Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Roots, Tubers and Bananas: Contributions to Food Security
Kennedy, G. ; Raneri, Jessica ; Stoian, Dietmar ; Attwood, S. ; Burgos, Gabriela ; Ceballos, Herman ; Ekesa, Beatrice ; Johnson, V. ; Low, Jan W. ; Talsma, E.F. - \ 2019
In: Encyclopedia of Food Security and Sustainability / Ferranti, Pasquale, Anderson, Jack R., Berry, Elliot M., Elsevier - ISBN 9780128126882 - p. 231 - 256.
The class of root, tuber and banana (RTB) crops encompasses banana and plantain, cassava, potato, sweet potato, taro, yam and a number of lesser cultivated and consumed root and tuber crops. RTB are the second most important group of crops in LDCs after cereals. RTB are vital for food security, with parts of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America relying on RTB as main staple foods in their diets. They provide up to 15% or more of the daily per capita dietary energy for the 763 million people living in the least developed countries. Production, yield and area planted for most RTB are showing increasing trends. While most RTB are used for food, feed and biofuel uses are growing. With vast genetic diversity RTB play an important role in the food systems of countries worldwide. The CGIAR has been actively working within this genetic diversity to improve the nutritional content of some RTB. Most notably varieties of banana, cassava and sweet potato have been successfully identified for higher pro-vitamin A content, while potatoes with higher iron and zinc content are also available. The use of varieties with higher pro-vitamin A, iron and zinc will contribute to reductions in micronutrient deficiencies. Many of the leaves of RTB, most notably cassava and sweet potato are also consumed, sometimes in large amounts and contribute to both diversity of the diet as well as increased intake of essential micronutrients. Threats from pests and disease to which these crops are susceptible are among the largest concerns. The impact of changing climate on resistance to disease/pest threats as well as yield and longer-term sustainability issues is also of concern. Finally, greater research and development on propagation and post-harvest storage and processing is needed for some of the lesser RTB crops.
Addressing global ruminant agricultural challenges through understanding the rumen microbiome : Past, present, and future
Huws, Sharon A. ; Creevey, Christopher J. ; Oyama, Linda B. ; Mizrahi, Itzhak ; Denman, Stuart E. ; Popova, Milka ; Muñoz-Tamayo, Rafael ; Forano, Evelyne ; Waters, Sinead M. ; Hess, Matthias ; Tapio, Ilma ; Smidt, Hauke ; Krizsan, Sophie J. ; Yáñez-Ruiz, David R. ; Belanche, Alejandro ; Guan, Leluo ; Gruninger, Robert J. ; McAllister, Tim A. ; Newbold, C.J. ; Roehe, Rainer ; Dewhurst, Richard J. ; Snelling, Tim J. ; Watson, Mick ; Suen, Garret ; Hart, Elizabeth H. ; Kingston-Smith, Alison H. ; Scollan, Nigel D. ; Prado, Rodolpho M. Do; Pilau, Eduardo J. ; Mantovani, Hilario C. ; Attwood, Graeme T. ; Edwards, Joan E. ; McEwan, Neil R. ; Morrisson, Steven ; Mayorga, Olga L. ; Elliott, Christopher ; Morgavi, Diego P. - \ 2018
Frontiers in Microbiology 9 (2018)SEP. - ISSN 1664-302X
Diet - Host - Methane - Microbiome - Omics - Production - Rumen

The rumen is a complex ecosystem composed of anaerobic bacteria, protozoa, fungi, methanogenic archaea and phages. These microbes interact closely to breakdown plant material that cannot be digested by humans, whilst providing metabolic energy to the host and, in the case of archaea, producing methane. Consequently, ruminants produce meat and milk, which are rich in high-quality protein, vitamins and minerals, and therefore contribute to food security. As the world population is predicted to reach approximately 9.7 billion by 2050, an increase in ruminant production to satisfy global protein demand is necessary, despite limited land availability, and whilst ensuring environmental impact is minimized. Although challenging, these goals can be met, but depend on our understanding of the rumen microbiome. Attempts to manipulate the rumen microbiome to benefit global agricultural challenges have been ongoing for decades with limited success, mostly due to the lack of a detailed understanding of this microbiome and our limited ability to culture most of these microbes outside the rumen. The potential to manipulate the rumen microbiome and meet global livestock challenges through animal breeding and introduction of dietary interventions during early life have recently emerged as promising new technologies. Our inability to phenotype ruminants in a high-throughput manner has also hampered progress, although the recent increase in "omic" data may allow further development of mathematical models and rumen microbial gene biomarkers as proxies. Advances in computational tools, high-throughput sequencing technologies and cultivation-independent "omics" approaches continue to revolutionize our understanding of the rumen microbiome. This will ultimately provide the knowledge framework needed to solve current and future ruminant livestock challenges.

Sustainable intensification: tailoring innovations to end-user context
Taulya, G. ; Attwood, S. ; Descheemaeker, K.K.E. ; Marinus, Wytze ; Braber, H. den; Ocimati, Walter ; Rietveld, A. ; Raineri, J. ; Quiroz, R. ; Remans, R. ; Schut, M. - \ 2017
Erratum: Rumen microbial community composition varies with diet and host, but a core microbiome is found across a wide geographical range
Henderson, Gemma ; Cox, Faith ; Ganesh, Siva ; Jonker, Arjan ; Young, Wayne ; Abecia, Leticia ; Angarita, Erika ; Aravena, Paula ; Nora Arenas, Graciela ; Ariza, Claudia ; Attwood, Graeme T. ; Mauricio Avila, Jose ; Avila-stagno, Jorge ; Bannink, André ; Barahona, Rolando ; Batistotti, Mariano ; Bertelsen, Mads F. ; Brown-Kav, Aya ; Carvajal, Andres M. ; Cersosimo, Laura ; Vieira Chaves, Alexandre ; Church, John ; Clipson, Nicholas ; Cobos-peralta, Mario A. ; Cookson, Adrian L. ; Cravero, Silvio ; Cristobal Carballo, Omar ; Crosley, Katie ; Cruz, Gustavo ; Cerón Cucchi, María ; Barra, Rodrigo de la; Menezes, Alexandre B. de; Detmann, Edenio ; Dieho, Kasper ; Dijkstra, Jan ; Reis, William L.S. Dos; Dugan, Mike E.R. ; Hadi Ebrahimi, Seyed ; Eythórsdóttir, Emma ; Nde Fon, Fabian ; Fraga, Martín ; Franco, Francisco ; Friedeman, Chris ; Fukuma, Naoki ; Gagić, Dragana ; Gangnat, Isabelle ; Javier Grilli, Diego ; Guan, Le Luo ; Heidarian Miri, Vahideh ; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma ; Gomez, Alma Ximena Ibarra ; Isah, Olubukola A. ; Ishaq, Suzanne ; Jami, Elie ; Jelincic, Juan ; Kantanen, Juha ; Kelly, William J. ; Kim, Seon-Ho ; Klieve, Athol ; Kobayashi, Yasuo ; Koike, Satoshi ; Kopecny, Jan ; Nygaard Kristensen, Torsten ; Julie Krizsan, Sophie ; Lachance, Hannah ; Lachman, Medora ; Lamberson, William R. ; Lambie, Suzanne ; Lassen, Jan ; Leahy, Sinead C. ; Lee, Sang-Suk ; Leiber, Florian ; Lewis, Eva ; Lin, Bo ; Lira, Raúl ; Lund, Peter ; Macipe, Edgar ; Mamuad, Lovelia L. ; Cuquetto Mantovani, Hilário ; Marcoppido, Gisela Ariana ; Márquez, Cristian ; Martin, Cécile ; Martinez, Gonzalo ; Eugenia Martinez, Maria ; Lucía Mayorga, Olga ; McAllister, Tim A. ; McSweeney, Chris ; Mestre, Lorena ; Minnee, Elena ; Mitsumori, Makoto ; Mizrahi, Itzhak ; Molina, Isabel ; Muenger, Andreas ; Muñoz, Camila ; Murovec, Bostjan ; Newbold, John ; Nsereko, Victor ; O’donovan, Michael ; Okunade, Sunday ; O’neill, Brendan ; Ospina, Sonia ; Ouwerkerk, Diane ; Parra, Diana ; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro ; Pinares-patiño, Cesar ; Pope, Phil B. ; Poulsen, Morten ; Rodehutscord, Markus ; Rodriguez, Tatiana ; Saito, Kunihiko ; Sales, Francisco ; Sauer, Catherine ; Shingfield, Kevin ; Shoji, Noriaki ; Simunek, Jiri ; Stojanović-Radić, Zorica ; Stres, Blaz ; Sun, Xuezhao ; Swartz, Jeffery ; Liang Tan, Zhi ; Tapio, Ilma ; Taxis, Tasia M. ; Tomkins, Nigel ; Ungerfeld, Emilio ; Valizadeh, Reza ; Adrichem, Peter van; Hamme, Jonathan van; Hoven, Woulter van; Waghorn, Garry ; Wallace, John R. ; Wang, Min ; Waters, Sinéad M. ; Keogh, Kate ; Witzig, Maren ; Wright, Andre-Denis G. ; Yamano, Hidehisa ; Yan, Tianhai ; Yáñez-ruiz, David R. ; Yeoman, Carl J. ; Zambrano, Ricardo ; Zeitz, Johanna ; Zhou, Mi ; Wei Zhou, Hua ; Xia Zou, Cai ; Zunino, Pablo ; Janssen, Peter H. - \ 2016
Scientific Reports 6 (2016). - ISSN 2045-2322 - 2 p.
Trade-offs and synergies between sustainable food production and other critical ecosystem services (ES) for women and men in the changing and dynamic Barotse Floodplain, Zambia
Estrada-Carmona, N. ; Attwood, S. ; Remans, R. ; Groot, J.C.J. ; Kennedy, G. ; Nowak, V. ; Rio Mena, Trinidad del; Declerck, F. - \ 2015
Agriculture intensification and crop diversity decline is happening in many changing landscapes in Africa, including the Barotse floodplain in Zambia. Foodplains are highly productive and dynamic ecosystems, however, land use and landscape simplification is compromising and threatens the provision of critical ES for local communities, with particular impacts on the most vulnerable groups such as women.
We assessed 18 ES that are important for livelihoods in three communities in the floodplain to understand, with a gender perspective, the trade-offs and opportunities for synergies, in increasing sustainable food production while maintaining and protecting ES.
Our team conducted a landscape characterization and ES assessment. This was done by combining field work, participatory mapping activities and focal group discussions in three communities located in different sections of the Barotse floodplain.
We found that in the Barotse there are well differentiated agroecological units that match local knowledge in land classification and scientific knowledge on hydrogeological process. Each agroecological unit has different exposure levels to floods or droughts and therefore, each one provides different ES. Access to the different agroecological units varies depending on the time of the year, the location of the community, social status and gender, which in turn, determines households’ livelihoods and resilience.
In our research we identify opportunities for crop diversification, nutrition and livelihoods. We also highlight the importance to address gender differences in accessibility to resources to avoid increasing the gender gap. Finally, we assessed trade-offs between food production and ES provisioning at the farm and at the landscape scale.
Our work will help decision makers and stakeholders to 1) promote sustainable food production while guaranteeing the critical ES for local communities and agriculture and 2) to design and target interventions considering gendered access to ES.
Obituary: In memory of Jack Leunissen
Luo, J. ; Nijveen, H. ; Attwood, T. ; Judge, D. ; Pongor, S. ; Landsman, D. ; Bishop, M. - \ 2013
Briefings in Bioinformatics 14 (2013)3. - ISSN 1467-5463 - p. 261 - 262.
Ecotoxicity test methods for engineered nanomaterials: practical experiences and recommendations from the bench
Handy, R. ; Cornelis, G. ; Fernandes, T. ; Tsyusko, O. ; Decho, A. ; Sabo-Attwood, T. ; Metcalfe, C. ; Steevens, J.A. ; Klaine, S.J. ; Koelmans, A.A. ; Horne, N. - \ 2012
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 31 (2012)1. - ISSN 0730-7268 - p. 15 - 31.
nematode caenorhabditis-elegans - titanium-dioxide nanoparticles - walled carbon nanotubes - zinc-oxide nanoparticles - silver nanoparticles - rainbow-trout - in-vitro - manufactured nanoparticles - oncorhynchus-mykiss - daphnia-magna
Ecotoxicology research is using many methods for engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), but the collective experience from researchers has not been documented. This paper reports the practical issues for working with ENMs and suggests nano-specific modifications to protocols. The review considers generic practical issues, as well as specific issues for aquatic tests, marine grazers, soil organisms, and bioaccumulation studies. Current procedures for cleaning glassware are adequate, but electrodes are problematic. The maintenance of exposure concentration is challenging, but can be achieved with some ENMs. The need to characterize the media during experiments is identified, but rapid analytical methods are not available to do this. The use of sonication and natural/synthetic dispersants are discussed. Nano-specific biological endpoints may be developed for a tiered monitoring scheme to diagnose ENM exposure or effect. A case study of the algal growth test highlights many small deviations in current regulatory test protocols that are allowed (shaking, lighting, mixing methods), but these should be standardized for ENMs. Invertebrate (Daphnia) tests should account for mechanical toxicity of ENMs. Fish tests should consider semistatic exposure to minimize wastewater and animal husbandry. The inclusion of a benthic test is recommended for the base set of ecotoxicity tests with ENMs. The sensitivity of soil tests needs to be increased for ENMs and shortened for logistics reasons; improvements include using Caenorhabditis elegans, aquatic media, and metabolism endpoints in the plant growth tests. The existing bioaccumulation tests are conceptually flawed and require considerable modification, or a new test, to work for ENMs. Overall, most methodologies need some amendments, and recommendations are made to assist researchers.
Schimmels in arbeidssituaties: een vergelijking van methoden.
Smid, T. ; Schokkin, E. ; Attwood, P. ; Versloot, P. ; Pater, R. ; Boleij, J.S.M. - \ 1989
Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid - 20 p.
Enumeration and identification of airborne viable mould propagules in houses: a comparison of selected measurement techniques.
Verhoeff, A.P. ; Wijnen, J.H. van; Attwood, P. ; Boleij, J.S.M. ; Brunekreef, B. ; Reenen-Hoekstra, E.S. van; Samson, R.A. - \ 1988
Amsterdam : Verhoeff [etc.] - 125
gebouwen - stof - woningen - schimmels - huizen - huisvesting - insecten - instrumenten (meters) - meting - methodologie - mycologie - bescherming - technieken - giftige gassen - buildings - dust - dwellings - fungi - homes - housing - insects - instruments - measurement - methodology - mycology - protection - techniques - toxic gases
Enumeration and identification of airborne mould propagules in houses: a field comparison of selected techniques.
Verhoeff, A.P. ; Wijnen, J.H. van; Attwood, P. ; Boleij, J.S.M. ; Brunekreef, B. ; Reenen, E.S. van; Samson, R.A. - \ 1988
In: Proc. Symp. Indoor and ambient air quality, R. Perry, P.W. Kirk (eds.). Selper, London - p. 453 - 460.
Beroepsmatige blootstelling aan endotoxinen.
Heederik, D.J.J. ; Brouwer, R. ; Smid, T. ; Attwood, P. - \ 1987
Tijdschrift voor sociale gezondheidszorg 65 (1987). - ISSN 0920-0517 - p. 414 - 420.
A study of the relationship between airborne contaminants and environmental factors in Dutch swine confinement buildings.
Attwood, P. ; Brouwer, R. ; Ruigewaard, P. ; Versloot, P. ; Wit, R. de; Heederik, D.J.J. ; Boleij, J.S.M. - \ 1987
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 48 (1987). - ISSN 0002-8894 - p. 745 - 751.
Assessment of dust and endotoxin levels in the working environment of Dutch pig farmers - a preliminary study.
Attwood, P. ; Heederik, D.J.J. ; Versloot, P. ; Wit, R. de; Boleij, J.S.M. - \ 1986
Annals of Occupational Hygiene 30 (1986). - ISSN 0003-4878 - p. 201 - 208.
A study of occupational hazards arizing from airborne organic dust and its biologically active constituents.
Attwood, P. - \ 1986
Unknown Publisher (Vakgr. Gezondheidsleer 1986-265) - 83 p.
Epoxidation of short chain alkenes in Mycobacterium E20: the involvement of a specific mono-oxygenase
Bont, J.A.M. de; Attwood, M.M. ; Primrose, S.B. ; Harder, W. - \ 1979
FEMS Microbiology Letters 6 (1979). - ISSN 0378-1097 - p. 183 - 188.
Het verbruik van aardappelen, brood, rijst, peulvruchten en eetdeegwaren volgens een voedingsonderzoek in Nederland bij 2000 huishoudingen in 1967 tot en met 1970
Marce, T.B.J. - \ 1975
Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): C. den Hartog, co-promotor(en): C.W. Visser. - Wageningen : [s.n.] - 126
voedsel - voedingsmiddelen - statistiek - consumptie - nederland - voedselbereiding - eten koken - maaltijden - borden - landbouw - food - foods - statistics - consumption - netherlands - food preparation - cooking - meals - dishes - agriculture

In 1965 the Food Council of The Netherlands planned a broad survey to investigate the individual consumption of a great number of foodstuffs. Ir order to study the foodconsumption in households, the existing Attwood consumers panel in The Netherlands was used; this panel consists of 2000 different households. The study was not a continuous one, the inquiry was carried outonce only. During about 40 weeks, 50 households reported the consumption of each individual member of the household. For practical reasons, it was impossible to inquire about a great number of foodstuffs simultanously; therefore the total survey was split up over 4 years, i.e. 1966/1967, 1967/1968, 1968/1969 and 1969/1970.

This study makes use of the following limited group of foodstuffs: potatoes, rice and pulse (investigated in 1967/1968), bread (investigated in 1968/1969) and pasta (investigated in 1969/1970). This is all staplefood; bread and patatoes are regularly eaten with each meal, and rice, pulse or pasta are very often substituted for potatoes. Since several years, the consumption of patatoes and of bread is decreasing in The Netherlands. The main goal of this study is to look for general patterns in the several groups of the dutch population due to this change in consumption and to search for relations between the consumption of this group of foodstuffs.

As one of the results of this study it is shown, that the consumption of bread, rice, pulse and pasta is probably different in different geographical regions (partly due to historical reasons), but the consumption of potatoes is mainly related to the social vlass.

The age of the housewife as well as her attitude towards cooking and housekeeping seems to influence the consumption; however this influence is rather weak. There is a correlation between the size of a household and the individual consumption of bread: the bigger the household the more bread is eaten per member of the houshold.

Since many years, there seems to be a trend in a decreasing consumption of bread. Comparing with earlier surveys, it can be concluded that this is partly due to a stronger decrease in the consumption of bread by women.

On weekends, the pattern of foodconsumption differs greatly from the pattern of the other days of the week. On saturday, many households substitute their hot meals by meals of bread and butter only, but this extra consumption on that day is still fairly low. In addition, it is important to know, that even on sundays a few, but growing number of households (especially young households) uses only meals of bread and butter.

The changed pattern of consumption of food on saturdays has especially influenced the consumption of potatoes; on this day much less potatoes are consumed, but on the other hand the consumption of rice and pasta is much higher. If this change in the pattern of foodconsumption on saturdays will go on, it is to be expected that the consumptionrate for potatoes will continue to fall.

A further substitution of hot meals by meals of bread and butter will certainly have a positive effect on the consumption of bread.

There seems to be a positive correlation between the consumption of potatoes and bread: a big eater of bread is also a big eater of potatoes. There seems to be no indication of a substitution of potatoes by bread and vice versa.

All these statements are illustrated with tables and graphs.

An investigation of brand choice processes
Wierenga, B. - \ 1974
Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): M.T.G. Meulenberg. - Rotterdam : Universitaire Pers - 261
handelsmerken - publiciteit - adverteren - ontwerp - intellectuele eigendomsrechten - industrie - bezit - beleid - consumenten - huishoudens - consumptie - consumentenaangelegenheden - financieel beheer - trade marks - publicity - advertising - design - intellectual property rights - industry - property - policy - consumers - households - consumption - consumer affairs - financial management - cum laude

Here a brief recapitulation of the study of brand choice processes is given, and the major conclusions are reported.

In chapter 2 we discussed the empirical brand choice data used throughout the study. We saw that these were purchase histories of members of the Dutch Attwood Consumer Panel for the products fopro (a pseudonym), beer and margarine during the years 1967 and 1968. A brief description of the type of information, available for each purchase, was given, and some important characteristics of the markets for each of the 3 products were also reported. In addition some attention was paid to the special brands of the 3 products which are repeatedly distinguished in the study and the source of information for the advertising figures used in the analysis was mentioned.

In chapter 3, 5 different brand choice models with the corresponding testing and estimation procedures were presented, viz., the:
1. Homogeneous Bernoulli Model (HOBM);
2. Homogeneous Markov Model (HOMM);
3. Heterogeneous Bernoulli Model (HEBM);
4. Heterogeneous Markov Model (HEMM);
5. Linear Learning Model (LLM).

Of these models (1) and (3) assume no influence of former purchases on current brand choice, i.e. no purchase feedback. In these two models it is assumed that a consumer purchases a certain brand with constant probability, which probability - according to (1) - is equal for all consumers, but - in the case of (3) - may vary over consumers.

All the other 3 models assume purchase feedback. In the case of the Markov models (2) and (4) the influence of former purchases is limited to the recent purchase occasions and expressed in so-called transition probabilities. For the HOMM these transition probabilities are equal for all consumers; in the case of the (HEMM); different consumers can have different transition probabilities. According to the Linear Learning Model a consumer is assumed to have - at a given purchase occasion - a probability p of buying a certain brand. After a purchase this probability is transformed in a way dependent on the brand bought at that purchase. This implies that in the LLM quite a number of former purchases have an influence, but the influence of the brand choice at an earlier purchase occasion diminishes with the number of purchases made since that occasion.

In chapter 4 it was examined how far the brand choice models just mentioned gave a good description of the empirical brand choice processes of fopro, beer and margarine. This was done by carrying out testing procedures and performing a simulation study.

From the test results it became clear that in all cases a definite purchase feedback is present; the Bernoulli models HOBM and HEBM did not give a good fit, and the Markov and Learning models also showed an evident influence of previous purchases. Of the homogeneous Markov models the first order Markov model, which is the brand choice model most discussed in the literature, did not give a good fit. The performance of the second order model was better, but was still not really satisfactory. The Heterogeneous Markov Model (HEMM) also did not give a good description of the brand choice processes observed. The brand choice model which gave the best results, was the Linear Learning Model (LLM). In every case this model was superior to all other models.

In the simulation study, where the ability of the various brand choice models to reproduce the original brand choice processes was examined, the superiority of the Linear Learning Model again appeared, while the homogeneous Markov models (first and second order) offered a much worse reproduction. A curious point is that the HEBM appeared to give a reproduction of the original brand choice processes which was almost as good as that of the LLM. At first glance this seemed contradictory, but a closer examination of the LLM-parameters showed that these parameters were such that the LLM-processes concerned exhibited a lot of seeming zero-order behavior. Because the HEBM is a zero-order model, this explains the phenomenon observed. Taking the results of the testing procedures and the simulation study together, it appears, that - of all brand choice models used - the Linear Learning Model evidently gave the best description of the empirical brand choice processes.

In chapter 5 we briefly discussed a number of learning models from the viewpoint of their application possibilities to brand choice processes. The non-linear operator models treated appeared to offer no great perspectives. The stimulus sampling models, an example of which was applied to the fopro, beer and margarine data looked more promising. Some further properties of the Linear Learning Model were given, in particular relating to equilibrium behavior, which are useful because they can be used to compute long term market shares. It was also shown that the Linear Learning Model can be generalized, so that brand choice processes can be handled, for which not all assumptions of the ordinary LLM hold.

In chapter 6 we analysed the empirical brand choice processes with the aid of the variable 'poolsize' introduced there. Poolsize is defined as the 'number of different brands bought during the last 10 purchases'. An important finding is that - in their purchase histories - consumers show periods of routinized buying alternated with periods of brand switching. This is in agreement with the good fit of the LLM observed in chapter 4, because the parameters of the LLM estimated there are such that in the corresponding brand choice processes there will be long periods during which brand switches are very unlikely, alternated with periods in which the probability of moving to another brand is considerable.

Further conclusions resulting from the poolsize approach, are that a consumer simultaneously considers a limited number of brands as potential choice candidates and that consumers do not often straightforwardly switch from one brand to another, but usually exhibit search behavior, which accompanies a transition to another brand.

In chapter 7 we examined the relationships between brand choice and a number of environmental variables.

With respect to shop choice, it was found that brand choice and shop choice are rather closely related. This interdependence cannot completely be traced back to the fact that the choice of a shop simply limits the set of different brands from which a choice can be made; it seems that an autonomous general proneness-to-change factor exists, which means that some consumers show great variation with respect to shops as well as to brands. Moreover, there can be distinguished specific proneness-to-brand- change and proneness-to-shop-change factors. With respect to the effect of the marketing variables the following can be remarked: by means of a multiple regression analysis it was found that for a number of brands there was a significant influence of price and/or advertising (the latter measured by expenditures made) on market share, repeat purchase probability and on the probability of making a transition from another brand to the brand concerned. Further it was found that deal purchases are relatively often associated with brand switches, so that dealing seems to be an instrument having the ability to induce brand changes.

As for the effect of inter-purchase times on brand choice, it was found for fopro that the probability of purchasing the same brand as the previous one (= repeat purchase probability) decreases as inter-purchase times become longer. For beer and margarine no effect of inter-purchase times could be established.

In chapter 8 we studied the relationship between brand choice behavior and household variables.

It was found that socio-economic variables have only weak relationships with brand choice variables. For all 3 products we observed some influence of size of town, region, children and attitude scores in relation to buying behavior. In incidental cases there was also an influence of family size, age of housewife and the possession of a refrigerator and a television set.

Between brand choice variables and other purchase variables the relationships are stronger. It was observed that households which, relatively, show a lot of brand switching pay a lower price, make more deal- purchases, make more purchases in self-service shops or supermarkets, buy more in shops belonging to chains, have more variation in interpurchase times and in volume per purchase occasion and buy more different package sizes.

To a certain extent brand choice behavior was found to be transitive over products, i.e. to some extent households showed the same type of brand choice behavior in relation to different products, but not to such a degree that a general brand choice behavior could be spoken of which could serve as an independent basis for market segmentation.

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