Hepatocytic c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK)-1/2 function determines cell fate during carcinogenesis
Cubero, Francisco Javier ; Mohamed, Mohamed Ramadan ; Woitok, Marius M. ; Zhao, Gang ; Hatting, Maximilian ; Nevzorova, Yulia A. ; Chen, Chaobo ; Haybaeck, Johannes ; Bruin, Alain de; Avila, Matias A. ; Boekschoten, Mark ; Davis, Roger J. ; Trautwein, Christian - \ 2020
GSE140498 - PRJNA589901 - Mus musculus
Aberrant biliary hyperproliferation resulting from lack of differentiating signals favoring the maintenance of an immature and proliferative phenotype by biliary epithelial cells are ultimately responsible for ducto/cystogenesis and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) formation. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling is pivotal for CCA-related tumorigenesis. In particular, targeted inhibition of JNK signaling has shown therapeutic potential. However, the cell-type specific role and mechanisms triggered by JNK in liver parenchymal cells during CCA remains largely unknown. Here, we aimed to investigate the relevance of JNK function in hepatocytes in experimental carcinogenesis. JNK signaling in hepatocytes was inhibited by crossing AlbCre-JNK1LoxP/LoxP mice with JNK2-deficient mice to generate Jnk1LoxP/LoxP/Jnk2−/− (JNKΔhepa) mice. JNKΔhepa mice were further interbred with hepatocyte-specific Nemo-knockout mice (NEMOΔhepa), a model of chronic liver inflammation and spontaneous hepatocarcinogenesis, to generate NEMO/JNKΔhepa mice. The impact of JNK deletion on liver damage, cell death, compensatory proliferation, fibrogenesis, and tumor development in NEMOΔhepa mice was determined. Moreover, regulation of essential genes was assessed by RT-PCR, immunoblottings and immunostains. Additionally, JNK2 inhibition, specifically in hepatocytes of NEMOΔhepa/JNK1Δhepa mice, was performed using siRNA (siJnk2) nanodelivery. Finally, active signaling pathways were blocked using specific inhibitors. Compound deletion of JNK1 and JNK2 in hepatocytes diminished hepatocarcinogenesis in both the DEN model of hepatocarcinogenesis and in NEMOΔhepa mice, but, in contrast, caused massive proliferation of the biliary ducts. Indeed, JNK deficiency in hepatocytes of NEMOΔhepa (NEMOΔhepa/JNKΔhepa) animals caused elevated fibrosis, increased apoptosis, increased compensatory proliferation, and elevated inflammatory cytokines expression, but reduced hepatocarcinogenesis. Furthermore, siJnk2 treatment in NEMOΔhepa/JNK1Δhepa mice recapitulated the phenotype of NEMOΔhepa/JNKΔhepa mice. Next, we sought to investigate the impact of molecular pathways in response to compound JNK deficiency in NEMOΔhepa mice. We found that NEMOΔhepa/JNKΔhepa livers exhibited overexpression of the IL-6/Stat3 pathway in addition to EGFR-Raf-MEK-ERK cascade. The functional relevance was tested by administering lapatinib - a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of ErbB2 and EGFR signaling - to NEMOΔhepa/JNKΔhepa mice. Lapatinib effectively inhibited cystogenesis, improved transaminases and effectively blocked EGFR-Raf-MEK-ERK signaling. Our study defines a novel function of JNK in cell fate as well as hepatocarcinogenesis and opens new therapeutic avenues devised to inhibit pathways of cholangiocarcinogenesis.
Loss of c‐Jun N‐terminal Kinase 1 and 2 Function in Liver Epithelial Cells Triggers Biliary Hyperproliferation Resembling Cholangiocarcinoma
Cubero, Francisco Javier ; Mohamed, Mohamed Ramadan ; Woitok, Marius M. ; Zhao, Gang ; Hatting, Maximilian ; Nevzorova, Yulia A. ; Chen, Chaobo ; Haybaeck, Johannes ; Bruin, Alain de; Avila, Matias A. ; Boekschoten, Mark V. ; Davis, Roger J. ; Trautwein, Christian - \ 2020
Hepatology Communications 4 (2020)6. - ISSN 2471-254X - p. 834 - 851.
Targeted inhibition of the c‐Jun N‐terminal kinases (JNKs) has shown therapeutic potential in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CCA)‐related tumorigenesis. However, the cell‐type‐specific role and mechanisms triggered by JNK in liver parenchymal cells during CCA remain largely unknown. Here, we aimed to investigate the relevance of JNK1 and JNK2 function in hepatocytes in two different models of experimental carcinogenesis, the dethylnitrosamine (DEN) model and in nuclear factor kappa B essential modulator (NEMO)hepatocyte‐specific knockout (Δhepa) mice, focusing on liver damage, cell death, compensatory proliferation, fibrogenesis, and tumor development. Moreover, regulation of essential genes was assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunoblottings, and immunostainings. Additionally, specific Jnk2 inhibition in hepatocytes of NEMOΔhepa/JNK1Δhepa mice was performed using small interfering (si) RNA (siJnk2 ) nanodelivery. Finally, active signaling pathways were blocked using specific inhibitors. Compound deletion of Jnk1 and Jnk2 in hepatocytes diminished hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in both the DEN model and in NEMOΔhepa mice but in contrast caused massive proliferation of the biliary ducts. Indeed, Jnk1/2 deficiency in hepatocytes of NEMOΔhepa (NEMOΔhepa/JNKΔhepa) animals caused elevated fibrosis, increased apoptosis, increased compensatory proliferation, and elevated inflammatory cytokines expression but reduced HCC. Furthermore, siJnk2 treatment in NEMOΔhepa/JNK1Δhepa mice recapitulated the phenotype of NEMOΔhepa/JNKΔhepa mice. Next, we sought to investigate the impact of molecular pathways in response to compound JNK deficiency in NEMOΔhepa mice. We found that NEMOΔhepa/JNKΔhepa livers exhibited overexpression of the interleukin‐6/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway in addition to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)‐rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma (Raf)‐mitogen‐activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)‐extracellular signal‐regulated kinase (ERK) cascade. The functional relevance was tested by administering lapatinib, which is a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor of erythroblastic oncogene B‐2 (ErbB2) and EGFR signaling, to NEMOΔhepa/JNKΔhepa mice. Lapatinib effectively inhibited cystogenesis, improved transaminases, and effectively blocked EGFR‐Raf‐MEK‐ERK signaling. Conclusion : We define a novel function of JNK1/2 in cholangiocyte hyperproliferation. This opens new therapeutic avenues devised to inhibit pathways of cholangiocarcinogenesis.
Development of natural rubber suppliers in the Papaloapan River basin, Mexico : Progress and limitations
González-Ramírez, María Guadalupe ; Santoyo-Cortés, Horacio ; Aguilar-Ávila, Jorge ; Aguilar-Gallegos, Norman - \ 2019
Ciencia y Tecnologia Agropecuaria 20 (2019)2. - ISSN 0122-8706 - p. 277 - 294.
Agricultural extension - Agroindustry - Hevea brasiliensis - Innovation adoption - Technology transfer
Mexico has optimal conditions for the cultivation of natural rubber but imports more than 80 % of its consumption. The model of development suppliers through Innovation Management Agencies (agi, for their acronym in Spanish) was implemented to improve this situation. This work analyzed the achievements of technical assistance services provided by two agi to two rubber agro-industries (ai) and their suppliers located in the Papaloapan River Basin, Mexico. From 2011 to the beginning of 2014, the Agencies generated reports and databases about technical, productive, organizational and commercial parameters of both rubber producers and agro-industries. With this information, global databases were constructed to analyze changes in production, supply, and innovation adoption. The results show that the intervention of the Agencies was relevant and effective in improving production and post-harvest parameters. The production of coagulated rubber also increased as well as the availability of raw material to the agro-industries. Moreover, production costs were able to be reduced, and the quality of the rubber was improved. However, the fall in rubber prices at the end of 2013 caused setbacks in the adoption of innovations and the agriculture-industry integration, showing the fragility of supplier development, as well as of the ai involved serving as lead and trailblazer companies in their suppliers' networks.
Análisis de redes en twitter para la inserción en comunidades : El caso de un producto agroindustrial
Aguilar-Gallegos, Norman ; Valdés-López, Armando ; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Manrrubio ; Martínez-González, Enrique Genaro ; Santoyo-Cortés, Horacio ; Aguilar-Ávila, Jorge - \ 2019
Interciencia 44 (2019)2. - ISSN 0378-1844 - p. 75 - 81.
The hashtags and relevant content in Twitter, related to the agroindustrial product mezcal were analysed, and the so-called ‘influencers’ were also identified. For doing this, 57.362 tweets were extracted and stored; three networks were built: users-hashtags, retweets, and mentions, which were studied by using social network analysis (SNA). The application of the SNA allowed revealing certain kind of hidden patterns within the social media complex relationships, which can be useful for designing strategies aimed at positioning actors and spread information. The results allow stating that in order to get inserted in the social network, the following should be considered: the use of combined hashtags, the message content kind, including pictures attached, and mentioning the most influential accounts who are embedded in already formed communities.
Disentangling ‘ecosystem services’ and ‘nature’s contributions to people’
Kadykalo, Andrew N. ; López-Rodriguez, María D. ; Ainscough, Jacob ; Droste, Nils ; Ryu, Hyeonju ; Ávila-Flores, Giovanni ; Clec’h, Solen Le; Muñoz, Marcia C. ; Nilsson, Lovisa ; Rana, Sakshi ; Sarkar, Priyanka ; Sevecke, Katharina J. ; Harmáčková, Zuzana V. - \ 2019
Ecosystems and People 15 (2019)1. - ISSN 2639-5908 - p. 269 - 287.
Ecosystem services - IPBES - nature’s benefits to people - nature’s contributions to people - NCP - Patricia Balvanera - people and nature - science–policy interface
People depend on functioning ecosystems, which provide benefits that support human existence and wellbeing. The relationship between people and nature has been experienced and conceptualized in multiple ways. Recently, ecosystem services (ES) concepts have permeated science, government policies, multi-national environmental agreements, and science–policy interfaces. In 2017, the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) introduced a new and closely related concept–Nature’s Contributions to People (NCP). The introduction of NCP has sparked some lively discussion and confusion about the distinguishing characteristics between ES and NCP. In order to clarify their conceptual relation, we identify eleven specific claims about novel elements from the latest NCP literature and analyze how far ES research has already contributed to these corresponding conceptual claims in the existing ES literature. We find a mixed-picture, where on six specific conceptual claims (culture, social sciences and humanities, indigenous and local knowledge, negative contributions of nature, generalizing perspective, non-instrumental values and valuation) NCP does not differ greatly from past ES research, but we also find five conceptual claims (diverse worldviews, context-specific perspective, relational values, fuzzy and fluid reporting categories and groups, inclusive language and framing) where NCP provides novel conceptualizations of people and nature relations.
Data from: Disturbance intensity is a stronger driver of biomass recovery than remaining tree-community attributes in a managed Amazonian forest
Avila, Angel L. de; Sande, M.T. van der; Dormann, C.F. ; Pena Claros, M. ; Poorter, L. ; Mazzei, Lucas ; Ruschel, Ademir Roberto ; Silva, José N.M. ; Carvalho, J.O.P. ; Bauhus, J. - \ 2018
University of Freiburg
biomass-ratio hypothesis - biomass recovery - disturbance intensity - niche-complementarity hypothesis - stand thinning (refinement) - selective logging
1.Forest recovery following management interventions is important to maintain ecosystem functioning and the provision of ecosystem services. It remains, however, largely unclear how aboveground biomass (AGB) recovery of species-rich tropical forests is affected by disturbance intensity and post-disturbance (remaining) tree-community attributes, following logging and thinning interventions. 2.We investigated whether annual AGB increment (∆AGB) decreases with management-related disturbance intensity (disturbance hypothesis), and increases with the diversity (niche-complementarity hypothesis) and the community-weighted mean (CWM) of acquisitive traits of dominant species (biomass-ratio hypothesis) in the remaining tree community. 3.We analysed data from a long-term forest-management experiment in the Brazilian Amazon over two recovery periods: post-logging (1983-1989) and post-thinning (1995-2012). We computed the ∆AGB of surviving trees, recruit trees and of the total tree community. Disturbance intensity was quantified as basal area reduction and basal area remaining. Remaining diversity (taxonomic, functional and structural) and CWM of five functional traits linked to biomass productivity (specific leaf area, leaf nitrogen and phosphorous concentration, leaf toughness and wood density) were calculated for the post-intervention inventories. Predictors were related to response variables using multiple linear regressions and structural equation modelling. 4.We found support for the disturbance hypothesis in both recovery periods. AGB increment of survivors and of the total tree community increased with basal area remaining, indicating the importance of remaining growing stock for biomass recovery. Conversely, AGB increment of recruit trees increased with basal area reduction because changes in forest structure increased resource availability for young trees. We did not find consistent support for the niche-complementarity and biomass-ratio hypotheses, possibly because of a high redundancy in these extremely species-rich forests. 5.Synthesis and applications. The intensity of disturbance through management, expressed as basal area reduction and basal area remaining, was consistently more important for explaining forest biomass recovery following harvesting and thinning than remaining diversity or trait composition. This points to the importance of controlling logging and thinning intensity in forests of the eastern Amazon. Low to moderate harvesting intensities permitted by the current legislation for the Brazilian Amazon (30 m³ ha−1) will likely not impair biomass recovery in these forests.
Disturbance intensity is a stronger driver of biomass recovery than remaining tree-community attributes in a managed Amazonian forest
Avila, Angel L. de; Sande, M.T. van der; Dormann, C.F. ; Pena Claros, M. ; Poorter, L. ; Mazzei, Lucas ; Ruschel, Ademir Roberto ; Silva, José N.M. ; Carvalho, J.O.P. ; Bauhus, J. - \ 2018
Journal of Applied Ecology 55 (2018)4. - ISSN 0021-8901 - p. 1647 - 1657.
Forest recovery following management interventions is important to maintain ecosystem functioning and the provision of ecosystem services. It remains, however, largely unclear how above‐ground biomass (AGB) recovery of species‐rich tropical forests is affected by disturbance intensity and post‐disturbance (remaining) tree‐community attributes, following logging and thinning interventions. We investigated whether annual AGB increment (∆AGB) decreases with management‐related disturbance intensity (disturbance hypothesis), and increases with the diversity (niche‐complementarity hypothesis) and the community‐weighted mean (CWM) of acquisitive traits of dominant species (biomass‐ratio hypothesis) in the remaining tree community. We analysed data from a long‐term forest‐management experiment in the Brazilian Amazon over two recovery periods: post‐logging (1983–1989) and post‐thinning (1995–2012). We computed the ∆AGB of surviving trees, recruit trees and of the total tree community. Disturbance intensity was quantified as basal area reduction and basal area remaining. Remaining diversity (taxonomic, functional and structural) and CWM of five functional traits linked to biomass productivity (specific leaf area, leaf nitrogen and phosphorous concentration, leaf toughness and wood density) were calculated for the post‐intervention inventories. Predictors were related to response variables using multiple linear regressions and structural equation modelling.
We found support for the disturbance hypothesis in both recovery periods. AGB increment of survivors and of the total tree community increased with basal area remaining, indicating the importance of remaining growing stock for biomass recovery. Conversely, AGB increment of recruit trees increased with basal area reduction because changes in forest structure increased resource availability for young trees. We did not find consistent support for the niche‐complementarity and biomass‐ratio hypotheses, possibly because of a high redundancy in these extremely species‐rich forests. Synthesis and applications. The intensity of disturbance through management, expressed as basal area reduction and basal area remaining, was consistently more important for explaining forest biomass recovery following harvesting and thinning than remaining diversity or trait composition. This points to the importance of controlling logging and thinning intensity in forests of the eastern Amazon. Given the high intervention intensities applied in this experiment, it is likely that low to moderate harvesting intensities permitted by the current legislation for the Brazilian Amazon (30 m³/ha) will not impair biomass recovery in these forests.
Cerebral tryptophan metabolism and outcome of tuberculous meningitis : An observational cohort study
Laarhoven, Arjan van; Dian, Sofiati ; Aguirre-Gamboa, Raúl ; Avila-Pacheco, Julian ; Ricaño-Ponce, Isis ; Ruesen, Carolien ; Annisa, Jessi ; Koeken, Valerie A.C.M. ; Chaidir, Lidya ; Li, Yang ; Achmad, Tri Hanggono ; Joosten, Leo A.B. ; Notebaart, Richard A. ; Ruslami, Rovina ; Netea, Mihai G. ; Verbeek, Marcel M. ; Alisjahbana, Bachti ; Kumar, Vinod ; Clish, Clary B. ; Ganiem, A.R. ; Crevel, Reinout van - \ 2018
The Lancet Infectious Diseases 18 (2018)5. - ISSN 1473-3099 - p. 526 - 535.
Background: Immunopathology contributes to the high mortality of tuberculous meningitis, but the biological pathways involved are mostly unknown. We aimed to compare cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum metabolomes of patients with tuberculous meningitis with that of controls without tuberculous meningitis, and assess the link between metabolite concentrations and mortality. Methods: In this observational cohort study at the Hasan Sadikin Hospital (Bandung, Indonesia) we measured 425 metabolites using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in CSF and serum from 33 HIV-negative Indonesian patients with confirmed or probable tuberculous meningitis and 22 control participants with complete clinical data between March 12, 2009, and Oct 27, 2013. Associations of metabolite concentrations with survival were validated in a second cohort of 101 patients from the same centre. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism typing was used to identify tryptophan quantitative trait loci, which were used for survival analysis in a third cohort of 285 patients. Findings: Concentrations of 250 (70%) of 351 metabolites detected in CSF were higher in patients with tuberculous meningitis than in controls, especially in those who died during follow-up. Only five (1%) of the 390 metobolites detected in serum differed between patients with tuberculous meningitis and controls. CSF tryptophan concentrations showed a pattern different from most other CSF metabolites; concentrations were lower in patients who survived compared with patients who died (9-times) and to controls (31-times). The association of low CSF tryptophan with patient survival was confirmed in the validation cohort (hazard ratio 0·73; 95% CI 0·64-0·83; p<0·0001; per each halving). 11 genetic loci predictive for CSF tryptophan concentrations in tuberculous meningitis were identified (p<0·00001). These quantitative trait loci predicted survival in a third cohort of 285 HIV-negative patients in a prognostic index including age and sex, also after correction for possible confounders (p=0·0083). Interpretation: Cerebral tryptophan metabolism, which is known to affect Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth and CNS inflammation, is important for the outcome of tuberculous meningitis. CSF tryptophan concentrations in tuberculous meningitis are under strong genetic influence, probably contributing to the variable outcomes of tuberculous meningitis. Interventions targeting tryptophan metabolism could improve outcomes of tuberculous meningitis. Funding: Royal Dutch Academy of Arts and Sciences; Netherlands Foundation for Scientific Research; Radboud University; National Academy of Sciences; Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education, Indonesia; European Research Council; and PEER-Health.
Variability in size at maturity and reproductive season of queen conch Lobatus gigas (Gastropoda : Strombidae) in the Wider Caribbean Region
Boman, Erik Maitz ; Graaf, Martin de; Nagelkerke, Leopold A.J. ; Stoner, Allan W. ; Bissada, Caroline E. ; Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando ; Baqueiro-Cardenas, Erick Raul ; Smaal, Aad C. - \ 2018
Fisheries Research 201 (2018). - ISSN 0165-7836 - p. 18 - 25.
Caribbean - Fisheries management - Mollusks - Reproductive biology - Sexual dimorphism
Queen conch (Lobatus gigas), is an economically and culturally important marine gastropod. The species is subject to extensive exploitation throughout large parts of the Caribbean which has led to a decrease in population densities across much of the species’ distribution range. Hence, there is a need for protective measures to safeguard the reproductive stock. This requires a better estimation of its size at maturity, which is best quantified as the thickness of the lip that the shell develops after reaching its maximum length. The lip thickness at 50% maturity (LT50) was determined using a logistic and an accumulation model, from seven representative location of distribution of this species in the Wider Caribbean Region. LT50 of both females (7–14 mm) and males (4–11.5 mm) varied between different locations in the Caribbean, although it did not correspond with variation in water temperature. In most cases females had a larger LT50 than males indicating sexual dimorphism. LT50 values estimated with the logistic model were smaller (7–14 mm for females, 4–11.5 mm for males) than values estimated with the accumulation model (13–26 mm for females, 16–24 mm for males), showing an overestimation of LT50 in queen conch in previous studies which used the accumulation model to estimate LT50. Locations with a relatively high variation in water temperature had a significantly shorter reproductive season. The implementation of adequate minimum size regulation based on lip thickness (ca. 15 mm) and a Caribbean wide seasonal closure (May–September) using the most recent biological information from this study, taking into consideration the local differences in LT50 and reproductive season, will assist in developing a long term sustainable queen conch fishery in the Caribbean.
Global, regional, and national burden of neurological disorders during 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015
Feigin, V.L. ; Krishnamurthi, R.V. ; Theadom, A.M. ; Abajobir, A.A. ; Mishra, S.R. ; Ahmed, M.B. ; Abate, K.H. ; Mengistie, M.A. ; Wakayo, T. ; Abd-Allah, F. ; Abdulle, A.M. ; Abera, S.F. ; Mohammed, K.E. ; Abyu, G.Y. ; Asgedom, S.W. ; Atey, T.M. ; Betsu, B.D. ; Mezgebe, H.B. ; Tuem, K.B. ; Woldu, M.A. ; Aichour, A.N. ; Aichour, I. ; Aichour, M.T. ; Akinyemi, R.O. ; Alabed, S. ; Al-Raddadi, R. ; Alvis-Guzman, N. ; Amare, A.T. ; Ansari, H. ; Anwari, P. ; Ärnlöv, J. ; Fereshtehnejad, S. ; Weiderpass, E. ; Havmoeller, R. ; Asayesh, H. ; Avila-Burgos, L. ; Avokpaho, E.F.G.A. ; Afrique, L.E.R.A.S. ; Azarpazhooh, M.R. ; Barac, A. ; Barboza, M. ; Barker-Collo, S.L. ; Bärnighausen, T. ; Farvid, M.S. ; Mohammed, S. ; Bedi, N. ; Beghi, E. ; Giussani, G. ; Bennett, D.A. ; Hay, S.I. ; Goulart, A.C. ; Santos, I.S. ; Bensenor, I.M. ; Lotufo, P.A. ; Berhane, A. ; Jeemon, P. ; Bhaumik, S. ; Dandona, L. ; Dandona, R. ; Kumar, G.A. ; Birlik, S.M. ; Biryukov, S. ; Casey, D. ; Foreman, K.J. ; Goldberg, E.M. ; Khalil, I.A. ; Kyu, H.H. ; Manhertz, T. ; Mokdad, A.H. ; Naghavi, M. ; Nguyen, G. ; Nichols, E. ; Smith, M. ; Carabin, H. ; Roth, G.A. ; Stanaway, J.D. ; Vos, T. ; Ellenbogen, R.G. ; Jakovljevic, M.B. ; Tirschwell, D.L. ; Zunt, J.R. ; Boneya, D.J. ; Hambisa, M. ; Bulto, L.N.B. ; Carabin, H. ; Castañeda-Orjuela, C.A. ; Catalá-López, F. ; Tabarés-Seisdedos, R. ; Chen, H. ; Chitheer, A.A. ; Chowdhury, R. ; Christensen, H. ; Deveber, G.A. ; Dharmaratne, S.D. ; Do, H.P. ; Nguyen, C.T. ; Nguyen, Q.L. ; Nguyen, T.H. ; Nong, V.M. ; Sheth, K.N. ; Dorsey, E.R. ; Eskandarieh, S. ; Fischer, F. ; Majeed, A. ; Steiner, T.J. ; Rawaf, S. ; Shakir, R. ; Shoman, H. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Gillum, R.F. ; Gona, P.N. ; Gugnani, H.C. ; Gupta, R. ; Hachinski, V. ; Hamadeh, R.R. ; Hankey, G.J. ; Hareri, H.A. ; Heydarpour, P. ; Sahraian, M.A. ; Kasaeian, A. ; Malekzadeh, R. ; Roshandel, G. ; Sepanlou, S.G. ; Hotez, P.J. ; Javanbakht, M. ; Jonas, J.B. ; Kalkonde, Y. ; Kandel, A. ; Karch, A. ; Kastor, A. ; Rahman, M.H.U. ; Keiyoro, P.N. ; Khader, Y.S. ; Khan, E.A. ; Khang, Y. ; Khoja, A.T.A. ; Tran, B.X. ; Khubchandani, J. ; Kim, D. ; Kim, Y.J. ; Kivimaki, M. ; Kokubo, Y. ; Kosen, S. ; Kravchenko, M. ; Piradov, M.A. ; Varakin, Y.Y. ; Defo, B.K. ; Kulkarni, C. ; Kumar, R. ; Larsson, A. ; Lavados, P.M. ; Li, Y. ; Liang, X. ; Liben, M.L. ; Lo, W.D. ; Logroscino, G. ; Loy, C.T. ; Mackay, M.T. ; Meretoja, A. ; Szoeke, C.E.I. ; Abd El Razek, H.M. ; Mantovani, L.G. ; Massano, J. ; Mazidi, M. ; McAlinden, C. ; Mehata, S. ; Mehndiratta, M.M. ; Memish, Z.A. ; Mendoza, W. ; Mensah, G.A. ; Wijeratne, T. ; Miller, T.R. ; Mohamed Ibrahim, N. ; Mohammadi, A. ; Moradi-Lakeh, M. ; Velasquez, I.M. ; Musa, K.I. ; Ngunjiri, J.W. ; Ningrum, D.N.A. ; Norrving, B. ; Stein, D.J. ; Noubiap, J.J.N. ; Ogbo, F.A. ; Renzaho, A.M.N. ; Owolabi, M.O. ; Pandian, J.D. ; Parmar, P.G. ; Pereira, D.M. ; Petzold, M. ; Phillips, M.R. ; Poulton, R.G. ; Pourmalek, F. ; Qorbani, M. ; Rafay, A. ; Rai, R.K. ; Rajsic, S. ; Ranta, A. ; Rezai, M.S. ; Rubagotti, E. ; Sachdev, P. ; Safiri, S. ; Sahathevan, R. ; Samy, A.M. ; Santalucia, P. ; Sartorius, B. ; Satpathy, M. ; Sawhney, M. ; Saylan, M.I. ; Shaikh, M.A. ; Shamsizadeh, M. ; Sheth, K.N. ; Shigematsu, M. ; Silva, D.A.S. ; Sobngwi, E. ; Sposato, L.A. ; Stovner, L.J. ; Suliankatchi Abdulkader, R. ; Tanne, D. ; Thrift, A.G. ; Topor-Madry, R. ; Truelsen, T. ; Ukwaja, K.N. ; Uthman, O.A. ; Yonemoto, N. ; Venketasubramanian, N. ; Vlassov, V.V. ; Wadilo, F. ; Wallin, M.T. ; Westerman, R. ; Wiysonge, C.S. ; Wolfe, C.D. ; Xavier, D. ; Xu, G. ; Yano, Y. ; Yimam, H.H. ; Yonemoto, N. ; Yu, C. ; Zaidi, Z. ; Zaki, M.E. - \ 2017
The Lancet Neurology 16 (2017)11. - ISSN 1474-4422 - p. 877 - 897.
Background Comparable data on the global and country-specific burden of neurological disorders and their trends are crucial for health-care planning and resource allocation. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study provides such information but does not routinely aggregate results that are of interest to clinicians specialising in neurological conditions. In this systematic analysis, we quantified the global disease burden due to neurological disorders in 2015 and its relationship with country development level. Methods We estimated global and country-specific prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), years of life lost (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) for various neurological disorders that in the GBD classification have been previously spread across multiple disease groupings. The more inclusive grouping of neurological disorders included stroke, meningitis, encephalitis, tetanus, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, motor neuron disease, migraine, tension-type headache, medication overuse headache, brain and nervous system cancers, and a residual category of other neurological disorders. We also analysed results based on the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a compound measure of income per capita, education, and fertility, to identify patterns associated with development and how countries fare against expected outcomes relative to their level of development. Findings Neurological disorders ranked as the leading cause group of DALYs in 2015 (250·7 [95% uncertainty interval (UI) 229·1 to 274·7] million, comprising 10·2% of global DALYs) and the second-leading cause group of deaths (9·4 [9·1 to 9·7] million], comprising 16·8% of global deaths). The most prevalent neurological disorders were tension-type headache (1505·9 [UI 1337·3 to 1681·6 million cases]), migraine (958·8 [872·1 to 1055·6] million), medication overuse headache (58·5 [50·8 to 67·4 million]), and Alzheimer's disease and other dementias (46·0 [40·2 to 52·7 million]). Between 1990 and 2015, the number of deaths from neurological disorders increased by 36·7%, and the number of DALYs by 7·4%. These increases occurred despite decreases in age-standardised rates of death and DALYs of 26·1% and 29·7%, respectively; stroke and communicable neurological disorders were responsible for most of these decreases. Communicable neurological disorders were the largest cause of DALYs in countries with low SDI. Stroke rates were highest at middle levels of SDI and lowest at the highest SDI. Most of the changes in DALY rates of neurological disorders with development were driven by changes in YLLs. Interpretation Neurological disorders are an important cause of disability and death worldwide. Globally, the burden of neurological disorders has increased substantially over the past 25 years because of expanding population numbers and ageing, despite substantial decreases in mortality rates from stroke and communicable neurological disorders. The number of patients who will need care by clinicians with expertise in neurological conditions will continue to grow in coming decades. Policy makers and health-care providers should be aware of these trends to provide adequate services. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Evolution and patterns of global health financing 1995-2014 : Development assistance for health, and government, prepaid private, and out-of-pocket health spending in 184 countries
Dieleman, Joseph ; Campbell, Madeline ; Chapin, Abigail ; Eldrenkamp, Erika ; Fan, Victoria Y. ; Haakenstad, Annie ; Kates, Jennifer ; Liu, Yingying ; Matyasz, Taylor ; Micah, Angela ; Reynolds, Alex ; Sadat, Nafis ; Schneider, Matthew T. ; Sorensen, Reed ; Evans, Tim ; Evans, David ; Kurowski, Christoph ; Tandon, Ajay ; Abbas, Kaja M. ; Abera, Semaw Ferede ; Ahmad Kiadaliri, Aliasghar ; Ahmed, Kedir Yimam ; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir ; Alam, Khurshid ; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza ; Alkerwi, A. ; Amini, Erfan ; Ammar, Walid ; Amrock, Stephen Marc ; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T. ; Atey, Tesfay Mehari ; Avila-Burgos, Leticia ; Awasthi, Ashish ; Barac, Aleksandra ; Bernal, Oscar Alberto ; Beyene, Addisu Shunu ; Beyene, Tariku Jibat ; Birungi, Charles ; Bizuayehu, Habtamu Mellie ; Breitborde, Nicholas J.K. ; Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero ; Castro, Ruben Estanislao ; Catalá-López, Ferran ; Dalal, Koustuv ; Dandona, Lalit ; Dandona, Rakhi ; Jager, Pieter De; Dharmaratne, Samath D. ; Dubey, Manisha ; Sa Farinha, Carla Sofia E. ; Faro, Andre ; Feigl, Andrea B. ; Fischer, Florian ; Fitchett, Joseph Robert Anderson ; Foigt, Nataliya ; Giref, Ababi Zergaw ; Gupta, Rahul ; Hamidi, Samer ; Harb, Hilda L. ; Hay, Simon I. ; Hendrie, Delia ; Horino, Masako ; Jürisson, Mikk ; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B. ; Javanbakht, Mehdi ; John, Denny ; Jonas, Jost B. ; Karimi, Seyed M. ; Khang, Young Ho ; Khubchandani, Jagdish ; Kim, Yun Jin ; Kinge, Jonas M. ; Krohn, Kristopher J. ; Kumar, G.A. ; Magdy Abd El Razek, Hassan ; Magdy Abd El Razek, Mohammed ; Majeed, Azeem ; Malekzadeh, Reza ; Masiye, Felix ; Meier, Toni ; Meretoja, Atte ; Miller, Ted R. ; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M. ; Mohammed, Shafiu ; Nangia, Vinay ; Olgiati, Stefano ; Osman, Abdalla Sidahmed ; Owolabi, Mayowa O. ; Patel, Tejas ; Paternina Caicedo, Angel J. ; Pereira, David M. ; Perelman, Julian ; Polinder, Suzanne ; Rafay, Anwar ; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa ; Rai, Rajesh Kumar ; Ram, Usha ; Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal ; Roba, Hirbo Shore ; Salama, Joseph ; Savic, Miloje ; Sepanlou, Sadaf G. ; Shrime, Mark G. ; Talongwa, Roberto Tchio ; Ao, Braden J. Te; Tediosi, Fabrizio ; Tesema, Azeb Gebresilassie ; Thomson, Alan J. ; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan ; Topor-Madry, Roman ; Undurraga, Eduardo A. ; Vasankari, Tommi ; Violante, Francesco S. ; Werdecker, Andrea ; Wijeratne, Tissa ; Xu, Gelin ; Yonemoto, Naohiro ; Younis, Mustafa Z. ; Yu, Chuanhua ; Zaidi, Zoubida ; Sayed Zaki, Maysaa El; Murray, Christopher J.L. - \ 2017
The Lancet 389 (2017)10083. - ISSN 0140-6736 - p. 1981 - 2004.
Background: An adequate amount of prepaid resources for health is important to ensure access to health services and for the pursuit of universal health coverage. Previous studies on global health financing have described the relationship between economic development and health financing. In this study, we further explore global health financing trends and examine how the sources of funds used, types of services purchased, and development assistance for health disbursed change with economic development. We also identify countries that deviate from the trends. Methods: We estimated national health spending by type of care and by source, including development assistance for health, based on a diverse set of data including programme reports, budget data, national estimates, and 964 National Health Accounts. These data represent health spending for 184 countries from 1995 through 2014. We converted these data into a common inflation-adjusted and purchasing power-adjusted currency, and used non-linear regression methods to model the relationship between health financing, time, and economic development. Findings: Between 1995 and 2014, economic development was positively associated with total health spending and a shift away from a reliance on development assistance and out-of-pocket (OOP) towards government spending. The largest absolute increase in spending was in high-income countries, which increased to purchasing power-adjusted $5221 per capita based on an annual growth rate of 3.0%. The largest health spending growth rates were in upper-middle-income (5.9) and lower-middle-income groups (5.0), which both increased spending at more than 5% per year, and spent $914 and $267 per capita in 2014, respectively. Spending in low-income countries grew nearly as fast, at 4.6%, and health spending increased from $51 to $120 per capita. In 2014, 59.2% of all health spending was financed by the government, although in low-income and lower-middle-income countries, 29.1% and 58.0% of spending was OOP spending and 35.7% and 3.0% of spending was development assistance. Recent growth in development assistance for health has been tepid; between 2010 and 2016, it grew annually at 1.8%, and reached US$37.6 billion in 2016. Nonetheless, there is a great deal of variation revolving around these averages. 29 countries spend at least 50% more than expected per capita, based on their level of economic development alone, whereas 11 countries spend less than 50% their expected amount. Interpretation: Health spending remains disparate, with low-income and lower-middle-income countries increasing spending in absolute terms the least, and relying heavily on OOP spending and development assistance. Moreover, tremendous variation shows that neither time nor economic development guarantee adequate prepaid health resources, which are vital for the pursuit of universal health coverage.
Future and potential spending on health 2015-40 : Development assistance for health, and government, prepaid private, and out-of-pocket health spending in 184 countries
Dieleman, Joseph L. ; Campbell, Madeline ; Chapin, Abigail ; Eldrenkamp, Erika ; Fan, Victoria Y. ; Haakenstad, Annie ; Kates, Jennifer ; Li, Zhiyin ; Matyasz, Taylor ; Micah, Angela ; Reynolds, Alex ; Sadat, Nafis ; Schneider, Matthew T. ; Sorensen, Reed ; Abbas, Kaja M. ; Abera, Semaw Ferede ; Ahmad Kiadaliri, Aliasghar ; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir ; Alam, Khurshid ; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza ; Alkerwi, A. ; Amini, Erfan ; Ammar, Walid ; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T. ; Atey, Tesfay Mehari ; Avila-Burgos, Leticia ; Awasthi, Ashish ; Barac, Aleksandra ; Berheto, Tezera Moshago ; Beyene, Addisu Shunu ; Beyene, Tariku Jibat ; Birungi, Charles ; Bizuayehu, Habtamu Mellie ; Breitborde, Nicholas J.K. ; Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero ; Castro, Ruben Estanislao ; Catalá-López, Ferran ; Dalal, Koustuv ; Dandona, Lalit ; Dharmaratne, Rakhi Dandona Samath D. ; Dubey, Manisha ; Faro, Andé ; Feigl, Andrea B. ; Fischer, Florian ; Anderson Fitchett, Joseph R. ; Foigt, Nataliya ; Giref, Ababi Zergaw ; Gupta, Rahul ; Hamidi, Samer ; Harb, Hilda L. ; Hay, Simon I. ; Hendrie, Delia ; Horino, Masako ; Jürisson, Mikk ; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B. ; Javanbakht, Mehdi ; John, Denny ; Jonas, Jost B. ; Karimi, Seyed M. ; Khang, Young Ho ; Khubchandani, Jagdish ; Kim, Yun Jin ; Kinge, Jonas M. ; Krohn, Kristopher J. ; Kumar, G.A. ; Leung, Ricky ; Magdy Abd El Razek, Hassan ; Magdy Abd El Razek, Mohammed ; Majeed, Azeem ; Malekzadeh, Reza ; Malta, Deborah Carvalho ; Meretoja, Atte ; Miller, Ted R. ; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M. ; Mohammed, Shafiu ; Molla, Gedefaw ; Nangia, Vinay ; Olgiati, Stefano ; Owolabi, Mayowa O. ; Patel, Tejas ; Paternina Caicedo, Angel J. ; Pereira, David M. ; Perelman, Julian ; Polinder, Suzanne ; Rafay, Anwar ; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa ; Rai, Rajesh Kumar ; Ram, Usha ; Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal ; Roba, Hirbo Shore ; Savic, Miloje ; Sepanlou, Sadaf G. ; Ao, Braden J. Te; Tesema, Azeb Gebresilassie ; Thomson, Alan J. ; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan ; Topor-Madry, Roman ; Undurraga, Eduardo A. ; Vargas, Veronica ; Vasankari, Tommi ; Violante, Francesco S. ; Wijeratne, Tissa ; Xu, Gelin ; Yonemoto, Naohiro ; Younis, Mustafa Z. ; Yu, Chuanhua ; Zaidi, Zoubida ; Sayed Zaki, Maysaa El; Murray, Christopher J.L. - \ 2017
The Lancet 389 (2017)10083. - ISSN 0140-6736 - p. 2005 - 2030.
Background: The amount of resources, particularly prepaid resources, available for health can affect access to health care and health outcomes. Although health spending tends to increase with economic development, tremendous variation exists among health financing systems. Estimates of future spending can be beneficial for policy makers and planners, and can identify financing gaps. In this study, we estimate future gross domestic product (GDP), all-sector government spending, and health spending disaggregated by source, and we compare expected future spending to potential future spending. Methods: We extracted GDP, government spending in 184 countries from 1980-2015, and health spend data from 1995-2014. We used a series of ensemble models to estimate future GDP, all-sector government spending, development assistance for health, and government, out-of-pocket, and prepaid private health spending through 2040. We used frontier analyses to identify patterns exhibited by the countries that dedicate the most funding to health, and used these frontiers to estimate potential health spending for each low-income or middle-income country. All estimates are inflation and purchasing power adjusted. Findings: We estimated that global spending on health will increase from US$9.21 trillion in 2014 to $24.24 trillion (uncertainty interval [UI] 20.47-29.72) in 2040. We expect per capita health spending to increase fastest in upper-middle-income countries, at 5.3% (UI 4.1-6.8) per year. This growth is driven by continued growth in GDP, government spending, and government health spending. Lower-middle income countries are expected to grow at 4.2% (3.8-4.9). High-income countries are expected to grow at 2.1% (UI 1.8-2.4) and low-income countries are expected to grow at 1.8% (1.0-2.8). Despite this growth, health spending per capita in low-income countries is expected to remain low, at $154 (UI 133-181) per capita in 2030 and $195 (157-258) per capita in 2040. Increases in national health spending to reach the level of the countries who spend the most on health, relative to their level of economic development, would mean $321 (157-258) per capita was available for health in 2040 in low-income countries. Interpretation: Health spending is associated with economic development but past trends and relationships suggest that spending will remain variable, and low in some low-resource settings. Policy change could lead to increased health spending, although for the poorest countries external support might remain essential.
|Quinoa: A High-Quality Sustainable Protein Source
Avila Ruiz, Geraldine - \ 2016
"Beef lovers": A cross-cultural study of beef consumption
Barcellos, Marcia Dutra de; Pedrozo, Eugenio Avila ; Lans, Ivo A. van der - \ 2016
In: The New Cultures of Food / Hingley, M.K., Taylor and Francis - ISBN 9780566088131 - p. 127 - 146.
Australia - Beef consumption - Brazil - Consumers - Cross-cultural research - The netherlands
In this chapter we will explore beef consumption behaviour from a cross-cultural perspective. Data collected in Brazil, Australia and the Netherlands supports the main objectives of identifying consumers' anticipated emotions, degree of involvement, attitudes and main concerns towards beef consumption.
|Quinoa protein : Nutritious protein from a indigenous and sustainable plant
Avila Ruiz, L.G.U. ; Opazo Navarrete, M.A. ; Janssen, A.E.M. ; Minor, M. ; Boekel, T. van; Stieger, M.A. ; Sala, G. ; Meurs, Marlon ; Xiao, Wukai - \ 2016
Erratum: Rumen microbial community composition varies with diet and host, but a core microbiome is found across a wide geographical range
Henderson, Gemma ; Cox, Faith ; Ganesh, Siva ; Jonker, Arjan ; Young, Wayne ; Abecia, Leticia ; Angarita, Erika ; Aravena, Paula ; Nora Arenas, Graciela ; Ariza, Claudia ; Attwood, Graeme T. ; Mauricio Avila, Jose ; Avila-stagno, Jorge ; Bannink, André ; Barahona, Rolando ; Batistotti, Mariano ; Bertelsen, Mads F. ; Brown-Kav, Aya ; Carvajal, Andres M. ; Cersosimo, Laura ; Vieira Chaves, Alexandre ; Church, John ; Clipson, Nicholas ; Cobos-peralta, Mario A. ; Cookson, Adrian L. ; Cravero, Silvio ; Cristobal Carballo, Omar ; Crosley, Katie ; Cruz, Gustavo ; Cerón Cucchi, María ; Barra, Rodrigo de la; Menezes, Alexandre B. de; Detmann, Edenio ; Dieho, Kasper ; Dijkstra, Jan ; Reis, William L.S. Dos; Dugan, Mike E.R. ; Hadi Ebrahimi, Seyed ; Eythórsdóttir, Emma ; Nde Fon, Fabian ; Fraga, Martín ; Franco, Francisco ; Friedeman, Chris ; Fukuma, Naoki ; Gagić, Dragana ; Gangnat, Isabelle ; Javier Grilli, Diego ; Guan, Le Luo ; Heidarian Miri, Vahideh ; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma ; Gomez, Alma Ximena Ibarra ; Isah, Olubukola A. ; Ishaq, Suzanne ; Jami, Elie ; Jelincic, Juan ; Kantanen, Juha ; Kelly, William J. ; Kim, Seon-Ho ; Klieve, Athol ; Kobayashi, Yasuo ; Koike, Satoshi ; Kopecny, Jan ; Nygaard Kristensen, Torsten ; Julie Krizsan, Sophie ; Lachance, Hannah ; Lachman, Medora ; Lamberson, William R. ; Lambie, Suzanne ; Lassen, Jan ; Leahy, Sinead C. ; Lee, Sang-Suk ; Leiber, Florian ; Lewis, Eva ; Lin, Bo ; Lira, Raúl ; Lund, Peter ; Macipe, Edgar ; Mamuad, Lovelia L. ; Cuquetto Mantovani, Hilário ; Marcoppido, Gisela Ariana ; Márquez, Cristian ; Martin, Cécile ; Martinez, Gonzalo ; Eugenia Martinez, Maria ; Lucía Mayorga, Olga ; McAllister, Tim A. ; McSweeney, Chris ; Mestre, Lorena ; Minnee, Elena ; Mitsumori, Makoto ; Mizrahi, Itzhak ; Molina, Isabel ; Muenger, Andreas ; Muñoz, Camila ; Murovec, Bostjan ; Newbold, John ; Nsereko, Victor ; O’donovan, Michael ; Okunade, Sunday ; O’neill, Brendan ; Ospina, Sonia ; Ouwerkerk, Diane ; Parra, Diana ; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro ; Pinares-patiño, Cesar ; Pope, Phil B. ; Poulsen, Morten ; Rodehutscord, Markus ; Rodriguez, Tatiana ; Saito, Kunihiko ; Sales, Francisco ; Sauer, Catherine ; Shingfield, Kevin ; Shoji, Noriaki ; Simunek, Jiri ; Stojanović-Radić, Zorica ; Stres, Blaz ; Sun, Xuezhao ; Swartz, Jeffery ; Liang Tan, Zhi ; Tapio, Ilma ; Taxis, Tasia M. ; Tomkins, Nigel ; Ungerfeld, Emilio ; Valizadeh, Reza ; Adrichem, Peter van; Hamme, Jonathan van; Hoven, Woulter van; Waghorn, Garry ; Wallace, John R. ; Wang, Min ; Waters, Sinéad M. ; Keogh, Kate ; Witzig, Maren ; Wright, Andre-Denis G. ; Yamano, Hidehisa ; Yan, Tianhai ; Yáñez-ruiz, David R. ; Yeoman, Carl J. ; Zambrano, Ricardo ; Zeitz, Johanna ; Zhou, Mi ; Wei Zhou, Hua ; Xia Zou, Cai ; Zunino, Pablo ; Janssen, Peter H. - \ 2016
Scientific Reports 6 (2016). - ISSN 2045-2322 - 2 p.
Exploring novel food proteins and processing technologies : a case study on quinoa protein and high pressure –high temperature processing
Avila Ruiz, Geraldine - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tiny van Boekel, co-promotor(en): Guido Sala; Markus Stieger. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579095 - 152
dietary protein - chenopodium quinoa - whey protein - food process engineering - heat treatment - in vitro digestibility - fractionation - maillard reaction products - ph - viscosity - gelation - aggregation - high pressure technology - sds-page - voedingseiwit - chenopodium quinoa - wei-eiwit - levensmiddelenproceskunde - warmtebehandeling - in vitro verteerbaarheid - fractionering - maillard-reactieproducten - ph - viscositeit - gelering - aggregatie - hogedruktechnologie - sds-page
Foods rich in protein are nowadays high in demand worldwide. To ensure a sustainable supply and a high quality of protein foods, novel food proteins and processing technologies need to be explored to understand whether they can be used for the development of high-quality protein foods. Therefore, the aim of this thesis was to explore the properties of a novel food protein and a novel processing technology for the development of high-quality protein foods. For this, quinoa was chosen as an alternative protein source and high pressure – high temperature (HPHT) processing was chosen as a novel processing technology.
Quinoa protein has been found to have a balanced amino acid profile and to be allergen-free. As this combination is not common among plant proteins, it is worth studying physicochemical and functional protein properties of quinoa further (Chapter 1). Extraction and processing conditions can influence protein properties and thus functionality. Therefore, quinoa protein properties were examined at different extraction and processing conditions (Chapter 2 and 3). For this, the protein was isolated from the seed using alkaline extraction and subsequent acid precipitation. The quinoa protein isolates (QPIs) obtained were examined in terms of protein purity, yield, solubility, denaturation, aggregation and gelation behaviour, and digestibility.
It was found that when extraction pH increased, protein yield and denaturation increased, which was explained by a higher protein charge, leading to increased unfolding and solubilisation (Chapter 2). Protein purity decreased with increasing extraction pH, which was associated with a possible co-extraction of other seed components. QPIs obtained at extraction pH 8 (E8) and 9 (E9) had a higher solubility in the pH range of 3-4.5 (E9 solubility was highest at pH 7) compared to the isolates obtained at extraction pH 10 (E10) and 11 (E11). It was hypothesised that at a higher extraction pH, the larger extent of protein denaturation led to the exposure of hydrophobic groups, thus decreasing surface polarity and solubility. When suspensions of E8 and E9 were heated, protein aggregation increased and semi-solid gels with a dense microstructure were formed. In contrast, suspensions of E10 and E11 aggregated to a lower degree and did not form self-supporting gels upon heating. The gels obtained with E10 and E11 had furthermore a microstructure showing loose particles. Increased protein aggregation and improved gel formation at lower extraction pH were hypothesised to be due to a higher degree of hydration and swelling of protein particles during heating, leading to increased protein-protein interactions. These findings show that QPI obtained at an extraction pH below 9 might be used to prepare semi-solid gelled foods, while QPI obtained at pH values higher than 10 might be more suitable to be applied in liquid foods.
Heat treatments of QPI suspensions lead to an increased protein denaturation and aggregation but to a decreased in vitro gastric protein digestibility, especially at a high temperature (120°C) and extraction pH (11) (Chapter 3). It was hypothesised that QPIs obtained at a higher extraction pH and treated at higher temperature were denatured to a greater extent and contained stronger protein crosslinks. Therefore, enzyme action was impaired to a higher degree compared to lower temperatures and extraction pH values. This means that by controlling extraction pH and treatment temperature the digestibility of quinoa protein can be optimised.
The disadvantage of the conventional fractionation method used in Chapter 2 and 3 is that it requires high amounts of energy and water and the solvents used can denature the protein, possibly leading to a loss in functionality. Therefore, recently, a new method has been developed, hybrid dry and aqueous fractionation, which uses less energy and water and has proved successful for obtaining protein-rich fractions from pea. It was not known whether hybrid dry and aqueous fractionation can be used to obtain protein-rich fractions of quinoa (Chapter 4). Quinoa seeds were carefully milled to disentangle the protein-rich embryo from the starch-rich perisperm. Using subsequent air-classification, the embryo and perisperm were separated based on size into a protein-rich fraction and a starch-rich fraction, respectively (dry fractionation). The protein-rich fraction was further milled to a smaller particle size and suspended in water. This step was to solubilise the protein (aqueous fractionation), whereby a smaller particle size and adding NaCl optimised the solubilisation efficiency. The addition of salt helped to extract more salt-soluble proteins from quinoa, next to the water-soluble proteins. After centrifugation, the protein-enriched top aqueous phase was decanted and ultrafiltered for further protein concentration. The process generated a quinoa protein-rich fraction with a protein purity of 59.4 w/dw% and a protein yield of 62.0%. Having used 98% less water compared to conventional protein extraction, this new method is promising for industry to obtain quinoa protein concentrates in a more economic, sustainable and milder way.
Next to exploring novel food proteins for the development of high-quality protein foods, novel processing technologies are also important to study. This is because traditional thermal processing can deteriorate the quality of protein-rich foods and beverages by causing undesired browning or too high viscosities. Therefore, for sterilisation purposes, HPHT processing was investigated for the treatment of protein foods (Chapter 5). Model systems, whey protein isolate – sugar solutions, were used to study the effect of pressure at high temperature on Maillard reactions, browning, pH, protein aggregation and viscosity at different pH. It was found that pressure retarded early and advanced Maillard reactions and browning at pH 6, 7 and 9, while it inhibited protein aggregation and, thereby, a high viscosity at pH 7. The mechanism behind this might be that pressure induces a pH drop, possibly via dissociation of ionisable compounds, and thus slows down Maillard reactions. Differences in protein conformation, protein-protein interactions and sensitivity of whey proteins, depending on pH, pressure and heat, might be at the base of the reduced protein aggregation and viscosity observed at pH 7. The results show that HPHT processing can potentially improve the quality of protein-sugar containing foods, for which browning and high viscosities are undesired, such as high-protein beverages.
Finally, the properties of quinoa protein and HPHT processing were discussed in a broader context (Chapter 6). It was concluded that QPI obtained at pH 9 is a promising alternative to pea and soy protein isolate from a technical perspective and that QPI protein yields can be optimised. Also, quinoa protein-rich fractions obtained with the hybrid dry and aqueous fractionation method were predicted to have comparable properties to QPI, soy and pea protein isolates. However, from a marketing perspective, the protein-rich fraction was considered more advantageous to be up-scaled compared to QPI. High pressure at ambient or high temperature was found to have an added value compared to heat, which can be used for the development of high-quality protein food. Lastly, quinoa protein and HPHT processing might become more attractive for industry in the light of current trends, if present predictions can be confirmed and remaining issues can be resolved.
High-Pressure-High-Temperature Processing Reduces Maillard Reaction and Viscosity in Whey Protein-Sugar Solutions
Avila Ruiz, Geraldine ; Xi, Bingyan ; Minor, Marcel ; Sala, Guido ; Boekel, Tiny van; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Stieger, Markus - \ 2016
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 64 (2016)38. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 7208 - 7215.
browning - high-pressure-high-temperature processing - Maillard reactions - protein aggregation - whey protein
The aim of the study was to determine the influence of pressure in high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) processing on Maillard reactions and protein aggregation of whey protein-sugar solutions. Solutions of whey protein isolate containing either glucose or trehalose at pH 6, 7, and 9 were treated by HPHT processing or conventional high-temperature (HT) treatments. Browning was reduced, and early and advanced Maillard reactions were retarded under HPHT processing at all pH values compared to HT treatment. HPHT induced a larger pH drop than HT treatments, especially at pH 9, which was not associated with Maillard reactions. After HPHT processing at pH 7, protein aggregation and viscosity of whey protein isolate-glucose/trehalose solutions remained unchanged. It was concluded that HPHT processing can potentially improve the quality of protein-sugar-containing foods, for which browning and high viscosities are undesired, such as high-protein beverages.
A Hybrid Dry and Aqueous Fractionation Method to Obtain Protein-Rich Fractions from Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)
Avila Ruiz, Geraldine ; Arts, Anke ; Minor, Marcel ; Schutyser, Maarten - \ 2016
Food Bioprocess Technology 9 (2016)9. - ISSN 1935-5130 - p. 1502 - 1510.
Hybrid fractionation - Protein purity - Protein yield - Quinoa protein - Wet fractionation
Combination of dry and aqueous fractionation is investigated to obtain protein-rich fractions from quinoa in a milder and more sustainable way compared to conventional wet fractionation. Dry fractionation of quinoa involved milling and subsequent air classification, generating a protein-enriched embryo fraction. Subsequently, this fraction was milled, suspended, and further fractionated by aqueous phase separation. The efficiency of aqueous phase separation could be improved by addition of NaCl (0.5 M). Finally, the top aqueous phase was decanted and ultrafiltered, resulting in a protein purity of 59.4 w/dw% for the 0.5 M NaCl-protein solution and a protein yield (gram protein obtained/gram protein in seed) of 62.0 %. Having used 98 % less water compared to conventional wet extraction, the hybrid dry and aqueous fractionation is a promising method for industry to create value from quinoa in a more economic and sustainable friendly way while minimizing the impact on quinoa’s native protein functionality.
Old-growth Neotropical forests are shifting in species and trait composition
Sande, M.T. van der; Arets, E.J.M.M. ; Pena Claros, M. ; Avila, L.A. ; Roopsind, A. ; Mazzei, L. ; Ascarrunz, N. ; Finegan, B. ; Alarcón, A. ; Caceres-Siani, Yasmani ; Licona, J.C. ; Ruschel, A.R. ; Toledo, M. ; Poorter, L. - \ 2016
disturbance - drought - environmental gradients - forest dynamicsfunctional traits - global change - rainfall - resource availability - soil fertility
This dataset contains the underlaying data for the study: Tropical forests have long been thought to be in stable state, but recent insights indicate that global change is leading to shifts in forest dynamics and species composition. These shifts may be driven by environmental changes such as increased resource availability, increased drought stress, and/or recovery from past disturbances. The relative importance of these drivers can be inferred from analysing changes in trait values of tree communities. Here, we evaluate a decade of change in species and trait composition across five old-growth Neotropical forests in Bolivia, Brazil, Guyana and Costa Rica that cover large gradients in rainfall and soil fertility. To identify the drivers of compositional change, we used data from 29 permanent sample plots and measurements of 15 leaf, stem and whole-plant traits that are important for plant performance and should respond to global change drivers. We found that forests differ strongly in their community-mean trait values, resulting from differences in soil fertility and annual rainfall seasonality. The abundance of deciduous species with high specific leaf area increases from wet to dry forests. The community-mean wood density is high in the driest forests to protect xylem vessels against drought-cavitation, and is high in nutrient poor forests to increase wood longevity and enhance nutrient residence time in the plant. The species composition changed over time in three of the forests, and the community-mean wood density increased and the specific leaf area decreased in all forests, indicating that these forests are changing towards later successional stages dominated by slow-growing, shade-tolerant species. We did not see changes in other traits that could reflect responses to increased drought stress, such as increased drought-deciduousness or decreased maximum adult size, or that could reflect increased resource availability (CO2, rainfall or nitrogen). Changes in species and trait composition in these forests are, therefore, most likely caused by recovery from past disturbances. These compositional changes may also lead to shifts in ecosystem processes, such as a lower carbon sequestration and “slower” forest dynamics. For 29 permanent sample plots in two census years across five old-growth Neotropical forests in Bolivia, Brazil, Guyana and Costa Rica, the following data are available: values of 15 leaf, stem and whole-plant traits at the community-level, and the plot scores along two principal component axes that represent species composition.