Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    The adverse effects of heat stress on the antioxidant status and performance of pigs and poultry and reducing these effects with nutritional tools
    Babinszky, László ; Horváth, M. ; Remenyik, J. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2019
    In: Poultry and pig nutrition / Hendriks, W.H., Verstegen, M.W.A., Babinszky, L., Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086863334 - p. 187 - 208.
    It is known that climate change has a major impact on agricultural production. High ambient temperature not only adversely affects crop production, but also animal agriculture. This chapter present the impact of the adverse effects of heat stress on the antioxidant status, energy metabolism and performance of pigs and poultry. It also aims to demonstrate how to repair the damaged antioxidant system and to improve the performance of animals by means of nutritional tools. Based on literature data, it is clear that changes in climatic conditions will directly influence animals, with the changes most likely involving higher temperatures in the future. More heat production due to heat stress means more energy loss by animals. Associated with heat stress are changes in the antioxidant system too. In addition, climate changes (heat stress) can also influence the performance (e.g., feed intake, daily gain feed conversion efficiency, meat quality) of pigs and poultry. Based on the research findings, it can be concluded that different nutritional methods are available to compensate the harmful effects of heat stress: e.g. antioxidant vitamins (e.g. A, C, E, etc.), micro minerals (e.g. zinc, selenium, etc.), monovalent ions (e.g. Na-, K-bicarbonate, K-hydro carbonate, K-sulphate) and fat addition to diets. Feeding low protein diets with synthetic amino acids according to the ideal protein concept and adding dietary betaine to diets may also be an option to reduce heat stress.
    Novel protein sources in animal nutrition: considerations and examples
    Krimpen, M.M. van; Hendriks, W.H. - \ 2019
    In: Poultry and pig nutrition / Hendriks, W.H., Verstegen, M.W.A., Babinszky, L., Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086863334 - p. 279 - 305.
    The world-wide demand for animal sourced foods is expected to increase in the coming decades and thus the need for protein sources for application in feed will also increase drastically. This chapter discusses some strategies to meet this demand and focusses especially on novel protein sources for application in feeds. Important aspects inherent to production, composition and processing of novel protein sources are discussed before four novel protein sources are reviewed in more detail: seaweeds, micro algae, insects and leaf proteins for their application in pig and poultry diets. The use of free amino acids, as a possible strategy to lower the protein content of diets for production animals.
    Future technologies in pigs & poultry nutrition
    Poel, A.F.B. van der; Marchal, J.L.M. - \ 2019
    In: Poultry and pig nutrition / Hendriks, W.H., Verstegen, M.W.A., Babinszky, L., Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086863334 - p. 369 - 396.
    The economic room for technologically and nutritionally more advanced diets will increase in the future. The processing of animal feed currently has a number of beneficial effects including the improvements in feed efficiency and to find the right balance between animal health and efficiency. In the feed mill diagrams, a large diversity of equipment and systems can be found. This diversity is already present for each different unit operations: in the case of particle size reduction, there is a large choice in special equipment and the way the different steps are set up into a grinding system. For agglomeration e.g. these may vary from having large flexibility in more basic production of different feed forms, up to applying sophisticated equipment (expanders, compactors) to improve nutrient digestibility and pellet quality to strive towards high quality feeds. Farms are becoming larger and in certain countries farmer are using on-farm processing of feed ingredients in addition to purchased concentrates. There is a small but growing trend in organic farming to include the use of other ingredients for animal diets such as grass for sows, fermented ingredients, etc. and some are of the opinion that a new business model will emerge in agriculture where the objective has to be a balance between economy, ecology and society, called 'sustainable precision husbandry'.
    Foreword
    Hartog, L.A. den; Ravindran, V. - \ 2019
    In: Poultry and pig nutrition / Hendriks, W.H., Verstegen, M.W.A., Babinszky, L., Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086863334 - p. 15 - 16.
    Challenges in the 21st century in pig and poultry nutrition and the future of animal nutrition
    Babinszky, László ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Hendriks, W.H. - \ 2019
    In: Poultry and pig nutrition: Challenges of the 21st century / Hendriks, Wouter, Babinszky, László, Verstegen, Martin, Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086863334 - p. 17 - 38.
    To meet the challenges in the 21st century in pig and poultry nutrition, it is necessary to involve into the innovation activities besides classical animal nutrition knowledge, newer areas of natural and technical sciences (e.g. molecular biology, molecular nutrition, molecular genetics, nutrigenomics, information technology, etc.). The importance of these disciplines will continue to grow in the near future, in the following 5-10 years. Animal nutrition will need to increasingly focus on the production of safe and nutritious foods in a traceable manner produced within systems that care for the environment and animal welfare using ingredients not suitable for human consumption. The use of precision animal nutrition in practice greatly contributes to the changes required for the successful production of animal derived foods in the 21st century, as well as for the success of innovation activities. In order for the animal agricultural sector to be able to provide proper quantities of safe animal origin food materials to the food industry, there is a rapidly increasing need for better cooperation between medical and agricultural sciences on the basis of professional logic, as well as cooperation in R&DI programs and education. It is highly probable that new areas of science will revolutionise animal nutrition sciences such as bioinformatics, molecular biology, molecular nutrition, as well as quantum biology. These areas of science will greatly contribute to the development of animal nutrition science and, as a result, to a more efficient animal nutrition, as well as to a better quality and safe food base material production of animal origin.
    Future of animal nutrition: the role of life cycle assessment
    Middelaar, C.E. van; Zanten, H.H.E. van; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2019
    In: Poultry and pig nutrition / Hendriks, Wouter, Verstegen, Martin, Babinszky, László, Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086863334 - p. 307 - 314.
    The livestock sector poses severe pressure on the environment via the emissions of pollutants to air, water and soil, and via the use of scarce resources. This chapter elaborates on the role of life cycle assessment (LCA) to reduce environmental impacts of the pig and poultry sector, with special emphasis on the production of feed. First, the four phases of an LCA are described. Differences between attributional and consequential LCA, and variability in methods to account for land use change are discussed. It is concluded that harmonisation of methods and high quality inventory data are needed to improve interpretation of LCA results in the livestock sector. Second, the role of LCA in animal nutrition is discussed. Improving the production efficiency of crops and animals has been a major focus for reducing environmental impacts of livestock production. LCA implicitly combines information regarding crop and animal productivity, and creates understanding about the interaction between processes, and the impact of the entire production chain. Current applications of LCA are mainly attributional; results create understanding concerning the current situation, such as the environmental impact of a certain diet. To evaluate the impact of improvement options, consequential LCA is required. If a feed company increases its use of by-products, for example, the consequences of a decrease in availability of that by-product for other applications, such as biofuel production, need to be taken into account. A potential shortcoming of LCA is that is does not address the competition for resources between humans and animals, which occurs at a higher aggregation level. To determine an environmentally sustainable human diet, or to address the role of livestock in (global) food security, LCA needs to be combined with other modelling techniques that address environmental impacts of dietary choices at the national or international level.
    Animal nutrition and immunity in pigs and poultry
    Bouwens, M. ; Savelkoul, Huub - \ 2019
    In: Poultry and pig nutrition / Hendriks, Wouter H., Verstegen, Martin W.A., Babinszky, László, Wageningen Academic Publishers (Poultry and pig nutrition ) - ISBN 9789086863334 - p. 105 - 127.
    The current level of intensity of modern pig and poultry production systems and the continuously increasing production efficiency requires an optimum development and functioning of the immune system. Sub-optimal development will result in increased use of antibiotics, increased welfare related problems, increased costs and a decrease in production efficiency. A better understanding of the developing immune system and the influence that husbandry conditions, including feed practices, during gestation and just after birth have on the developing immune system can lead to systems that produce more resilient animals, with increased immune competence that are better able to cope with their environmental challenges. A better understanding of the common mucosal immune system in the gut and airways and the way this is influenced by feeding strategies, is therefore implicated. Novel interdisciplinary research programs, integrating fields like animal nutrition, mucosal immunology, transgenerational development of immune competence, and husbandry conditions are, therefore, urgently needed. This contribution highlights some of these recent developments in these fields.
    Poultry and pig nutrition: challenges of the 21st century
    Hendriks, Wouter H. ; Verstegen, Martin W.A. ; Babinszky, László - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086863334 - 428
    Impacts of climate change on animal production and quality of animal food products
    Babinszky, L. ; Halas, V. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2011
    In: Climate Change - Socioeconomic effects / Blanco, J, Kheradmand, H, InTech - ISBN 9789533074115 - p. 165 - 190.
    Efficiency of fat deposition from nonstarch polysaccharides, starch and unsaturated fat in pig
    Halas, V. ; Babinszky, L. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2010
    The British journal of nutrition 103 (2010)1. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 123 - 133.
    anatomical body-composition - growing pigs - growth-performance - finishing pigs - dietary fiber - energy-intake - protein - gilts - nutrition - genotype
    The aim was to evaluate under protein-limiting conditions the effect of different supplemental energy sources: fermentable NSP (fNSP), digestible starch (dStarch) and digestible unsaturated fat (dUFA), on marginal efficiency of fat deposition and distribution. A further aim was to determine whether the extra fat deposition from different energy sources, and its distribution in the body, depends on feeding level. A total of fifty-eight individually housed pigs (48 (sd 4) kg) were used in a 3 x 2 factorial design study, with three energy sources (0.2 MJ digestible energy (DE)/kg0.75 per d of fNSP, dStarch and dUFA added to a control diet) at two feeding levels. Ten pigs were slaughtered at 48 (sd 4) kg body weight and treatment pigs at 106 (sd 3) kg body weight. Bodies were dissected and the chemical composition of each body fraction was determined. The effect of energy sources on fat and protein deposition was expressed relative to the control treatments within both energy intake levels based on a total of thirty-two observations in six treatments, and these marginal differences were subsequently treated as dependent variables. Results showed that preferential deposition of the supplemental energy intake in various fat depots did not depend on the energy source, and the extra fat deposition was similar at each feeding level. The marginal energetic transformation (energy retention; ER) of fNSP, dStarch and dUFA for fat retention (ERfat:DE) was 44, 52 and 49 % (P>0.05), respectively. Feeding level affected fat distribution, but source of energy did not change the relative partitioning of fat deposition. The present results do not support values of energetic efficiencies currently used in net energy-based systems
    The challenges in Animal Nutrition in the 21st Century
    Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Tamminga, S. - \ 2005
    In: New Challenges in 21st Century Animal Nutrition / Babinszky, L., Kaposvar, Hungary : University of Kaposvar, Faculty of Animal Science
    Challenges in Cattle Nutrition in the 21st Century
    Tamminga, S. - \ 2005
    In: New Challenges in 21st Century Animal Nutrition / Babinszky, L., Kaposvar, Hungary : University of Kaposvar, Faculty of Animal Science
    Modelling of nutrient partitioning in growing pigs to predict their anatomical body composition. 2. Model evaluation
    Halas, V. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Babinszky, L. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2004
    The British journal of nutrition 92 (2004)4. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 725 - 734.
    finishing gilts 45 - energy-intake - growth-performance - lipid accretion - earlier life - 85 kilograms - protein - components - metabolism - deposition
    The objective of the present paper was to evaluate a dynamic mechanistic model for growing and fattening pigs presented in a companion paper. The model predicted the rate of protein and fat deposition (chemical composition), rate of tissue deposition (anatomical composition) and performance of pigs depending on nutrient intake. In the model evaluation, the predicted response of the pig to changes in model parameters and to changes in nutrient intakes is presented. As a result of the sensitivity analysis, changes in the maintenance energy requirements and the fractional degradation rate of muscle protein had the greatest impact on tissue deposition rates. The model was also highly sensitive to changes in the maximum velocity and steepness parameter of the lysine utilisation for muscle protein synthesis. The model was further tested by independent published results. The model successfully predicted the response of pigs to a wide range of variation in nutrient composition. Consequently, the model can be applied to develop feeding strategies to optimise pig production. It also enables prediction of the slaughter performance and the meat quality.
    Modelling of nutrient partitioning in growing pigs to predict their anatomical body composition. 1. Model description
    Halas, V. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Babinszky, L. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2004
    The British journal of nutrition 92 (2004)4. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 707 - 723.
    muscle protein-turnover - finishing gilts 45 - energy-intake - lipid accretion - chemical-composition - fattening pigs - feeding level - kg liveweight - earlier life - 85 kilograms
    A dynamic mechanistic model was developed for growing and fattening pigs. The aim of the model was to predict growth rate and the chemical and anatomical body compositions from the digestible nutrient intake of gilts (20-105 kg live weight). The model represents the partitioning of digestible nutrients from intake through intermediary metabolism to body protein and body fat. State variables of the model were lysine, acetyl-CoA equivalents, glucose, volatile fatty acids and fatty acids as metabolite pools, and protein in muscle, hide-backfat, bone and viscera and body fat as body constituent pools. It was assumed that fluxes of metabolites follow saturation kinetics depending on metabolite concentrations. In the model, protein deposition rate depended on the availability of lysine and of acetyl-CoA. The anatomical body composition in terms of muscle, organs, hide-backfat and bone was predicted from the chemical body composition and accretion using allometric relationships. Partitioning of protein, fat, water and ash in muscle, organs, hide-backfat and bone fractions were driven by the rates of muscle protein and body fat deposition. Model parameters were adjusted to obtain a good fit of the experimental data from literature. Differential equations were solved numerically for a given set of initial conditions and parameter values. In the present paper, the model is presented, including its parameterisation. The evaluation of the model is described in a companion paper.
    Dietary influences on nutrient partitioning and anatomical body composition of growing pigs; modelling and experimental approaches
    Halas, V. - \ 2004
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin Verstegen; L. Babinszky, co-promotor(en): Jan Dijkstra; Walter Gerrits. - [S.I.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085040262 - 217
    varkens - voedingsstoffenopname (mens en dier) - lichaamssamenstelling - groeimodellen - groei - mestresultaten - voedingsstoffen - voer - varkensvoeding - diervoeding - pigs - nutrient intake - body composition - growth models - growth - fattening performance - nutrients - feeds - pig feeding - animal nutrition
    Prediction of pig performance from data on nutrient intake and animal properties makes it easier to obtain a better productivity. It provides tools to arrive at desired outputs, or to calculate required inputs. Thus it enables production to be flexible, safe and less erratic. It is to be expected that the results will give a more profitable pig production. In practice, different types of models are used, mostly by feed producers, but also in farm management programmes. Each of these existing models was designed to meet a certain objective. The classification of different types of models, and the benefits of using them, are presented in the literature overview of the thesis. After a general overview of modelling, a critical evaluation was provided on existing models. It was concluded from the literature, that a comprehensive model, which predicts the chemical composition in different parts of the body, like in lean or in the meat, does not exist. It was also concluded that mechanistic approach should be used to modelling growth. The conceptual basis of a mechanistic model was developed in accordance with basic properties of protein and lipid metabolism. Since nutrients are almost exclusively absorbed in the hydrolyzed form, simulation of use of nutrients for growth should, at least to some extent, make use of biochemical pathways. Therefore, a biological approach to simulation of anatomical body composition is pretended as it follows nutrients from ingestion through intermediary metabolism to deposition as body fat and protein, preferably in distinct tissues or tissue groups. Prediction of anatomical body composition therefore has to be based on deposition of the chemical entities.

    Therefore the scope of the present thesis was 1) to develop a mechanistic-dynamic model for growing and fattening pigs which predicts anatomical and chemical body composition at slaughter; 2) to determine which model parameters are sensitive to changes in the model; 3) to determine the model accuracy by quantitative and qualitative prediction of the model tested with independent data; 4) to complete an experiment to define fat production potential of different energy sources at low and high feeding levels, and 5) to study the effect of different energy sources at two feeding levels on the distribution of fat deposition during the fattening period.

    The thesis presents both the description and the evaluation of the growth model. It was concluded that the developed model predicts growth rate as well as chemical and anatomical body compositions of gilts in the 20-105 kg live weight range, from nutrient intake. The model represents partitioning of nutrients from feed intake through intermediary metabolism to synthesis of body protein and body fat. State variables of the model are lysine, acetyl-CoA equivalents, glucose, VFA, and fatty acids as metabolite pools, as well as protein in muscle, hide, bone and viscera and body fat as body constituent pools. It is assumed that fluxes of metabolites follow saturation kinetics depending on metabolite concentrations. Anatomical body composition is predicted from chemical body composition and accretion. Partitioning of protein, fat, water and ash into muscle, organs, hide and bone fractions are described by allometric equations, driven by rates of muscle protein and body fat deposition. Two experiments were used in the model calibration process, one with 95 growing pigs (20-45 kg) fed different ileal digestible lysine intakes at two feeding levels, and another with 100 growing and fattening pigs (20-105 kg), which received different energy intakes. Differential equations were solved numerically for a given set of initial conditions and parameter values. The integration interval used was 0.01 day, with the fourth-order fixed-step-length Runge-Kutta algorithm. The muscle protein and body fat deposition rates were considered in different weight ranges and for the whole fattening period. Results presented were not sensitive to small changes in initial conditions, or to smaller integration step sizes.

    In the model evaluation the predicted response of the pigs to changes in model parameters, and to changes in nutrient intakes, are shown. As a result of the sensitivity analysis, the model was responsive to changes in a number of the model parameters examined. Changes in maintenance energy requirements, and the fractional degradation rate of muscle protein, have the largest impact on tissue deposition rates. The model is highly sensitive to changes in the maximal velocity and steepness parameter of lysine utilisation for muscle protein synthesis. Those parameters which directly affect the size of the lysine pool generally have a considerable influence on model predictions. Furthermore, it should be noted that results of this sensitivity analysis depend on nutrient intakes of the reference simulation. The model was relatively insensitive to changes of parameters regarding energy metabolism. It was concluded that the probable reason was that protein and/or lysine was more limiting within the simulated conditions. The model was further tested by independent published data. In general, the model satisfactorily predicted qualitative pig responses to a wide range of variations in nutrient supply. The predicted chemical and anatomical body composition, and also the distribution of protein and fat, were satisfactory in model testing. In most cases, errors in the predicted parameters attributed to the deviation of the regression slope were minor. It was assumed that the major factors contributing to the relatively large bias, observed for most predicted growth characteristics, was variation in pig performance among genotypes, or differences in environmental conditions. Based on the comparison of model simulations with independent data sets, it was recommended to improve the model regarding prediction of protein and fat deposition rates from nutrient intake of different energy sources.

    It was found that literature data on the effect of different energy sources on fat deposition was limited. In non-protein energy fraction of the diet, dietary lipids, starch and rapidly fermentable non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) are major energy sources. Lipids are absorbed as long-chain fatty acids and starch as glucose. Dietary NSP is fermented and the short-chain fatty acids produced enter intermediary metabolism as an energy source. Equal intakes of energy from glucose, long-chain fatty acids and short-chains fatty acids might result in different fat deposition rates, and quite likely, result in different distributions of body fat over the tissues. There is, however, little quantitative data available on effects of energy source on partitioning of body lipids. Therefore a fattening trial was completed to: 1) study the effect of extra energy intake from fermentable NSP, digestible starch and digestible fat used for fat deposition under protein limiting conditions; 2) determine the location of the fat deposition resulting from extra intake fermentable NSP, digestible starch and digestible fat; 3) determine if the extra fat deposition from different energy sources depends on the level of feed intake, and 4) quantify potential interactions between feed intake level and energy source on the location of extra body fat deposition.

    A total of 58 hybrid individually housed pigs were used in the trial with an initial body weight of 48±4 kg. The experimental treatments were arranged in a 3x2 factorial design, with three energy sources (i.e. fermentable NSP, digestible starch and digestible fat, all added to a control diet) at each of two energy levels. Within each energy level, daily nutrient intakes were the same with regard to digestible protein, ileal digestible lysine and other amino acids, vitamins and minerals. Treatments had an isocaloric proportion of daily nutrient intake derived from each energy source (0.2 MJ DE/kg 0.75 ), in addition to the nutrients from control diet. It was equal with 11 g/kg 0.75 highly fermentable NSP, 11 g/kg 0.75 starch or 5 g/kg 0.75 digestible fat daily. The DE intakes were 2.0 and 3.0 maintenance requirement in control groups. The additional energy from different sources increased DE intake up to 2.4 and 3.4 times maintenance requirement at low and high feeding levels, respectively. To obtain initial values, ten pigs were slaughtered at 48±4 kg and the treatment pigs at 106±3 kg body weight. Each body was dissected into four fractions being: 1) lean, 2) organs, 3) hide and subcutaneous fat, and 4) offal. Chemical body composition was determined in each body fraction. The differences between fat deposition of body parts in the control group, and the other treatments, resulted in the additional energy derived from each energy source. As a conclusion from the study, under protein limiting conditions, extra energy intake from fermentable NSP, digestible starch and digestible fat resulted in similar fat deposition. Preferential deposition of extra energy intake in various fat depots did not depend on the energy source. The extra fat deposition from fermentable NSP, digestible starch and digestible fat deposited as body fat was similar at both the low and high levels of feed intake.

    In the General Discussion, some consequences of the mechanistic approach were discussed and then substantial attention was devoted to the practical aspects of the model. The later part of the General Discussion focuses on representation of different energy sources as an aspect of the model. The energetic efficiency of the different dietary energy sources is discussed, based on data from Chapter 6. The growth model is further evaluated by results of the fattening study. Moreover, data from the fattening study are analysed regarding the distribution of fat deposition. Consequences of the fattening study on the model is discussed regarding the effect of energy sources on energetic efficiency, and on location of fat deposition in the pig. Finally, a new application of the present model is introduced in addition to development of feeding strategies and identifying research priorities.
    Effect of dietary energy sources on energy metabolism of growing and fattening pigs: a model simulation
    Halas, V. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Babinszky, L. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2003
    varkens - afmesten - energiegebruik - energiemetabolisme - modellen - pigs - finishing - energy consumption - energy metabolism - models
    The aim of the study is to present the preliminary results of a dynamic, mechanistic model of nutrient metabolism in pigs. The model was developed to predict the partitioning of ingested nutrients to protein and fat deposition in various organs and tissues in growing pigs. The state variables of the model are lysine, acetyl-CoA equivalents, glucose, VFA, and fatty acids as metabolite pools, and protein and fat in muscle, hide, bone and viscera and body ash as body constituent pools
    Impact of mammalian enzyme pretreatment of the fermentability of carbohydrate-rich feedstuffs
    Bauer, E. ; Williams, B.A. ; Voigt, C. ; Mosenthin, R. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2003
    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 83 (2003). - ISSN 0022-5142 - p. 207 - 214.
    chain fatty-acid - gas-production - gastrointestinal-tract - microbial activity - invitro method - pigs - fermentation - digestion - bacteria - protein
    Several carbohydrate-rich substrates (spent brewer's grains, potato peel, potato starch, wheat bran, sugarbeet pulp and a maize-based standard diet for pigs) were pretreated with digestive enzymes, and the in vitro fermentability of these treated substrates and their untreated counterparts was assessed using the cumulative gas production technique. A comparison was also made between the enzyme-treated (ET) and untreated (UT) standard diet for pigs, and chyme which originated from pigs fed that diet, to determine whether the enzyme treatment resulted in material with similar fermentability to that reaching the large intestine in vivo. The enzyme pretreatment was performed according to a modified in vitro method of Babinszky et al (J Sci Food Agric 50:173-178 (1990)). Generally, it was shown that the fermentabilities of the ET and UT substrates were different. There was also a significant difference between the fermentation characteristics of the ET diet and chyme. Chyme produced less gas (P <0.05), and the time at which half of the gas had been produced (C) occurred later (P <0.05). The maximum rate of fermentation (R-M) was slower for chyme (P <0.05). Fermentation of chyme led to more ammonia (P <0.05) and a tendency to more volatile fatty acids at the end of fermentation. These differences in fermentability of the ET diet and chyme (from pigs fed the same diet) may be the result of differences which relate purely to the action of the enzymes chosen to work in vitro, compared with those which are actually present in vivo. However, the results also suggest that it is not only enzymatic digestion which is occurring in the small intestine. This is an important consideration when using ileal techniques to determine digestibility of feedstuffs. (C) 2003 Society of Chemical Industry.
    Conceptual paper for modelling protein and lipid accretion in different body parts of growing and fattening pigs
    Halas, V. ; Babinszky, L. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2003
    Archives of Animal Nutrition 57 (2003)2. - ISSN 1745-039X - p. 137 - 150.
    lipogenic enzyme-activities - adipose-tissue - chemical-composition - meishan pigs - energy - metabolism - fat - turnover - growth - level
    The objective of this review is to outline those parts of modelling approaches in pig production which are not highly developed; these are the partitioning of protein and lipid accretion in different anatomical body parts. The authors introduce present models with a critical evaluation and draw some conlusions for further developments. Based on present knowledge this paper demonstrates the process of protein and fat accretion in different body compartments in pigs and influencing factors. A further aim is to assist in the conceptual development of a new pig model, which is more detailed, precise and accurate than currently available models. Exsisting models are generally deficient with regard to the translation of lipid and protein gain into lean and fatty tissue. Only assumed values for this translation have been used so far and the concepts underlying these values are not well understood. Therefore, it may be appropriate to develop a compartimental model to predict protein and fat deposition in growing and fattening pigs. With this new approach the model can supply sufficiently the changing consumer demands regarding to the possibility of meat quality prediction.
    Processed grains as a supplement to lactating dairy cows
    Tothi, R. - \ 2003
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Seerp Tamminga; L. Babinszky. - Wageningen : S.n. - ISBN 9789058088178 - 231
    melkkoeien - lactatie - voedergranen - bewerkte producten - voedersupplementen - voer - diervoeding - melkproductie - melkresultaten - dairy cows - lactation - feed grains - processed products - feed supplements - feeds - animal nutrition - milk production - dairy performance

    Keywords: heat treatment, maize, barley, starch, protein, in sacco, in vivo, dairy, perennial ryegrass, grazing, supplementation, ruminal fermentation, VFA, rumen, degradability, synchrony.

    In this thesis the effect of different ways of thermal processing (pelleting, expanding, toasting) of barley and maize on the degradative behaviour of their starch and protein in the rumen of lactating dairy cows are described. In situ studies showed that all thermal processing methods increased the ruminal starch and protein availability of maize, while all thermal processing methods decreased ruminal starch availability but only pelleting increased ruminal protein availability of barley. Based on in vivo experiments compared to untreated grains, expander treatment increased the apparent rumen and total tract digestibility of maize starch but did not affect the digestibility of barley starch. Supplementing grazing dairy cows with pelleted and pressure toasted maize and barley slightly (not significantly) decreased the dry matter intake of grass in the first grazing event in the morning after milking, and it decreased ruminal clearence of nitrogen. Supplementing pasture grass with pelleted and pressure toasted cereal grains decreased the pH, the NH 3 -N level in the rumen, the ammonia to total VFA (TVFA) ratio, the isobutyrate proportion, the acetate to propionate ratio and the non-glucogenic to glucogenic ratio in the rumen. Simultaneously it increased TVFA concentrations, propionate, butyrate and valerate proportions as a percentage of the TVFA. All processed grains did affect production responses in dairy cows, by elevating milk protein and decreasing milk fat production, and milk urea nitrogen but no significant differences between these two heat treatments were found. It is concluded that the need of synchrony is specially important with diets based on fresh grass, in which markedly asynchronous rates of release of energy and nitrogen occur in the rumen. It appears that to generate a better ruminal N and organic matter synchrony to improve microbial N yield and N utilization feeding different types of cereal grain that differ by nature in rate and extent of ruminal degradation has more effect than using one of this processing methods on the same type of grain. Responses obtained from cereal grain supplementation are very dependent on the quality and degradation characteristics of the pasture consumed, which changes through the grazing season.

    Effect of dietary protein source and lysine : DE ratio on growth performance, meat quality and body composition of growing-finishing pigs
    Szabo, C. ; Jansman, A.J.M. ; Babinszky, L. ; Kanis, E. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2001
    Journal of Animal Science 79 (2001). - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 2857 - 2865.
    The effects of four protein sources (soybean meal, sunflower meal, pea, and fish meal as the main protein source) and three apparent ileally digestible Lys:DE ratios (0.50, 0.43, 0.36 and 0.42, 0.36, 0.30 g Lys/MJ DE for 30 to 60 kg BW and 60 to 105 kg BW, respectively) in pig diets on growing-finishing performance, and carcass and meat quality traits were investigated. Eight individually housed animals per treatment received the diets from 30 to 105 kg BW at a level of 3.0 times maintenance requirements of energy. The ileal digestibility of protein sources was determined in a previous digestibility experiment. Protein sources showed no differences in growth performance from 30 to 105 kg BW. From 30 to 60 kg BW soybean treatment had lowest performance. The protein sources had no effect on lean meat percentage, liver weight, or meat quality (intramuscular fat content, pH at 45 min and 24 h after slaughter, drip loss, and meat color measured 24 h and 4 d after slaughter). The experimental diets formulated on the basis of similar apparent ileal digestible lysine content resulted in similar body composition regardless of the protein source used (P > 0.05). Reducing the Lys:DE ratio from 0.50/0.43 to 0.36/0.30 (by about 28€reduced BW gain by 119 g/d from 30 to 60 kg and by 151 g/d from 60 to 105 kg BW. The gain:feed ratio increased by 82 g/kg in the first phase and by 47 g/kg in the second phase for the highest Lys:DE treatment compared with the lowest. Reducing Lys:DE ratio did not modify meat quality traits. A high Lys:DE ratio was associated with a high lean meat percentage. Differences between the medium- and low-Lys:DE groups were not significant. Lowering the Lys:DE ratio increased (P < 0.05) crude fat and fatty tissue content and decreased (P < 0.05) protein and muscle content in the body. Ash content and bone volume were not affected by Lys:DE ratio (P > 0.05). The chemical composition of the carcass can be predicted with moderate accuracy (R2 = 0.39 to 0.58) using volumetric composition data of previously frozen carcasses. In conclusion, similar growth performance, carcass and meat quality, and body composition can be expected if diet formulation is based on the apparent ileally digestible amino acid contents of feedstuffs, independent of dietary protein sources. Diminishing Lys:DE ratios reduce growth performance but do not modify meat quality traits. The chemical composition of the carcass can be predicted with moderate accuracy using the volumetric composition of thawed carcasses.
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