Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    NUcheckt: Wat we weten over de risico's van onkruidverdelger Roundup. Fact check glyfosaat
    Lotz, Bert ; Berg, Martin van den; Geissen, Violette - \ 2020
    GC–MS analysis of e-cigarette refill solutions : A comparison of flavoring composition between flavor categories
    Krüsemann, Erna J.Z. ; Pennings, Jeroen L.A. ; Cremers, Johannes W.J.M. ; Bakker, Frank ; Boesveldt, Sanne ; Talhout, Reinskje - \ 2020
    Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 188 (2020). - ISSN 0731-7085
    e-Liquids - Electronic cigarettes - Flavor compounds - Flavor ingredients - Flavors - Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry

    Objectives: Electronic cigarette refill solutions (e-liquids) are available in various flavor descriptions that can be categorized as fruit, tobacco, and more. Flavors increase sensory appeal, thereby stimulating e-cigarette use, and flavoring ingredients can contribute to e-cigarette toxicity. We aim to inform toxicologists, sensory scientists, and regulators by determining flavoring compounds in e-liquids with various flavors, and compare results between flavor categories. Methods: Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was used to identify 79 flavorings in 320 e-liquids, classified in 15 flavor categories. Ten flavorings highly prevalent in e-liquids according to information from manufacturers were quantified. Flavoring prevalence was defined as the number of e-liquids with the flavoring as percentage of the total number of e-liquids. The method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, repeatability, recovery, and sensitivity. Results: The mean number of flavorings per e-liquid was 6 ± 4. Flavoring prevalence was highest for vanillin (creamy/vanilla flavor), ethyl butyrate (ethereal/fruity), and cis-3-hexenol (fresh/green). Based on similarities in flavoring prevalence, four clusters of categories were distinguished: (1) fruit, candy, alcohol, beverages; (2) dessert, coffee/tea, nuts, sweets; (3) menthol/mint; and (4) spices, tobacco, and unflavored. Categories from cluster 4 generally had less flavorings per e-liquid than fruit, candy, alcohol, beverages (cluster 1) and dessert (cluster 2) (p < 0.05). Flavoring concentrations varied between e-liquids within the categories. Conclusions: We evaluated flavoring compositions of 320 e-liquids using a simple GC–MS method. Flavoring prevalence was similar within four clusters of typically fresh/sweet, warm/sweet, fresh/cooling, and non-sweet flavor categories. To compare flavoring concentrations between individual flavor categories, additional research is needed.

    Seagrass coastal protection services reduced by invasive species expansion and megaherbivore grazing
    James, Rebecca K. ; Christianen, Marjolijn J.A. ; Katwijk, Marieke M. van; Smit, Jaco C. de; Bakker, Elisabeth S. ; Herman, Peter M.J. ; Bouma, Tjeerd J. - \ 2020
    Journal of Ecology (2020). - ISSN 0022-0477
    coastal protection - conservation - ecosystem services - exotic species - marine ecology - marine vegetation - storm resilience - tropical ecology

    Seagrasses provide an important ecosystem service by creating a stable erosion-resistant seabed that contributes to effective coastal protection. Variable morphologies and life-history strategies, however, are likely to impact the sediment stabilization capacity of different seagrass species. We question how opportunistic invasive species and increasing grazing by megaherbivores may alter sediment stabilization services provided by established seagrass meadows, using the Caribbean as a case study. Utilizing two portable field-flumes that simulate unidirectional and oscillatory flow regimes, we compared the sediment stabilization capacity of natural seagrass meadows in situ under current- and wave-dominated regimes. Monospecific patches of a native (Thalassia testudinum) and an invasive (Halophila stipulacea) seagrass species were compared, along with the effect of three levels of megaherbivore grazing on T. testudinum: ungrazed, lightly grazed and intensively grazed. For both hydrodynamic regimes, the long-leaved, dense meadows of the climax species, T. testudinum provided the highest stabilization. However, the loss of above-ground biomass by intensive grazing reduced the capacity of the native seagrass to stabilize the surface sediment. Caribbean seagrass meadows are presently threatened by the rapid spread of the invasive opportunistic seagrass, H. stipulacea. The dense meadows of H. stipulacea were found to accumulate fine sediment, and thereby, appear to be effective in reducing bottom shear stress during calm periods. This fine sediment within the invasive meadows, however, is easily resuspended by hydrodynamic forces, and the low below-ground biomass of H. stipulacea make it susceptible to uprooting during storm events, potentially leaving large regions vulnerable to erosion. Overall, this present study highlights that intensive megaherbivore grazing and opportunistic invasive species threaten the coastal protection services provided by mildly grazed native species. Synthesis. Seagrass meadows of dense, long-leaved species stabilize the sediment surface and maintain the seabed integrity, thereby contributing to coastal protection. These services are threatened by intensive megaherbivore grazing, which reduces the stability of the surface sediment, and opportunistic invasive species, which are susceptible to uprooting in storms and thereby can leave the seabed vulnerable to erosion.

    Capturing variation in floral shape; a virtual3D based morphospace for Pelargonium
    Kerke, S.J. van de; Engelenhoven, Tanja van; Es, van, Anne ; Schat, Laura ; Son, Lisa van; Vink, Sverre ; Hemerik, A. ; Velzen, R. van; Schranz, M.E. ; Bakker, F.T. - \ 2020
    PeerJ PrePrints 8 (2020). - ISSN 2167-9843

    Background

    Variation in floral shapes has long fascinated biologists and its modelling enables testing of evolutionary hypotheses. Recent comparative studies that explore floral shape have largely ignored 3D floral shape. We propose quantifying floral shape by using geometric morphometrics on a virtual3D model reconstructed from 2D photographical data and demonstrate its performance in capturing shape variation.

    Methods

    This approach offers unique benefits to complement established imaging techniques (i) by enabling adequate coverage of the potential morphospace of large and diverse flowering-plant clades; (ii) by circumventing asynchronicity in anthesis of different floral parts; and (iii) by incorporating variation in copy number of floral organs within structures. We demonstrate our approach by analysing 90 florally-diverse species of the Southern African genus Pelargonium (Geraniaceae). We quantify Pelargonium floral shapes using 117 landmarks and show similarities in reconstructed morphospaces for nectar tube, corolla (2D datasets), and a combined virtual3D dataset.

    Results

    Our results indicate that Pelargonium species differ in floral shape, which can also vary extensively within a species. PCA results of the reconstructed virtual3D floral models are highly congruent with the separate 2D morphospaces, indicating it is an accurate, virtual, representation of floral shape. Through our approach, we find that adding the third dimension to the data is crucial to accurately interpret the manner of, as well as levels of, shape variation in flowers.
    'Natuurinclusief gaat werken'
    Bakker, Martha - \ 2020
    Tripartite interactions among Ixodiphagus hookeri, ixodes ricinus and deer : Differential interference with transmission cycles of tick-borne pathogens
    Krawczyk, Aleksandra I. ; Bakker, Julian W. ; Koenraadt, Constantianus J.M. ; Fonville, Manoj ; Takumi, Katsuhisa ; Sprong, Hein ; Demir, Samiye - \ 2020
    Pathogens 9 (2020)5. - ISSN 2076-0817
    Biological control - Host preference - Human granulocytic anaplasmosis - Lyme borreliosis - Neoehrlichiosis - Parasitic wasp - Parasitization - Tick-borne pathogen - Transmission cycle

    For the development of sustainable control of tick-borne diseases, insight is needed in biological factors that affect tick populations. Here, the ecological interactions among Ixodiphagus hookeri, Ixodes ricinus, and two vertebrate species groups were investigated in relation to their effects on tick-borne disease risk. In 1129 questing ticks, I. hookeri DNA was detected more often in I. ricinus nymphs (4.4%) than in larvae (0.5%) and not in adults. Therefore, we determined the infestation rate of I. hookeri in nymphs from 19 forest sites, where vertebrate, tick, and tick-borne pathogen communities had been previously quantified. We found higher than expected co-occurrence rates of I. hookeri with deer-associated Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and lower than expected rates with rodent-associated Borrelia afzelii and Neoehrlichia mikurensis. The prevalence of I. hookeri in nymphs varied between 0% and 16% and was positively correlated with the encounter probability of ungulates and the densities of all life stages of I. ricinus. Lastly, we investigated the emergence of I. hookeri from artificially fed, field-collected nymphs. Adult wasps emerged from seven of the 172 fed nymphs. From these observations, we inferred that I. hookeri is parasitizing I. ricinus larvae that are feeding on deer, rather than on rodents or in the vegetation. Since I. hookeri populations depend on deer abundance, the main propagation host of I. ricinus, these wasps have no apparent effect on tick populations. The presence of I. hookeri may directly interfere with the transmission cycle of A. phagocytophilum, but not with that of B. afzelii or N. mikurensis.

    Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase II phylogenetics reveals five main clades throughout the plant kingdom
    Hosseini, Samin ; Schmidt, Ed D.L. ; Bakker, Freek T. - \ 2020
    The Plant Journal (2020). - ISSN 0960-7412
    kinase - leucine-rich repeat receptor - LRR-RLKII - phylogeny - SERK

    Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) represent the largest group of cell surface receptors in plants. The monophyletic leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-RLK subfamily II is considered to contain the somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases (SERKs) and NSP-interacting kinases known to be involved in developmental processes and cellular immunity in plants. There are only a few published studies on the phylogenetics of LRR-RLKII; unfortunately these suffer from poor taxon/gene sampling. Hence, it is not clear how many and what main clades this family contains, let alone what structure–function relationships exist. We used 1342 protein sequences annotated as ‘SERK’ and ‘SERK-like’ plus related sequences in order to estimate phylogeny within the LRR-RLKII clade, using the nematode protein kinase Pelle as an outgroup. We reconstruct five main clades (LRR-RLKII 1–5), in each of which the main pattern of land plant relationships re-occurs, confirming previous hypotheses that duplication events happened in this gene subfamily prior to divergence among land plant lineages. We show that domain structures and intron–exon boundaries within the five clades are well conserved in evolution. Furthermore, phylogenetic patterns based on the separate LRR and kinase parts of LRR-RLKs are incongruent: whereas the LRR part supports a LRR-RLKII 2/3 sister group relationship, the kinase part supports clades 1/2. We infer that the kinase part includes few ‘radical’ amino acid changes compared with the LRR part. Finally, our results confirm that amino acids involved in each LRR-RLKII–receptor complex interaction are located at N-capping residues, and that the short amino acid motifs of this interaction domain are highly conserved throughout evolution within the five LRR-RLKII clades.

    A systematic review of indicators to assess the sustainability of road infrastructure projects
    Suprayoga, Gede B. ; Bakker, Martha ; Witte, Patrick ; Spit, Tejo - \ 2020
    European Transport Research Review 12 (2020)1. - ISSN 1867-0717
    Cluster analysis - Cost-benefit analysis - Impact assessment - Intergenerational equity - Sustainability criteria

    Background: This study aims to examine to what extent sustainability has been incorporated into assessments of road infrastructure projects. It identifies promising approaches that include indicators reflecting core sustainability criteria, determines criteria that were insufficiently covered as indicators, and develops an integrated indicator set covering all criteria. Methods: A systematic review was performed to obtain all related papers/reports in two academic databases: Scopus and Web of Sciences. The indicators extracted from papers/reports were first coded, then evaluated by using quantitative and qualitative content analysis. Results: The project appraisal methods for decision-making is found to be a promising approach, covering more extensive criteria than others. Two criteria – namely adaptation and precaution and intergenerational equity – were hardly ever adopted as indicators. Ten main groups of indicators were extracted to construct an integrated set incorporating all core criteria. Conclusions: Some criteria appear to have become mainstream, while others deserve attention. The safest choice is to combine methods/tools or to adopt the integrated set developed for exhaustive criteria inclusion.

    Analysis of the relationship between cross-cultural perceptions of landscapes and cultural ecosystem services in Genheyuan region, Northeast China
    Dou, Yuehan ; Yu, Xiubo ; Bakker, Martha ; Groot, Rudolf De; Carsjens, Gerrit J. ; Duan, Houlang ; Huang, Chao - \ 2020
    Ecosystem Services 43 (2020). - ISSN 2212-0416
    Cultural ecosystem services - Ethnicity - Human perception - Human well-being - Wetland

    A major challenge today and in the future is to maintain or enhance the beneficial contributions of landscapes to the quality of life of people. Neglecting cultural ecosystem services (CES) in landscape planning can lead to loss of unique cultural landscapes and undermine the well-being of local communities. Despite a rapidly increasing body of literature on CES, little is known about the relationship between socio-cultural values and the non-material benefits of landscapes. To help fill this gap, we assessed the perceptions of people from different ethnic groups about the cultural ecosystem services of local landscapes. We took the Genheyuan National Wetland Park and the adjacent forest areas, a typical mountain forest-wetland ecosystem, as our case area. By combining surveys (250 semi-structured interviews and 26 local stakeholders in Focus Group Discussion) with structural equation modelling (SEM), we gained insights into the importance of landscapes to CES provision from the perspective of stakeholder diversity. Surprisingly, wetlands are perceived as playing more important roles than other landscape types in providing diverse CES, with a 1.25 times higher CES Diversity Index (CDI) than that of forests. Among all demographic factors, ethnicity is most significant in determining people's perceptions, reflecting the spiritual cognition, manners, and customs of the ethnic groups. The perceptions of CES provided by landscapes are likely to increase if landscape characteristics are attached more to functions in order to meet fundamental human needs.

    Open brief aan ministers van LNV en Milieu en Wonen
    Bakker, Martha ; Boersma, Hidde ; haar, Bernard ter; Hennink, Michiel ; Rabbinge, Rudy ; Veerman, Cees ; Winsemius, Pieter ; Zeeuw, Friso de; Kasteren, Joost van - \ 2020
    Open brief aan ministers van LNV en Milieu en Wonen
    Forensische toepassing van een draagbare NIR-spectrometer
    Weesepoel, Y.J.A. ; Venderink, Tjerk ; Keizers, Peter ; Bakker, Frank ; Boshuis, Margot ; Heerschop, Marcel ; Esch, Annette van; Wallace, Fionn ; Hulsbergen-van den Berg, Annemieke ; Asten, Arian C. van - \ 2020
    De ontwikkeling van kleine IoT-achtige optische sensoren voor forensische toepassing gaan snel de laatste jaren. In dit onderzoek kijken we naar het potentieel van de meest gebruikte nabij-infrarood scanner, welke ook het beste afgestemd is voor inspecteurs en ontwikkelaars en voor de laagste aanschafkosten. In een samenwerking met de Nederlandse Rijkslaboratoria, is er gekeken naar de forensische toepassing van deze scanner op een breed scala aan praktijkmonsters beschikbaar, variërend van harddrugs tot namaakgeneesmiddelen tot vervalste voedingsmiddelen.
    Organic matter reduces the amount of detectable environmental DNA in freshwater
    Bochove, Kees van; Bakker, Freek T. ; Beentjes, Kevin K. ; Hemerik, Lia ; Vos, Rutger A. ; Gravendeel, Barbara - \ 2020
    Ecology and Evolution 10 (2020)8. - ISSN 2045-7758 - p. 3647 - 3654.
    degradation - detection - environmental DNA - Gammarus pulex - organic matter - pH

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is used for monitoring the occurrence of freshwater organisms. Various studies show a relation between the amount of eDNA detected and target organism abundance, thus providing a potential proxy for reconstructing population densities. However, environmental factors such as water temperature and microbial activity are known to affect the amount of eDNA present as well. In this study, we use controlled aquarium experiments using Gammarus pulex L. (Amphipoda) to investigate the relationship between the amount of detectable eDNA through time, pH, and levels of organic material. We found eDNA to degrade faster when organic material was added to the aquarium water, but that pH had no significant effect. We infer that eDNA contained inside cells and mitochondria is extra resilient against degradation, though this may not reflect actual presence of target species. These results indicate that, although estimation of population density might be possible using eDNA, measured eDNA concentration could, in the future, be corrected for local environmental conditions in order to ensure accurate comparisons.

    Do grazing systems and species composition affect root biomass and soil organic matter dynamics in temperate grassland swards?
    Hoogsteen, Martine J.J. ; Bakker, Evert Jan ; Eekeren, Nick van; Tittonell, Pablo A. ; Groot, Jeroen C.J. ; Ittersum, Martin K. van; Lantinga, Egbert A. - \ 2020
    Sustainability 12 (2020)3. - ISSN 2071-1050
    Carbon sequestration - Grassland species - Land-use change - Sampling depth

    Elevating soil organic matter (SOM) levels through changes in grassland management may contribute to lower greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere and mitigate climate change. SOM dynamics of grassland soils may be affected by grazing systems and plant species composition. We analyzed the effects of simulated grazing systems (continuous (CG), rotational (RG), and lenient strip grazing (LG) and species composition (monocultures of perennial ryegrass fertilized (LP+) and unfertilized (LP), tall fescue (fertilized, FA+), and a mixture of these two species with white clover (fertilized, LFT+) on root biomass and SOM dynamics in field experiments on loamy and sandy soils in the Netherlands. Dried cattle manure was added to all fertilized treatments. We hypothesized that SOM accumulation would be highest under CG and LG, and FA+ and LFT+ as a consequence of greater belowground biomass production. SOM was monitored after conversion from arable land for a period of two years (loamy and sandy soil) and five years (sandy soil). We found that management practices to increase SOM storage were strongly influenced by sampling depth and length of the grassland period. SOM increased significantly in nearly all fertilized treatments in the 0-60 cm layer. No differences between species compositions were found. However, when only the 30-60 cm soil layer was considered, significantly higher SOM increases were found under FA+, which is consistent with its greater root biomass than the other species. SOM increases tended to be higher under LG than RG. The results of this study suggest that it seems possible to comply with the 4-thousandth initiative during a period of five years with fertilized perennial ryegrass or tall fescue in monoculture after conversion from arable land. It remains to be investigated to which extent this sequestration of carbon can be maintained after converting grassland back to arable land.

    Glyco-engineering in plants : Fucosyltransferase characterisation and application for the production of immunomodulatory helminth glycoproteins
    Noort, Kim van - \ 2020
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J. Bakker, co-promotor(en): A. Schots; R.H.P. Wilbers. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463952491 - 216

    Over the last two decades plants have been used for the production of relative high amounts of (potential) pharmaceutical proteins. The latter includes cases where isolation from the original source was not possible, laborious and/or resulted in low yields. Currently, almost all biopharmaceutical proteins originate from humans, such as antibodies or hormones. Many of these human proteins are glycoproteins implying that they are ‘coated’ with sugars (glycans). These glycans can be important for protein folding and/or activity, and the composition of the glycans can vary between organisms. Hence, in order to produce a glycoprotein in another organism with (close to) native glycans, the glycosylation pathway has to be comparable or has to be engineered.

    Various glyco-engineering studies have shown the possibilities to “humanise” the plant glycosylation pathway, enabling the production of human glycoproteins with native glycans in plants. However, other research fields could benefit from the development of this production platform as well. For example, studies on glycosylated vaccine candidates and the immunomodulatory properties of helminth secretions, show the high potential of these helminth proteins as pharmaceuticals. High amounts of native helminth protein are required for vaccine development and research on the biological and biopharmaceutical properties of helminth secretions. The helminth proteins for such research projects cannot be isolated in sufficient quantities from the helminth or its secretions. Moreover, many of these proteins are glycosylated with glycans that cannot be mimicked in current recombinant production systems. For this purpose, the focus in this thesis is on glyco-engineering of plants to establish a production system for native helminth glycoproteins.

    Helminths of the genus Schistosoma infect 252 million people worldwide. Research to Schistosoma mansoni has shown that S. mansoni secretes immunomodulatory proteins during its life cycle to influence the host immune system. These secreted proteins are often glycosylated and the glycans have shown to play an important role in immune modulation. To study the immunomodulatory properties of these proteins and the effect of their glycans, high amounts of protein are required, which cannot be isolated from the worm or its secretions. Current recombinant production systems cannot mimic the highly fucosylated N-glycans of S. mansoni. To mimic helminth glycosylation in the expression host, glycosyltransferases have to be co-expressed that synthesise the required glycan motifs. Although many putative S. mansoni fucosyltransferases (SmFucTs) are known, they are poorly characterised. Therefore, we focussed on SmFucT characterisation in Nicotiana benthamiana by localisation and functional studies. We showed subtle differences in Golgi localisation between different SmFucTs and identified SmFucTs that are involved in N-glycan core α1,3- or α1,6-fucosylation or the synthesis of antennary LeX, LDN-F or F-LDN-F. These functionally characterised SmFucTs can directly be applied to synthesise complex helminth N-glycan motifs on recombinant glycoproteins in N. benthamiana, to study the immunomodulatory properties of these glycoproteins and the effect of their glycans.

    Next to, N. benthamiana as enzyme characterisation platform we focussed on N. benthamiana as general protein production platform. Plants have shown to be a promising host for the production of biopharmaceuticals. However, plant N-glycans can differ from helminth or human N-glycans. Typical plant N-glycans have an α1,3-fucosylated and β1,2-xylosylated core. The enzymes that add an α1,3-fucose to the N-glycan core in N. benthamiana are core α1,3-FucTs (NbFucTs). So, in order to generate a plant without core α1,3-fucose on its N-glycans these NbFucTs need to be knocked out. N. benthamiana is an allotetraploid and therefore multiple sequence variants of one protein can be present. Studies have already focused on the production of NbFucT knockout plants by targeting all or just a few NbFucT sequence variants. However, time and effort can be saved when targeting only the NbFucT sequence variants that are active. Therefore, we looked into the sequence variation present in our N. benthamiana plants. Ten different NbFucT sequences were retrieved, of which six encode full-length proteins. Of these six proteins only three were able to introduce a core α1,3-fucose. This knowledge allows the design of specific guide RNAs, which need to target only these three sequences for the production of knockout plants with CRISPR-Cas9 or similar technologies. Thereby saving time, effort and resources.

    The gathered information on enzyme characterisation was used to produce the helminth glycoproteins omega-1 and kappa-5 in N. benthamiana. High amounts of omega-1 and kappa-5 with native N-glycan motifs could be isolated and purified in/from N. benthamiana leaves. The plant glycosylation pathway was modified by co-expression of various glycosyltransferases to established production of omega-1 and kappa-5 with native N-glycan motifs. These data indicate that mimicking the complex carbohydrate structures of helminths in plants is a promising strategy to create essential tools for further development of helminth glycoproteins as (potential) therapeutic glycoproteins.

    Altogether, the results presented in this thesis show the suitability of plants as both a platform for characterisation of novel glycosyltransferases and the production of helminth glycoproteins carrying native N-glycan motifs. It has been shown before that plants are a promising platform for the production of human glycoproteins, but here we show new possibilities for plant molecular farming to be applied in the field of (parasite) glycobiology, parasitology and immunology.

    SUN Business Network Bangladesh workshop on improving nutrition and diets through adopting a food systems lens : Stakeholder engagement and capacity building workshop SUN Business Network Bangladesh
    Syed, Ridwam ; Zaman, Tasfia ; Herens, Marion ; Bakker, Sanne ; Vignola, Raffaele - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Centre for Development Innovation - 18
    On the 1st of October 2019 GAIN, jointly with WFP and WCDI, organised a one day workshop for the Sun Business Network in Bangladesh to i) to promote deeper and shared understanding of the pathways for improving nutrition and healthier diets through adopting a food systems lens and to contribute to environmental and social responsibility, and ii) to strengthen the capacity of SBN Bangladesh to understand, strategize and steer action to improve nutrition outcomes through adopting a food systems lens. This report summarizes the results of the presentations provided by GAIN, WFP, Light Castle Partners and WCDI, and the outputs of the group work on food system mapping.
    Sustainable Nutrition for All - Phase II : Mid-Term Review Report
    Koopmanschap, E.M.J. ; Bakker, Sanne - \ 2020
    Wageningen Centre for Development Innovation (WCDI-19-090 ) - 72 p.
    This report describes the mid-term review (MTR) of Phase II of the Sustainable Nutrition for All (SN4) project implemented in Uganda and Zambia. SN4A is funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and implemented by SNV in partnership with Wageningen Centre for Development Innovation (WCDI).
    Mediterranean style diet and kidney function loss in kidney transplant recipients
    Gomes-Neto, António W. ; Osté, Maryse C.J. ; Sotomayor, Camilo G. ; Berg, Else van den; Geleijnse, Johanna Marianna ; Berger, Stefan P. ; Gans, Reinold O.B. ; Bakker, Stephan J.L. ; Navis, Gerjan J. - \ 2020
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 15 (2020)2. - ISSN 1555-9041 - p. 238 - 246.

    Background and objectives Despite improvement of short-term graft survival over recent years, long-term graft survival after kidney transplantation has not improved. Studies in the general population suggest the Mediterranean diet benefits kidney function preservation. We investigated whether adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with kidney outcomes in kidney transplant recipients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We included 632 adult kidney transplant recipients with a functioning graft for ≥1 year. Dietary intake was inquired using a 177-item validated food frequency questionnaire. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed using a nine-point Mediterranean Diet Score. Primary end point of the study was graft failure and secondary end points included kidney function decline (doubling of serum creatinine or graft failure) and graft loss (graft failure or death with a functioning graft). Cox regression analyses were used to prospectively study the associations of the Mediterranean Diet Score with study end points. Results During median follow-up of 5.4 (interquartile range, 4.9–6.0) years, 76 participants developed graft failure, 119 developed kidney function decline, and 181 developed graft loss. The Mediterranean Diet Score was inversely associated with all study end points (graft failure: hazard ratio [HR], 0.68; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.50 to 0.91; kidney function decline: HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.85; and graft loss: HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.88 per two-point increase in Mediterranean Diet Score) independent of potential confounders. We identified 24-hour urinary protein excretion and time since transplantation to be an effect modifier, with stronger inverse associations between the Mediterranean Diet Score and kidney outcomes observed in participants with higher urinary protein excretion and participants transplanted more recently. Conclusions Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with better kidney function outcomes in kidney transplant recipients.

    An intercontinental analysis of food safety culture in view of food safety governance and national values
    Nyarugwe, Shingai P. ; Linnemann, Anita R. ; Ren, Yingxue ; Bakker, Evert Jan ; Kussaga, Jamal B. ; Watson, Derek ; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Luning, Pieternel A. - \ 2020
    Food Control 111 (2020). - ISSN 0956-7135
    Food safety culture assessment - Food safety governance - Food safety performance - Food safety program - National values

    Taking food safety culture into account is a promising way to improve food safety performance in the food industry. Food safety culture (FS-culture) research is expanding from an organisational perspective to include characteristics of the internal and external company environment. In this study, the prevailing food safety culture in 17 food companies from four countries on three continents (Africa, Asia and Europe) was assessed in view of food safety governance and national values. The internal environment characteristics, i.e. food safety vision, food safety program and food production system vulnerability, were also assessed. Statistical analysis revealed little variation in FS-culture scores between the companies within the same country. Overall the FS-culture for Greek and Zambian companies was scored proactive, while for Chinese and Tanzanian companies an active score was achieved. Both the internal and external company environment seemed to influence the prevailing FS-culture. Cluster analysis showed that Tanzanian and Zambian companies exhibited similarities in the implementation of food safety programs, and in their national values and food safety governance as compared to Greece and China. Food safety governance was reflected in the food safety programs and supportiveness of the organisation to food safety and hygiene. All cultural dimensions were correlated with risk perceptions, with masculinity and long-term orientation also significantly correlated with the enabling conditions and attitude. Understanding how national values and food safety governance approaches differently influence food safety culture is expected to enable formulation of best approaches tailored for companies operating in countries with different company environments, to improve food safety performance.

    The TIR-NB-LRR pair DSC1 and WRKY19 contributes to basal immunity of Arabidopsis to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita
    Warmerdam, Sonja ; Sterken, Mark G. ; Sukarta, Octavina C.A. ; Schaik, Casper C. Van; Oortwijn, Marian E.P. ; Lozano-Torres, Jose L. ; Bakker, Jaap ; Smant, Geert ; Goverse, Aska - \ 2020
    BMC Plant Biology 20 (2020)1. - ISSN 1471-2229
    Background
    Root-knot nematodes transform vascular host cells into permanent feeding structures to withdraw nutrients from the host plant. Ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana can display large quantitative variation in susceptibility to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, which is thought to be independent of dominant major resistance genes. However, in an earlier genome-wide association study of the interaction between Arabidopsis and M. incognita we identified a quantitative trait locus harboring homologs of dominant resistance genes but with minor effect on susceptibility to the M. incognita population tested.
    Results
    Here, we report on the characterization of two of these genes encoding the TIR-NB-LRR immune receptor DSC1 (DOMINANT SUPPRESSOR OF Camta 3 NUMBER 1) and the TIR-NB-LRR-WRKY-MAPx protein WRKY19 in nematode-infected Arabidopsis roots. Nematode infection studies and whole transcriptome analyses using the Arabidopsis mutants showed that DSC1 and WRKY19 co-regulate susceptibility of Arabidopsis to M. incognita.
    Conclusion
    Given the head-to-head orientation of DSC1 and WRKY19 in the Arabidopsis genome our data suggests that both genes may function as a TIR-NB-LRR immune receptor pair. Unlike other TIR-NB-LRR pairs involved in dominant disease resistance in plants, DSC1 and WRKY19 most likely regulate basal levels of immunity to root-knot nematodes.
    Flowering of new interest in geraniums
    Kerke, Sara van de; Bakker, Freek - \ 2020
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