Benefit Sharing Arrangements in the Russian North and Alaska
Tysyachnyouk, M. - \ 2017
Russian Analytical Digest (2017)202. - ISSN 1863-0421 - p. 2 - 5.
As part of a recent study, we investigated benefit sharing arrangements between oil companies and indigenous communities in several regions of Russia—the Nenets Autonomous Okrug [NAO], Khanti-Mansiiski Autonomous Okrug (KhMAO), Sakhalin—and on the North Slope of Alaska—Barrow, Nuiqsut, Kaktovik. Our analysis demonstrates that indigenous communities are not benefitting equally from oil and gas extraction. The project analysed the procedural and distributional equity of four different types of benefit sharing arrangements: paternalism, corporate social responsibility, partnership and shareholder models.
Benefit-sharing arrangements in the Arctic : Promoting sustainability of indigenous communities in Areas of Resource Extraction
Tysyachnyouk, M. - \ 2016
Arctic and International Relations Series Fall 2016 (2016)4. - ISSN 2470-3966 - p. 18 - 21.
Can the interests of both the extractive industries and Indigenous communities in the Arctic be balanced through the implementation of benefit-sharing practices in the places of resource extraction? Most transnational corporations
in the Arctic oil and gas sector have declared their commitment to benefit-sharing arrangements that assist Indigenous communities and protect Indigenous rights to land and access to traditional resources, but the local
implementation of these commitments is highly variable. Benefit-sharing arrangements between oil companies and Indigenous communities were investigated in several regions of Russia (Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Komi Republic, Yamalo-Nentsk Autonomous okrug, Irkutskaya oblast) and on the North Slope of Alaska (Barrow, Nuiqsut, Kaktovik). Research demonstrates that Indigenous communities are not equally benefiting from oil and gas extraction, and moreover many of them are harmed as the industrial development threatens their traditional livelihoods of hunting, fishing, and reindeer herding. The following analysis explains how different types of benefit-sharing arrangements
impact Indigenous communities.
Sources, distribution, and acidity of sulfate–ammonium aerosol in the Arctic in winter–spring
Fisher, J.A. ; Jacob, D.J. ; Wang, Q. ; Bahreini, R. ; Carouge, C.C. ; Cubison, M.J. ; Dibb, J.E. ; Diehl, T. ; Jiminez, J.L. ; Leibensperger, E.M. ; Lu, Z. ; Meinders, M.B.J. ; Pye, H.O.T. ; Quinn, P.K. ; Sharma, S. ; Streets, D.G. ; Donkelaar, A. van; Yantosca, R.M. - \ 2011
Atmospheric Environment 45 (2011)39. - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 7301 - 7318.
circulation model assessment - cloud resolving simulations - dry deposition - chemical-composition - asian pollution - ice nucleation - air-pollution - intex-b - atmospheric transport - ozone depletion
We use GEOS-Chem chemical transport model simulations of sulfate–ammonium aerosol data from the NASA ARCTAS and NOAA ARCPAC aircraft campaigns in the North American Arctic in April 2008, together with longer-term data from surface sites, to better understand aerosol sources in the Arctic in winter–spring and the implications for aerosol acidity. Arctic pollution is dominated by transport from mid-latitudes, and we test the relevant ammonia and sulfur dioxide emission inventories in the model by comparison with wet deposition flux data over the source continents. We find that a complicated mix of natural and anthropogenic sources with different vertical signatures is responsible for sulfate concentrations in the Arctic. East Asian pollution influence is weak in winter but becomes important in spring through transport in the free troposphere. European influence is important at all altitudes but never dominant. West Asia (non-Arctic Russia and Kazakhstan) is the largest contributor to Arctic sulfate in surface air in winter, reflecting a southward extension of the Arctic front over that region. Ammonium in Arctic spring mostly originates from anthropogenic sources in East Asia and Europe, with added contribution from boreal fires, resulting in a more neutralized aerosol in the free troposphere than at the surface. The ARCTAS and ARCPAC data indicate a median aerosol neutralization fraction [NH4+]/(2[SO42-] + [NO3-]) of 0.5 mol mol-1 below 2 km and 0.7 mol mol-1 above. We find that East Asian and European aerosol transported to the Arctic is mostly neutralized, whereas West Asian and North American aerosol is highly acidic. Growth of sulfur emissions in West Asia may be responsible for the observed increase in aerosol acidity at Barrow over the past decade. As global sulfur emissions decline over the next decades, increasing aerosol neutralization in the Arctic is expected, potentially accelerating Arctic warming through indirect radiative forcing and feedbacks.
|Phage Therapy of Salmonella infected broilers
Bergen, M.A.P. van; Atterbury, R.J. ; Boer, A.G. de; Allen, V.M. ; Bolder, N.M. ; Barrow, P.A. ; Wagenaar, J. - \ 2007
Bacteriophage therapy to reduce salmonella colonization of broiler chickens
Atterbury, R.J. ; Bergen, M.A.P. van; Ortiz, F. ; Lovell, M.A. ; Harris, J.A. ; Boer, A.G. de; Wagenaar, J.A. ; Allen, V.M. ; Barrow, P.A. - \ 2007
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73 (2007)14. - ISSN 0099-2240 - p. 4543 - 4549.
campylobacter-jejuni - phage therapy - coli - density - growth - calves
Acute enteric infections caused by salmonellas remain a major public health burden worldwide. Poultry, particularly chickens, are known to be the main reservoir for this zoonotic pathogen. Although some progress has been made in reducing Salmonella colonization of broiler chickens by using biosecurity and antimicrobials, it still remains a considerable problem. The use of host-specific bacteriophages as a biocontrol is one possible intervention by which Salmonella colonization could be reduced. A total of 232 Salmonella bacteriophages were isolated from poultry farms, abattoirs, and wastewater in 2004 and 2005. Three phages exhibiting the broadest host ranges against Salmonella enterica serotypes Enteritidis, Hadar, and Typhimurium were characterized further by determining their morphology and lytic activity in vitro. These phages were then administered in antacid suspension to birds experimentally colonized with specific Salmonella host strains. The first phage reduced S. enterica serotype Enteritidis cecal colonization by 4.2 log10 CFU within 24 h compared with controls. Administration of the second phage reduced S. enterica serotype Typhimurium by 2.19 log10 CFU within 24 h. The third bacteriophage was ineffective at reducing S. enterica serotype Hadar colonization. Bacteriophage resistance occurred at a frequency commensurate with the titer of phage being administered, with larger phage titers resulting in a greater proportion of resistant salmonellas. The selection of appropriate bacteriophages and optimization of both the timing and method of phage delivery are key factors in the successful phage-mediated control of salmonellas in broiler chickens.
|Phage Therapy of Salmonella infected broilers
Bergen, M.A.P. van; Atterbury, R.J. ; Boer, A.G. de; Allen, V.M. ; Bolder, N.M. ; Barrow, P.A. ; Wagenaar, J. - \ 2006
|Control of Salmonella in poultry using bacteriophage
Atterbury, R.J. ; Bergen, M.A.P. van; Allen, V.M. ; Lovell, M.A. ; Harris, J.A. ; Boer, A.G. de; Weaver, H.R. ; Wagenaar, J.A. ; Barrow, P.A. - \ 2006
Localization to chicken chromosome 5 of a novel locus determining salmonellosis resistance
Mariana, P. ; Barrow, P.A. ; Cheng, H.H. ; Groenen, M.A.M. ; Negrini, R. ; Bumstead, N. - \ 2001
Immunogenetics 53 (2001). - ISSN 0093-7711 - p. 786 - 791.
Clear genetic differences in the susceptibility of chickens to visceral infection by Salmonella have been observed and it has been possible to identify resistant and susceptible lines of inbred chickens. We report here the results of experiments to map directly the gene(s) controlling this trait in chickens by examining crosses between highly susceptible and highly resistant lines. In the mapping panel, a region on chicken Chromosome (Chr) 5 was found to have a large effect on resistance, and this effect was observed in three separate resource populations. Mapping of additional marker loci in the region of the resistance gene further localized it to a region of approximately 2 cM, close to the genes for creatine kinase (CKB) and dynein (DNCH1). This region shows conserved synteny with telomeric regions of human Chr 14 and mouse Chr 12. On the basis of this conserved synteny, this resistance gene seems unlikely to correspond to the previously identified salmonellosis resistance genes Lps (located on mouse Chr 4) or Nos2 (located on mouse Chr 11). There was no association between Nramp1 and resistance in these crosses, although this gene was shown to contribute to resistance in other crosses. The homologous human and mouse regions at present contain no likely candidate genes for this trait. Thus this appears to be a novel resistance gene, which we designate SAL1.
|Quantification of uncertainty in climate change impact assessment
Downing, T.E. ; Barrow, E.M. ; Brooks, R.J. ; Butterfield, R.E. ; Carter, T.R. ; Harisson, P.A. ; Hulme, M. ; Oleson, J.E. ; Porter, J.R. ; Schellberg, J. ; Semenov, M.A. ; Vinther, F.P. ; Wheeler, T.R. ; Wolf, J. - \ 2000
In: Climate Change, Climatic Variability and Agriculture in Europe / Downing, T.E., Harrison, P.A., Butterfield, R.E., Lonsdale, K.G., Oxford, UK : Environmental Change Institute - ISBN 9781874370222 - p. 435 - 441.
|Nitrogen and yield potential of irrigated rice.
Kropff, M.J. ; Cassman, K.G. ; Laar, H.H. van; Peng, S. - \ 1993
In: Plant nutrition - from genetic engineering to field practice / Barrow, N.J., Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers - p. 533 - 536.
De frekwentie en de zootechnische preventie van long- en leveraandoeningen bij varkens
Tielen, M.J.M. - \ 1974
Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): R.D. Politiek, co-promotor(en): D.H.J. Brus. - Wageningen : Veenman - 142
huisvesting, dieren - hygiëne - leverziekten - longen - varkens - ademhalingsziekten - diergeneeskunde - dierverzorging - animal housing - hygiene - liver diseases - lungs - pigs - respiratory diseases - veterinary science - care of animals
In view of the task of the Animal Health Service in the Netherlands there is a need to know the parameters by which diseases on farms can be traced and treated. The variables should be measured at central places such as slaughterhouses and feed mills. Here one can use existing systems so that the collection of data will only require some additional costs. Moreover the data can be collected independent of the farmers.
For many years the Animal Health Service in the Province of North Brabant has paid much attention tot the general health. of fattening pigs on farms. This care was instigated by the Coöperatieve Vee en Vleescentrale (Co-operative Cattle and Meat Organization) of the Noord-Brabantse Christelijke Boerenbond (NCB) (North Brabant Christian Farmers Union) and the association of pig farmers of the NCB to improve the general health for pig production. Two very frequent pig affections are of lung and liver.
This study was concerned with whether it is possible to distinguish between pigfattening farms on the basis of differences in incidence of lung and liver affections in slaughtered pigs. The influence of environment on frequency and on the severity of affection was also investigated. The study was done on farms tot include the influence of a set of factors related to commercial farms.
The aim of the study was to answer the following questions:
Chapter 2 reviews the literature on the etiology and frequency of lungand liver affections, the influence of the environment upon these frequency and the consequences for productivity.
Chapter 3 describes the material and methods. The investigation was carried out on 18 pig-fattening farms in North Brabant. These 18 farms had 31 piggeries in which the fattening pigs were housed. All pigs were slaughtered at one slaughterhouse. All farmers were participants of the Asten Integration Group of the Coöperatieve Vee- en Vleescentrale of the NCB.
For each pig, data on pedigree, farm of origin and growth and slaughter quality were collected by the integration administration. Every pig was checked at the slaughterhouse for lung- or liver affection: the extent of the affection if present was estimated.
On the basis of this estimation the lungs and the livers were classified: not affected (0), small macroscopic lesions or scars (1), moderately affected (2), severely affected (3). The affected livers that were discarded belonged to Class 3. From 1 October 1969 to 1 October 1970, in total 5741 lungs and 5756 livers were examined and assessed according to this classification.
To investigate the influence of some environmental factors on incidence of affected lungs and livers, 11 farms were chosen out of the 31 according to the frequency of affected lungs and livers per piggery. On these 11 farms 17 piggeries were selected to study the influence of climatic factors. From April 1971 until April 1972 in 10 different months the following were measured: the temperature and relative humidity inside and outside the piggery, air velocity at 4 locations in the piggery, the katavalue (cooling rate) and the ammonia- and carbon dioxide contents. At each measurement the hygiene was evaluated with a score of 0 to 9. Also the number of pigs as a percentage of the total capacity of the piggery was recorded. Furthermore data were collected on the volume per pig, floor surface per pig, capacity, heating and ventilation system, number of times the pig are shifted, cleaning measures, deworming and system of removing dung. Once the degree of temperature fluctation (TSG) was determined (Section 3.4.l.).
The relation between the mean value of these variables per piggery and the incidence of lung- and liver affections from each piggery were computed. From the data collected by the Integration Group the bodyweight gain per day and slaughter weight and quality were known for each pig.
By correlation and regression analyses the relation between these production characteristics and the degree of lung- and liver affection (0 to 3) was calculated.
The results of the research are described in Chapter 4. In Section 4.1 the frequencies of lung- and liver affections were analysed. The main conclusions are:
- Of the lungs examined 49,2% were unaffected, 38,5% had small lesions, 9,2% were moderately affected and 3,1% were severely affected.
- Of the livers that were examined 34,5% were unaffected, 50,1% had small lesions, 7,8% were moderately affected and 7,6% severely (discarded).
- There were differences in percentage of lung affections and also in the severity of the lesions between gilts and barrows. No differences were found in liver affections between these sexes.
- From the results given in Chapter 4 it can be concluded that the frequency of lung and liver affections is significantly influenced by the farm on which the pigs are fattened, the piggery in which they are housed, the breeding farms within fattening farms and the offspring within breeding farms.
Thus it is possible to distinguish between farms on the basis of frequency of lung- and liver affection. Between the pig-fattening houses the percentage of affected lungs ranged between 30 and 72%; the percentage of affected livers ranged from 21 to 79% and that of discared livers (Class 3) between 1 and 29%. When the frequency of the affected lungs increased so did the severity of the affection.
- The frequency of lung- and liver affections was influenced by the month of slaughtering. The degree of the lung affection (LoA) at the slaughterhouse was also influenced by the day of the year (ti) on which the pigs entered the fattening house. This influence was found to be a sine function:
Piglets put in the fattening houses between December and April had severer lesions on the lungs at the slaughterhouse than those of other months.
Some of the results given in Chapter 4 deal with the climate inside the fattening house and with general management. From the data given in the tables and graphs it can be concluded that:
- The climate inside a piggery is mainly influenced by the climate outside. There is a positive relation between temperature inside and outside and between relative humidity inside and outside the piggery.
- In the periode with a low temperature inside, the r.h. and CO 2 content of the air inside increased by decreasing the ventilation rate. The cooling rate in these periods were higher than at other periods.
- The piggeries with a higher temperature have a lower r.h. but also a high CO 2 content and a smaller cooling rate. It can be concluded that with a high temperature inside there is a reduction in ventilation rate. The differences in temperature and r.h. inside the piggery are especially due to differences in the periods with low temperatures.
- A rise in air velocity caused a decrease in r.h. and NH 3 and CO 2 contents; moreover the kata value is higher. Hence the increased air velocity is probably due to an increased ventilation rate.
- In piggeries with a high percentage of occupied fattening places the temperature is higher. Piggeries with more available places have a higher percentage of occupied places.
The results of the study of the influence of the environment upon the incidence of affected lungs and livers are described in sector 4.2.5. and 4.2.6. From the data it can be concluded that:
- The influence of climatic factors on the frequency of lung- and liver affections is mostly via temperature and air velocity. Temperature and air velocity measurements were compared with two indices: the degree of temperature fluctuation inside a piggery (TSG), and a draughtiness index (TW) which is obtained by multiplying the temperature differences inside and outside the piggery with mean air velocity inside. The frequency of affected lungs was increased when both TW and TSG were also increased. Especially in periods with low temperature the TW strongly influences the number of affected lungs.
- A decrease in the area per pig increased the number of affected lungs; the probability of infection may be increased.
- A lower percentage of affected lungs was found in piggeries with central heating.
- Climate in the piggery had hardly any influence on frequency of affected livers.
- Hygienic factors were negatively correlated with the number of affected and discarded livers. It seems to be possible to reduce the percentage of affected livers bij efficient cleaning-out measures.
In Section 4.3 the results of the influence of the affected lungs and livers on bodyweight gain per day and slaughter quality are given.
The results show that the bodyweight gain per day was reduced by 11,3 g (2,5%) when the lungs were affected. The reduction in bodyweight gain per day increased with the severity of the lung affection.
Pigs with affected livers had a reduction of 7,5 g gain per day (1,5%) in compared with the pigs with unaffected livers.
Contrary to the effect of the severity of affected lungs on gain, the pigs whose livers were discarded had less reduction in gain than pigs with moderately affected livers.
Both affected lungs and livers in the same pig caused a greater reduction in bodyweight gain per day than when one of these organs was affected. Pigs with severely affected lungs and livers gained 26 g per day less (5%) than pigs without lung and liver lesions.
Slaughter quality is hardly influenced by lung and liver affections.
In the discussion the results of this study are compared with those reported in literature. This study shows that it is possible to distinguish between pigfarms on the basis of frequence of lung- and liver affections. Moreover it has been shown that some environmental and climatic factors can influence the incidence of the affection. A method has been described of how to organize veterinary measures for the reduction in lung and liver affections. By using a routine in the slaughterhouse for the detection of affected lungs and livers, incidence of affection on the fattening farms can be assessed. Because of the existing facilities the detection will only require some additional costs. On the basis of the frequency found the organizations involved can set up an efficient veterinary survey on the pertinent farms.