Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Expanding tropical forest monitoring into Dry Forests: The DRYFLOR protocol for permanent plots
    Moonlight, Peter W. ; Banda, Karina ; Phillips, O.L. ; Soussa Oliveira, Tony de; Veenendaal, E.M. - \ 2020
    Plants, People, Planet 2020 (2020). - ISSN 2572-2611 - p. 1 - 6.
    Understanding of tropical forests has been revolutionized by monitoring in permanent plots. Data from global plot networks have transformed our knowledge of forests’ diversity, function, contribution to global biogeochemical cycles, and sensitivity to climate change. Monitoring has thus far been concentrated in rain forests. Despite increasing appreciation of their threatened status, biodiversity, and importance to the global carbon cycle, monitoring in tropical dry forests is still in its infancy. We provide a protocol for permanent monitoring plots in tropical dry forests. Expanding monitoring into dry biomes is critical for overcoming the linked challenges of climate change, land use change, and the biodiversity crisis.
    Agroforestry as a mechanism for reforestation in Zambia: Scenarios within a REDD+ framework
    Ingram, Verina ; Goes, A. van der; Banda, T. - \ 2019
    Agroforestry as a mechanism for reforestation in Zambia : Scenarios within a REDD+ framework
    Ingram, V.J. ; Goes, A. van der; Phiri, G. ; Banda, T. - \ 2019
    In: 4th World Congress on Agroforestry, 20-22 May 2019, Montpellier, France. - - p. 285 - 285.
    Influence of Atmospheric Transport on Estimates of Variability in the Global Methane Burden
    Pandey, Sudhanshu ; Houweling, Sander ; Krol, Maarten ; Aben, Ilse ; Nechita-Banda, Narcisa ; Thoning, Kirk ; Röckmann, Thomas ; Yin, Yi ; Segers, Arjo ; Dlugokencky, Edward J. - \ 2019
    Geophysical Research Letters 46 (2019)4. - ISSN 0094-8276 - p. 2302 - 2311.
    atmospheric burden - atmospheric transport - CH emissions - interhemispheric difference - methane - TM5

    We quantify the impact of atmospheric transport and limited marine boundary layer sampling on changes in global and regional methane burdens estimate using tracer transport model simulations with annually repeating methane emissions and sinks but varying atmospheric transport patterns. We find the 1σ error due to this transport and sampling effect on annual global methane increases to be 1.11 ppb/year and on zonal growth rates to be 3.8 ppb/year, indicating that it becomes more critical at smaller spatiotemporal scales. We also find that the trends in inter-hemispheric and inter-polar difference of methane are significantly influenced by the effect. Contrary to a negligible trend in the inter-hemispheric difference of measurements, we find, after adjusting for the transport and sampling, a trend of 0.37 ± 0.06 ppb/year. This is consistent with the emission trend from a 3-D inversion of the measurements, suggesting a faster increase in emissions in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere.

    Assessment of the Suna trap for sampling mosquitoes indoors and outdoors
    Mburu, Monicah M. ; Zembere, Kennedy ; Hiscox, Alexandra ; Banda, Jomo ; Phiri, Kamija S. ; Berg, Henk Van Den; Mzilahowa, Themba ; Takken, Willem ; McCann, Robert S. - \ 2019
    Malaria Journal 18 (2019)1. - ISSN 1475-2875
    Anophelines - CDC-LT - Culicines - Efficiency - HLC - Indoors - Outdoors - Sampling - Simultaneous use - Suna trap

    Background: Entomological monitoring is important for public health because it provides data on the distribution, abundance and host-seeking behaviour of disease vectors. Various methods for sampling mosquitoes exist, most of which are biased towards, or specifically target, certain portions of a mosquito population. This study assessed the Suna trap, an odour-baited trap for sampling host-seeking mosquitoes both indoors and outdoors. Methods: Two separate field experiments were conducted in villages in southern Malawi. The efficiency of the Suna trap in sampling mosquitoes was compared to that of the human landing catch (HLC) indoors and outdoors and the Centers for Disease, Control and Prevention Light Trap (CDC-LT) indoors. Potential competition between two Suna traps during simultaneous use of the traps indoors and outdoors was assessed by comparing mosquito catch sizes across three treatments: one trap indoors only; one trap outdoors only; and one trap indoors and one trap outdoors used simultaneously at the same house. Results: The efficiency of the Suna trap in sampling female anophelines was similar to that of HLC indoors (P = 0.271) and HLC outdoors (P = 0.125), but lower than that of CDC-LT indoors (P = 0.001). Anopheline catch sizes in the Suna trap used alone indoors were similar to indoor Suna trap catch sizes when another Suna trap was simultaneously present outdoors (P = 0.891). Similarly, catch sizes of female anophelines with the Suna trap outdoors were similar to those that were caught outdoors when another Suna trap was simultaneously present indoors (P = 0.731). Conclusions: The efficiency of the Suna trap in sampling mosquitoes was equivalent to that of the HLC. Whereas the CDC-LT was more efficient in collecting female anophelines indoors, the use of this trap outdoors is limited given the requirement of setting it next to an occupied bed net. As demonstrated in this research, outdoor collections are also essential because they provide data on the relative contribution of outdoor biting to malaria transmission. Therefore, the Suna trap could serve as an alternative to the HLC and the CDC-LT, because it does not require the use of humans as natural baits, allows standardised sampling conditions across sampling points, and can be used outdoors. Furthermore, using two Suna traps simultaneously indoors and outdoors does not interfere with the sampling efficiency of either trap, which would save a considerable amount of time, energy, and resources compared to setting the traps indoors and then outdoors in two consecutive nights.

    Monitoring emissions from the 2015 Indonesian fires using CO satellite data
    Nechita-Banda, Narcisa ; Krol, Maarten ; Werf, Guido R. Van Der; Kaiser, Johannes W. ; Pandey, Sudhanshu ; Huijnen, Vincent ; Clerbaux, Cathy ; Coheur, Pierre ; Deeter, Merritt N. ; Röckmann, Thomas - \ 2018
    Wageningen University and Research
    inverse modelling - biomass burning - emissions - atmosphere - data - peat
    Inverse modelling results for carbon monoxide (CO) emissions to the atmosphere from the 2015 Indonesian fires (1 August - 15 December 2015). The TM5-4DVAR model was used (http://tm5.sourceforge.net), together with satellite observations from either IASI or MOPITT instruments.
    Root branching toward water involves posttranslational modification of transcription factor ARF7
    Orosa-Puente, Beatriz ; Leftley, Nicola ; Wangenheim, Daniel von; Banda, Jason ; Srivastava, Anjil K. ; Hill, Kristine ; Truskina, Jekaterina ; Bhosale, Rahul ; Morris, Emily ; Srivastava, Moumita ; Kümpers, Britta ; Goh, Tatsuaki ; Fukaki, Hidehiro ; Vermeer, Joop E.M. ; Vernoux, Teva ; Dinneny, José R. ; French, Andrew P. ; Bishopp, Anthony ; Sadanandom, Ari ; Bennett, Malcolm J. - \ 2018
    Science 362 (2018)6421. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 1407 - 1410.

    Plants adapt to heterogeneous soil conditions by altering their root architecture. For example, roots branch when in contact with water by using the hydropatterning response. We report that hydropatterning is dependent on auxin response factor ARF7. This transcription factor induces asymmetric expression of its target gene LBD16 in lateral root founder cells. This differential expression pattern is regulated by posttranslational modification of ARF7 with the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein. SUMOylation negatively regulates ARF7 DNA binding activity. ARF7 SUMOylation is required to recruit the Aux/IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) repressor protein IAA3. Blocking ARF7 SUMOylation disrupts IAA3 recruitment and hydropatterning. We conclude that SUMO-dependent regulation of auxin response controls root branching pattern in response to water availability.

    Monitoring emissions from the 2015 Indonesian fires using CO satellite data
    Nechita-Banda, Narcisa ; Krol, Maarten ; Werf, Guido R. van der; Kaiser, Johannes W. ; Pandey, Sudhanshu ; Huijnen, Vincent ; Clerbaux, Cathy ; Coheur, Pierre ; Deeter, Merritt N. ; Röckmann, Thomas - \ 2018
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Biological sciences 373 (2018)1760. - ISSN 0962-8436 - 9 p.
    atmosphere - biomass burning - emissions - peat - satellite data

    Southeast Asia, in particular Indonesia, has periodically struggled with intense fire events. These events convert substantial amounts of carbon stored as peat to atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and significantly affect atmospheric composition on a regional to global scale. During the recent 2015 El Niño event, peat fires led to strong enhancements of carbon monoxide (CO), an air pollutant and well-known tracer for biomass burning. These enhancements were clearly observed from space by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instruments. We use these satellite observations to estimate CO fire emissions within an inverse modelling framework. We find that the derived CO emissions for each sub-region of Indonesia and Papua are substantially different from emission inventories, highlighting uncertainties in bottom-up estimates. CO fire emissions based on either MOPITT or IASI have a similar spatial pattern and evolution in time, and a 10% uncertainty based on a set of sensitivity tests we performed. Thus, CO satellite data have a high potential to complement existing operational fire emission estimates based on satellite observations of fire counts, fire radiative power and burned area, in better constraining fire occurrence and the associated conversion of peat carbon to atmospheric CO2 A total carbon release to the atmosphere of 0.35-0.60 Pg C can be estimated based on our results.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The impact of the 2015/2016 El Niño on the terrestrial tropical carbon cycle: patterns, mechanisms and implications'.

    The importance of the Banda Sea for tuna conservation area : A review of studies on the biology and the ecology of tuna
    Satrioajie, W.N. ; Suyadi, ; Syahailatua, A. ; Wouthuyzen, S. - \ 2018
    In: International Symposium on Banda Sea Ecosystem (ISBSE) 2017 23 October 2018, Balai Kartini Convention Center, Jakarta, Indonesia. - IOP Publishing (IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science ) - 12 p.
    Banda Sea - study - tuna

    Tuna exploitation in the Banda Sea was started when the Indonesian government gave access to the Japanese fleet under the bilateral cooperation of the Banda Sea Agreement (BSA) in 1975-1980. Several studies were conducted afterward in revealing the magnitude of tuna resources in the Banda Sea. In this paper, we reviewed the tuna studies that were done in the Banda Sea over the periods of 1980-2017 to improve our understanding on the biology and ecology of tuna in the region as the basis for future studies. Overall, we reviewed 29 publications consisted of eight research themes; biodiversity (5), catch composition (8), fish aggregating device (FAD) (2), fishing ground (2), growth-population (3), harvest-effort strategy (4), reproduction (4), and tagging (1). The Snellius II expedition in 1984-1985 was a remarkable study covering almost whole area of the Banda Sea. The study of catch composition and biodiversity were dominant in recent decade indicating there was urgent need to manage the tuna fisheries in the Banda Sea to preserve the tuna stock. Since the Banda Sea is considered as a tuna conservation area, the future studies should be focussed on the scientific findings to support the regulation.

    Community-based malaria control in southern Malawi : A description of experimental interventions of community workshops, house improvement and larval source management
    Berg, Henk van den; Vugt, Michèle van; Kabaghe, Alinune N. ; Nkalapa, Mackenzie ; Kaotcha, Rowlands ; Truwah, Zinenani ; Malenga, Tumaini ; Kadama, Asante ; Banda, Saidon ; Tizifa, Tinashe ; Gowelo, Steven ; Mburu, Monicah M. ; Phiri, Kamija S. ; Takken, Willem ; McCann, Robert S. - \ 2018
    Malaria Journal 17 (2018)1. - ISSN 1475-2875
    Community participation - Community workshops - Health education - House improvement - Integrated vector management - Larval source management - Malaria transmission - Vector control

    Background: Increased engagement of communities has been emphasized in global plans for malaria control and elimination. Three interventions to reinforce and complement national malaria control recommendations were developed and applied within the context of a broad-based development initiative, targeting a rural population surrounding a wildlife reserve. The interventions, which were part of a 2-year research trial, and assigned to the village level, were implemented through trained local volunteers, or 'health animators', who educated the community and facilitated collective action. Results: Community workshops on malaria were designed to increase uptake of national recommendations; a manual was developed, and training of health animators conducted, with educational content and analytical tools for a series of fortnightly community workshops in annual cycles at village level. The roll-back malaria principle of diagnosis, treatment and use of long-lasting insecticidal nets was a central component of the workshops. Structural house improvement to reduce entry of malaria vectors consisted of targeted activities in selected villages to mobilize the community into voluntarily closing the eaves and screening the windows of their houses; the project provided wire mesh for screening. Corrective measures were introduced to respond to field challenges. Committees were established at village level to coordinate the house improvement activities. Larval source management (LSM) in selected villages consisted of two parts: one on removal of standing water bodies by the community at large; and one on larviciding with bacterial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis by trained village committees. Community workshops on malaria were implemented as 'core intervention' in all villages. House improvement and LSM were implemented in addition to community workshops on malaria in selected villages. Conclusions: Three novel interventions for community mobilization on malaria prevention and control were described. The interventions comprised local organizational structure, education and collective action, and incorporated elements of problem identification, planning and evaluation. These methods could be applicable to other countries and settings.

    Enhanced methane emissions from tropical wetlands during the 2011 la Niña
    Pandey, Sudhanshu ; Houweling, Sander ; Krol, Maarten ; Aben, Ilse ; Monteil, Guillaume ; Nechita-Banda, Narcisa ; Dlugokencky, Edward J. ; Detmers, Rob ; Hasekamp, Otto ; Xu, Xiyan ; Riley, William J. ; Poulter, Benjamin ; Zhang, Zhen ; McDonald, Kyle C. ; White, James W.C. ; Bousquet, Philippe ; Röckmann, Thomas - \ 2017
    Scientific Reports 7 (2017). - ISSN 2045-2322
    Year-to-year variations in the atmospheric methane (CH4) growth rate show significant correlation with climatic drivers. The second half of 2010 and the first half of 2011 experienced the strongest La Niña since the early 1980s, when global surface networks started monitoring atmospheric CH4 mole fractions. We use these surface measurements, retrievals of column-averaged CH4 mole fractions from GOSAT, new wetland inundation estimates, and atmospheric δ13C-CH4 measurements to estimate the impact of this strong La Niña on the global atmospheric CH4 budget. By performing atmospheric inversions, we find evidence of an increase in tropical CH4 emissions of ∼6-9 TgCH4 yr-1 during this event. Stable isotope data suggest that biogenic sources are the cause of this emission increase. We find a simultaneous expansion of wetland area, driven by the excess precipitation over the Tropical continents during the La Niña. Two process-based wetland models predict increases in wetland area consistent with observationally-constrained values, but substantially smaller per-area CH4 emissions, highlighting the need for improvements in such models. Overall, tropical wetland emissions during the strong La Niña were at least by 5% larger than the long-term mean.
    Can we explain the observed methane variability after the Mount Pinatubo eruption?
    Bândǎ, N. ; Krol, M. ; Weele, M. Van; Noije, T. Van; Sager, P. Le; Röckmann, T. - \ 2016
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16 (2016)1. - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 195 - 214.

    The CH4 growth rate in the atmosphere showed large variations after the Pinatubo eruption in June 1991. A decrease of more than 10 ppb yr-1 in the growth rate over the course of 1992 was reported, and a partial recovery in the following year. Although several reasons have been proposed to explain the evolution of CH4 after the eruption, their contributions to the observed variations are not yet resolved. CH4 is removed from the atmosphere by the reaction with tropospheric OH, which in turn is produced by O3 photolysis under UV radiation. The CH4 removal after the Pinatubo eruption might have been affected by changes in tropospheric UV levels due to the presence of stratospheric SO2 and sulfate aerosols, and due to enhanced ozone depletion on Pinatubo aerosols. The perturbed climate after the eruption also altered both sources and sinks of atmospheric CH4. Furthermore, CH4 concentrations were influenced by other factors of natural variability in that period, such as El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and biomass burning events. Emissions of CO, NOX and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) also affected CH4 concentrations indirectly by influencing tropospheric OH levels. Potential drivers of CH4 variability are investigated using the TM5 global chemistry model. The contribution that each driver had to the global CH4 variability during the period 1990 to 1995 is quantified. We find that a decrease of 8-10 ppb yr-1 CH4 is explained by a combination of the above processes. However, the timing of the minimum growth rate is found 6-9 months later than observed. The long-term decrease in CH4 growth rate over the period 1990 to 1995 is well captured and can be attributed to an increase in OH concentrations over this time period. Potential uncertainties in our modelled CH4 growth rate include emissions of CH4 from wetlands, biomass burning emissions of CH4 and other compounds, biogenic NMVOC and the sensitivity of OH to NMVOC emission changes. Two inventories are used for CH4 emissions from wetlands, ORCHIDEE and LPJ, to investigate the role of uncertainties in these emissions. Although the higher climate sensitivity of ORCHIDEE improves the simulated CH4 growth rate change after Pinatubo, none of the two inventories properly captures the observed CH4 variability in this period.

    The effect of stratospheric sulfur from Mount Pinatubo on tropospheric oxidizing capacity and methane
    Bândə, Narcisa ; Krol, Maarten ; Noije, Twan Van; Weele, Michiel Van; Williams, Jason E. ; Sager, Philippe Le ; Niemeier, Ulrike ; Thomason, Larry ; Röckmann, Thomas - \ 2015
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 120 (2015)3. - ISSN 2169-897X - p. 1202 - 1220.
    methane - OH - oxidizing capacity - Pinatubo - UV radiation - volcanic eruption

    The eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 injected a large amount of SO2 into the stratosphere, which formed sulfate aerosols. Increased scattering and absorption of UV radiation by the enhanced stratospheric SO2 and aerosols decreased the amount of UV radiation reaching the troposphere, causing changes in tropospheric photochemistry. These changes affected the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere and the removal rate of CH4 in the years following the eruption. We use the three-dimensional chemistry transport model TM5 coupled to the aerosol microphysics module M7 to simulate the evolution of SO2 and sulfate aerosols from the Pinatubo eruption. Their effect on tropospheric photolysis frequencies and concentrations of OH and CH4 is quantified for the first time. We find that UV attenuation by stratospheric sulfur decreased the photolysis frequencies of both ozone and NO2 by about 2% globally, decreasing global OH concentrations by a similar amount in the first 2 years after the eruption. SO2 absorption mainly affects OH primary production by ozone photolysis, while aerosol scattering also alters OH recycling. The effect of stratospheric sulfur on global OH and CH4 is dominated by the effect of aerosol extinction, while SO2 absorption contributes by 12.5% to the overall effect in the first year after the eruption. The reduction in OH concentrations causes an increase in the CH4 growth rate of 4 and 2 ppb/yr in the first and second years after the eruption, respectively, contributing 11 Tg to the 27 Tg observed CH4 burden change in late 1991 and early 1992. Key Points We modeled the effect of Pinatubo sulfur on tropospheric photochemistry SO2 absorption and aerosol extinction reduce tropospheric UV levels The tropospheric OH sink of CH4 decreased by 17.8 Tg during June 1991-June 1993

    La banda y sus choros. Un grupo de niños de la calle hilando historias de edad, género y liderazgo
    Gigengack, Roy - \ 2014
    Salud Mental 37 (2014)4. - ISSN 0185-3325 - p. 329 - 339.

    This article recounts the story of the Bucareli boys, a group of street children in Mexico City who were also known as the banda of metro Juárez. Documenting the "Buca" boys over a period of three years allowed me to formulate three insights about the internal power differentiation in terms of leadership, gender, and age. These insights are valid as well, I think, for the other 15 bandas where I did fieldwork. First, it is important to place the dynamics of leadership and gender relations in an age perspective. Second, as structuring principles of street life, leadership, gender and age have an inherently evanescent character, due to an interplay of constraints that are both internal and external to the banda. My third suggestion concurs with Liebow in that homelessness creates a world of paradoxes and contradictions. Power differentiation among relatively powerless people is a contradiction in terms; and the dynamics of leadership, gender and age disclose paradoxical social ties within the banda. These can be particularly harrowing in the relations between street kids and the young adults posing as surrogate fathers and mothers. This ethnographic analysis of "crazy-making homelessness" is relevant for mental health. The kids' story-telling about leadership and gender relations veiled their fragility, since in these tales they attributed themselves a power which they did not have in reality. More than mere symptoms of psychopathology or a manipulative personality disorder, these stories testify to the creativity and resilience of these young people. The illusory power of the choros, the bullshit tales about street children, enables them to live in apparent harmony under the conditions in which they live.

    Analysis of global methane changes after the 1991 Pinatubo volcanic eruption
    Banda, N. ; Krol, M.C. ; Weele, M. van; Noije, T. van; Rockmann, T. - \ 2013
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13 (2013)4. - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 2267 - 2281.
    chemistry transport model - atmospheric methane - mount-pinatubo - growth-rate - tropospheric chemistry - isotopic composition - isoprene emissions - mt-pinatubo - variability - ch4
    The global methane (CH4) growth rate showed large variations after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991. Both sources and sinks of tropospheric CH4 were altered following the eruption, by feedback processes between climate and tropospheric photochemistry. Such processes include Ultra Violet (UV) radiative changes due to the presence of volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulphate aerosols in the stratosphere, and due to stratospheric ozone depletion. Changes in temperature and water vapour in the following years caused changes in tropospheric chemistry, as well as in natural emissions. We present a sensitivity study that investigates the relative effects that these processes had on tropospheric CH4 concentrations, using a simple one-dimensional chemistry model representative for the global tropospheric column. To infer the changes in UV radiative fluxes, the chemistry model is coupled to a radiative transfer model. We find that the overall effect of natural processes after the eruption on the CH4 growth rate is dominated by the reduction in CH4 lifetime due to stratospheric ozone depletion. However, all the other processes are found to have non-negligible effects, and should therefore be taken into account in order to obtain a good estimate of CH4 concentrations after Pinatubo. We find that the overall effect was a small initial increase in the CH4 growth rate after the eruption, followed by a decrease of about 7 ppb yr(-1) by mid-1993. When changes in anthropogenic emissions are employed according to emission inventories, an additional decrease of about 5 ppb yr(-1) in the CH4 growth rate is obtained between the years 1991 and 1993. The results using the simplified single column model are in good qualitative agreement with observed changes in the CH4 growth rate. Further analysis, taking into account changes in the dynamics of the atmosphere, variations in emissions from biomass burning, and in biogenic emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), requires the use of a full three-dimensional model.
    Berichten van het Buys Ballot herfstsymposium 2011
    Banda, N. ; Derendorp, L. ; Lacagnina, C. ; Theeuwes, N.E. ; Vinken, G. ; Steeneveld, G.J. - \ 2012
    Meteorologica / Nederlandse Vereniging van Beroeps Meteorologen 21 (2012)1. - ISSN 0929-1504 - p. 24 - 26.
    Selecting indicators to assess the fisheries of Lake Malawi and Lake Malombe: Knowledge base and evaluative capacity
    Zwieten, P.A.M. van; Banda, M. ; Kolding, J. - \ 2011
    Journal of Great Lakes Research 37 (2011)1. - ISSN 0380-1330 - p. 26 - 44.
    african great-lakes - cichlid fishes - reference points - east-africa - management - perspective - tanganyika - diversity - history - nyasa
    The provision of management information on the fisheries of Lakes Malawi and Malombe has been characterised by top–down controlled single species steady-state assessment techniques originating from single gear industrial fisheries but applied to an open access highly diverse and adaptive small-scale multispecies and multi-gear fishery. The result has largely been an unhappy marriage with uncertainties blamed more on the data than the process, although the data collection generally is detailed and comprehensive on catch and effort parameters. An extensive literature review of primary and grey literature on ecosystem drivers, exploitation pressures, and fish population and community states shows that Malawi has the necessary knowledge base for expanding their assessment into multi-causal and exploratory indicator-based methods that can assist in better understanding and more disciplined use of existing data and monitoring systems. Selection and ranking of a suite of indicators focusing on the major fisheries in the Southeast arm of Lake Malawi and Lake Malombe were done by a group of Malawian fisheries researchers and management advisers, thereby testing a framework of scoring criteria assessing an indicator's acceptability, observability, and relatedness to management. Indicators that are close to raw observational data and that require limited permutations and few assumptions appear to be preferable in the Malawian context. CPUE-based assessments can improve the utility of data and information in communicating developments and processes and evaluate fisheries management policies
    AIDA Policy Brief- Why invest in Africa's drylands?
    Francis, J. ; Kaufmann, R. Von; Clavel, D. ; Ekwamu, A. ; Hamidou, D. ; Mloza-Banda, H. ; Mwangombe, A.W. ; Verhagen, J. - \ 2010
    Brussel : CTA
    The Micro and Macro Dynamics of a Mega-disaster: Rethinking the Sri Lanka Tsunami Experience
    Frerks, G.E. - \ 2009
    National Safety & Security and Crisis Management October 09 (2009). - p. 7 - 9.
    The direct cause of the tsunami of 26 December 2004 was an earthquake off the coast of North Sumatra with a magnitude of 9.0 on the Richter scale. This earthquake set in motion a huge wave that hit fourteen countries around the Indian Ocean. When the tsunami landed, the waves varied from approximately 30 metres high in Banda Aceh up to ten metres in parts of Sri Lanka. The tsunami hit thirteen out of a total of 25 districts in Sri Lanka and more than two-thirds of its coastline. Loss of life was recorded at 35,322. The number of injured was 21,411 and the number of displaced 558,287. All major population groups – Sinhalese, Tamils and Muslims – were aff ected, though the most severely aff ected Districts were largely Muslim and Tamil. About 200,000 persons lost their livelihood or employment. One and a half years aft er the tsunami 60% of the households reported a reduction in monthly income. Damages and losses combined amounted to 7.6% of the gross domestic product. All these diff erent fi gures underline that the tsunami in Sri Lanka could veritably be called a mega-crisis. A further analysis of the Sri Lanka tsunami, however, reveals a number of interesting details
    Case study: South East Arm of Malawi. Potential biological state and pressure indicators of Lake Malawi SE Arm and Lake Malombe: evaluative capacity of the Fisheries Research Unit of Malawi
    Zwieten, P.A.M. van; Banda, M. ; Mwakiyingo, K. ; Manase, M. ; Kanyerere, G. ; Nyasulu, T. - \ 2005
    Malawi : EU/INCO-DEV (Knowledge in Fiseries Management Project ) - 93 p.
    Note on observations of Abbott's Booby in the Banda Sea.
    Balen, S. van - \ 1996
    Kukila 8 (1996). - ISSN 0216-9223 - p. 145 - 145.
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