Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Improving disease resistance in chickens: divergent selection on natural antibodies
Berghof, T.V.L. ; Poel, J.J. van der; Arts, J.A.J. ; Bovenhuis, H. ; Visker, M.H.P.W. ; Parmentier, H.K. - \ 2019
- p. 507 - 507.
Natural antibodies (NAb) are antibodies recognizing antigens without previous exposure to this antigen. Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)-binding NAb titers in chickens are heritable, and higher KLH-binding NAb titers have been associated with higher survival. This suggests that breeding for higher NAb titers might improve general disease resistance. A purebred White Leghorn chicken line was divergently selected and bred on total KLH-binding NAb titers at 16 weeks of age for 6 generations, and resulted in a High and Low line. The average estimated breeding value differences in KLH-binding NAb titers increased with 0.36 for total, 0.40 for IgM, and 0.32 for IgG per generation. Generations 4 and 6 of the selection lines were inoculated with an avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) at 8 days of age. Mortality and morbidity after 1 week were signicantly reduced in the High line compared to the Low line, which suggests a higher APEC resistance in the High line compared to the Low line. To investigate possible correlated responses on the immune system, several traits were measured at different ages in several generations: the High line showed higher different NAb titers at different ages, antibody concentrations, percentage of antibody-producing B cells, and bursa weight at young age compared to the Low line. This suggests that KLH-binding NAb selection has a favourable correlated response on the humoral adaptive immune system. No line differences were observed for T cells, γδ T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and antigen-presenting cells (APC). This might indicate that the selection had no unfavourable correlated responses on other parts of the immune system. This selection experiment shows that selective breeding on total KLH-binding NAb titers at 16 weeks of age is possible, and that selection for higher NAb has a benecial effect on resistance to APEC infection. In addition, the selection experiment suggests a promising opportunity for improving general disease resistance without unfavourable correlated selection responses.
The Transformative Potential of Active Citizenship: Understanding Changes in Local Governance Practices
Mattijssen, Thomas J.M. ; Buijs, Arjen A.E. ; Elands, Birgit H.M. ; Arts, Bas J.M. ; Dam, Rosalie I. van; Donders, Josine L.M. - \ 2019
Sustainability 11 (2019)20. - ISSN 2071-1050 - p. 5781 - 5781.
This paper focuses on understanding the transformative potential of active citizenship in green space governance. Through an in-depth case study, we show how citizens promoted the redevelopment of a brownfield into a green space, but eventually also contributed towards a broader co-creative shift in local governance. In this process, we highlight how a shift in citizens’ activities from contestation towards collaboration led to the uptake of citizen-driven discourses and activities in spatial planning. The social connectivity between governance practices is of key importance in this transformation—successful governance practices that involve active citizens can inspire others. Even so, transformation is often a slow and path-dependent process which also depends on an enabling policy environment. Cooperating with authorities provides citizens with power, but also requires alignment with official rules. Creating and maintaining effective partnerships will remain a challenge for citizens and policymakers that strive for societal transformations.
Genome-wide association study identifies loci influencing natural antibody titers in milk of Dutch Holstein-Friesian cattle
Cordero-Solorzano, Juan ; Parmentier, Henk K. ; Arts, Joop A.J. ; Poel, Jan van der; Koning, Dirk Jan de; Bovenhuis, Henk - \ 2019
Journal of Dairy Science 102 (2019)12. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 11092 - 11103.
dairy cattle - genome-wide association study - immunoglobulin - natural antibody

Natural antibodies (NAb) are produced without any antigenic stimulation as a part of the innate immune system and provide a first line of defense against pathogens. Hence, they may be a useful trait when estimating an animal's potential immune competence and in selection for disease resistance. The aim of this study was to identify genomic regions associated with different NAb traits in milk and potentially describe candidate genes. Milk samples from 1,695 first-lactation Holstein Friesian cows with titer measurements for keyhole limpet hemocyanin, lipopolysaccharide, lipoteichoic acid, and peptidoglycan-binding total NAb and isotypes IgG1, IgM, and IgA were used. Genome-wide association study analyses were performed using imputed 777K SNP genotypes, accounting for relationships using pedigree information. Functional enrichment analysis was performed on the significantly associated genomic regions to look for candidate genes. For IgM NAb, significant associations (false discovery rate <0.05) were found on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 17, 18, and 21 with candidate genes related to immunoglobulin structure and early B cell development. For IgG1, associations were found on BTA3, and we confirmed a quantitative trait loci on BTA21 previously reported for IgG NAb in serum. Our results provide new insights into the regulation of milk NAb that will help unravel the complex relationship between milk immunoglobulins and disease resistance in dairy cattle.

The Performance of REDD+: From Global Governance to Local Practices"
Arts, B.J.M. ; Ingram, V.J. ; Brockhaus, M. - \ 2019
Forests 10 (2019)10. - ISSN 1999-4907
The Performance of REDD+: From Global Governance to Local Practices
Arts, Bas ; Ingram, Verina ; Brockhaus, Maria - \ 2019
Forests 10 (2019)10. - ISSN 1999-4907 - 9 p.
Scheidend hoogleraar Bos- en natuurbeleid Bas Arts
Arts, Bas - \ 2019
Manuscripts how to build a cross-disciplinary institute: the curious case of the south american institute for resilience and sustainability studies
Scheffer, Marten ; Mazzeo, Nestor - \ 2019
Ecology and Society 24 (2019)2. - ISSN 1708-3087
Art and science - Art-science collaboration - Institute - Resilience - SARAS - South America - Sustainability

There is no recipe for setting up a new institute, especially if it is meant to be different from anything that currently exists. Here, we give a look behind the scenes at how we dreamt up the transdisciplinary South American Institute for Resilience and Sustainability Science (SARAS), located in Uruguay, and how, with help from a network of renowned freethinkers and dedicated doers, we made it happen. Trying to shape the institute over the first decade, we learned 10 important lessons that may be helpful for others in similar situations. (1) Securing a stable budget is essential, but a permanent challenge. (2) Structural international funding for a place-based institute is unlikely. (3) Having the institute outside the formal structure of a university gives liberty, but it is important to nurture good relationships. (4) An informal setting with ample scheduled time for walks, camp fires, and other leisure interactions helps participants build the trust and take the time needed to connect across disciplines and worldviews but can be seen as decadent by outsiders. (5) It is important to build resilience to the occasional reshuffling of cards inherent with government change. (6) It remains difficult for remote international board members to fathom the local dynamics and challenges inherent to running the institute on the ground. (7) Keeping the big idea alive while solving the continuous stream of everyday issues requires a combination of personalities with complementary skills in the dreamer-doer continuum. (8) There is a trade-off in selecting board members because the famous persons needed for credibility and for their extensive networks often have little time to contribute actively. (9) Truly linking science and arts requires long-term interaction between artists and scientists that are personally interested in this enterprise to allow for the necessary building of trust and mutual understanding. (10) A local sense of ownership is essential for long-term resilience.

Diagonal Vertigo
Beekwilder, Jules - \ 2019
This piece examines the influence of political power on individuals. Inspired by the tragic event that unfolded in Genoa on August 14, 2018: 200 meters of the famous and majestic Morandi Bridge collapsed, killing 43 people. A catastrophe. Diagonal Vertigo examines the contradictions in our own survival instincts.
We weten nog weinig over de invloed van burgers op het bosbeheer.
Arts, Bas - \ 2019
Forest Futures: Sustainable pathways for forests, landscapes and people in the Asia-Pacific region : Asia-Pacific Forest Secor Outlook Study III
Yasmi, Y. ; Arts, B.J.M. ; Hoogstra-Klein, M.A. - \ 2019
FAO - ISBN 9789251314579 - 318 p.
Metformin Alters Human Host Responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Healthy Subjects
Lachmandas, Ekta ; Eckold, Clare ; Böhme, Julia ; Koeken, Valerie A.C.M. ; Marzuki, Mardiana Binte ; Blok, Bastiaan ; Arts, Rob J.W. ; Chen, Jinmiao ; Teng, Karen W.W. ; Ratter, Jacqueline ; Smolders, Elise J. ; Heuvel, Corina Van den; Stienstra, Rinke ; Dockrell, Hazel M. ; Newell, Evan ; Netea, Mihai G. ; Singhal, Amit ; Cliff, Jacqueline M. ; Crevel, Reinout Van - \ 2019
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 220 (2019)1. - ISSN 0022-1899 - p. 139 - 150.
antimycobacterial mechanisms - gene transcription - host-directed therapy - Metformin - tuberculosis

BACKGROUND: Metformin, the most widely administered diabetes drug, has been proposed as a candidate adjunctive host-directed therapy for tuberculosis, but little is known about its effects on human host responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. METHODS: We investigated in vitro and in vivo effects of metformin in humans. RESULTS: Metformin added to peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers enhanced in vitro cellular metabolism while inhibiting the mammalian target of rapamycin targets p70S6K and 4EBP1, with decreased cytokine production and cellular proliferation and increased phagocytosis activity. Metformin administered to healthy human volunteers led to significant downregulation of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, and type I interferon response pathways, particularly following stimulation with M. tuberculosis, and upregulation of genes involved in phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species production was increased. These in vivo effects were accompanied by a metformin-induced shift in myeloid cells from classical to nonclassical monocytes. At a functional level, metformin lowered ex vivo production of tumor necrosis factor α, interferon γ, and interleukin 1β but increased phagocytosis activity and reactive oxygen species production. CONCLUSION: Metformin has a range of potentially beneficial effects on cellular metabolism, immune function, and gene transcription involved in innate host responses to M. tuberculosis.

Correlating Infant Fecal Microbiota Composition and Human Milk Oligosaccharide Consumption by Microbiota of 1-Month-Old Breastfed Infants
Borewicz, Klaudyna ; Gu, Fangjie ; Saccenti, Edoardo ; Arts, I.C.W. ; Penders, John ; Thijs, Carel ; Leeuwen, Sander S. van; Lindner, Cordula ; Nauta, Arjen ; Leusen, Ellen van; Schols, Henk A. ; Smidt, Hauke - \ 2019
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research (2019). - ISSN 1613-4125
breastfeeding - human milk oligosaccharide - microbial clusters - microbiome

Scope: Understanding the biological functions of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in shaping gastrointestinal (GI) tract microbiota during infancy is of great interest. A link between HMOs in maternal milk and infant fecal microbiota composition is examined and the role of microbiota in degrading HMOs within the GI tract of healthy, breastfed, 1-month-old infants is investigated. Methods and results: Maternal breast milk and infant feces are from the KOALA Birth Cohort. HMOs are quantified in milk and infant fecal samples using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fecal microbiota composition is characterized using Illumina HiSeq 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The composition is associated with gender, delivery mode, and milk HMOs: Lacto-N-fucopentaose I and 2′-fucosyllactose. Overall, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, Escherichia–Shigella, and Parabacteroides are predominating genera. Three different patterns in infant fecal microbiota structure are detected. GI degradation of HMOs is strongly associated with fecal microbiota composition, and there is a link between utilization of specific HMOs and relative abundance of various phylotypes (operational taxonomic units). Conclusions: HMOs in maternal milk are among the important factors shaping GI tract microbiota in 1-month-old breastfed infants. An infant's ability to metabolize different HMOs strongly correlates with fecal microbiota composition and specifically with phylotypes within genera Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, and Lactobacillus.

Towards more effective online environmental information provision through tailored Natural Language Generation: Profiles of Scottish river user groups and an evaluative online experiment
Arts, K.A.J. ; Macleod, C.J.A. ; Ioris, A.A.R. ; Han, X. ; Sripada, S. ; Braga, J.F. ; Maffey, Georgina ; Jekjantuk, N. ; Zeng, Cheng ; Wal, R. van der - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 673 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 643 - 655.
As a result of societal transformations, political governance shifts, and advances in ICT, online information has become crucial in efforts by public authorities to make citizens better stewards of the environment. Yet, their environmental information provision may not always be attuned to end users' rationales, behaviours and appreciations. This study revolves around dynamic river level information provided by an environmental regulator – updated once a day or more, and collected by a sensor network of 333 gauging stations along 232 Scottish rivers. Employing an elaborate mixed methods approach with qualitative and quantitative elements, we examined if profiling of web page user groups and the subsequent employment of a specially designed Natural Language Generation (NLG) system could foster more effective online information provision. We identified profiles for the three main user groups: fishing, flood risk related, and paddling. The existence of well-distinguishable rationales and characteristics was in itself an argument for profiling; the same river level information was used in entirely different ways by the three groups. We subsequently constructed an advanced online experiment that implemented NLG based on live river level data. We found that textual information can be of much value in translating dynamic technical information into straightforward messages for the specific purposes of the user groups. We conclude that tailored NLG could be widely used in more effective online environmental information provision, and we provide five practical recommendations for public authorities and other information providers.
Samen leren om samen beter te beheren: case study : Een groepsgesprek over de waarde van water in de waterhouderij Walcheren, Zeeland
Nikkels, M.J. ; Sommeijer, M. ; Klap, Vincent ; Moerman, Tim ; Arts, Marco - \ 2019
Water Governance (2019)1. - ISSN 2211-0224 - p. 50 - 53.
Fungicides: An Overlooked Pesticide Class?
Zubrod, Jochen P. ; Bundschuh, Mirco ; Arts, Gertie ; Brühl, Carsten A. ; Imfeld, Gwenaël ; Knäbel, Anja ; Payraudeau, Sylvain ; Rasmussen, Jes J. ; Rohr, Jason ; Scharmüller, Andreas ; Smalling, Kelly ; Stehle, Sebastian ; Schulz, Ralf ; Schäfer, Ralf B. - \ 2019
Environmental Science and Technology 53 (2019)7. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 3347 - 3365.

Fungicides are indispensable to global food security and their use is forecasted to intensify. Fungicides can reach aquatic ecosystems and occur in surface water bodies in agricultural catchments throughout the entire growing season due to their frequent, prophylactic application. However, in comparison to herbicides and insecticides, the exposure to and effects of fungicides have received less attention. We provide an overview of the risk of fungicides to aquatic ecosystems covering fungicide exposure (i.e., environmental fate, exposure modeling, and mitigation measures) as well as direct and indirect effects of fungicides on microorganisms, macrophytes, invertebrates, and vertebrates. We show that fungicides occur widely in aquatic systems, that the accuracy of predicted environmental concentrations is debatable, and that fungicide exposure can be effectively mitigated. We additionally demonstrate that fungicides can be highly toxic to a broad range of organisms and can pose a risk to aquatic biota. Finally, we outline central research gaps that currently challenge our ability to predict fungicide exposure and effects, promising research avenues, and shortcomings of the current environmental risk assessment for fungicides.

T-labs and climate change narratives: Co-researcher qualities in transgressive action-research
Macintyre, Thomas ; Monroy, T. ; Coral, D. ; Zethelius, M. ; Tassone, V.C. ; Wals, A.E.J. - \ 2019
Action Research 17 (2019)1. - ISSN 1476-7503 - p. 63 - 86.
This paper addresses the call for more action-based narratives of grassroot resistance to runaway climate change. At a time when deep changes in society are needed in order to respond to climate change and related sustainability issues, there are calls for greater connectivity between science and society, and for more inclusive and disruptive forms of knowledge creation and engagement. The contention of this paper is that the forces and structures that create a disconnect between science and society must be ‘transgressed’. This paper introduces a concept of Transgressive Action Research as a methodological innovation that enables the co-creation of counter hegemonic pathways towards sustainability. Through the method of the Living Spiral Framework, fieldwork reflexions from the Colombian case study of the international T-Learning project were elicited, uncovering and explicating the transgressive learning qualities needed to respond to climate change. As part of a larger action–research project, this paper combines the arts with the social sciences, demonstrating how the concept of ‘Transgressive Action Research’ can enable co-researchers to engage in disruptive and transformative processes, meeting the need for more radical approaches to addressing the urgent challenges of climate change.
The effect of prebiotic fortified infant formulas on microbiota composition and dynamics in early life
Borewicz, Klaudyna ; Suarez-Diez, Maria ; Hechler, Christine ; Beijers, Roseriet ; Weerth, Carolina de; Arts, Ilja ; Penders, John ; Thijs, Carel ; Nauta, Arjen ; Lindner, Cordula ; Leusen, Ellen Van; Vaughan, Elaine E. ; Smidt, Hauke - \ 2019
Scientific Reports 9 (2019)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

Gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota composition differs between breastfed and formula-fed infants. Today’s infant formulas are often fortified with prebiotics to better mimic properties of human milk with respect to its effect on GI microbiota composition and function. We used Illumina HiSeq sequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments to investigate the composition of faecal microbiota in 2–12 week old infants receiving either breastmilk, infant formulas fortified with prebiotics, or mixed feeding. We compared these results with results from infants fed traditional formulas used in the Netherlands in 2002–2003, which contained no added prebiotics. We showed that today’s formulas supplemented with either scGOS (0.24–0.50 g/100 ml) or scGOS and lcFOS (at a 9:1 ratio; total 0.6 g/100 ml) had a strong bifidogenic effect as compared to traditional formulas, and they also resulted in altered patterns of microbial colonisation within the developing infant gastrointestinal tract. We identified three microbial states (or developmental stages) in the first 12 weeks of life, with a gradual transition pattern towards a bifidobacteria dominated state. In infants receiving only fortified formulas, this transition towards the bifidobacteria dominated state was accelerated, whereas in infants receiving mixed feeding the transition was delayed, as compared to exclusively breastfed infants.

Mining for Mother Earth. Governmentalities, sacred waters and nature's rights in Ecuador
Valladares, Carolina ; Boelens, R.A. - \ 2019
Geoforum 100 (2019). - ISSN 0016-7185 - p. 68 - 79.
Getting public opinion to see ‘mining’ and ‘Nature’s Rights’ as non-contradictory and even equivalent and harmonious, calls for far-reaching power strategies. Nature was entitled to rights by Ecuador’s Constitution at about the same time that the Government began promoting mining as central to Ecuador’s future. Building this equivalence to make ‘mining mean nature’, and materialize large-scale mining in the Quimsacocha páramo wetlands, the State and its institutions tested new tactics to manage territory, coined new imaginaries and subjectivities, and limited indigenous/rural political participation. In response, communities started to dispute these governmentality strategies through political practices that framed new meanings of territory and identity. They use formal political and legal arenas but, above all, their day-to-day practices. This article analyzes forms of power and counter-power in the Quimsacocha páramo mining conflict, through the four different, inter-related ‘arts of government’ (Foucault, 2008) and mutual strategies by promoters and detractors of extractive industry who, in apparent paradox, both appeal to Nature’s Rights. We conclude that using Nature’s Rights to promote mega-mining manifests the limitations of social and environmental rights recognition under neoliberal governance, and the tensions inherent in Nature’s Rights themselves. However, anti-extraction struggles like Quimsacocha’s critically make visible as well as challenge the development model and economic system that is implicit in the debate over Nature’s Rights, inviting us to re-think the socio-natural order and foster more just, equitable alternatives.
Spiders in the Web: Understanding the Evolution of REDD+ in Southwest Ghana
Besten, J.W. den; Arts, B.J.M. ; Behagel, J.H. - \ 2019
Forests 10 (2019)2. - ISSN 1999-4907
The implementation of the global programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries, and the role of Conservation, Sustainable Management of Forests and Enhancement of Forest Carbon Stocks (REDD+) is lacks a robust financial mechanism and is widely criticized for producing too little positive impact for climate, nature, and people. In many countries with tropical forests however, a variety of REDD+ projects continue to develop on the ground. This paper fills in some of the gaps in our understanding of the dynamic relation between global policy making and implementation of REDD+ on the ground. Using the introduction of REDD+ in Southwest Ghana as an example, we apply a practice-based approach to
analyze the different roles that local actors and global-local intermediaries played in the introduction of REDD+. Our results show a more balanced picture than polarized debates at the global levels suggest. The logic of practice explains how REDD+ was translated to the local situation. Global actors
took a lead but depended on local actors to make REDD+ work. Together, they integrated elements of existing practices that helped REDD+ ‘land’ locally but also transformed REDD+ globally to resemble such local practices. REDD+ initiatives absorbed elements from established community-based
conservation, forest restoration, and sustainable agro-forestry practices. The evolution of REDD+ in Ghana reflects global trends to integrate REDD+ with landscape approaches.
Maternal Transfer of Natural (Auto-) Antibodies in Chickens
Rifqi Ismiraj, M. ; Arts, J.A.J. ; Parmentier, H.K. - \ 2019
Poultry Science 98 (2019)6. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 2380 - 2391.
natural (auto-) antibodies - divergent selection - maternal transfer
The presence and relative levels (titers) of IgM and IgG natural antibodies (NAb) binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), and natural (auto-) antibodies (N(A)Ab) binding salmon double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), (oxidated-) phosphatidyl (phosphoryl) choline-conjugated bovine serum albumin (PC-BSA), PC-conjugated ovalbumin (PC-OVA), and OVA, respectively, were studied in adult hen plasma, egg yolk, egg albumen, plasma of their hatchlings, and in 8-day-old chick plasma. Birds and eggs were from 2 lines divergently selected for high or low NAb levels binding KLH. This study aimed to determine 1) correlated phenotypic responses of selection for NAb to KLH, 2) transfer of maternal NAb and N(A)Ab via egg compartments, 3) levels of likely maternal NAb and N(A)Ab in hatchlings and 8-day-old chicks, and 4) whether a composite trait: IgM anti-PC-BSA/IgG anti-dsDNA ratio in the compartments could be used as a parameter for health or immune status.

NAb and N(A)Ab to all tested antigens were found in adult hens, but low or no levels were found for IgM in yolk and IgG in albumen. Depending on the antigen, NAb and N(A)Ab were found in hatchlings and day 8 birds. Divergent selection and breeding based on NAb binding KLH affected antibody titers of almost all antigens in almost all compartments, in a similar way. Maternal transfer of NAb and N(A)Ab from the adult hen to offspring was via specific routes for specific antigens and isotypes, especially for IgG as suggested by cluster analyses and significant correlations. There was little indication of production of new NAb and N(A)Ab to the studied antigens in either the egg compartments or the hatchlings. A composite trait of IgM PC-BSA/IgG dsDNA ratio was as yet not indicative for immune status, as no significant differences were found between the lines for all compartments.

In conclusion, hens provide neonatal chickens with natural (self-) binding IgG antibodies that have been proposed to perform homeostatic functions during the period in which neonates do not produce these antibodies themselves.
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