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Innate immune training and metabolic reprogramming in primary monocytes of broiler and laying hens
Verwoolde, Michel B. ; Biggelaar, Robin H.G.A. van den; Vries Reilingh, Ger de; Arts, Joop A.J. ; Baal, Jürgen van; Lammers, Aart ; Jansen, Christine A. - \ 2021
Developmental and Comparative Immunology 114 (2021). - ISSN 0145-305X
Chickens - Immune training - Lipopolysaccharide - Metabolism - Monocytes - β-glucan
Recently, we have reported trained innate immunity in laying chicken monocytes. In the present study, we further investigated trained innate immunity of monocytes in layers and broilers. Monocytes of both breeds isolated from blood were trained in vitro with β-glucan, rec-chicken IL-4 or a combination of both, and restimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), after which inflammation and metabolism-related responses were measured. Training of laying and broiler hen monocytes resulted in increased mRNA levels of IL-1β, iNOS and HIF-1α, but enhanced surface expression of CD40 and NO production was only observed in layers. Our in vitro study demonstrates that monocytes from different genetic backgrounds can be trained. However, the observed differences suggest a differential effect on immune functionality associated with innate training. Whether these differences in immune functions between layers and broilers have effect on disease resistance remains to be elucidated.
Afleiding van drempelwaarden voor nutriënten in brakke wateren
Smeden, J.M. van; Arts, G.H.P. ; Geest, G.J. van - \ 2020
Amersfoort : Stichting Toegepast Onderzoek Waterbeheer (STOWA) (Rapport / STOWA 2020-42) - ISBN 9789057739132 - 47
Dit rapport is een resultaat van het Kennisimpuls project “Brakke wateren”. Op basis van gegevens die de afgelopen jaren door waterschappen zijn verzameld, zijn in dit rapport nieuwe drempelwaarden afgeleid voor stikstof en fosfaat in brakke wateren. Deze drempelwaarden geven aan dat bij hogere concentraties een overschrijding verwacht kan worden van de kritische grens van Chlorophyl-a voor Goed Ecologisch Potentieel (GEP) en Goede Ecologische Toestand (GET). Waterbeheerders kunnen met deze nieuwe drempelwaarden KRW-doelen bijstellen. Bij de afleiding van deze drempelwaarden is dezelfde methodiek aangehouden als gehanteerd is aan het begin van deze eeuw bij de implementatie van de Kaderrrichtlijn Water. Echter, in het onderhavige rapport zijn brakke wateren niet als één groep (M30 en M31) behandeld, maar zijn afzonderlijke drempelwaarden afgeleid voor M30 en M31 wateren. Tevens is gekeken of vormgeving (morfometrie) van watergangen een rol speelt. Daarom zijn ook drempelwaarden afgeleid voor M1b (zwak brakke sloten) alsmede voor lijnen vlakvormige wateren binnen de typen M30 en M31. Voor de afleiding van normen zijn drie verschillende methodieken toegepast: op basis van verschillende zoutklassen; op basis van morfometrie; rekening houdend met de limiterende voedingsstof voor algengroei. - Dit rapport laat een genuanceerd beeld zien als het gaat om de nieuw afgeleide drempelwaarden (zie onderstaande samenvattende tabel). In vergelijking met de voorgestelde drempelwaarden (“werknormen”) die aan het begin van deze eeuw bij de implementatie van de Kaderrrichtlijn Water zijn afgeleid, zijn de drempelwaarden voor brakke wateren berekend in dit rapport over het algemeen lager voor wat betreft stikstof, maar liggen deze in dezelfde orde van grootte of hoger voor P, echter niet voor de grote vlakvormige wateren (M31; zie samenvattende tabel). De afgeleide drempelwaarden voor de zwak brakke sloten (M1b) liggen voor alle waarden hoger dan voor de andere brak water typen. Als vergeleken wordt met de waarden voor het maximaal toelaatbaar risico uit de Nota Waterhuishouding van de vorige eeuw, zijn de afgeleide drempelwaarden lager als het gaat om stikstof en zijn deze vergelijkbaar of hoger als het gaat om fosfaat.
Energy Meets the Arts (Event)
Oudes, Dirk - \ 2020
Jurylid prijsvraag 'Energy Meets the Arts" uitgeschreven door Kunstloc
Relational values of nature: leverage points for nature policy in Europe
Mattijssen, Thomas J.M. ; Ganzevoort, Wessel ; Born, Riyan J.G. Van Den; Arts, Bas J.M. ; Breman, Bas C. ; Buijs, Arjen E. ; Dam, Rosalie I. Van; Elands, Birgit H.M. ; Groot, Wouter T. De; Knippenberg, Luuk W.J. - \ 2020
Ecosystems and People 16 (2020)1. - ISSN 2639-5908 - p. 402 - 410.
Relational values reflect the qualities of the relationships between humans and nature, such as care, social bonding, place attachment and spiritual meanings. In this perspective article, we argue that understanding relational values is vital for nature conservation, and we identify how incorporation of these values may function as leverage points for achieving more effective nature policy. We discuss the distinctive features of the concept of relational values and elaborate how relational values strongly influence people’s perceptions of, engagement with and action for nature. Relational values can also provide important deep leverage points for policy interventions aiming to support citizen’s contribution to nature conservation, to strengthen biodiversity policy and the relationship between people and nature. Based on three realms of leverage (re-think, re-structure and re-connect), we distinguish six routes through which relational values can be integrated in policies and practices of nature conservation: (1) incorporation of pluralized meanings of nature; (2) the uptake of relational language in policy discourse; (3) a prioritization of landscape-based policy; (4) empowering citizens in nature conservation; (5) re-orienting nature education to stimulate people’s personal bond with nature; and (6) using digital technology to stimulate new relationships with nature.
Metabolomics Profile in Depression: A Pooled Analysis of 230 Metabolic Markers in 5283 Cases With Depression and 10,145 Controls
Bot, Mariska ; Milaneschi, Yuri ; Al-Shehri, Tahani ; Amin, Najaf ; Garmaeva, Sanzhima ; Onderwater, G.L.J. ; Pool, R. ; Thesing, Carisha S. ; Vijfhuizen, Lisanne S. ; Vogelzangs, Nicole ; Arts, Ilja C.W. ; Demirkan, Ayse ; Duijn, Cornelia van; Greevenbroek, Marleen van; Kallen, Carla J.H. van der; Köhler, Sebastian ; Ligthart, Lannie ; Maagdenberg, Arn M.J.M. van den; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O. ; Mutsert, Renée de; Tiemeier, Henning ; Schram, Miranda T. ; Stehouwer, Coen D.A. ; Terwindt, Gisela M. ; Willems van Dijk, Ko ; Fu, Jingyuan ; Zhernakova, Alexandra ; Beekman, Marian ; Slagboom, Eline ; Boomsma, Dorret I. ; Penninx, Brenda W.J.H. ; Beekman, M. ; Suchiman, H.E.D. ; Deelen, J. ; Amin, N. ; Beulens, J.W. ; Bom, J.A. van der; Bomer, N. ; Demirkan, A. ; Hilten, J.A. van; Meessen, J.M.T.A. ; Pool, R. ; Moed, M.H. ; Fu, J. ; Onderwater, G.L.J. ; Rutters, F. ; Heijden, A.A.W.A. van der; Spek, A. van der; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Jukema, J.W. - \ 2020
Biological Psychiatry 87 (2020)5. - ISSN 0006-3223 - p. 409 - 418.
Biomarkers - Cardiovascular - Depression - Metabolites - Metabolomics - Pooled analysis
Background: Depression has been associated with metabolic alterations, which adversely impact cardiometabolic health. Here, a comprehensive set of metabolic markers, predominantly lipids, was compared between depressed and nondepressed persons. Methods: Nine Dutch cohorts were included, comprising 10,145 control subjects and 5283 persons with depression, established with diagnostic interviews or questionnaires. A proton nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics platform provided 230 metabolite measures: 51 lipids, fatty acids, and low-molecular-weight metabolites; 98 lipid composition and particle concentration measures of lipoprotein subclasses; and 81 lipid and fatty acids ratios. For each metabolite measure, logistic regression analyses adjusted for gender, age, smoking, fasting status, and lipid-modifying medication were performed within cohort, followed by random-effects meta-analyses. Results: Of the 51 lipids, fatty acids, and low-molecular-weight metabolites, 21 were significantly related to depression (false discovery rate q <. 05). Higher levels of apolipoprotein B, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, diglycerides, total and monounsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid chain length, glycoprotein acetyls, tyrosine, and isoleucine and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, acetate, and apolipoprotein A1 were associated with increased odds of depression. Analyses of lipid composition indicators confirmed a shift toward less high-density lipoprotein and more very-low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride particles in depression. Associations appeared generally consistent across gender, age, and body mass index strata and across cohorts with depressive diagnoses versus symptoms. Conclusions: This large-scale meta-analysis indicates a clear distinctive profile of circulating lipid metabolites associated with depression, potentially opening new prevention or treatment avenues for depression and its associated cardiometabolic comorbidity.
Integrating ecosystem services in power analysis in forest governance : A comparison across nine European countries
Juerges, Nataly ; Arts, Bas ; Masiero, Mauro ; Başkent, Emin Z. ; Borges, José G. ; Brodrechtova, Yvonne ; Brukas, Vilis ; Canadas, Maria João ; Carvalho, Pedro Ochôa ; Corradini, Giulia ; Corrigan, Edwin ; Felton, Adam ; Hoogstra-Klein, Marjanke ; Krott, Max ; Laar, Jim van; Lodin, Isak ; Lundholm, Anders ; Makrickienė, Ekaterina ; Marques, Marlene ; Mendes, Américo ; Mozgeris, Gintautas ; Novais, Ana ; Pettenella, Davide ; Pivoriūnas, Nerijus - \ 2020
Forest Policy and Economics 121 (2020). - ISSN 1389-9341
Actor-centred power - Ecosystem services trade-off - Europe - Forest governance - Governance transformation - Power shift
Within forest governance research, the transfer of power from governmental actors to civil society and market actors has been subject to intense scientific debate. We move forward on this debate by analyzing how ongoing transformations and power shifts in forest governance affect the power relations of actors with interest in various ecosystem services (ESs) in nine countries (Germany, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Slovakia, Sweden, the Netherlands, Turkey). In order to examine power resources of actors, we triangulated 220 qualitative interviews, document analysis, and participatory observations. Governmental actors (with various interests in ESs) were the most powerful actors in most countries, and thus drove forest management. Our analysis shows that the power relations of actors with interest in different forest ESs, varied within the nine countries, though many similarities existed. Governmental, market, and civil society actors differed in their capacity to apply the power strategies “coercion”, “(dis)incentives”, and “dominant information”, to realize their interests in ESs. In Lithuania, Slovakia and Turkey, governmental actors relied mostly on coercion; in the Netherlands on incentives; and in Sweden on dominant information. In Germany, Ireland, Italy and Portugal governmental actors relied on a mix of coercion, incentives, and dominant information. Market actors in all countries relied mostly on incentives, and civil society actors on dominant information as their power strategy.
|Kyoto International Workshop Consumption and Sustainability
Vrieze, Anke de - \ 2020
Opening up spaces of possibilities: the role of arts-based methods
Politieke ecologie met Koen Arts
Arts, Koen - \ 2020
ARTS 2.0 : feature updates and expansion of the Antibiotic Resistant Target Seeker for comparative genome mining
Mungan, Mehmet Direnç ; Alanjary, Mohammad ; Blin, Kai ; Weber, Tilmann ; Medema, Marnix H. ; Ziemert, Nadine - \ 2020
Nucleic acids research 48 (2020)W1. - ISSN 0305-1048 - p. W546 - W552.
Multi-drug resistant pathogens have become a major threat to human health and new antibiotics are urgently needed. Most antibiotics are derived from secondary metabolites produced by bacteria. In order to avoid suicide, these bacteria usually encode resistance genes, in some cases within the biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) of the respective antibiotic compound. Modern genome mining tools enable researchers to computationally detect and predict BGCs that encode the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. The major challenge now is the prioritization of the most promising BGCs encoding antibiotics with novel modes of action. A recently developed target-directed genome mining approach allows researchers to predict the mode of action of the encoded compound of an uncharacterized BGC based on the presence of resistant target genes. In 2017, we introduced the 'Antibiotic Resistant Target Seeker' (ARTS). ARTS allows for specific and efficient genome mining for antibiotics with interesting and novel targets by rapidly linking housekeeping and known resistance genes to BGC proximity, duplication and horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events. Here, we present ARTS 2.0 available at http://arts.ziemertlab.com. ARTS 2.0 now includes options for automated target directed genome mining in all bacterial taxa as well as metagenomic data. Furthermore, it enables comparison of similar BGCs from different genomes and their putative resistance genes.
From Rationalities to Practices : Understanding Unintended Consequences of CBNRM
Dekker, Lideweij A.G. ; Arts, Koen ; Turnhout, Esther - \ 2020
Conservation and Society 18 (2020)2. - ISSN 0972-4923 - p. 137 - 147.
Community-based natural resource management - Enduimet Wildlife Management Area - Human-wildlife conflict - Maasai - Nature conservation - Overgrazing - Participation - Tanzania
Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) aims to resolve issues of legitimacy and social justice but in practice this aim is not always met. In this article, we contribute to the understanding of the outcomes of CBNRM by drawing on the concepts of governmentality, practice, and rationalities. We apply this conceptual approach to a CBNRM project in northern Tanzania: Enduimet Wildlife Management Area (WMA). Here a conflict emerged about proposed new livestock herding regulations which were intended to address a grass shortage affecting both wildlife and the Maasai community living in the WMA. Although these regulations were designed as part of the CBNRM process, they were resisted by community members. Our analysis highlights the role of conflicting rationalities between the WMA board and community members about the causes of and solutions to the grass shortage in the ensuing conflict. Specifically, we demonstrate how these conflicting rationalities can be understood as unintended outcomes of dynamic interactions between assumptions and intentions of involved actors, formal processes related to CBNRM, and the communication and participatory strategies employed around the introduction of the new livestock herding regulations. As such, our article illustrates the value of explicitly considering the role of practice in analysing unintended consequences of conservation interventions.
Land use and land cover scenarios : An interdisciplinary approach integrating local conditions and the global shared socioeconomic pathways
Gomes, L.C. ; Bianchi, F.J.J.A. ; Cardoso, I.M. ; Schulte, R.P.O. ; Arts, B.J.M. ; Fernandes Filho, E.I. - \ 2020
Land Use Policy 97 (2020). - ISSN 0264-8377
Forest transition - Future scenarios - Interdisciplinarity - Land use - Public policies
Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) changes have profound impacts on the functioning of (agro)ecosystems and have potential to mitigate global climate change. However, we still lack interdisciplinary methods to project future LULC scenarios at spatial scales that are relevant for local decision making and future environmental assessments. Here we apply an interdisciplinary approach to develop spatially explicit projections of LULC at a resolution of 30 × 30 m informed by historic relationships between LULC and their key drivers, within the context of the four qualitative scenarios of global shared socioeconomic pathways. We apply this methodology to a case study in the Zona da Mata, Brazil, which has a history of major LULC changes. The analysis of LULC changes from 1986 to 2015 indicates that pasture area decreased from 76 to 58 % of total area, while forest areas increased from 18 to 24 %, and coffee from 3 to 11 %. Environmental protection legislation, rural credit for smallholder farmers, and demand for agricultural and raw products were identified as main drivers of LULC changes. Projected LULC for 2045 strongly depends on the global socioeconomic pathway scenarios, and forest and coffee areas may increase substantially under strong government measures in the environmentally conscious Green Road scenario or decrease in the high consumption Rocky Road scenario. Our study shows that under the set of drivers during the past three decades reforestation can go hand in hand with increase of agricultural production, but that major and contrasting changes in LULC can be expected depending on the socioeconomic pathway that will be followed in the future. To guide this process, LULC scenarios at the local scale can inform the planning of local and regional development and forest conservation.
Land use change and ecosystem services: linking social and ecological systems across time
Carvalho Gomes, Lucas de - \ 2020
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): R.P.O. Schulte; I.M. Cardoso, co-promotor(en): F.J.J.A. Bianchi; B.J.M. Arts. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463953979 - 217
In light of the projected climate change for the coming decades, there is an urgent need for multifunctional landscapes that are capable to provide a diversity of ecosystem services. This requires a better understanding of social and ecological factors that influence how these landscapes are managed and how this, in turn, influences the provision of ecosystem services. Land Use Land Cover (LULC) changes are one of the main factors that lead to spatiotemporal changes of ecosystems services. As such, the identification of the main socioeconomic drivers of LULC can give important insights about the drivers of ecosystem services. However, the analysis of ecosystem services in a context of socio-ecological systems is still underdeveloped. Brazil has witnessed intense changes in LULC in the last five centuries, which may have influenced the provision of ecosystem services at local, regional and global scales. In the southeast mountain area of the Atlantic Forest biome, the Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais is characterized by a heterogeneous landscape mosaic composed of pasture and coffee fields intermingled with forest fragments, which are predominantly inhabited and managed by family farmers. The Zona da Mata is considered a complex socio-ecological system and is an interesting case to study the spatio-temporal provision of ecosystem services. In Chapter 2, I assessed the LULC changes from 1986 to 2015 and their main socioeconomic drivers. By combining data obtained from satellite images, workshops and secondary data, I showed that forest and coffee areas increased, and pasture decreased. These changes were associated with government measures to protect the environment, financial support of family farmers, migration to cities and the agroecological movement. A scenarios analysis of contrasting socio-economic narratives indicated that sustainable measures taken by the government to protect the environment and support family farmers with financial credit will lead to increase forest and coffee areas in the Green Road scenario. In contrast, the socioeconomic development in the Fossil Fuel scenario, which projects a decline in environmental protection and focuses on rapid economic development, there will be a decline in forest areas. In Chapter 3, I explored the spatial variation of ecosystem services from 1986 to 2015 and the impacts of LULC changes on ecosystem services provision levels and their interactions. To map the spatio variation of ecosystem services, I used the LULC maps from 1986 and 2015 (Chapter 2) and the InVEST model. This analysis indicated that the conversion of forest to pasture has strong negative impacts on soil erosion control and water flow regulation, manifesting mostly as trade-offs and dis-synergies between ecosystem services. In Chapter 4, I investigated the separate effects of LULC changes and climate on water dynamics from 1990 to 2015, and explored scenarios of LULC change and climate change for 2045. For this purpose, I used the SWAT model and climate data combined with historical and future LULC maps developed in Chapter 2. I found that the variation in climate variables was the main factor for the observed increase in the river streamflow in the study period and that forest can buffer extreme precipitation events. The exploration of future scenarios indicated that the increase in forest cover under the Green Road scenario is expected to decrease the surface runoff water and increase evapotranspiration as compared to the Fossil Fuel scenario, mitigating the impacts of soil erosion and climatic extremes in the region. Projected changes in precipitation and temperature are expected to have negative impacts for agriculture in the future. In Chapter 5, I assessed the impact of climate change on the suitability of Coffea arabica production in the study region and the potential of agroforestry systems to mitigate these impacts. For this, I combined the species distribution model MaxEnt with current and future climate projections. Agroforestry system have the potential to reduce air temperatures under the canopy of trees. I explored the effect of the altered the microclimate in agroforestry systems on the suitability for coffee production by adjusting future climate data to reflect conditions in agroforestry systems. I found that the area suitability for coffee production from the current monoculture coffee systems will decline by 60% under the projected climatic changes. However, the implementation of coffee agroforestry systems can mitigate these negative impacts of climatic change and maintain 75% of the area suitable for coffee production in 2050. Combining social and ecological systems in an interdisciplinary framework, generated insights in the relationships between climate and LULC change, and how this influences several ecosystem services. This framework connects different research fields and allows different stakeholders to work together to find effective ways to work towards multifunctional landscapes that promote the sustainable use of ecosystem services.
Habitatrichtlijnrapportage 2019: Annex D Habitattypen : Achtergronddocument
Janssen, John ; Bijlsma, Rienk-Jan ; Arts, Gertie ; Baptist, Martin ; Hennekens, Stephan ; Knegt, Bart de; Meij, Tom van der; Schaminée, Joop ; Strien, Arco van; Wijnhoven, Sander ; Ysebaert, Tom - \ 2020
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 171) - 97
This document describes the concepts, data and methods used in the 2019 report (under Article 17 of the Habitats Directive) on the conservation status of habitat types for the parameters range, area, structure and functions, and future prospects. The ranges of nearly all habitat types have not changed. No reliable, updated data on area were available for most habitat types. The methodology for assessing structure and functions has been thoroughly revised to accommodate long-term monitoring data and meet the new reporting formats. The European Commission has also introduced a new method for assessing future prospects. The report presents the results and indicates where the methods and data can be improved.
Effect of CMC degree of substitution and gliadin/CMC ratio on surface rheology and foaming behavior of gliadin/CMC nanoparticles
Peng, Dengfeng ; Jin, Weiping ; Arts, Miriam ; Yang, Jack ; Li, Bin ; Sagis, Leonard M.C. - \ 2020
Food Hydrocolloids 107 (2020). - ISSN 0268-005X
Degree of substitution - Foam - Nanoparticle - Ratio - Structure - Surface behavior
To understand the influence of the degree of substitution (DS) of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and gliadin:CMC ratio on the surface and foaming behaviors of gliadin-CMC nanoparticles (G-CMC NPs) at pH 3, three DS (0.7–1.2) and four ratios (G:CMC~1:0.5–1:2) were investigated. Gliadin NPs with a pH of 3 were utilized as a control. Results showed that G-CMC NPs at all investigated DS and ratios possessed higher foamability and foam stability when compared to the control. This indicated that adding CMC to gliadin NP suspensions could greatly improve their foaming properties. G-CMC NPs with a DS of 0.7 and 0.9, had lower surface charge than G-CMC1.2 NPs, resulting in a weaker electrostatic repulsion, thus leading to faster adsorption kinetics and higher foamability. By increasing the G:CMC ratio from 1:0.5 to 1:2, the particle size gradually rose, and the zeta potential remained unchanged. At a ratio of 1:2, the highest foam stability was observed. This might be ascribed to the high continuous phase viscosity at this ratio, which could slow down the drainage rate and protect the bubbles against coalescence and disproportionation. It was worth mentioning that G-CMC NPs at all ratios exhibited impressive foamability (~220%) even at a very low concentration of G-CMC NPs (gliadin was fixed at 1 mg/mL). This implies that G-CMC NPs could act as a new efficient foaming agent, and based on its simple preparation, have the potential to be widely applied in foamed food.
On the merits and pitfalls of introducing a digital platform to aid conservation management : Volunteer data submission and the mediating role of volunteer coordinators
Arts, Koen ; Melero, Yolanda ; Webster, Gemma ; Sharma, Nirwan ; Tintarev, Nava ; Tait, Elizabeth ; Mellish, Christopher ; Sripada, Somayajulu ; MacMaster, Ann Marie ; Sutherland, Hollie ; Horrill, Chris ; Lambin, Xavier ; Wal, René van der - \ 2020
Journal of Environmental Management 265 (2020). - ISSN 0301-4797
Environmental citizen science - Human-computer interaction - Invasive species control - Technological innovation - Volunteer coordination - Volunteer-based management
Against a backdrop of accelerating digital innovation in nature conservation and environmental management, a real-world experiment was conducted with the research aims of assessing: 1) the effects of introducing a digital data-entry platform on volunteer data submission; and 2) the extent to which coordinators influence digital platform use by their volunteers. We focussed on a large-scale volunteer-based initiative aimed at eradicating the non-native American mink (Neovison vison) from northern Scotland. This geographically dispersed conservation initiative adopted a digital platform that allowed volunteers to submit records to a central database. We found that the platform had a direct and positive effect on volunteer data submission behaviour, increasing both the number and frequency of submissions. However, our analysis revealed striking differences in coordinator engagement with the platform, which in turn influenced the engagement of volunteers with this centrally introduced digital innovation. As a consequence, the intended organisation-wide rolling out of a digital platform translated into a diversely-implemented innovation, limiting the efficacy of the tool and revealing key challenges for digital innovation in geographically-dispersed conservation initiatives.
Lazy lands or carbon sinks? : frames and integration in the nexus of forest, agriculture and climate change
Soto Golcher, Cinthia Lucia - \ 2020
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): B.J.M. Arts; I.J. Visseren-Hamakers. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463952729 - 202
The interactions among the forest, agriculture and climate change policy domains are quite complex. On the one hand, forests provide important livelihoods and ecosystem services. These include protection of biodiversity and water sources, climate regulation, absorption of CO2, the reduction of the risks and impacts of extreme weather events, and important recreational and spiritual values in different parts of the world, just to mention a few. On the other hand, agriculture provides food, animal feed, bioenergy, and employment, and is a source of income for more than 500 million smallholder farmers globally. However, commercial agriculture is considered the main driver of deforestation. This tension has been enhanced in the past by conflicting policies (including agricultural subsidies) that promoted increasing agricultural productivity and considered standing forest as “lazy lands” (land with no economic or social value). This led to clearcutting forest to make land “productive”. While this framing has changed, and different instruments have been developed to protect and conserve forests, the expansion of agriculture into forested areas continues. Moreover, both forests and agriculture are highly vulnerable and affected by climate change. Paradoxically at the same time, deforestation, forest degradation and agriculture contribute to about one quarter of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. So there is functional interplay among the three domains, as they are all connected in biogeophysical and socio-economic or economical terms. As such, greater coherence can be promoted through improved coordination and integration among the domains.
The global governance systems of forests, agriculture and climate change are characterized by their fragmented nature, that is, an increasing number of institutions governing each domain, a multitude of actors from different spheres of society, and a wide array of norms and discourses. Specifically, this dissertation addresses this fragmentation from a framing perspective. Frames are understood in this dissertation as ‘underlying structures of belief, perception and appreciation’ (Schön and Rein 1994: 23) and framing as ‘...the process by which people develop a particular conceptualization of an issue or reorient their thinking about an issue’ (Chong and Druckman 2007: 104). This dissertation is positioned solidly within global environmental governance research. It aims to further our knowledge of the role of framing in the integration of global governance in the nexus of forests, agriculture and climate change. In order to do so, three research questions are analysed:
RQ1: What efforts have been taken to enhance integration among the forest, agriculture and climate change governance systems and how does framing contribute to the degree of integration?
RQ2: How did forests receive an increasingly prominent place on the global climate change agenda, while agriculture is still lagging behind, and what role has framing played in this degree of integration?
RQ3: How and to what extent has framing played a role in the design and evolution of the Global Alliance on Climate Smart Agriculture (GACSA)?
Different conceptual frameworks are developed in each chapter to answer the research questions. These are encompassed within the Integrative Governance literature and are combined with frame theory elements. The methodologies used involve semi-structured interviews, an international workshop with experts active in one or more of the studied domains, and in-depth literature reviews, content and document analyses.
The dissertation concludes that compatible frames are a precondition for integration. Compatible frames have the potential to enable integration or at least, not hinder it. Efforts to integrate incompatible frames among domains can result in broad and meaningless agreements, with a significant amount of time and resources invested. Even though the forest, agriculture and climate change governance systems are highly fragmented and encompass multiple frames, actors may attempt to bridge and connect compatible frames among domains. Strategic framing can be used in different ways to enhance integration (e.g. by expanding frames or reframing). Framing is then considered a skill and a necessary quality for actors engaging in integration efforts. The dissertation also presents a model for framing and integration that provides some insights into how framing can be used to enhance or prevent integration. It finalizes with a set of policy recommendations, including the development of a land-use readiness fund and the need to promote approaches outside the intergovernmental frameworks, where different frames are present and the fear of binding commitments does not play a role.
The dissertation concludes that the fragmentation of global governance is a fact, and incompatible frames are an important factor influencing this fragmentation. Also, while actors may connect compatible frames among domains, these frames will not necessarily support sustainable paths. This dissertation argues that we need to identify and support frames that enhance the desired transformative changes towards sustainability.
Early and later life environmental enrichment affect specific antibody responses and blood leukocyte subpopulations in pigs
Luo, Lu ; Jansen, Christine A. ; Bolhuis, Elizabeth ; Arts, Joop ; Kemp, Bas ; Parmentier, Henk - \ 2020
Physiology and Behavior 217 (2020). - ISSN 0031-9384
Antibody response - Coping style - Early life history - Enrichment - Immunity - Pigs
This study addressed the impact of early and later life environmental enrichment, and their combination, on specific antibody responses and peripheral blood leukocyte subpopulations in pigs. Pigs were kept in either barren (B1) or enriched (E1) housing from birth, and half of the pigs switched to barren or enriched housing on day 47, resulting in four treatment combinations: B1B2, B1E2, E1B2, E1E2). Pigs were immunized with keyhole limpet hemocyanin-conjugated trinitrophenyl (KLH-TNP) on day 74 and 109 to induce primary and secondary antibody responses. Blood samples were taken weekly until day 130, and IgM and IgG antibody responses were measured. Leukocyte subpopulations were measured on day 74 and 130. Time course of the antibody responses was not affected by housing. Early life enrichment increased the IgG response to KLH, particularly the primary one. At day 74 the relative frequency of lymphocytes, DC and SLA-II expression on monocytes were higher in E1 pigs, whereas the percentage of granulocytes tended to be lower in E1 pigs at day 74. Early life enrichment increased the SLA-II expression on monocytes, the granulocyte to lymphocyte ratio, and tended to increase the percentage of granulocytes, but tended to decrease the percentage of monocytes at day 130. Later life enrichment reduced percentages of CD4+CD8α+ T cells before and after immunization and the SLA-II expression on monocytes at day 74, the percentage of granulocytes and the granulocyte to lymphocyte ratio at day 130. Notably, early and later life housing interacted in their effects on several immune parameters. KLH-IgM responses (both primary and secondary) were affected by the interaction between early and later life housing. IgM titers were higher for B1B2 than for E1E2, with the switched animals (B1E2 and E1B2) moving towards the titers of the animals kept in their later life environment from birth onwards. At day 130 the percentage of gamma delta T cells, CD8α+ cytotoxic T cells and DC were not different between pigs kept in B1B2 and E1E2, but there was a clear impact of the switch in housing conditions, particularly for the pigs that changed from barren to enriched housing. We also found effects of coping style (personality) and sex on some immune parameters. In conclusion, both early life and later life enrichment, and, notably a switch in housing conditions influenced specific antibodies and leukocyte subpopulations in pigs. The current study implies that the early life history of animals and the (mis)match with their current environment could thus be of major importance for their immune system. Further research is needed to investigate potential consequences for the pigs’ health.
Integration of epidemiologic, pharmacologic, genetic and gut microbiome data in a drug–metabolite atlas
Liu, Jun ; Lahousse, Lies ; Nivard, Michel G. ; Bot, Mariska ; Chen, Lianmin ; Klinken, Jan Bert van; Thesing, Carisha S. ; Beekman, Marian ; Akker, Erik Ben van den; Slieker, Roderick C. ; Waterham, Eveline ; Kallen, Carla J.H. van der; Boer, Irene de; Li-Gao, Ruifang ; Vojinovic, Dina ; Amin, Najaf ; Radjabzadeh, Djawad ; Kraaij, Robert ; Alferink, Louise J.M. ; Murad, Sarwa Darwish ; Uitterlinden, André G. ; Willemsen, Gonneke ; Pool, Rene ; Milaneschi, Yuri ; Heemst, Diana van; Suchiman, H.E. ; Rutters, Femke ; Elders, Petra J.M. ; Beulens, Joline W.J. ; Heijden, Amber A.W.A. van der; Greevenbroek, Marleen M.J. van; Arts, Ilja C.W. ; Onderwater, Gerrit L.J. ; Maagdenberg, Arn M.J.M. van den; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O. ; Hankemeier, Thomas ; Terwindt, Gisela M. ; Stehouwer, Coen D.A. ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; ‘t Hart, Leen M. ; Slagboom, Eline P. ; Dijk, Ko Willems van; Zhernakova, Alexandra ; Fu, Jingyuan ; Penninx, Brenda W.J.H. ; Boomsma, Dorret I. ; Demirkan, Ayşe ; Stricker, Bruno H.C. ; Duijn, Cornelia M. van - \ 2020
Nature Medicine 26 (2020)1. - ISSN 1078-8956 - p. 110 - 117.
Progress in high-throughput metabolic profiling provides unprecedented opportunities to obtain insights into the effects of drugs on human metabolism. The Biobanking BioMolecular Research Infrastructure of the Netherlands has constructed an atlas of drug–metabolite associations for 87 commonly prescribed drugs and 150 clinically relevant plasma-based metabolites assessed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance. The atlas includes a meta-analysis of ten cohorts (18,873 persons) and uncovers 1,071 drug–metabolite associations after evaluation of confounders including co-treatment. We show that the effect estimates of statins on metabolites from the cross-sectional study are comparable to those from intervention and genetic observational studies. Further data integration links proton pump inhibitors to circulating metabolites, liver function, hepatic steatosis and the gut microbiome. Our atlas provides a tool for targeted experimental pharmaceutical research and clinical trials to improve drug efficacy, safety and repurposing. We provide a web-based resource for visualization of the atlas (http://bbmri.researchlumc.nl/atlas/).
Water governmentalities: The shaping of hydrosocial territories, water transfers and rural–urban subjects in Latin America
Hommes, L.M. ; Boelens, R.A. ; Bleeker, S. ; Stoltenborg, D. ; Duarte-Abadia, B. ; Vos, J. - \ 2020
Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space 3 (2020)2. - ISSN 2514-8486 - p. 399 - 422.
With increasing water consumption and pollution in cities and expanding urban areas, impacts on rural areas as water extraction and waste disposal zones are intensifying. To unravel these hydro-territorial dynamics, this paper studies the intersecting and overlapping Foucauldian ‘arts of government’ (‘governmentalities’) deployed to convey water from rural to urban areas in three Latin American cities: Lima (Peru), San Luis Potosí (Mexico) and Bucaramanga (Colombia). We examine conventional (cemented) water transfers, broadly promoted payment for ecosystem services schemes and their conjunction, combining scholarship about hydrosocial territories and governmentality. We demonstrate how particular urban-based imaginaries about rural areas, their inhabitants, norms, practices and identities become embedded in governmentality schemes, and how these are justified, materialized and sustained, producing particular entwined rural–urban subjectivities. We explore how these are accepted, negotiated or contested. Our application of the governmentalities framework to analyze the material and socio-political effects of rural–urban water transfers contributes to existing scholarship on the (re)shaping of rural–urban hydrosocial territorialities showing the ‘hidden’ and ‘invisible’ workings of subjectification. It also contributes to the literature on governmentalities by scrutinizing the importance of technology (including physical infrastructure) in creating rural subjects.
Linking spatial planning and place branding strategies through cultural narratives in places
Grenni, Sara ; Horlings, L.G. ; Soini, K. - \ 2020
European Planning Studies 28 (2020)7. - ISSN 0965-4313 - p. 1355 - 1374.
appreciative inquiry - art-based methods - narrative - Participatory planning - place branding - place-based development
Place branding refers to the creation of value in space by reinforcing and representing place assets in a cohesive manner, as a narrative image of the place itself. Such narratives of place are important in planning as well, when developing (strategic) spatial strategies. We argue that place branding and planning can be bridged, through cultural narratives built on local knowledge and the perceived meanings and images of place. However, there is a knowledge gap on how to build cultural narratives in multi-stakeholder processes. While participatory planning methods are increasingly applied, we argue for a greater role of art and arts-based methods. Accordingly, our key question is, how can arts-based methods support the creation of cultural narratives for place branding and planning? To address this question, we outline an approach based on the principles of Appreciative Inquiry. The approach is illustrated through a case study in Finland where we initiated a process of co-creation of place-based narratives. We analyse how the process was organized and facilitated, and what the challenges and lessons learnt were. The paper ends with a discussion, and draws conclusions on the relevance of arts-based methods for the wider debate on place branding and spatial planning.