Implementation of PROMETHEUS 4‐step approach for evidence use in EFSA scientific assessments: benefits, issues, needs and solutions
Aiassa, Elisa ; Martino, Laura ; Barizzone, Fulvio ; Ciccolallo, Laura ; Garcia, Ana ; Georgiadis, Marios ; Guajardo, Irene Muñoz ; Tomcikova, Daniela ; Alexander, Jan ; Calistri, Paolo ; Gundert‐remy, Ursula ; Hart, Andrew David ; Hoogenboom, Ron Laurentius ; Messean, Antoine ; Naska, Androniki ; Navarro, Maria Navajas ; Noerrung, Birgit ; Ockleford, Colin ; Wallace, Robert John ; Younes, Maged ; Abuntori, Blaize ; Alvarez, Fernando ; Aryeetey, Monica ; Baldinelli, Francesca ; Barrucci, Federica ; Bau, Andrea ; Binaglia, Marco ; Broglia, Alessandro ; Castoldi, Anna Federica ; Christoph, Eugen ; Sesmaisons‐Lecarré, Agnes De; Georgiadis, Nikolaos ; Gervelmeyer, Andrea ; Istace, Frederique ; López‐Gálvez, Gloria ; Manini, Paola ; Maurici, Daniela ; Merten, Caroline ; Messens, Winy ; Mosbach‐Schulz, Olaf ; Putzu, Claudio ; Bordajandi, Luisa Ramos ; Smeraldi, Camilla ; Tiramani, Manuela ; Martínez, Silvia Valtueña ; Sybren, Vos ; Hardy, Anthony Richard ; Hugas, Marta ; Kleiner, Juliane ; Seze, Guilhem De - \ 2018
EFSA Supporting Publications 15 (2018)4. - ISSN 2397-8325
In 2014, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) started the PROMETHEUS (PROmoting METHods for Evidence Use in Scientific assessments) project to improve further and increase the consistency of the methods it uses in its scientific assessments. The project defined a set of principles for the scientific assessment process and a 4‐step approach (plan/carry out/verify/report) for their fulfilment, which was tested in ten case studies, one from each EFSA panel. The present report describes the benefits, issues, needs and solutions related to the implementation of the 4‐step approach in EFSA, identified in a dedicated workshop in October 2017. The key benefits of the approach, which was deemed applicable to all types of EFSA scientific assessment including assessments of regulated products, are: 1) increased ‘scientific value’ of EFSA outputs, i.e. the extent of impartiality, methodological rigour, transparency and engagement; 2) guarantee of fitness‐for‐purpose, as it implies tailoring the methods to the specificities of each assessment; 3) efficiency gain, since preparing a protocol for the assessment upfront helps more streamlined processes throughout the implementation phase; 4) innovation, as the approach promotes the pioneering practice of ‘planning before doing’ (well established in primary research) for broad scientific assessments in regulatory science; and 5) increased harmonisation and consistency of EFSA assessments. The 4‐step approach was also considered an effective system for detecting additional methodological and/or expertise needs and a useful basis for further defining a quality management system for EFSA's scientific processes. The identified issues and solutions related to the implementation of the approach are: a) lack of engagement and need for effective communication on benefits and added value; b) need for further advances especially in the field of problem formulation/protocol development, evidence appraisal and evidence integration; c) need for specialised expertise in the previous aspects; and specific needs for d) assessments of regulated products and e) outsourced projects.
Degradation of Collagen Increases Nitrogen Solubilisation During Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Fleshing Meat
Anzani, Cecilia ; Prandi, Barbara ; Tedeschi, Tullia ; Baldinelli, Chiara ; Sorlini, Giovanni ; Wierenga, Peter A. ; Dossena, Arnaldo ; Sforza, Stefano - \ 2018
Waste and Biomass Valorization 9 (2018)7. - ISSN 1877-2641 - p. 1113 - 1119.
Amino acid analysis - Degree of hydrolysis - Enzymatic hydrolysates - Fleshing meat - Peptide analysis
Abstract: The meat portion directly attached to bovine hides (fleshing meat) is a by-product of leather industry that is a potential new source of proteins. In literature different enzymatic and chemical methods have been proposed to hydrolyze and solubilize fleshing meat. Enzyme hydrolysis is preferable for the mildness and the lower environmental impact. Enzymatic hydrolysates have never been deeply characterized, nor the specific enzyme efficiency, deeply investigated. In this study, the activity of six proteolytic enzymes was tested in order to determine their efficiency in solubilizing fleshing meat and to characterize at the molecular level the composition of the nitrogen fraction of the obtained hydrolysates. Total nitrogen content and the degree of hydrolysis were determined by Kjeldhal and o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) methods. Amino acids and peptides were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry techniques. The results showed that papain and Alcalase appear to be the most efficient enzymes, and the corresponding hydrolyzates were rich in peptides and amino acids characteristic of collagen, notably absent in the hydrolyzates obtained with other enzymes. Thus, the ability to efficiently hydrolyze collagen seems to be related to the efficiency in fleshing meat hydrolysis. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]
|Modelling classical scrapie control through selective breeding in the ovine Sarda breed in Italy
Baldinelli, F. ; Scavia, G. ; Nonno, R. ; Vaccari, G. ; Ciaravino, G. ; Bari, M. Di; Sala, M. ; Agrimi, U. ; Hagenaars, T.H.J. - \ 2012