Peter ; Schmidt, Marius ; Schneider, Karl ; Schrader, Frederik ; Schroder, Ivan ; Scott, Russell L. ; Sedlák, Pavel ; Serrano-Ortíz, Penélope ; Shao, Changliang ; Shi, Peili ; Shironya, Ivan ; Siebicke, Lukas ; Šigut, Ladislav ; Silberstein, Richard ; Sirca, Costantino ; Spano, Donatella ; Steinbrecher, Rainer ; Stevens, Robert M. ; Sturtevant, Cove ; Suyker, Andy ; Tagesson, Torbern ; Takanashi, Satoru ; Tang, Yanhong ; Tapper, Nigel ; Thom, Jonathan ; Tiedemann, Frank ; Tomassucci, Michele ; Tuovinen, Juha Pekka ; Urbanski, Shawn ; Valentini, Riccardo ; Molen, Michiel van der; Gorsel, Eva van; Huissteden, Ko van; Varlagin, Andrej ; Verfaillie, Joseph ; Vesala, Timo ; Vincke, Caroline ; Vitale, Domenico ; Vygodskaya, Natalia ; Walker, Jeffrey P. ; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth ; Wang, Huimin ; Weber, Robin ; Westermann, Sebastian ; Wille, Christian ; Wofsy, Steven ; Wohlfahrt, Georg ; Wolf, Sebastian ; Woodgate, William ; Li, Yuelin ; Zampedri, Roberto ; Zhang, Junhui ; Zhou, Guoyi ; Zona, Donatella ; Agarwal, Deb ; Biraud, Sebastien ; Torn, Margaret ; Papale, Dario - \ 2020
    Scientific Data 7 (2020)1. - ISSN 2052-4463 - 1 p.

    The FLUXNET2015 dataset provides ecosystem-scale data on CO2, water, and energy exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere, and other meteorological and biological measurements, from 212 sites around the globe (over 1500 site-years, up to and including year 2014). These sites, independently managed and operated, voluntarily contributed their data to create global datasets. Data were quality controlled and processed using uniform methods, to improve consistency and intercomparability across sites. The dataset is already being used in a number of applications, including ecophysiology studies, remote sensing studies, and development of ecosystem and Earth system models. FLUXNET2015 includes derived-data products, such as gap-filled time series, ecosystem respiration and photosynthetic uptake estimates, estimation of uncertainties, and metadata about the measurements, presented for the first time in this paper. In addition, 206 of these sites are for the first time distributed under a Creative Commons (CC-BY 4.0) license. This paper details this enhanced dataset and the processing methods, now made available as open-source codes, making the dataset more accessible, transparent, and reproducible.

    The global abundance of tree palms
    Muscarella, Robert ; Emilio, Thaise ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Slik, Ferry ; Baker, William J. ; Couvreur, Thomas L.P. ; Eiserhardt, Wolf L. ; Svenning, Jens Christian ; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Almeida, Everton C. de; Almeida, Samuel S. de; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Álvarez-Dávila, Esteban ; Alves, Luciana F. ; Alvez-Valles, Carlos Mariano ; Carvalho, Fabrício Alvim ; Guarin, Fernando Alzate ; Andrade, Ana ; Aragão, Luis E.O.C. ; Murakami, Alejandro Araujo ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Ashton, Peter S. ; Corredor, Gerardo A.A. ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Camargo, Plinio Barbosa de; Barlow, Jos ; Bastin, Jean François ; Bengone, Natacha Nssi ; Berenguer, Erika ; Berry, Nicholas ; Blanc, Lilian ; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin ; Bonal, Damien ; Bongers, Frans ; Bradford, Matt ; Brambach, Fabian ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brewer, Steven W. ; Camargo, Jose L.C. ; Campbell, David G. ; Castilho, Carolina V. ; Castro, Wendeson ; Catchpole, Damien ; Cerón Martínez, Carlos E. ; Chen, Shengbin ; Chhang, Phourin ; Cho, Percival ; Chutipong, Wanlop ; Clark, Connie ; Collins, Murray ; Comiskey, James A. ; Medina, Massiel Nataly Corrales ; Costa, Flávia R.C. ; Culmsee, Heike ; David-Higuita, Heriberto ; Davidar, Priya ; Aguila-Pasquel, Jhon del; Derroire, Géraldine ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Do, Tran Van; Doucet, Jean Louis ; Dourdain, Aurélie ; Drake, Donald R. ; Ensslin, Andreas ; Erwin, Terry ; Ewango, Corneille E.N. ; Ewers, Robert M. ; Fauset, Sophie ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Ferreira, Joice ; Ferreira, Leandro Valle ; Fischer, Markus ; Franklin, Janet ; Fredriksson, Gabriella M. ; Gillespie, Thomas W. ; Gilpin, Martin ; Gonmadje, Christelle ; Gunatilleke, Arachchige Upali Nimal ; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hamer, Keith C. ; Harris, David J. ; Harrison, Rhett D. ; Hector, Andrew ; Hemp, Andreas ; Herault, Bruno ; Pizango, Carlos Gabriel Hidalgo ; Honorio Coronado, Eurídice N. ; Hubau, Wannes ; Hussain, Mohammad Shah ; Ibrahim, Faridah Hanum ; Imai, Nobuo ; Joly, Carlos A. ; Joseph, Shijo ; Anitha, K. ; Kartawinata, Kuswata ; Kassi, Justin ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Kitayama, Kanehiro ; Klitgård, Bente Bang ; Kooyman, Robert ; Labrière, Nicolas ; Larney, Eileen ; Laumonier, Yves ; Laurance, Susan G. ; Laurance, William F. ; Lawes, Michael J. ; Levesley, Aurora ; Lisingo, Janvier ; Lovejoy, Thomas ; Lovett, Jon C. ; Lu, Xinghui ; Lykke, Anne Mette ; Magnusson, William E. ; Mahayani, Ni Putu Diana ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Mansor, Asyraf ; Peña, Jose Luis Marcelo ; Marimon-Junior, Ben H. ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Melgaco, Karina ; Bautista, Casimiro Mendoza ; Mihindou, Vianet ; Millet, Jérôme ; Milliken, William ; Mohandass, D. ; Mendoza, Abel Lorenzo Monteagudo ; Mugerwa, Badru ; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi ; Nagy, Laszlo ; Seuaturien, Naret ; Nascimento, Marcelo T. ; Neill, David A. ; Neto, Luiz Menini ; Nilus, Rueben ; Vargas, Mario Percy Núñez ; Nurtjahya, Eddy ; Araújo, R.N.O. de; Onrizal, Onrizal ; Palacios, Walter A. ; Palacios-Ramos, Sonia ; Parren, Marc ; Paudel, Ekananda ; Morandi, Paulo S. ; Pennington, R.T. ; Pickavance, Georgia ; Pipoly, John J. ; Pitman, Nigel C.A. ; Poedjirahajoe, Erny ; Poorter, Lourens ; Poulsen, John R. ; Prasad, P.R.C. ; Prieto, Adriana ; Puyravaud, Jean Philippe ; Qie, Lan ; Quesada, Carlos A. ; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma ; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude ; Reitsma, Jan Meindert ; Requena-Rojas, Edilson J. ; Correa, Zorayda Restrepo ; Rodriguez, Carlos Reynel ; Roopsind, Anand ; Rovero, Francesco ; Rozak, Andes ; Lleras, Agustín Rudas ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Rutten, Gemma ; Punchi-Manage, Ruwan ; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Sam, Hoang Van; Sarker, Swapan Kumar ; Satdichanh, Manichanh ; Schietti, Juliana ; Schmitt, Christine B. ; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes ; Senbeta, Feyera ; Nath Sharma, Lila ; Sheil, Douglas ; Sierra, Rodrigo ; Silva-Espejo, Javier E. ; Silveira, Marcos ; Sonké, Bonaventure ; Steininger, Marc K. ; Steinmetz, Robert ; Stévart, Tariq ; Sukumar, Raman ; Sultana, Aisha ; Sunderland, Terry C.H. ; Suresh, Hebbalalu Satyanarayana ; Tang, Jianwei ; Tanner, Edmund ; Steege, Hans ter; Terborgh, John W. ; Theilade, Ida ; Timberlake, Jonathan ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Umunay, Peter ; Uriarte, María ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Bult, Martin van de; Hout, Peter van der; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Vieira, Simone A. ; Vilanova, Emilio ; Cayo, Jeanneth Villalobos ; Wang, Ophelia ; Webb, Campbell O. ; Webb, Edward L. ; White, Lee ; Whitfeld, Timothy J.S. ; Wich, Serge ; Willcock, Simon ; Wiser, Susan K. ; Young, Kenneth R. ; Zakaria, Rahmad ; Zang, Runguo ; Zartman, Charles E. ; Zo-Bi, Irié Casimir ; Balslev, Henrik - \ 2020
    Global Ecology and Biogeography 29 (2020)9. - ISSN 1466-822X - p. 1495 - 1514.
    above-ground biomass - abundance patterns - Arecaceae - local abiotic conditions - Neotropics - pantropical biogeography - tropical rainforest - wood density

    Aim: Palms are an iconic, diverse and often abundant component of tropical ecosystems that provide many ecosystem services. Being monocots, tree palms are evolutionarily, morphologically and physiologically distinct from other trees, and these differences have important consequences for ecosystem services (e.g., carbon sequestration and storage) and in terms of responses to climate change. We quantified global patterns of tree palm relative abundance to help improve understanding of tropical forests and reduce uncertainty about these ecosystems under climate change. Location: Tropical and subtropical moist forests. Time period: Current. Major taxa studied: Palms (Arecaceae). Methods: We assembled a pantropical dataset of 2,548 forest plots (covering 1,191 ha) and quantified tree palm (i.e., ≥10 cm diameter at breast height) abundance relative to co-occurring non-palm trees. We compared the relative abundance of tree palms across biogeographical realms and tested for associations with palaeoclimate stability, current climate, edaphic conditions and metrics of forest structure. Results: On average, the relative abundance of tree palms was more than five times larger between Neotropical locations and other biogeographical realms. Tree palms were absent in most locations outside the Neotropics but present in >80% of Neotropical locations. The relative abundance of tree palms was more strongly associated with local conditions (e.g., higher mean annual precipitation, lower soil fertility, shallower water table and lower plot mean wood density) than metrics of long-term climate stability. Life-form diversity also influenced the patterns; palm assemblages outside the Neotropics comprise many non-tree (e.g., climbing) palms. Finally, we show that tree palms can influence estimates of above-ground biomass, but the magnitude and direction of the effect require additional work. Conclusions: Tree palms are not only quintessentially tropical, but they are also overwhelmingly Neotropical. Future work to understand the contributions of tree palms to biomass estimates and carbon cycling will be particularly crucial in Neotropical forests.

    Influence of glacial sediments on the chemical quality of surface water in the Ulta valley, Cordillera Blanca, Peru
    Magnússon, Rúna ; Cammeraat, Erik ; Lucke, Andreas ; Jansen, Boris - \ 2020
    Journal of Hydrology (2020)587. - ISSN 0022-1694 - p. 1 - 16.
    The Río Santa (Ancash, Peru) and its tributaries are an essential source of drinking and irrigation water. Its discharge relies on glacial meltwater, which is diminishing due to the rapid decrease in glacial extent. As a secondary effect, water quality can be compromised (e.g. pH < 3 and high concentrations of SO42− and trace metals). Although this has previously been attributed to pyrite rich Chicama bedrock exposed by glacial retreat, little is known about the occurrence of Chicama fragments in Quaternary glacial sediments and its influence on water quality. This research aims at elucidating this effect by relating observed changes in water quality in streams to presence and chemical composition of morainic ridges in the Quebrada Ulta in the Río Santa basin. Changes in water quality before and after contact with a morainic ridge were assessed using carbonate alkalinity titration, ion analysis and elemental analysis. Moreover, relative contributions of glacial meltwater and precipitation were assessed qualitatively using stable water isotope analysis. We used a novel method to explain the provenance of contaminated glacial sediments using a reconstruction of their source area. The mineralogical composition of a morainic ridge was strongly related to the geology of the source area indicating that mineralogical composition of tills may be predicted using this technique. Effects of glacial sediments in morainic ridges on water quality were minimal but depended on their mineralogical composition. Morainic ridges with a high content of Chicama shales tended to increase solute loads of Mg and SO42−. Additionally, isotope signatures suggest that during the dry season, moraines may act as reservoirs for precipitation-derived shallow groundwater. Clear trends in water quality were observed along the whole flow path of the Río Buín, which could potentially be explained by increased groundwater contribution downstream and shifts in dominant weathering mechanisms. Future research should focus on disentangling these various drivers of water quality in glacial catchments.
    Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and reduced irrigation water use in rice production through water-saving irrigation scheduling, reduced tillage and fertiliser application strategies
    Islam, S.F. ; Sander, Bjoern Ole ; Quilty, James R. ; Neergaard, Andreas de; Groenigen, Jan Willem van; Jensen, Lars Stoumann - \ 2020
    Science of the Total Environment 739 (2020). - ISSN 0048-9697
    Alternate wetting and drying - Fertigation - Global warming potential - Liquid fertilisation - Methane - Nitrous oxide - Reduced tillage - Soil water potential scheduling - Yield

    Rice production systems are the largest anthropogenic wetlands on earth and feed more than half of the world's population. However, they are also a major source of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Several agronomic strategies have been proposed to improve water-use efficiency and reduce GHG emissions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of water-saving irrigation (alternate wetting and drying (AWD) vs. soil water potential (SWP)), contrasting land establishment (puddling vs. reduced tillage) and fertiliser application methods (broadcast vs. liquid fertilisation) on water-use efficiency, GHG emissions and rice yield. The experiment was laid out in a randomised complete block design with eight treatments (all combinations of the three factors) and four replicates. AWD combined with broadcasting fertilisation was superior to SWP in terms of maintaining yield. However, seasonal nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions were significantly reduced by 64% and 66% in the Broadcast-SWP and Liquid fertiliser-SWP treatments, respectively, compared to corresponding treatments in AWD. The SWP also significantly reduced seasonal methane (CH4) emissions by 34 and 30% in the broadcast and liquid fertilisation treatments, respectively. Area-scaled GWPs were reduced by 48% and 54% in Broadcast-SWP and Liquid fertiliser-SWP treatments respectively compared to the corresponding treatments in AWD. Compared to AWD, the broadcast and liquid fertilisation in SWP irrigation treatments reduced yield-scaled GWPs by 46% and 37%, respectively. In terms of suitability, based on yield-scaled GWPs, the treatments can be ordered as follows: Broadcast-SWP < Broadcast-AWD = Liquid fertiliser-SWP < Liquid fertiliser-AWD. Growing-season water use was 15% lower in the SWP treatments compared with the water-saving AWD. Reduced tillage reduced additional water use during land preparation. The conclusions of this study are that improved water management and timely coordination of N fertiliser with crop demand can reduce water use, N loss via N2O emissions, and CH4 emissions.

    Computational material flow analysis for thousands of chemicals of emerging concern in European waters
    Gils, Jos van; Posthuma, Leo ; Cousins, Ian T. ; Brack, Werner ; Altenburger, Rolf ; Baveco, Hans ; Focks, Andreas ; Greskowiak, Janek ; Kühne, Ralph ; Kutsarova, Stela ; Lindim, Claudia ; Markus, Arjen ; Meent, Dik van de; Munthe, John ; Schueder, Rudy ; Schüürmann, Gerrit ; Slobodnik, Jaroslav ; Zwart, Dick de; Wezel, Annemarie van - \ 2020
    Journal of Hazardous Materials 397 (2020). - ISSN 0304-3894
    Emerging contaminants - Emissions - Fate and transport - Modelling - Water quality

    Knowledge of exposure to a wide range of chemicals, and the spatio-temporal variability thereof, is urgently needed in the context of protecting and restoring aquatic ecosystems. This paper discusses a computational material flow analysis to predict the occurrence of thousands of man-made organic chemicals on a European scale, based on a novel temporally and spatially resolved modelling framework. The goal was to increase understanding of pressures by emerging chemicals and to complement surface water monitoring data. The ambition was to provide a first step towards a "real-life" mixture exposure situation accounting for as many chemicals as possible. Comparison of simulated concentrations and chemical monitoring data for 226 substance/basin combinations showed that the simulated concentrations were accurate on average. For 65% and 90% of substance/basin combinations the error was within one and two orders of magnitude respectively. An analysis of the relative importance of uncertainties revealed that inaccuracies in use volume or use type information contributed most to the error for individual substances. To resolve this, we suggest better registration of use types of industrial chemicals, investigation of presence/absence of industrial chemicals in wastewater and runoff samples and more scientific information exchange.

    Off-target activity inhibitors for guided endonucleases
    Notebaart, Richard Alexander ; Künne, Tim Andreas ; Brouns, Stan Johan Jozef ; Oost, John Van Der - \ 2020
    Octrooinummer: WO2020065062, gepubliceerd: 2020-04-02.

    Incidence of off-target DNA cleavage when using CRISPR Cas systems for gene modification are lessened or avoided by using oligonucleotides of rational design and which are antisense to target sequence of the guide RNA or other targeting nucleic acid sequence. Whether in vitro or in vivo, a target nucleic acid comprising a targeted sequence is exposed to the CRISPR enzyme and relevant guiding RNA (or ribonucleoprotein complex) with the antisense oligonucleotide. The antisense oligonucleotide is exposed to the target nucleic acid substantially simultaneously, separately or sequentially together with the CRISPR enzyme or ribonucleoprotein complex.

    Publisher Correction: MEMOTE for standardized genome-scale metabolic model testing
    Lieven, Christian ; Beber, Moritz E. ; Olivier, Brett G. ; Bergmann, Frank T. ; Ataman, Meric ; Babaei, Parizad ; Bartell, Jennifer A. ; Blank, Lars M. ; Chauhan, Siddharth ; Correia, Kevin ; Diener, Christian ; Dräger, Andreas ; Ebert, Birgitta E. ; Edirisinghe, Janaka N. ; Faria, José P. ; Feist, Adam M. ; Fengos, Georgios ; Fleming, Ronan M.T. ; García-Jiménez, Beatriz ; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily ; Helvoirt, Wout van; Henry, Christopher S. ; Hermjakob, Henning ; Herrgård, Markus J. ; Kaafarani, Ali ; Kim, Hyun Uk ; King, Zachary ; Klamt, Steffen ; Klipp, Edda ; Koehorst, Jasper J. ; König, Matthias ; Lakshmanan, Meiyappan ; Lee, Dong Yup ; Lee, Sang Yup ; Lee, Sunjae ; Lewis, Nathan E. ; Liu, Filipe ; Ma, Hongwu ; Machado, Daniel ; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan ; Maia, Paulo ; Mardinoglu, Adil ; Medlock, Gregory L. ; Monk, Jonathan M. ; Nielsen, Jens ; Nielsen, Lars Keld ; Nogales, Juan ; Nookaew, Intawat ; Palsson, Bernhard O. ; Papin, Jason A. ; Patil, Kiran R. ; Poolman, Mark ; Price, Nathan D. ; Resendis-Antonio, Osbaldo ; Richelle, Anne ; Rocha, Isabel ; Sánchez, Benjamín J. ; Schaap, Peter J. ; Malik Sheriff, Rahuman S. ; Shoaie, Saeed ; Sonnenschein, Nikolaus ; Teusink, Bas ; Vilaça, Paulo ; Vik, Jon Olav ; Wodke, Judith A.H. ; Xavier, Joana C. ; Yuan, Qianqian ; Zakhartsev, Maksim ; Zhang, Cheng - \ 2020
    Nature Biotechnology 38 (2020)4. - ISSN 1087-0156 - 1 p.

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    Introduction enhancing understanding of strategies of land policy for urban densification
    Dembski, Sebastian ; Hartmann, Thomas ; Hengstermann, Andreas ; Dunning, Richard - \ 2020
    TPR Town Planning Review 91 (2020)3. - ISSN 0041-0020 - p. 209 - 216.
    Land policy - North west Europe - Planning instruments - Strategies - Urban densification
    Angular-Based Radiometric Slope Correction for Sentinel-1 on Google Earth Engine
    Vollrath, Andreas ; Mullissa, Adugna ; Reiche, Johannes - \ 2020
    Remote Sensing 12 (2020)11. - ISSN 2072-4292 - 14 p.
    This article provides an angular-based radiometric slope correction routine for Sentinel-1 SAR imagery on the Google Earth Engine platform. Two established physical reference models are implemented. The first model is optimised for vegetation applications by assuming volume scattering on the ground. The second model is optimised for surface scattering, and therefore targeted at urban environments or analysis of soil characteristics. The framework of both models is extended to simultaneously generate masks of invalid data in active layover and shadow affected areas. A case study, using openly available and reproducible code, exemplarily demonstrates the improvement of the backscatter signal in a mountainous area of the Austrian Alps. Furthermore, suggestions for specific use cases are discussed and drawbacks of the method with respect to pixel-area based methods are highlighted. The radiometrically corrected radar backscatter products are overcoming current limitations and are compliant with recent CEOS specifications for SAR backscatter over land. This improves a wide range of potential usage scenarios of the Google Earth Engine platform in mapping various land surface parameters with Sentinel-1 on a large scale and in a rapid manner. The provision of an openly accessible Earth Engine module allows users a smooth integration of the routine into their own workflows.
    Modeling Cost Impacts and Adaptation of Freeze-Thaw Climate Change on a Porous Asphalt Road Network
    Kwiatkowski, Kyle P. ; Stipanovic Oslakovic, Irina ; Maat, Herbert Ter; Hartmann, Andreas ; Chinowsky, Paul ; Dewulf, G.P.M.R. - \ 2020
    Journal of Infrastructure Systems 26 (2020)3. - ISSN 1076-0342
    Adaptation - Climate change - Freeze-thaw - Planning - Porous asphalt - Roads

    Changes in weather patterns pose a threat to the serviceability and long-term performance of roads, and porous asphalt (PA) roads are particularly sensitive to the freezing-thawing (FT) phenomenon. The main objective of this research is to assess the impact of climate change, particularly freezing and thawing cycles, on PA. Climate models predict changes in air temperature, not pavement temperature. To predict the climate change impact on pavements performance, this requires first establishing a relationship between air and road temperature and a correlation between pavement performance and FT cycles. This project focuses on the Netherlands, where PA pavement use has become mandatory, and recent severe winters have increased the discussion about the cold weather performance of porous asphalt and the potential challenges of changing winter weather patterns. When considering long-term changes in climate, the cost impacts of freeze-thaw on PA pavement are predicted to vary regionally and in most areas reach a point in the middle of the century when a reactive wait-and-see approach is more advantageous than proactive adaptation. Further research is suggested to refine the relationship between observed damage and freeze-thaw impacts on PA pavement.

    Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infection Staphylococcus aureus but not S. pyogenes Isolates Display High Rates of Internalization and Cytotoxicity Toward Human Myoblasts
    Baude, Jessica ; Bastien, Sylvère ; Gillet, Yves ; Leblanc, Pascal ; Itzek, Andreas ; Tristan, Anne ; Bes, Michèle ; Duguez, Stephanie ; Moreau, Karen ; Diep, Binh An ; Norrby-Teglund, Anna ; Henry, Thomas ; Vandenesch, François ; Arnell, Per ; Bergey, Francois ; Martins Dos Santos, Vitor A.P. ; Hyldegaard, Ole ; Nekludov, Michael ; Norrby-Teglund, Anna ; Pieper, Dietmar ; Skrede, Steinar ; Svensson, Mattias ; Vandenesch, Francois - \ 2020
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 221 (2020)2. - ISSN 0022-1899 - p. 710 - 719.
    muscle cells - necrotizing soft tissue infections - Staphylococcus aureus - Streptococcus pyogenes

    Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) caused by group A Streptococcus (GAS) and occasionally by Staphylococcus aureus (SA) frequently involve the deep fascia and often lead to muscle necrosis. Methods: To assess the pathogenicity of GAS and S. aureus for muscles in comparison to keratinocytes, adhesion and invasion of NSTI-GAS and NSTI-SA isolates were assessed in these cells. Bloodstream infections (BSI-SA) and noninvasive coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolates were used as controls. Results: NSTI-SA and BSI-SA exhibited stronger internalization into human keratinocytes and myoblasts than NSTI-GAS or CNS. S. aureus internalization reached over 30% in human myoblasts due to a higher percentage of infected myoblasts (>11%) as compared to keratinocytes (<3%). Higher cytotoxicity for myoblasts of NSTI-SA as compared to BSI-SA was attributed to higher levels of psmα and RNAIII transcripts in NSTI-SA. However, the 2 groups were not discriminated at the genomic level. The cellular basis of high internalization rate in myoblasts was attributed to higher expression of α5β1 integrin in myoblasts. Major contribution of FnbpAB-integrin α5β1 pathway to internalization was confirmed by isogenic mutants. Conclusions: Our findings suggest a factor in NSTI-SA severity is the strong invasiveness of S. aureus in muscle cells, a property not shared by NSTI-GAS isolates.

    Palaeosols and their cover sediments of a glacial landscape in northern central Europe : Spatial distribution, pedostratigraphy and evidence on landscape evolution
    Kaiser, Knut ; Schneider, Thomas ; Küster, Mathias ; Dietze, Elisabeth ; Fülling, Alexander ; Heinrich, Susann ; Kappler, Christoph ; Nelle, Oliver ; Schult, Manuela ; Theuerkauf, Martin ; Vogel, Sebastian ; Boer, Anna Maartje de; Börner, Andreas ; Preusser, Frank ; Schwabe, Matthias ; Ulrich, Jens ; Wirner, Michael ; Bens, Oliver - \ 2020
    Catena 193 (2020). - ISSN 0341-8162
    Buried soil - Holocene - Human impact - Land-cover change - Landscape dynamics - Soil erosion

    Knowledge of the distribution, types and properties of buried soils, i.e. palaeosols, is essential in understanding how lowlands in northern central Europe have changed over past millennia. This is an indispensable requirement for evaluating long-term human impact including soil erosion and land-cover dynamics. In the Serrahn area (62 km2), a young glacial landscape representative for northeastern Germany and part of the Müritz National Park, 26 pedosedimentary sections were documented and analysed. To this end, a multiproxy-approach was applied using pedology, micromorphology, geochronology, and palaeoecology. Statistical and spatial analyses of c. 5200 soil profiles, of which 10% contain palaeosols, show that buried soils cover an area of 5.7 km2, i.e. 9% of the area studied. Most palaeosols are Cambisols, Arenosols and Gleysols. Palaeosols are mainly covered by aeolian and colluvial sands, as well as by lacustrine sands and peat. Radiocarbon and luminescence dating together with palynological and anthracological data reveal that former land surfaces were dominantly buried through erosion triggered by human activity in the late Holocene. In addition, but to a clearly smaller extent, Lateglacial/early Holocene palaeosols and cover sediments occur. Following Medieval clear-cutting and intensive land use, the study area is today again widely forested. The high share of buried land surfaces detected here is expected to be representative for the hilly glacial landscapes even in the wider region, i.e. in northern central Europe, and should be considered in soil mapping, soil carbon budgeting and assessments of past human impact.

    Linking Morphology, Toxicokinetic, and Toxicodynamic Traits of Aquatic Invertebrates to Pyrethroid Sensitivity
    Dalhoff, Kristoffer ; Hansen, Anna M.B. ; Rasmussen, Jes J. ; Focks, Andreas ; Strobel, Bjarne W. ; Cedergreen, Nina - \ 2020
    Environmental Science and Technology 54 (2020)9. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 5687 - 5699.

    Pyrethroid insecticides are known to be highly toxic to most aquatic nontarget organisms, but little is known about the mechanisms causing some species to be highly sensitive while others are hardly affected by the pyrethroids. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity (EC50-values) of 10 aquatic invertebrates toward a 24 h pulse of the pyrethroid cypermethrin and subsequently test if the difference in sensitivity could be explained by measured morphological and physiological traits and modeled toxicokinetic (TK) and toxicodynamic (TD) parameters. Large differences were observed for the measured uptake and elimination kinetics, with bioconcentration factors (BCFs) ranging from 53 to 2337 at the end of the exposure. Similarly, large differences were observed for the TDs, and EC50-values after 168 h varied 120-fold. Modeling the whole organism cypermethrin concentrations indicated compartmentation into a sorbed fraction and two internal fractions: a bioavailable and non-bioavailable internal fraction. Strong correlations between surface/volume area and the TK parameters (sorption and uptake rate constants and the resulting BCF) were found, but none of the TK parameters correlated with sensitivity. The only parameter consistently correlating with sensitivity across all species was the killing rate constant of the GUTS-RED-SD model (the reduced general unified threshold models of survival assuming stochastic death), indicating that sensitivity toward cypermethrin is more related to the TD parameters than to TK parameters.

    Potential impact of chemical stress on freshwater invertebrates : A sensitivity assessment on continental and national scale based on distribution patterns, biological traits, and relatedness.
    Berg, Sanne J.P. Van den; Rendal, Cecilie ; Focks, Andreas ; Butler, Emma ; Peeters, Edwin T.H.M. ; Laender, Frederik De; Brink, Paul J. Van den - \ 2020
    Science of the Total Environment 731 (2020). - ISSN 0048-9697
    Chemical mode of action - Chemical stress - Macroinvertebrate assemblage sensitivity - Phylogenetic modelling - Predictive ecotoxicology - Species traits

    Current chemical risk assessment approaches rely on a standard suite of test species to assess toxicity to environmental species. Assessment factors are used to extrapolate from single species to communities and ecosystem effects. This approach is pragmatic, but lacks resolution in biological and environmental parameters. Novel modelling approaches can help improve the biological resolution of assessments by using mechanistic information to identify priority species and priority regions that are potentially most impacted by chemical stressors. In this study we developed predictive sensitivity models by combining species-specific information on acute chemical sensitivity (LC50 and EC50), traits, and taxonomic relatedness. These models were applied at two spatial scales to reveal spatial differences in the sensitivity of species assemblages towards two chemical modes of action (MOA): narcosis and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. We found that on a relative scale, 46% and 33% of European species were ranked as more sensitive towards narcosis and AChE inhibition, respectively. These more sensitive species were distributed with higher occurrences in the south and north-eastern regions, reflecting known continental patterns of endemic macroinvertebrate biodiversity. We found contradicting sensitivity patterns depending on the MOA for UK scenarios, with more species displaying relative sensitivity to narcotic MOA in north and north-western regions, and more species with relative sensitivity to AChE inhibition MOA in south and south-western regions. Overall, we identified hotspots of species sensitive to chemical stressors at two spatial scales, and discuss data gaps and crucial technological advances required for the successful application of the proposed methodology to invertebrate scenarios, which remain underrepresented in global conservation priorities.

    Determinants of legacy effects in pine trees – implications from an irrigation-stop experiment
    Zweifel, Roman ; Etzold, Sophia ; Sterck, Frank ; Gessler, Arthur ; Anfodillo, Tommaso ; Mencuccini, Maurizio ; Arx, Georg von; Lazzarin, Martina ; Haeni, Matthias ; Feichtinger, Linda ; Meusburger, Katrin ; Knuesel, Simon ; Walthert, Lorenz ; Salmon, Yann ; Bose, Arun K. ; Schoenbeck, Leonie ; Hug, Christian ; Girardi, Nicolas De; Giuggiola, Arnaud ; Schaub, Marcus ; Rigling, Andreas - \ 2020
    New Phytologist 227 (2020)4. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 1081 - 1096.
    cambial activity - drought stress - ecological memory - irrigation experiment - osmoregulation - point dendrometer - radial stem growth - TreeNet

    Tree responses to altered water availability range from immediate (e.g. stomatal regulation) to delayed (e.g. crown size adjustment). The interplay of the different response times and processes, and their effects on long-term whole-tree performance, however, is hardly understood. Here we investigated legacy effects on structures and functions of mature Scots pine in a dry inner-Alpine Swiss valley after stopping an 11-yr lasting irrigation treatment. Measured ecophysiological time series were analysed and interpreted with a system-analytic tree model. We found that the irrigation stop led to a cascade of downregulations of physiological and morphological processes with different response times. Biophysical processes responded within days, whereas needle and shoot lengths, crown transparency, and radial stem growth reached control levels after up to 4 yr only. Modelling suggested that organ and carbon reserve turnover rates play a key role for a tree’s responsiveness to environmental changes. Needle turnover rate was found to be most important to accurately model stem growth dynamics. We conclude that leaf area and its adjustment time to new conditions is the main determinant for radial stem growth of pine trees as the transpiring area needs to be supported by a proportional amount of sapwood, despite the growth-inhibiting environmental conditions.

    Metagenomic-and cultivation-based exploration of anaerobic chloroform biotransformation in hypersaline sediments as natural source of chloromethanes
    Peng, Peng ; Lu, Yue ; Bosma, Tom N.P. ; Nijenhuis, Ivonne ; Nijsse, Bart ; Shetty, Sudarshan A. ; Ruecker, Alexander ; Umanets, Alexander ; Ramiro-Garcia, Javier ; Kappler, Andreas ; Sipkema, Detmer ; Smidt, Hauke ; Atashgahi, Siavash - \ 2020
    Microorganisms 8 (2020)5. - ISSN 2076-2607
    Biotransformation - Chloroform - Hypersaline lakes - Metagenome

    Chloroform (CF) is an environmental contaminant that can be naturally formed in various environments ranging from forest soils to salt lakes. Here we investigated CF removal potential in sediments obtained from hypersaline lakes in Western Australia. Reductive dechlorination of CF to dichloromethane (DCM) was observed in enrichment cultures derived from sediments of Lake Strawbridge, which has been reported as a natural source of CF. No CF removal was observed in abiotic control cultures without artificial electron donors, indicating biotic CF dechlorination in the enrichment cultures. Increasing vitamin B12 concentration from 0.04 to 4 µM in enrichment cultures enhanced CF removal and reduced DCM formation. In cultures amended with 4 µM vitamin B12 and13C labelled CF, formation of13CO2 was detected. Known organohalide-respiring bacteria and reductive dehalogenase genes were neither detected using quantitative PCR nor metagenomic analysis of the enrichment cultures. Rather, members of the order Clostridiales, known to co-metabolically transform CF to DCM and CO2, were detected. Accordingly, metagenome-assembled genomes of Clostridiales encoded enzymatic repertoires for the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and cobalamin biosynthesis, which are known to be involved in fortuitous and nonspecific CF transformation. This study indicates that hypersaline lake microbiomes may act as a filter to reduce CF emission to the atmosphere.

    Compared to conventional, ecological intensive management promotes beneficial proteolytic soil microbial communities for agro-ecosystem functioning under climate change-induced rain regimes
    Lori, Martina ; Piton, Gabin ; Symanczik, Sarah ; Legay, Nicolas ; Brussaard, Lijbert ; Jaenicke, Sebastian ; Nascimento, Eduardo ; Reis, Filipa ; Sousa, José Paulo ; Mäder, Paul ; Gattinger, Andreas ; Clément, Jean Christophe ; Foulquier, Arnaud - \ 2020
    Scientific Reports 10 (2020)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

    Projected climate change and rainfall variability will affect soil microbial communities, biogeochemical cycling and agriculture. Nitrogen (N) is the most limiting nutrient in agroecosystems and its cycling and availability is highly dependent on microbial driven processes. In agroecosystems, hydrolysis of organic nitrogen (N) is an important step in controlling soil N availability. We analyzed the effect of management (ecological intensive vs. conventional intensive) on N-cycling processes and involved microbial communities under climate change-induced rain regimes. Terrestrial model ecosystems originating from agroecosystems across Europe were subjected to four different rain regimes for 263 days. Using structural equation modelling we identified direct impacts of rain regimes on N-cycling processes, whereas N-related microbial communities were more resistant. In addition to rain regimes, management indirectly affected N-cycling processes via modifications of N-related microbial community composition. Ecological intensive management promoted a beneficial N-related microbial community composition involved in N-cycling processes under climate change-induced rain regimes. Exploratory analyses identified phosphorus-associated litter properties as possible drivers for the observed management effects on N-related microbial community composition. This work provides novel insights into mechanisms controlling agro-ecosystem functioning under climate change.

    Carbon-nitrogen interactions in European forests and semi-natural vegetation - Part 2 : Untangling climatic, edaphic, management and nitrogen deposition effects on carbon sequestration potentials
    Sutton, Mark A. ; Flechard, Chris R. ; Oijen, Marcel Van; Cameron, David R. ; Vries, Wim De; Ibrom, Andreas ; Buchmann, Nina ; DIse, Nancy B. ; Janssens, Ivan A. ; Neirynck, Johan ; Montagnani, Leonardo ; Varlagin, Andrej ; Loustau, Denis ; Legout, Arnaud ; Ziemblińska, Klaudia ; Aubinet, Marc ; Aurela, Mika ; Chojnicki, Bogdan H. ; Drewer, Julia ; Eugster, Werner ; Francez, Andre Jean ; Juszczak, Radoslaw ; Kitzler, Barbara ; Kutsch, Werner L. ; Lohila, Annalea ; Longdoz, Bernard ; Matteucci, Giorgio ; Moreaux, Virginie ; Neftel, Albrecht ; Olejnik, Janusz ; Sanz, Maria J. ; Siemens, Jan ; Vesala, Timo ; Vincke, Caroline ; Nemitz, Eiko ; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie ; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus ; Skiba, Ute M. - \ 2020
    Biogeosciences 17 (2020)6. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 1621 - 1654.

    The effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition (Ndep) on carbon (C) sequestration in forests have often been assessed by relating differences in productivity to spatial variations of Ndep across a large geographic domain. These correlations generally suffer from covariation of other confounding variables related to climate and other growth-limiting factors, as well as large uncertainties in total (dryCwet) reactive nitrogen (Nr) deposition.We propose a methodology for untangling the effects of Ndep from those of meteorological variables, soil water retention capacity and stand age, using a mechanistic forest growth model in combination with eddy covariance CO2 exchange fluxes from a Europe-wide network of 22 forest flux towers. Total Nr deposition rates were estimated from local measurements as far as possible. The forest data were compared with data from natural or semi-natural, non-woody vegetation sites. The response of forest net ecosystem productivity to nitrogen deposition (dNEP= dNdep) was estimated after accounting for the effects on gross primary productivity (GPP) of the co-correlates by means of a meta-modelling standardization procedure, which resulted in a reduction by a factor of about 2 of the uncorrected, apparent dGPP=dNdep value. This model-enhanced analysis of the C and Ndep flux observations at the scale of the European network suggests a mean overall dNEP= dNdep response of forest lifetime C sequestration to Ndep of the order of 40 50 g C per g N, which is slightly larger but not significantly different from the range of estimates published in the most recent reviews. Importantly, patterns of gross primary and net ecosystem productivity versus Ndep were non-linear, with no further growth responses at high Ndep levels (Ndep >2.5 3 gNm2 yr1) but accompanied by increasingly large ecosystem N losses by leaching and gaseous emissions. The reduced increase in productivity per unit N deposited at high Ndep levels implies that the forecast increased Nr emissions and increased Ndep levels in large areas of Asia may not positively impact the continent s forest CO2 sink. The large level of unexplained variability in observed carbon sequestration efficiency (CSE) across sites further adds to the uncertainty in the dC=dN response.

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