Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Meningen dokter en patiënt over onnodige vitaminebepalingen
    Hofstede, Hetty ; Burg, Rosalie van der; Mulder, Bob ; Bohnen, Arthur ; Bindels, Patrick ; Wit, Niek de; Vugt, S.F. van; Schepper, E.I.T. de - \ 2020
    Huisarts & Wetenschap (2020). - ISSN 0018-7070
    Het aantal niet-zinvolle vitaminebepalingen stijgt enorm. Uit interviews met huisartsen en patiënten blijkt dat patiënten vaak andere ideeën hebben over wat zinvolle bepalingen zijn dan hun huisarts. De huisarts staat dan voor de uitdaging om de relatie met de patiënt goed te houden. Patiënten hebben behoefte aan betrouwbare, up-to-date informatie over welke bepalingen zinvol zijn en welke niet, bijvoorbeeld via Huisartsen hebben baat bij nascholing, bondige praktijkinformatie en feedback over de eigen testaanvragen.
    Bovine IgG Prevents Experimental Infection With RSV and Facilitates Human T Cell Responses to RSV
    Nederend, Maaike ; Stigt, Arthur H. van; Jansen, J.H.M. ; Jacobino, Shamir R. ; Brugman, Sylvia ; Haan, Cornelis A.M. de; Bont, Louis J. ; Neerven, R.J.J. van; Leusen, Jeanette H.W. - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Immunology 11 (2020). - ISSN 1664-3224
    bovine IgG - immunoglobulin - prophylaxis - RSV - T cell activation

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections represent a major burden of disease in infants and are the second most prevalent cause of death worldwide. Human milk immunoglobulins provide protection against RSV. However, many infants depend on processed bovine milk-based nutrition, which lacks intact immunoglobulins. We investigated the potential of bovine antibodies to neutralize human RSV and facilitate-cell immune activation. We show cow's milk IgG (bIgG) and Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) have a similar RSV neutralization capacity, even though bIgG has a lower pre-F to post-F binding ratio compared to human IVIG, with the majority of bIgG binding to pre-F. RSV is better neutralized with human IVIG. Consequently, we enriched RSV specific T cells by culturing human PBMC with a mixture of RSV peptides, and used these T cells to study the effect of bIgG and IVIG on the activation of pre-F-pecific T cells. bIgG facilitated in vitro T cell activation in a similar manner as IVIG. Moreover, bIgG was able to mediate T cell activation and internalization of pathogens, which are prerequisites for inducing an adaptive viral response. Using in vivo mouse experiments, we showed that bIgG is able to bind the murine activating IgG Fc Receptors (FcγR), but not the inhibiting FcγRII. Intranasal administration of the monoclonal antibody palivizumab, but also of bIgG and IVIG prevented RSV infection in mice. The concentration of bIgG needed to prevent infection was ~5-fold higher compared to IVIG. In conclusion, the data presented here indicate that functionally active bIgG facilitates adaptive antiviral T cell responses and prevents RSV infection in vitro and in vivo.

    Structural basis for diamide modulation of ryanodine receptor
    Ma, Ruifang ; Haji-Ghassemi, Omid ; Ma, Dan ; Jiang, Heng ; Lin, Lianyun ; Yao, Li ; Samurkas, Arthur ; Li, Yuxin ; Wang, Yiwen ; Cao, Peng ; Wu, Shian ; Zhang, Yan ; Murayama, Takashi ; Moussian, Bernard ; Petegem, Filip Van; Yuchi, Zhiguang - \ 2020
    Nature Chemical Biology (2020). - ISSN 1552-4450

    The diamide insecticide class is one of the top-selling insecticides globally. They are used to control a wide range of pests by targeting their ryanodine receptors (RyRs). Here, we report the highest-resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of RyR1 in the open state, in complex with the anthranilic diamide chlorantraniliprole (CHL). The 3.2-Å local resolution map facilitates unambiguous assignment of the CHL binding site. The molecule induces a conformational change by affecting the S4–S5 linker, triggering channel opening. The binding site is further corroborated by mutagenesis data, which reveal how diamide insecticides are selective to the Lepidoptera group of insects over honeybee or mammalian RyRs. Our data reveal that several pests have developed resistance via two mechanisms, steric hindrance and loss of contact. Our results provide a foundation for the development of highly selective pesticides aimed at overcoming resistance and therapeutic molecules to treat human myopathies. [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

    Mitochondrial dysfunction in critical illness during acute metabolic stress and convalescence : consequences for nutrition therapy
    Moonen, Hanneke Pierre Franciscus Xaverius ; Zanten, Arthur Raymond Hubert Van - \ 2020
    Current Opinion in Critical Care 26 (2020)4. - ISSN 1070-5295 - p. 346 - 354.

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with increased morbidity and mortality during and after critical illness. The concept of adaptive mitochondrial metabolic-bio-energetic downregulation rather than bio-energetic failure during the acute phase of critical illness has gained traction. As mitochondria are not able to utilize substrate during adaptive hibernation and aggressive feeding induces further harm, this condition has consequences for nutrition therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Meeting resting energy expenditure in early critical illness is associated with enhanced oxidative stress and attenuation of autophagy, as is hyperglycemia. The negative effect of early high protein administration remains unclear, whereas fat appears bio-energetically inert. Although antioxidant micronutrients are essential to mitochondrial function, high-dosage studies of single vitamins (C and D) failed to show benefit. Convalescence probably requires increased micronutrient and macronutrient administration to aid anabolism and restore mitochondrial function, although robust data on requirements and actual intake are lacking. SUMMARY: Optimal nutrition therapy in the early phase of critical illness should avoid overfeeding and preserve (adaptive) mitochondrial function. Micronutrient supplementation probably requires a strategic cocktail instead of a high dosage of a single nutrient. Focus on identification of distinct metabolic phases to adapt nutrition during and after critical illness is essential.

    Nutrition plays a key role in recovery
    Zanten, Arthur van - \ 2020
    Plastome phylogeography in two African rain forest legume trees reveals that Dahomey Gap populations originate from the Cameroon volcanic line
    Demenou, Boris B. ; Migliore, Jérémy ; Heuertz, Myriam ; Monthe, Franck K. ; Ojeda, Dario I. ; Wieringa, Jan J. ; Dauby, Gilles ; Albreht, Laura ; Boom, Arthur ; Hardy, Olivier J. - \ 2020
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 150 (2020). - ISSN 1055-7903
    African rain forest - Cameroon volcanic line - Colonization origin - Dahomey gap - Phylogeography - Plastid genome sequencing

    Paleo-environmental data show that the distribution of African rain forests was affected by Quaternary climate changes. In particular, the Dahomey Gap (DG) – a 200 km wide savanna corridor currently separating the West African and Central African rain forest blocks and containing relict rain forest fragments – was forested during the mid-Holocene and possibly during previous interglacial periods, whereas it was dominated by open vegetation (savanna) during glacial periods. Genetic signatures of past population fragmentation and demographic changes have been found in some African forest plant species using nuclear markers, but such events appear not to have been synchronous or shared across species. To better understand the colonization history of the DG by rain forest trees through seed dispersal, the plastid genomes of two widespread African forest legume trees, Anthonotha macrophylla and Distemonanthus benthamianus, were sequenced in 47 individuals for each species, providing unprecedented phylogenetic resolution of their maternal lineages (857 and 115 SNPs, respectively). Both species exhibit distinct lineages separating three regions: 1. Upper Guinea (UG, i.e. the West African forest block), 2. the area ranging from the DG to the Cameroon volcanic line (CVL), and 3. Lower Guinea (LG, the western part of the Central African forest block) where three lineages co-occur. In both species, the DG populations (including southern Nigeria west of Cross River) exhibit much lower genetic diversity than UG and LG populations, and their plastid lineages originate from the CVL, confirming the role of the CVL as an ancient forest refuge. Despite the similar phylogeographic structures displayed by A. macrophylla and D. benthamianus, molecular dating indicates very contrasting ages of lineage divergence (UG diverged from LG since c. 7 Ma and 0.7 Ma, respectively) and DG colonization (probably following the Mid Pleistocene Transition and the Last Glacial Maximum, respectively). The stability of forest refuge areas and repeated similar forest shrinking/expanding events during successive glacial periods might explain why similar phylogeographic patterns can be generated over contrasting timescales.

    Fermentative N-Methylanthranilate Production by Engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum
    Walter, Tatjana ; Medani, Nour Al; Burgardt, Arthur ; Cankar, K. ; Ferrer, Lenny ; Kerbs, Anastasia ; Lee, Jin-Ho ; Mindt, Melanie ; Risse, Joe Max ; Wendisch, Volker F. - \ 2020
    Microorganisms 8 (2020)6. - ISSN 2076-2607
    N-functionalized amines; N-methylanthranilate; Corynebacterium glutamicum; metabolic engineering; sustainable production of quinoline precursors; acridone; quinazoline alkaloid drugs
    The N-functionalized amino acid N-methylanthranilate is an important precursor for bioactive compounds such as anticancer acridone alkaloids, the antinociceptive alkaloid O-isopropyl N-methylanthranilate, the flavor compound O-methyl-N-methylanthranilate, and as a building block for peptide-based drugs. Current chemical and biocatalytic synthetic routes to N-alkylated amino acids are often unprofitable and restricted to low yields or high costs through cofactor regeneration systems. Amino acid fermentation processes using the Gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum are operated industrially at the million tons per annum scale. Fermentative processes using C. glutamicum for N-alkylated amino acids based on an imine reductase have been developed, while N-alkylation of the aromatic amino acid anthranilate with S-adenosyl methionine as methyl-donor has not been described for this bacterium. After metabolic engineering for enhanced supply of anthranilate by channeling carbon flux into the shikimate pathway, preventing by-product formation and enhancing sugar uptake, heterologous expression of the gene anmt encoding anthranilate N-methyltransferase from Ruta graveolens resulted in production of N-methylanthranilate (NMA), which accumulated in the culture medium. Increased SAM regeneration by coexpression of the homologous adenosylhomocysteinase gene sahH improved N-methylanthranilate production. In a test bioreactor culture, the metabolically engineered C. glutamicum C1* strain produced NMA to a final titer of 0.5 g·L−1 with a volumetric productivity of 0.01 g·L−1·h−1 and a yield of 4.8 mg·g−1 glucose.
    ‘ First-years will have priority on campus’
    Mol, Arthur - \ 2020
    Determinants of legacy effects in pine trees – implications from an irrigation-stop experiment
    Zweifel, Roman ; Etzold, Sophia ; Sterck, Frank ; Gessler, Arthur ; Anfodillo, Tommaso ; Mencuccini, Maurizio ; Arx, Georg von; Lazzarin, Martina ; Haeni, Matthias ; Feichtinger, Linda ; Meusburger, Katrin ; Knuesel, Simon ; Walthert, Lorenz ; Salmon, Yann ; Bose, Arun K. ; Schoenbeck, Leonie ; Hug, Christian ; Girardi, Nicolas De; Giuggiola, Arnaud ; Schaub, Marcus ; Rigling, Andreas - \ 2020
    New Phytologist 227 (2020)4. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 1081 - 1096.
    cambial activity - drought stress - ecological memory - irrigation experiment - osmoregulation - point dendrometer - radial stem growth - TreeNet

    Tree responses to altered water availability range from immediate (e.g. stomatal regulation) to delayed (e.g. crown size adjustment). The interplay of the different response times and processes, and their effects on long-term whole-tree performance, however, is hardly understood. Here we investigated legacy effects on structures and functions of mature Scots pine in a dry inner-Alpine Swiss valley after stopping an 11-yr lasting irrigation treatment. Measured ecophysiological time series were analysed and interpreted with a system-analytic tree model. We found that the irrigation stop led to a cascade of downregulations of physiological and morphological processes with different response times. Biophysical processes responded within days, whereas needle and shoot lengths, crown transparency, and radial stem growth reached control levels after up to 4 yr only. Modelling suggested that organ and carbon reserve turnover rates play a key role for a tree’s responsiveness to environmental changes. Needle turnover rate was found to be most important to accurately model stem growth dynamics. We conclude that leaf area and its adjustment time to new conditions is the main determinant for radial stem growth of pine trees as the transpiring area needs to be supported by a proportional amount of sapwood, despite the growth-inhibiting environmental conditions.

    Imputation of 3 million SNPs in the Arabidopsis regional mapping population
    Arouisse, Bader ; Korte, Arthur ; Eeuwijk, Fred van; Kruijer, Willem - \ 2020
    The Plant Journal 102 (2020)4. - ISSN 0960-7412 - p. 872 - 882.
    1001 Genomes project - Arabidopsis thaliana - genome-wide association study - imputation accuracy - regional mapping

    Natural variation has become a prime resource to identify genetic variants that contribute to phenotypic variation. The regional mapping (RegMap) population is one of the most important populations for studying natural variation in Arabidopsis thaliana, and has been used in a large number of association studies and in studies on climatic adaptation. However, only 413 RegMap accessions have been completely sequenced, as part of the 1001 Genomes (1001G) Project, while the remaining 894 accessions have only been genotyped with the Affymetrix 250k chip. As a consequence, most association studies involving the RegMap are either restricted to the sequenced accessions, reducing power, or rely on a limited set of SNPs. Here we impute millions of SNPs to the 894 accessions that are exclusive to the RegMap, using the 1135 accessions of the 1001G Project as the reference panel. We assess imputation accuracy using a novel cross-validation scheme, which we show provides a more reliable measure of accuracy than existing methods. After filtering out low accuracy SNPs, we obtain high-quality genotypic information for 2029 accessions and 3 million markers. To illustrate the benefits of these imputed data, we reconducted genome-wide association studies on five stress-related traits and could identify novel candidate genes.

    Linking vegetation and soil functions during secondary forest succession in the Atlantic forest
    Teixeira, Heitor Mancini ; Cardoso, Irene Maria ; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A. ; Cruz Silva, Arthur da; Jamme, Delphin ; Peña-Claros, Marielos - \ 2020
    Forest Ecology and Management 457 (2020). - ISSN 0378-1127
    Secondary forest succession can be an effective and low-cost strategy to increase forest cover and the associated biodiversity and soil functions. However, little is known about how soil functions develop during succession, and how vegetation attributes influence soil functions, especially in highly biodiverse and fragmented landscapes in the tropics. Here we assessed a wide range of indicators of taxonomic (e.g. number of tree species), structural (e.g. basal area, canopy openness) and functional diversity (e.g. community weighted means of functional traits) of tree species, as well as indicators for soil functions related to soil organic matter accumulation, nutrient cycling and soil cover in secondary forest patches ranging from 5 to 80 years. Two recently abandoned agricultural fields were included as the starting point of forest succession and two primary forest patches served as references for the end point of forest succession. Four ecological hypotheses, centred around the role of functional diversity, structural diversity and biomass, were tested to explore mechanisms in which forest vegetation may influence soil functions. Most measures of structural, taxonomic and functional diversity converged to values found in primary forests after 25–50 years of succession, whereas functional composition changed from acquisitive to conservative species. Soil carbon and nutrient cycling showed a quick recovery to the levels of primary forests after 15 years of succession. Although soil cover also increased during succession, levels of primary forests were not reached within 80 years. Variation in tree height and trait dominance were identified as aboveground drivers of carbon and nutrient cycling, while aboveground biomass was the main driver of litter accumulation, and the associated soil cover and water retention. Our results indicate that secondary forest succession can lead to a relative fast recovery of nutrient and carbon cycling functions, but not of soil cover. Our findings highlight the essential role of secondary forests in providing multiple ecosystem services. These results can be used to inform management and reforestation programmes targeted at strengthening soil functions, such as soil cover, nutrient and carbon cycling.

    Nitrogen deposition is the most important environmental driver of growth of pure, even-aged and managed European forests
    Etzold, Sophia ; Ferretti, Marco ; Reinds, Gert Jan ; Solberg, Svein ; Gessler, Arthur ; Waldner, Peter ; Schaub, Marcus ; Simpson, David ; Benham, Sue ; Hansen, Karin ; Ingerslev, Morten ; Jonard, Mathieu ; Karlsson, Per Erik ; Lindroos, Antti Jussi ; Marchetto, Aldo ; Manninger, Miklos ; Meesenburg, Henning ; Merilä, Päivi ; Nöjd, Pekka ; Rautio, Pasi ; Sanders, Tanja G.M. ; Seidling, Walter ; Skudnik, Mitja ; Thimonier, Anne ; Verstraeten, Arne ; Vesterdal, Lars ; Vejpustkova, Monika ; Vries, Wim de - \ 2020
    Forest Ecology and Management 458 (2020). - ISSN 0378-1127
    Air pollution - Climate change - Forest management - ICP Forests - Observational study - Ozone - Statistical modelling

    Changing environmental conditions may substantially interact with site quality and forest stand characteristics, and impact forest growth and carbon sequestration. Understanding the impact of the various drivers of forest growth is therefore critical to predict how forest ecosystems can respond to climate change. We conducted a continental-scale analysis of recent (1995–2010) forest volume increment data (ΔVol, m3 ha−1 yr−1), obtained from ca. 100,000 coniferous and broadleaved trees in 442 even-aged, single-species stands across 23 European countries. We used multivariate statistical approaches, such as mixed effects models and structural equation modelling to investigate how European forest growth respond to changes in 11 predictors, including stand characteristics, climate conditions, air and site quality, as well as their interactions. We found that, despite the large environmental gradients encompassed by the forests examined, stand density and age were key drivers of forest growth. We further detected a positive, in some cases non-linear effect of N deposition, most pronounced for beech forests, with a tipping point at ca. 30 kg N ha−1 yr−1. With the exception of a consistent temperature signal on Norway spruce, climate-related predictors and ground-level ozone showed much less generalized relationships with ΔVol. Our results show that, together with the driving forces exerted by stand density and age, N deposition is at least as important as climate to modulate forest growth at continental scale in Europe, with a potential negative effect at sites with high N deposition.

    NEOTROPICAL XENARTHRANS: a data set of occurrence of xenarthran species in the Neotropics
    Santos, Paloma Marques ; Bocchiglieri, Adriana ; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia ; Paglia, Adriano Pereira ; Moreira, Adryelle ; Souza, Agnis Cristiane de; Abba, Agustin Manuel ; Paviolo, Agustin ; Gatica, Ailin ; Medeiro, Akyllan Zoppi ; Costa, Alan Nilo ; Gallina, Alberto Gonzalez ; Yanosky, Alberto A. ; Jesus, Alejandro ; Bertassoni, Alessandra ; Rocha, Alessandro ; Bovo, Alex Augusto Abreu ; Bager, Alex ; Mol, Alexandra Cravino ; Martensen, Alexandre Camargo ; Faustino, Alexandre Casagrande ; Lopes, Alexandre Martins Costa ; Percequillo, Alexandre Reis ; Vogliotti, Alexandre ; Keuroghlian, Alexine ; Colina, María Alicia de la; Devlin, Allison L. ; García-Olaechea, Alvaro ; Sánchez, Amadeo ; Srbek-Araujo, Ana Carolina ; Ochoa, Ana Cecilia ; Oliveira, Ana Cristina Mendes ; Lacerda, Ana Cristyna Reis ; Campelo, Ana Kellen Nogueira ; Oliveira Paschoal, Ana Maria de; Costa, Ana Raíssa Cunha ; Meiga, Ana Yoko Ykeuti ; Jesus, Anamélia Souza ; Feijó, Anderson ; Hirsch, André ; Silva, André Luiz Ferreira da; Botelho, André Luis Moura ; Regolin, André Luis ; Lanna, André Monnerat ; Nunes, André Valle ; Kindel, Andreas ; Moraes, Andreia Magro ; Gatti, Andressa ; Noss, Andrew J. ; Nobre, Andrezza Bellotto ; Montanarin, Anelise ; Deffaci, Ângela Camila ; Albuquerque, Anna Carolina Figueiredo de; Oliveira, Anne Karoline de; Mangione, Antonio Marcelo ; Pontes, Antonio Rossano Mendes ; Bertoldi, Ariane Teixeira ; Calouro, Armando Muniz ; Desbiez, Arnaud L.J. ; Fernandes, Arthur ; Ferreguetti, Atilla Colombo ; Silva, Maria Augusta Andrade da; Zimbres, Barbara ; Luciano, Beatriz Fernandes Lima ; Thoisy, Benoit de; Niebuhr, Bernardo Brandão S. ; Papi, Bernardo ; Gómez-Valencia, Bibiana ; Santos, Bráulio A. ; Lima, Breno Campelo ; Oliveira, Bruna Gomes ; Santos, Bruna Silva ; Campos, Bruno Augusto Torres Parahyba ; Leles, Bruno ; Albuquerque França, Bruno Rodrigo de; Lim, Burton ; Oliveira, Caetano Troncoso ; Cantagallo, Camila ; Lara, Camila Clozato ; Lima, Camila Silveira ; Gestich, Carla Cristina ; Melo-Soares, Carla Danielle de; Peres, Carlos A. ; Kasper, Carlos Benhur ; Candia-Gallardo, Carlos ; Angelo, Carlos De; Fragoso, Carlos Eduardo ; Freitas, Carlos Henrique de; Salvador, Carlos Henrique ; Brocardo, Carlos R. ; Melo, Carolina Depolito ; Leuchtenberger, Caroline ; Braga, Caryne ; Sánchez-Lalinde, Catalina ; Bueno, Cecília ; Luna, Cecília Licarião ; Rojano, Cesar ; Hurtado, Cindy Meliza ; Santos, Cinthya Chiva dos; Tellaeche, Cintia ; Rosa, Clarissa ; Campos, Claudia Bueno de; Silva, Cláudia Regina ; Kanda, Claudia Zukeran ; Jenkins, Clinton N. ; McDonough, Colleen ; Trinca, Cristiano Trapé ; Cunha, Cristina Jaques da; Widmer, Cynthia Elisa ; Santos, Cyntia ; Buscariol, Daiane ; Carreira, Daiane Cristina ; Carvalho, Danianderson Rodrigues ; Silva Ferraz, Daniel da; Casali, Daniel ; Thornton, Daniel ; Vasconcellos, Daniela Rodrigues ; Barcelos, Daniele ; Brown, Danielle ; Ramos, Daniella Leal ; Moreira, Danielle Oliveira ; Yogui, Débora Regina ; Faria, Deborah ; Sana, Denis Alessio ; Mattia, Denise Lidoro de; Henz, Denison José ; Friedeberg, Diana B. ; Carvalho, Diana Letícia Kruger Pacheco ; Astúa, Diego ; Queirolo, Diego ; Varela, Diego M. ; Eaton, Donald P. ; Dias, Douglas Matos ; Rivadeneira, Edgar Federico ; Rocha, Ednaldo Cândido ; Abreu-Júnior, Edson Fiedler de; Carrano, Eduardo ; Santos, Eduardo Marques ; Setz, Eleonore Zulnara Freire ; Carvalho, Elildo Alves Ribeiro ; Almeida Chiquito, Elisandra de; Matos Cardoso, Elizandra de; Mendonça, Eloisa Neves ; Bastiani, Elvira D'; Vieira, Emerson M. ; Ramalho, Emiliano Esterci ; Guijosa-Guadarrama, Emiliano ; González, Enrique ; Maggiorini, Erica Vanessa ; Fischer, Erich ; Aguiar, Erick Francisco ; Castro, Érika Paula ; Peña-Cuéllar, Erika de la; Viveiros de Castro, Ernesto B. ; Brítez, Evelyn Beatriz ; Vanderhoeven, Ezequiel Andres ; Pedó, Ezequiel ; Rocha, Fabiana Lopes ; Girardi, Fabiane ; Oliveira Roque, Fabio de; Mazim, Fábio Dias ; Barros, Fabio Monteiro de; Martello, Felipe ; Fantacini, Felipe Moreli ; Pedrosa, Felipe ; Peters, Felipe Bortolotto ; Abra, Fernanda Delborgo ; Azevedo, Fernanda Cavalcanti de; Silva Santos, Fernanda da; Silva, Fernanda Guedes da; Teixeira, Fernanda Zimmermann ; Perini, Fernando Araujo ; Passos, Fernando C. ; Carvalho, Fernando ; Azevedo, Fernando Cesar Cascelli de; Pinho, Fernando Ferreira de; Gonçalves, Fernando ; Lima, Fernando ; Contreras-Moreno, Fernando M. ; Pedroni, Fernando ; Tortato, Fernando Rodrigo ; Santos, Filipe Pereira Rego ; Caruso, Flavia ; Tirelli, Flávia Pereira ; Miranda, Flávia Regina ; Rodrigues, Flávio Henrique Guimarães ; Ubaid, Flávio Kulaif ; Palmeira, Francesca Belem Lopes ; Silva, Franciane Almeida da; Grotta-Neto, Francisco ; Souza, Franco Leandro de; Costa, Francys Emanuelle ; Pérez-Garduza, Freddy ; Delsuc, Frédéric ; Lemos, Frederico ; Pinto, Fredy Ramirez ; Boaglio, Gabriel Ivan ; Massocato, Gabriel Fávero ; Preuss, Gabriel ; Hofmann, Gabriel Selbach ; Aguiar, Gabriel Lima ; Oliveira, Gabriela Schuck ; Duarte, Gabriela Teixeira ; Beca, Gabrielle ; Giné, Gastón Andrés Fernandez ; Batista, Graziele Oliveira ; Gil, Guillermo Eduardo ; Gonsioroski, Gustavo ; Secco, Helio ; Medeiros, Hugo Reis ; Coelho, Igor Pfeifer ; Franceschi, Ingridi Camboim ; Bernardi, Itiberê ; Torre, Antonio de la; Zocche, Jairo José ; Seibert, Jardel Brandão ; Faria Falcão, Jéssica Caroline de; Dias, Jéssica Helena Mangueira ; Nodari, Joana Zorzal ; Oliveira, João Alves ; Giovanelli, João Gabriel Ribeiro ; Favoretti, João Paulo Pandini ; Polisar, John ; Sponchiado, Jonas ; Cherem, Jorge José ; Ramírez, José Fernando Moreira ; Toledo, José Julio de; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti ; Matos, Jose Roberto de; Arrabal, Juan Pablo ; Faria Oshima, Júlia Emi de; Ribeiro, Juliana Fernandes ; Bogoni, Juliano André ; Pacheco, Julio Javier Chacón ; Schuchmann, Karl L. ; Ferraz, Katia M.P.M.B. ; Santos Everton, Laís dos; Bailey, Larissa L. ; Gonçalves, Larissa Oliveira ; Cullen, Laury ; Andrade, Layla Reis de; Trevelin, Leonardo Carreira ; Bonjorne, Lilian ; Almeida Rodrigues, Livia de; Leuzinger, Lucas ; Perillo, Lucas Neves ; Araújo, Luciana Souza ; Hufnagel, Ludmila ; Ribeiro, Ludmilla Oliveira ; Bernardo, Luis Renato Rezende ; Oliveira-Santos, Luiz Gustavo Rodrigues ; Varzinczak, Luiz Henrique ; Borges, Luiz Henrique Medeiros ; Guimarães, Luiza Neves ; Möcklinghoff, Lydia ; Oliveira, Marcela Alvares ; Magioli, Marcelo ; Assis Jardim, Márcia Maria de; Oliveira, Márcio Leite de; Tortato, Marcos Adriano ; Dums, Marcos ; Iezzi, Maria Eugenia ; Pereira, Maria João Ramos ; Jorge, Maria Luísa ; Castro Morini, Maria Santina de; Landis, Mariana Bueno ; Xavier, Mariana Sampaio ; Barros, Marília A.S. ; Silva, Marina Lima da; Rivero, Marina ; Zanin, Marina ; Marques, Marinêz Isaac ; Alves, Mario Henrique ; Bitetti, Mario S. Di; Alvarez, Martín R. ; Graipel, Maurício Eduardo ; Godoi, Mauricio Neves ; Benedetti, Maximiliano Augusto ; Beltrão, Mayara Guimarães ; Monteiro, Miguel Coutinho Moretta ; Paula, Milton José de; Perilli, Miriam Lucia Lages ; Silva, Murillo Prado da; Villar, Nacho ; Albuquerque, Natasha Moraes De; Canassa, Nathália F. ; Filho, Newton Mota ; Rosa Oliveira, Nicole da; Pasqualotto, Nielson ; Cáceres, Nilton Carlos ; Attias, Nina ; Favarini, Marina Ochoa ; Ribeiro, Otávio Santi ; Gonçalves, Pablo Rodrigues ; Rocha, Patrício Adriano da; Condé, Paula Alves ; Akkawi, Paula ; Cruz, Paula ; Lira, Paula Koeler ; Ferreira, Paula Modenesi ; Arroyo-Gerala, Paulina ; Hartmann, Paulo Afonso ; Tarso Zuquim Antas, Paulo de; Marinho, Paulo Henrique ; Faria Peres, Pedro Henrique de; Peña-Mondragón, Juan Luis ; Lombardi, Pryscilla Moura ; Souza Laurindo, Rafael de; Alves, Rafael Souza Cruz ; Grangeiro, Raissa Danielle Praxedes ; Silva, Ramon Lima ; Beltrão-Mendes, Raone ; Bonikowski, Renata Twardowsky Ramalho ; Reppucci, Juan ; Arrais, Ricardo Corassa ; Sampaio, Ricardo ; Sartorello, Ricardo ; Bovendorp, Ricardo Siqueira ; McNab, Roan ; Hack, Robson Odeli Espíndola ; Magalhães, Rodolfo Assis ; Araújo, Rodrigo Costa ; Almeida Nobre, Rodrigo de; Pérez, Rodrigo Raúl León ; Massara, Rodrigo Lima ; Paula, Rogério Cunha de; Anleu, Rony García ; Marques, Rosane Vieira ; Dornas, Rubem ; Rolim, Samir Gonçalves ; Cavalcanti, Sandra M.C. ; Lima, Saulo Ramos ; Ballari, Sebastián A. ; Santamaría, Silvia Benito ; Silva, Sofia Marques ; Age, Stefani Gabrieli ; Godim, Tayana ; Sobral-Souza, Thadeu ; Maccarini, Thiago Bernardes ; Rodrigues, Thiago Ferreira ; Piovezan, Ubiratan ; Cunha Tavares, Valéria da; Quiroga, Verónica Andrea ; Krepschi, Victor Gasperotto ; Filho, Vilmar Picinatto ; Galvão Bastazini, Vinícius Augusto ; Oliveira Gasparotto, Vinicius Peron de; Orsini, Vinicius Santana ; Guedes Layme, Viviane Maria ; Hannibal, Wellington ; Dáttilo, Wesley ; Carvalho, William Douglas de; Loughry, William James ; Blanco, Yamil Edgardo Di; Núñez-Regueiro, Mauricio M. ; Giubbina, Marina Furlan ; Passamani, Marcelo ; Alagão Querido, Luciano Carramaschi de; Costa Toledo, Gustavo Alvez da; Ribeiro, Igor Kintopp ; Quintilham, Lucas ; Bustos, Soledad de; Maza, Javier de la; Lima Neto, Jorge Ferreira ; Kossel de Andrade Silva, Katyucha Von; Sartorello, Leonardo ; Rampim, Lilian Elaine ; Marás, Gustavo A. ; Camino, Micaela ; Freitas-Junior, Mozart ; Perovic, Pablo Gaston ; Paolino, Roberta Montanheiro ; Ferreira, Scarlat Dalva ; Towns, Valeria ; Esperandio, Isadora Beraldi ; Aximoff, Izar ; Beduschi, Júlia ; Guenther, Mariana ; Cassia Bianchi, Rita de; Keuroghlian-Eaton, Sean ; Mendes, Sérgio Lucena ; Fatima Cunha, Lerrane de; Cirignoli, Sebastián ; Ciocheti, Giordano ; Prado, Helena Alves do; Fernandes-Ferreira, Hugo ; Mendes de Sena, Liana Mara ; Yamane, Marcelo Hideki ; Brennand, Pamella G.G. ; Silva, Rayana Diniz da; Escobar, Santiago ; Endo, Whaldener ; Hurtado, Rafael Reyna ; Gontijo, Nila Rássia Costa ; Marsh, Laura K. ; Severo, Magnus Machado ; Pardo, Julia Martinez ; Costa, Sebastián Andrés ; Melo, Geruza Leal ; Santana, Gindomar Gomes ; Miranda Mourão, Guilherme de; Gaspari, Gustavo Gabirele ; Duarte, Herbert ; Cabral, Hugo ; Silva, Leonardo Henrique da; Mendonça, Luana ; Barbosa, Lucas Lobo ; Santos, Manuela Vieira dos; Moraes, Marcela Figuerêdo Duarte ; Gordo, Marcelo ; Versiani, Natalia Fraguas ; Cantero, Nicolás ; Pays, Olivier ; Guedes, Patrícia Gonçalves ; Colas-Rosas, Paul François ; Ribeiro, Paulo ; Renaud, Pierre Cyril ; Hoogesteijn, Rafael Jan ; Ayala, Rodrigo ; Cunha, Rogério Grassetto Teixeira da; Schaub, Roxane ; Laurito, Sabrina ; Betkowski, Samuel Eurich ; Cortez, Sara ; Silva, Shirley Seixas Pereira ; Oliveira, Tadeu Gomes de; Spironello, Wilson Roberto ; Gengler, Nicholas ; Hidalgo, Mircea Mihart ; Juárez, Rugieri ; Iglesias, Jesús A. ; Anacleto, Teresa Cristina ; Souza Fialho, Marcos de; Cavicchioli, Guilherme ; Beccato, Maria Angélica Barbosa ; Silva, Marcelo da; Neto, Omar Correia ; Lopes, Karine Galisteo Diemer ; Godoy, Leandro Perez ; Luiz, Micheli Ribeiro ; Rojas Bonzi, Viviana B. ; Ferreira, Guilherme Braga ; Oliveira, Marcelo Juliano Rabelo ; Hinojosa, Javier ; Oliveira, Luiz Flamarion Barbosa de; Nagy-Reis, Mariana Baldy ; Ramirez, Sixto Fernández ; Concone, Henrique Villas Boas ; Mourthe, Italo ; Martínez-Lanfranco, Juan A. ; Zanoni, Juliani Bruna ; Moreira, Tainah Cruz ; Guarderas, Zoila Vega ; Bazilio, Sérgio ; Cervini, Marcelo ; Pinheiro, Marcell Soares ; Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves ; Peroni, Nivaldo ; Trigo, Tatiane Campos ; Machado, Ricardo Bomfim ; Gaspari, Fernando ; Koenemann, Joceleia G. ; Rudolf, Juan Carlos ; Benchimol, Maíra ; Vieira, Marcus Vinícius ; Retta, Lucía Martínez ; Santiago, Pablo Gerardo Fernández ; Ciccia, Paula Gonzalez ; Estrela, Pedro Cordeiro ; Carvalho, Santiago ; Esbérard, Carlos Eduardo Lustosa ; Cruz, Yaribeth Bravata de la; Castro-Prieto, Jessica ; Braga, Ricardo Miranda ; Cartes, Jose Luis ; Andrade-Núñez, María José ; Denkiewicz, Natalia Mariana ; Falconi, Nereyda ; Pezzuti, Juarez Carlos Brito ; Castillo Cordero, Hugo Fernando del; Sousa, Luziene Conceição de; Gaspari Júnior, Roque Lázaro de; Santos-Filho, Manoel ; Almeida, Josué Santos ; Thompson, Jeffrey J. ; Santos, Juliana Silveira dos; Pereira-Ribeiro, Juliane ; Burs, Kathrin ; Silva, Kena Ferrari Moreira da; Velilla, Marianela ; Silva, Marina Xavier da; Sancha, Noé U. de la; Pinheiro, Paula Fabiana ; Castilho, Pedro Volkmer de; Bercê, William ; Assis, Julia Camara ; Tonetti, Vinicius Rodrigues ; Alves-Eigenheer, Milene ; Chinem, Simonne ; Honda, Laura K. ; Godoy Bergallo, Helena de; Alberici, Vinicius ; Wallace, Robert ; Campos Krauer, Juan Manuel ; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar ; Galetti, Mauro - \ 2019
    Ecology 100 (2019)7. - ISSN 0012-9658
    biodiversity hotspot - cingulata - forest fragmentation - habitat loss - neotropical mammals - neotropical region - pilosa - xenarthra

    Xenarthrans—anteaters, sloths, and armadillos—have essential functions for ecosystem maintenance, such as insect control and nutrient cycling, playing key roles as ecosystem engineers. Because of habitat loss and fragmentation, hunting pressure, and conflicts with domestic dogs, these species have been threatened locally, regionally, or even across their full distribution ranges. The Neotropics harbor 21 species of armadillos, 10 anteaters, and 6 sloths. Our data set includes the families Chlamyphoridae (13), Dasypodidae (7), Myrmecophagidae (3), Bradypodidae (4), and Megalonychidae (2). We have no occurrence data on Dasypus pilosus (Dasypodidae). Regarding Cyclopedidae, until recently, only one species was recognized, but new genetic studies have revealed that the group is represented by seven species. In this data paper, we compiled a total of 42,528 records of 31 species, represented by occurrence and quantitative data, totaling 24,847 unique georeferenced records. The geographic range is from the southern United States, Mexico, and Caribbean countries at the northern portion of the Neotropics, to the austral distribution in Argentina, Paraguay, Chile, and Uruguay. Regarding anteaters, Myrmecophaga tridactyla has the most records (n = 5,941), and Cyclopes sp. have the fewest (n = 240). The armadillo species with the most data is Dasypus novemcinctus (n = 11,588), and the fewest data are recorded for Calyptophractus retusus (n = 33). With regard to sloth species, Bradypus variegatus has the most records (n = 962), and Bradypus pygmaeus has the fewest (n = 12). Our main objective with Neotropical Xenarthrans is to make occurrence and quantitative data available to facilitate more ecological research, particularly if we integrate the xenarthran data with other data sets of Neotropical Series that will become available very soon (i.e., Neotropical Carnivores, Neotropical Invasive Mammals, and Neotropical Hunters and Dogs). Therefore, studies on trophic cascades, hunting pressure, habitat loss, fragmentation effects, species invasion, and climate change effects will be possible with the Neotropical Xenarthrans data set. Please cite this data paper when using its data in publications. We also request that researchers and teachers inform us of how they are using these data

    ATLANTIC BIRD TRAITS: a data set of bird morphological traits from the Atlantic forests of South America
    Rodrigues, Rodolpho Credo ; Hasui, Érica ; Assis, Julia Camara ; Pena, João Carlos Castro ; Muylaert, Renata L. ; Tonetti, Vinicius Rodrigues ; Martello, Felipe ; Regolin, André Luis ; Vernaschi Vieira da Costa, Thiago ; Pichorim, Mauro ; Carrano, Eduardo ; Lopes, Leonardo Esteves ; Vasconcelos, Marcelo Ferreira de; Fontana, Carla Suertegaray ; Roos, Andrei Langeloh ; Gonçalves, Fernando ; Banks-Leite, Cristina ; Cavarzere, Vagner ; Efe, Marcio Amorim ; Alves, Maria Alice S. ; Uezu, Alexandre ; Metzger, Jean Paul ; Tarso Zuquim de Antas, Paulo de; Paschoaletto Micchi de Barros Ferraz, Katia Maria de; Calsavara, Larissa Corsini ; Bispo, Arthur Angelo ; Araujo, Helder F.P. ; Duca, Charles ; Piratelli, Augusto João ; Naka, Luciano N. ; Dias, Rafael Antunes ; Gatto, Cassiano A.F.R. ; Villegas Vallejos, Marcelo Alejandro ; Reis Menezes, Gregório dos; Bugoni, Leandro ; Rajão, Henrique ; Zocche, Jairo José ; Willrich, Guilherme ; Silva, Elsimar Silveira da; Manica, Lilian Tonelli ; Camargo Guaraldo, André de; Althmann, Giulyana ; Serafini, Patricia Pereira ; Francisco, Mercival Roberto ; Lugarini, Camile ; Machado, Caio Graco ; Marques-Santos, Fernando ; Bobato, Rafaela ; Souza, Elivan Arantes de; Donatelli, Reginaldo José ; Ferreira, Carolina Demetrio ; Morante-Filho, José Carlos ; Paes-Macarrão, Natalia Dantas ; Macarrão, Arthur ; Lima, Marcos Robalinho ; Jacoboski, Lucilene Inês ; Candia-Gallardo, Carlos ; Alegre, Vanesa Bejarano ; Jahn, Alex E. ; Camargo Barbosa, Karlla Vanessa de; Cestari, Cesar ; Silva, José Nilton da; Silveira, Natalia Stefanini da; Vara Crestani, Ana Cristina ; Petronetto, Adeliane Peterle ; Abreu Bovo, Alex Augusto ; Viana, Anderson Durão ; Araujo, Andrea Cardoso ; Santos, Andressa Hartuiq dos; Araújo do Amaral, Andreza Clarinda ; Ferreira, Ariane ; Vieira-Filho, Arnaldo Honorato ; Ribeiro, Bianca Costa ; Missagia, Caio C.C. ; Bosenbecker, Camila ; Bronzato Medolago, Cesar Augusto ; Rodriguez Espínola, Cid Rodrigo ; Faxina, Claudenice ; Campodonio Nunes, Cristiane Estrela ; Prates, Cristine ; Apolinario da Luz, Daniela Tomasio ; Moreno, Daniele Janina ; Mariz, Daniele ; Faria, Deborah ; Meyer, Douglas ; Doná, Eder Afonso ; Alexandrino, Eduardo Roberto ; Fischer, Erich ; Girardi, Fabiane ; Giese, Felipe Borba ; Santos Shibuya, Felipe Leonardo ; Faria, Fernando Azevedo ; Bittencourt de Farias, Fernando ; Lima Favaro, Fernando de; Ferneda Freitas, Fernando José ; Chaves, Flávia G. ; Guedes Las-Casas, Flor Maria ; Rosa, Gabriel L.M. ; Massaccesi de laTorre, Gabriel ; Bochio, Gabriela Menezes ; Bonetti, Giselle Evelise ; Kohler, Glauco ; Toledo-Lima, Guilherme Santos ; Plucenio, Gustavo Piletti ; Menezes, Ícaro ; Denóbile Torres, Ingrid Maria ; Carvalho Provinciato, Ivan Celso ; Viana, Ivan Réus ; Roper, James Joseph ; Persegona, Jaqueline Evelyn ; Barcik, Jean Júnior ; Martins-Silva, Jimi ; Gava Just, João Paulo ; Tavares-Damasceno, João Paulo ; Almeida Ferreira, João Ricardo de; Rodrigues Rosoni, Jonas Rafael ; Teixeira Falcon, José Eduardo ; Schaedler, Laura Maria ; Mathias, Leonardo Brioschi ; Deconto, Leonardo Rafael ; Cruz Rodrigues, Licléia da; Meyer, Marcela Afonso P. ; Repenning, Márcio ; Melo, Marcos Antônio ; Santos de Carvalho, Maria Amélia ; Rodrigues, Marcos ; Conti Nunes, Maria Flavia ; Ogrzewalska, Maria Halina ; Lopes Gonçalves, Mariana ; Vecchi, Maurício B. ; Bettio, Maurício ; Matta Baptista, Michelle Noronha da; Arantes, Murilo Sérgio ; Ruiz, Nicolás Luciano ; Bisetto de Andrade, Paulo Guilherme ; Lima Ribeiro, Pedro Henrique ; Galetti Junior, Pedro Manoel ; Macario, Phoeve ; Oliveira Fratoni, Rafael de; Meurer, Rafael ; Saint-Clair, Rafael S. ; Romagna, Rafael Spilere ; Alves Lacerda, Raquel Caroline ; Serpa Cerboncini, Ricardo Augusto ; Lyra, Ricardo Brioschi ; Lau, Ricardo ; Rodrigues, Roberta Costa ; Faria, Rogério Rodrigues ; Laps, Rudi Ricardo ; Althoff, Sérgio Luiz ; Jesus, Shayana de; Namba, Sumiko ; Braga, Talita Vieira ; Molin, Tamara ; França Câmara, Thanyria P. ; Enedino, Thayz Rodrigues ; Wischhoff, Uschi ; Oliveira, Vanessa Cristina de; Leandro-Silva, Victor ; Araújo-Lima, Vitor ; Oliveira Lunardi, Vitor de; Gusmão, Reginaldo Farias de; Souza Correia, Jozélia Maria de; Gaspar, Lucas P. ; Batista Fonseca, Renata Cristina ; Fonseca Pires Neto, Paulo Affonso ; Medeiros Morato de Aquino, Ana Carla ; Camargo, Bruna Betagni de; Cezila, Beatriz Azevedo ; Costa, Leonardo Marques ; Paolino, Roberta Montanheiro ; Kanda, Claudia Zukeran ; Monteiro, Erison C.S. ; Oshima, Júlia Emi F. ; Alves-Eigenheer, Milene ; Pizo, Marco Aurelio ; Silveira, Luís F. ; Galetti, Mauro ; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar - \ 2019
    Ecology 100 (2019)6. - ISSN 0012-9658
    body size - functional diversity - individual variation - interspecific variation - phenotypic plasticity - phylogenetic diversity - rapid evolution - tropical forest

    Scientists have long been trying to understand why the Neotropical region holds the highest diversity of birds on Earth. Recently, there has been increased interest in morphological variation between and within species, and in how climate, topography, and anthropogenic pressures may explain and affect phenotypic variation. Because morphological data are not always available for many species at the local or regional scale, we are limited in our understanding of intra- and interspecies spatial morphological variation. Here, we present the ATLANTIC BIRD TRAITS, a data set that includes measurements of up to 44 morphological traits in 67,197 bird records from 2,790 populations distributed throughout the Atlantic forests of South America. This data set comprises information, compiled over two centuries (1820–2018), for 711 bird species, which represent 80% of all known bird diversity in the Atlantic Forest. Among the most commonly reported traits are sex (n = 65,717), age (n = 63,852), body mass (n = 58,768), flight molt presence (n = 44,941), molt presence (n = 44,847), body molt presence (n = 44,606), tail length (n = 43,005), reproductive stage (n = 42,588), bill length (n = 37,409), body length (n = 28,394), right wing length (n = 21,950), tarsus length (n = 20,342), and wing length (n = 18,071). The most frequently recorded species are Chiroxiphia caudata (n = 1,837), Turdus albicollis (n = 1,658), Trichothraupis melanops (n = 1,468), Turdus leucomelas (n = 1,436), and Basileuterus culicivorus (n = 1,384). The species recorded in the greatest number of sampling localities are Basileuterus culicivorus (n = 243), Trichothraupis melanops (n = 242), Chiroxiphia caudata (n = 210), Platyrinchus mystaceus (n = 208), and Turdus rufiventris (n = 191). ATLANTIC BIRD TRAITS (ABT) is the most comprehensive data set on measurements of bird morphological traits found in a biodiversity hotspot; it provides data for basic and applied research at multiple scales, from individual to community, and from the local to the macroecological perspectives. No copyright or proprietary restrictions are associated with the use of this data set. Please cite this data paper when the data are used in publications or teaching and educational activities.

    Agrofood meets High-Tech
    Mol, Arthur ; Trindade, Luisa ; Boekel, Tiny van; Fresco, Louise - \ 2019
    Harnessing type I CRISPR–Cas systems for genome engineering in human cells
    Cameron, Peter ; Coons, Mary M. ; Klompe, Sanne E. ; Lied, Alexandra M. ; Smith, Stephen C. ; Vidal, Bastien ; Donohoue, Paul D. ; Rotstein, Tomer ; Kohrs, Bryan W. ; Nyer, David B. ; Kennedy, Rachel ; Banh, Lynda M. ; Williams, Carolyn ; Toh, Mckenzi S. ; Irby, Matthew J. ; Edwards, Leslie S. ; Lin, Chun Han ; Owen, Arthur L.G. ; Künne, Tim ; Oost, John van der; Brouns, Stan J.J. ; Slorach, Euan M. ; Fuller, Chris K. ; Gradia, Scott ; Kanner, Steven B. ; May, Andrew P. ; Sternberg, Samuel H. - \ 2019
    Nature Biotechnology 37 (2019). - ISSN 1087-0156 - p. 1471 - 1477.

    Type I CRISPR–Cas systems are the most abundant adaptive immune systems in bacteria and archaea1,2. Target interference relies on a multi-subunit, RNA-guided complex called Cascade3,4, which recruits a trans-acting helicase-nuclease, Cas3, for target degradation5–7. Type I systems have rarely been used for eukaryotic genome engineering applications owing to the relative difficulty of heterologous expression of the multicomponent Cascade complex. Here, we fuse Cascade to the dimerization-dependent, non-specific FokI nuclease domain8–11 and achieve RNA-guided gene editing in multiple human cell lines with high specificity and efficiencies of up to ~50%. FokI–Cascade can be reconstituted via an optimized two-component expression system encoding the CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins on a single polycistronic vector and the guide RNA (gRNA) on a separate plasmid. Expression of the full Cascade–Cas3 complex in human cells resulted in targeted deletions of up to ~200 kb in length. Our work demonstrates that highly abundant, previously untapped type I CRISPR–Cas systems can be harnessed for genome engineering applications in eukaryotic cells.

    Governing Dynamics in Marine Conservation Tourism in Raja Ampat, Indonesia
    Atmodjo, Ery ; Lamers, Machiel ; Mol, Arthur P.J. - \ 2019
    Tourism Planning and Development (2019). - ISSN 2156-8316
    co-governance - decentralization - Marine conservation tourism - non-governmental organisation

    This paper examines how governance arrangements for marine conservation tourism in the new regency of Raja Ampat, Indonesia, have evolved as a result of Indonesia's decentralization policy and what role NGOs have played in this process. The analysis shows that over a period of two decades NGOs have played a major co-governance role by informing and mobilizing local communities, by establishing and managing marine protected areas, as well as by supporting the technical and financial capacity of the newly established regional government of Raja Ampat. Over time a patchwork of non-state governance and open co-governance arrangements in marine conservation tourism transformed into more integrated closed co-governance arrangements, in which state authority became more important. NGOs, however, continue to play a pivotal role in marine conservation tourism governance arrangements, even now that a recentralization in Indonesia's marine conservation governance is likely to take place.

    Above- and belowground overyielding are related at the community and species level in a grassland biodiversity experiment
    Barry, Kathryn E. ; Weigelt, Alexandra ; Ruijven, Jasper van; Kroon, Hans de; Ebeling, Anne ; Eisenhauer, Nico ; Gessler, Arthur ; Ravenek, Janneke M. ; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael ; Oram, Natalie J. ; Vogel, Anja ; Wagg, Cameron ; Mommer, Liesje - \ 2019
    In: Advances in Ecological Research / Eisenhauer, N., Bohan, D.A., Dumbrell, A.J., Academic Press Inc. (Advances in Ecological Research ) - ISBN 9780081029121 - p. 55 - 89.
    Biodiversity-ecosystem functioning - Biomass allocation - Functional diversity - Jena experiment - Light competition - Plant traits - Root biomass - Root:Shoot ratio - Shoot biomass - Species richness

    Plant species richness positively affects plant productivity both above- and belowground. While this suggests that they are related at the community level, few studies have calculated above- and belowground overyielding simultaneously. It thus remains unknown whether above- and belowground overyielding are correlated. Moreover, it is unknown how belowground community level overyielding translates to the species level. We investigated above- and belowground overyielding in the Jena Trait-Based Biodiversity Experiment, at both the community and species level and across two 8-species pools. We found that above- and belowground overyielding were positively correlated at the community level and at the species level—for seven out of the 13 investigated species. Some plant species performed better in mixtures compared to monocultures and others performed worse, but the majority did so simultaneously above- and belowground. However, plants invested more in aboveground overyielding than belowground. Based on this disproportional investment in overyielding aboveground, we conclude that light was more limiting than belowground resources in the present study, which requires individual species to compete more for light than for belowground resources.

    The need for bottom-up assessments of climate risks and adaptation in climate-sensitive regions
    Conway, Declan ; Nicholls, Robert J. ; Brown, Sally ; Tebboth, Mark G.L. ; Adger, William Neil ; Ahmad, Bashir ; Biemans, Hester ; Crick, Florence ; Lutz, Arthur F. ; Campos, Ricardo Safra De; Said, Mohammed ; Singh, Chandni ; Zaroug, Modathir Abdalla Hassan ; Ludi, Eva ; New, Mark ; Wester, Philippus - \ 2019
    Nature Climate Change 9 (2019)7. - ISSN 1758-678X - p. 503 - 511.

    Studies of climate change at specific intervals of future warming have primarily been addressed through top-down approaches using climate projections and modelled impacts. In contrast, bottom-up approaches focus on the recent past and present vulnerability. Here, we examine climate signals at different increments of warming and consider the need to reconcile top-down and bottom-up approaches. We synthesise insights from recent studies in three climate-sensitive systems where change is a defining feature of the human-environment system. Whilst top-down and bottom-up approaches generate complementary insights into who and what is at risk, integrating their results is a much-needed step towards developing relevant information to address the needs of immediate adaptation decisions.

    Synthesis of existing food systems studies and research projects in Europe
    Achterbosch, Thom J. ; Getz Escudero, Arthur ; Dengerink, Just D. ; Berkum, Siemen van - \ 2019
    Brussels : European Commission,Directorate-General for Research and Innovation - ISBN 9789276080015 - 57
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