Types and characteristics of urban green & blue spaces having an impact on human mental health and wellbeing : Methods Protocol, Knowledge assessment and synthesis
Andreucci, Maria Beatrice ; Vries, S. de; Marselle, Melissa R. ; Olszewska-Guizzo, Agnieszka ; Keune, Hans ; O'Brien, L. ; Russo, A. ; Remmen, Roy ; Davies, Zoe ; Livoreil, Barbara ; Beute, Femke ; Lammel, Annamaria - \ 2019
EKLIPSE - 13 p.
Working Group (EKLIPSE EWG) was formed to answer the following question: “Which types of urban and suburban blue and green spaces and which characteristics (components) of such spaces have a significant impact on human mental health and wellbeing?”. The answer will be provided by examining the scientific literature. Financial support from the World Health Organization (WHO), adding to that initially provided by EKLIPSE, will allow the EWG to conduct two separate systematic reviews (one for blue spaces and one for green spaces).
Previous reviews have been focused on the local amount and availability of, or access to, green (and to a much lesser extent) blue space. The current systematic reviews will be unique in that they focus on the mental health benefits of the type of green (and blue) space and of its distinct characteristics (components).
Each systematic reviews will follow six consecutive stages: 1) eligibility criteria for the articles will be formulated, 2) a systematic search strategy will be employed to yield relevant articles, 3) meta-data will be extracted and coded for each eligible study, 4) each study will be critically appraised, 5) a narrative and descriptive synthesis will be performed, and 6) outcomes of the synthesis will be discussed.
The main deliverable of the project will be two reports (blue and green), but will also include dissemination via oral presentations and each systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. The outcomes of the systematic reviews will be aimed to inform and provide recommendations to (future) decision makers in several domains, such as health promotion, nature management, spatial policy, urban planning, and design.
|Hydraulic sedimentary processes causing anastomosing morphology of the upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada
Makaske, B. ; Smith, D.G. ; Berendsen, H.J.A. ; Boer, A. de; Nielen-Kiezebrink, M.F. van; Locking, T. - \ 2009
In: 27 th IAS Meeting of sedementology, Sedimentary environments of Mediteranean Island(s), Alghero, Italy, 20 - 23 September, 2009. - Alghero, Italy : EDES - ISBN 9788860251237 - p. 259 - 259.
The upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada, shows typical anastomosing morphology — multiple interconnected channels that enclose floodbasins — and lateral channel stability. We analysed field data on hydraulic and sedimentary processes and show that the anastomosing morphology of the upper Columbia River is caused by sediment (bedload) transport inefficiency, in combination with very limited potential for lateral bank erosion because of very low specific stream power (= 2.3 W/m2) and cohesive silty banks. In a diagram of channel type in relation to flow energy and median grain size of the bed material, data points for the straight upper Columbia River channels cluster separately from the data points for braided and meandering channels. Measurements and calculations indicate that bedload transport in the anastomosing reach of the upper Columbia River decreases downstream. Because of lateral channel stability no lateral storage capacity for bedload is created. Therefore, the surplus of bedload leads to channel bed aggradation, which outpaces levee accretion and causes avulsions because of loss of channel flow capacity. This avulsion mechanism applies only to the main channel of the system, which transports 87% of the water and > 90% of the sediment in the cross-valley transect studied. Because of very low sediment transport capacity, the morphological evolution of most secondary channels is slow. Measurements and calculations indicate that much more bedload is sequestered in the relatively steep upper anastomosing reach of the upper Columbia River than in the relatively gentle lower anastomosing reach. With anastomosing morphology and related processes (e.g., crevassing) being best developed in the upper reach, this confirms the notion of upstream rather than downstream control of upper Columbia River anastomosis.
|Reconstruction of recent sedimentation rates in the river Rhine embanked floodplains (the Netherlands); a comparison of three methods, including OSL dating
Hobo, N. ; Makaske, B. ; Middelkoop, H. ; Wallinga, J. - \ 2009
In: 27 th IAS Meeting of Sedimentary environments of Mediteranean Island(s), Alghero, Italy, 20 - 23 September, 2009. - Alghero, Italy : EDES - ISBN 9788860251237 - p. 204 - 204.