Understanding meta-population trends of the Australian fur seal, with insights for adaptive monitoring
McIntosh, Rebecca R. ; Kirkman, Steve P. ; Thalmann, Sam ; Sutherland, Duncan R. ; Mitchell, Anthony ; Arnould, John P.Y. ; Salton, Marcus ; Slip, David J. ; Dann, Peter ; Kirkwood, Roger - \ 2018
PLoS ONE 13 (2018)9. - ISSN 1932-6203
Effective ecosystem-based management requires estimates of abundance and population trends of species of interest. Trend analyses are often limited due to sparse or short-term abundance estimates for populations that can be logistically difficult to monitor over time. Therefore it is critical to assess regularly the quality of the metrics in long-term monitoring programs. For a monitoring program to provide meaningful data and remain relevant, it needs to incorporate technological improvements and the changing requirements of stakeholders, while maintaining the integrity of the data. In this paper we critically examine the monitoring program for the Australian fur seal (AFS) Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus as an example of an ad-hoc monitoring program that was co-ordinated across multiple stakeholders as a range-wide census of live pups in the Austral summers of 2002, 2007 and 2013. This 5-yearly census, combined with historic counts at individual sites, successfully tracked increasing population trends as signs of population recovery up to 2007. The 2013 census identified the first reduction in AFS pup numbers (14,248 live pups, -4.2% change per annum since 2007), however we have limited information to understand this change. We analyse the trends at breeding colonies and perform a power analysis to critically examine the reliability of those trends. We then assess the gaps in the monitoring program and discuss how we may transition this surveillance style program to an adaptive monitoring program than can evolve over time and achieve its goals. The census results are used for ecosystem-based modelling for fisheries management and emergency response planning. The ultimate goal for this program is to obtain the data we need with minimal cost, effort and impact on the fur seals. In conclusion we identify the importance of power analyses for interpreting trends, the value of regularly assessing long-term monitoring programs and proper design so that adaptive monitoring principles can be applied.
|Recovering? sea populations
Kirkwood, R.J. ; Kirkman, S. ; Arnould, J. ; Carlyon, K. ; Alderman, R. ; Mitchell, T. ; Sutherland, D. ; Brasseur, S.M.J.M. ; Aarts, G.M. - \ 2014
Potential risk factors associated with contact dermatitis, lameness, negative emotional state, and fear of humans in broiler chicken flocks
Bassler, A. ; Arnould, C. ; Butterworth, A. ; Colin, L. ; Jong, I.C. de; Ferrante, V. ; Ferrari, P. ; Haslam, S.A. ; Wemelsfelder, F. ; Blokhuis, H.J. - \ 2013
Poultry Science 92 (2013)11. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 2811 - 2826.
qualitative behavioral-assessment - foot-pad dermatitis - environmental enrichment - stocking density - leg weakness - housing conditions - light-intensity - road transport - gallus-gallus - dairy-cattle
The objectives of this study were to 1) identify determinants of poor welfare in commercial broiler chicken flocks by studying the associations between selected resource-based measures (RBM, potential risk factors), such as litter quality and dark period, and animal-based welfare indicators (ABM), such as foot pad dermatitis and lameness, and 2) establish the breadth of effect of a risk factor by determining the range of animal welfare indicators associated with each of the risk factors (i.e., the number of ABM related to a specific RBM). Eighty-nine broiler flocks were inspected in 4 European countries (France, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands) in a cross-sectional study. The ABM were contact dermatitis (measured using scores of foot-pad dermatitis and hock burn, respectively), lameness (measured as gait score), fear of humans (measured by the avoidance distance test and the touch test), and negative emotional state (measured using qualitative behavior assessment, QBA). In a first step, risk factors were identified by building a multiple linear regression model for each ABM. Litter quality was identified as a risk factor for contact dermatitis. Length of dark period at 3 wk old (DARK3) was a risk factor for the touch test result. DARK3 and flock age were risk factors for lameness, and the number of different stockmen and DARK3 were risk factors for QBA results. Next, the ABM were grouped according to risk factor and counted. Then, in a second step, associations between the ABM were investigated using common factor analysis. The breadth of a risk factor’s effect was judged by combining the number (count) of ABM related to this factor and the strength of association between these ABM. Flock age and DARK3 appeared to affect several weakly correlated ABM, thus indicating a broad range of effects. Our findings suggest that manipulation of the predominant risk factors identified in this study (DARK3, litter quality, and slaughter age) could generate improvements in the related ABM and thereby enhance the birds’ overall welfare status
|Welfare risk factor analysis for commercial broiler chickens on farm
Bassler, A. ; Arnould, C. ; Butterworth, A. ; Colin, L. ; Jong, I.C. de; Ferrante, V. ; Ferrari, P. ; Haslam, S.A. ; Wemelsfelder, F. ; Blokhuis, H.J. - \ 2011
In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on the Assessment of Animal Welfare at Farm and Group Level, Guelph, Ontariao, Canada, 8 - 11 August, 2011. - Guelph, Canada : Campbell centre for the Study of Animal Welfare, University of Guelph - p. 10 - 10.
Mitochondrial (dys)function in adipocyte (de)-differentiation and systemic metabolic alterations
Pauw, A. de; Tejerina, S. ; Raes, M. ; Keijer, J. ; Arnould, T. - \ 2009
American Journal of Pathology 175 (2009)3. - ISSN 0002-9440 - p. 927 - 939.
white adipose-tissue - active antiretroviral therapy - polyunsaturated fatty-acids - receptor corepressor rip140 - element-binding protein - necrosis-factor-alpha - insulin-resistance - transgenic mice - uncoupling protein-3 - 3t3-l1 adipocytes
In mammals, adipose tissue, composed of BAT and WAT, collaborates in energy partitioning and performs metabolic regulatory functions. It is the most flexible tissue in the body, because it is remodeled in size and shape by modifications in adipocyte cell size and/or number, depending on developmental status and energy fluxes. Although numerous reviews have focused on the differentiation program of both brown and white adipocytes as well as on the pathophysiological role of white adipose tissues, the importance of mitochondrial activity in the differentiation or the dedifferentiation programs of adipose cells and in systemic metabolic alterations has not been extensively reviewed previously. Here, we address the crucial role of mitochondrial functions during adipogenesis and in mature adipocytes and discuss the cellular responses of white adipocytes to mitochondrial activity impairment. In addition, we discuss the increase in scientific knowledge regarding mitochondrial functions in the last 10 years and the recent suspicion of mitochondrial dysfunction in several 21st century epidemics (ie, obesity and diabetes), as well as in lipodystrophy found in HIV-treated patients, which can contribute to the development of new therapeutic strategies targeting adipocyte mitochondria
Effect of 2,4diacetylphloroglucinol of Pythium: cellular responses and variation in sensitivity among propagules and species
Souza, J.T. ; Arnould, C. ; Deulvot, C. ; Lemanceau, P. ; Gianinazzi-Pearson, V. ; Raaijmakers, J.M. - \ 2003
Phytopathology 93 (2003)8. - ISSN 0031-949X - p. 966 - 975.
pseudomonas-fluorescens q2-87 - sigma-factor sigma(s) - black root-rot - antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol - phloroglucinol derivatives - biological-control - gaeumannomyces-graminis - electron microscopy - photosystem-ii - in-vitro
The antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) plays an important role in the suppression of plant pathogens by several strains of Pseudomonas spp. Based on the results of this study, there is variation within and among Pythium spp. to 2,4-DAPG. Also, various propagules of Pythium ultimum var. sporangiiferum, that are part of the asexual stage of the life cycle, differ considerably in their sensitivity to 2,4-DAPG. Mycelium was the most resistant structure, followed by zoosporangia, zoospore cysts, and zoospores. Additionally, we report for the first time that pH has a significant effect on the activity of 2,4-DAPG, with a higher activity at low pH. Furthermore, the level of acetylation of phloroglucinols is also a major determinant of their activity. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that 2,4-DAPG causes different stages of disorganization in hyphal tips of Pythium ultimum var. sporangiiferum, including alteration (proliferation, retraction, and disruption) of the plasma membrane, vacuolization, and cell content disintegration. The implications of these results for the efficacy and consistency of biological control of plant-pathogenic Pythium spp. by 2,4-DAPG-producing Pseudomonas spp. are discussed.
|Improvement of the selective depolymerization of pectic substances by chemical ß-elimination in aqueous solution.
Kravtchenko, T.P. ; Arnould, I. ; Voragen, A.G.J. ; Pilnik, W. - \ 1992
Carbohydrate Polymers 19 (1992). - ISSN 0144-8617 - p. 237 - 242.