Loss of transglutaminase 2 sensitizes for diet-induced obesity-related inflammation and insulin resistance due to enhanced macrophage c-Src signaling
Sághy, Tibor ; Köröskényi, Krisztina ; Hegedűs, Krisztina ; Antal, Miklós ; Bankó, Csaba ; Bacsó, Zsolt ; Papp, Attila ; Stienstra, Rinke ; Szondy, Zsuzsa - \ 2019
Cell Death & Disease 10 (2019)6. - ISSN 2041-4889
Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a multifunctional protein that promotes clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) acting as integrin β3 coreceptor. Accumulating evidence indicates that defective efferocytosis contributes to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases. Obesity is characterized by the accumulation of dead adipocytes and inflammatory macrophages in the adipose tissue leading to obesity-related metabolic syndrome. Here, we report that loss of TG2 from bone marrow-derived cells sensitizes for high fat diet (HFD)-induced pathologies. We find that metabolically activated TG2 null macrophages express more phospho-Src and integrin β3, unexpectedly clear dying adipocytes more efficiently via lysosomal exocytosis, but produce more pro-inflammatory cytokines than the wild type ones. Anti-inflammatory treatment with an LXR agonist reverts the HFD-induced phenotype in mice lacking TG2 in bone marrow-derived cells with less hepatic steatosis than in wild type mice proving enhanced lipid clearance. Thus it is interesting to speculate whether LXR agonist treatment together with enhancing lysosomal exocytosis could be a beneficial therapeutic strategy in obesity.