Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Associations between colostrum management, passive immunity, calf-related hygiene practices, and rates of mortality in preweaning dairy calves
Barry, J. ; Bokkers, E.A.M. ; Berry, D.P. ; Boer, I.J.M. de; McClure, J. ; Kennedy, E. - \ 2019
Journal of Dairy Science 102 (2019)11. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 10266 - 10276.
bull calves - commercial farms - health - serum immunoglobulin G - welfare

Calves are particularly vulnerable to health issues before weaning and experience high rates of mortality. Poor colostrum quality or substandard colostrum management, combined with poor hygiene, can increase disease susceptibility, contributing to elevated mortality rates. This study aimed to assess colostrum and calf management together with subsequent mortality rates in preweaning calves. Forty-seven Irish spring-calving, pasture-based dairy herds were enrolled in the study. To investigate whether colostrum and hygiene practices change as the calving season progresses, each farm was visited in both the first and last 6 wk of the calving season. The concentration of IgG in 250 colostrum samples and 580 calf serum samples was determined by radial immunodiffusion assay. Mean colostrum IgG concentration was 85 mg/mL, and mean calf serum IgG concentration was 30.9 and 27.1 mg/mL, respectively, in the first and last 6 wk of the calving season. Smaller herd size and younger age at sampling were associated with higher calf serum IgG concentration. Dairy breed calves were associated with higher serum IgG concentrations compared with beef breed calves; no association was detected based on sex. For feeding equipment hygiene, we assessed the presence of protein residues and found that hygiene levels tended to worsen from the first to the final 6 wk of the calving season. We found no association between feeding equipment hygiene and herd size or 28-d calf mortality rate. Colostrum and calf management practices were not associated with either calf serum IgG concentration or 28-d calf mortality rate. We found that IgG concentration in colostrum produced in Irish dairy herds was generally good, although large variation existed, emphasizing the need for assessment of colostrum before feeding. Results also suggested that hygiene practices associated with calf rearing can be improved, particularly in the latter half of the calving season.

Concrete resultaten na 4 jaar onderzoek naar duurzame methoden om bloembollen te verwerken
Looman, Barry - \ 2019
Macrophage-Specific NF-κB Activation Dynamics Can Segregate Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients
Papoutsopoulou, Stamatia ; Burkitt, Michael D. ; Bergey, François ; England, Hazel ; Hough, Rachael ; Schmidt, Lorraine ; Spiller, David G. ; White, Michael H.R. ; Paszek, Pawel ; Jackson, Dean A. ; Martins Dos Santos, Vitor A.P. ; Sellge, Gernot ; Pritchard, D.M. ; Campbell, Barry J. ; Müller, Werner ; Probert, Chris S. - \ 2019
Frontiers in Immunology 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-3224 - 11 p.
The heterogeneous nature of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) presents challenges, particularly when choosing therapy. Activation of the NF-κB transcription factor is a highly regulated, dynamic event in IBD pathogenesis. Using a lentivirus approach, NF-κB-regulated luciferase was expressed in patient macrophages, isolated from frozen peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples. Following activation, samples could be segregated into three clusters based on the NF-κB-regulated luciferase response. The ulcerative colitis (UC) samples appeared only in the hypo-responsive Cluster 1, and in Cluster 2. Conversely, Crohn's disease (CD) patients appeared in all Clusters with their percentage being higher in the hyper-responsive Cluster 3. A positive correlation was seen between NF-κB-induced luciferase activity and the concentrations of cytokines released into medium from stimulated macrophages, but not with serum or biopsy cytokine levels. Confocal imaging of lentivirally-expressed p65 activation revealed that a higher proportion of macrophages from CD patients responded to endotoxin lipid A compared to controls. In contrast, cells from UC patients exhibited a shorter duration of NF-κB p65 subunit nuclear localization compared to healthy controls, and CD donors. Analysis of macrophage cytokine responses and patient metadata revealed a strong correlation between CD patients who smoked and hyper-activation of p65. These in vitro dynamic assays of NF-κB activation in blood-derived macrophages have the potential to segregate IBD patients into groups with different phenotypes and may therefore help determine response to therapy.
Development of a welfare assessment protocol for dairy calves from birth through to weaning
Barry, J. ; Kennedy, E. ; Sayers, R. ; Boer, I.J.M. De; Bokkers, E.A.M. - \ 2019
Animal Welfare 28 (2019)3. - ISSN 0962-7286 - p. 331 - 344.
Animal welfare - Behaviour - Dairy calves - Health - Housing - Management

The aim of this study was to develop a welfare assessment protocol using different indicators, for pre-weaned dairy calves, that is feasible and time efficient. To this end, the protocol had to combine animal-based indicators (measurements on physiology, general appearance and behaviour) providing the basis for welfare assessment, with resource-based indicators (measurements on management and the environment) providing the basis for identifying risk factors. Indicators, both animal- and resource-based, were selected by a review of existing literature and a process of expert consultation. Following the formulation phase, the protocol was then applied on five Irish dairy farms to develop further for completeness and on-farm feasibility. After each on-farm application, the protocol was critically evaluated, and modifications were made accordingly. Upon completion of the on-farm application phase, a feasible, reliable and time-efficient protocol was produced.

Postnatal effects of colostrum quality and management, and hygiene practises, on immunity and mortality in Irish dairy calves
Barry, John ; Bokkers, Eddie ; Berry, Donagh P. ; Boer, Imke de; McClure, Jennifer ; Kennedy, Emer - \ 2019
In: Animal lives worth living. - Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086863389 - p. 90 - 90.
Above- and belowground overyielding are related at the community and species level in a grassland biodiversity experiment
Barry, Kathryn E. ; Weigelt, Alexandra ; Ruijven, Jasper van; Kroon, Hans de; Ebeling, Anne ; Eisenhauer, Nico ; Gessler, Arthur ; Ravenek, Janneke M. ; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael ; Oram, Natalie J. ; Vogel, Anja ; Wagg, Cameron ; Mommer, Liesje - \ 2019
In: Advances in Ecological Research Academic Press Inc. (Advances in Ecological Research )
Biodiversity-ecosystem functioning - Biomass allocation - Functional diversity - Jena experiment - Light competition - Plant traits - Root biomass - Root:Shoot ratio - Shoot biomass - Species richness

Plant species richness positively affects plant productivity both above- and belowground. While this suggests that they are related at the community level, few studies have calculated above- and belowground overyielding simultaneously. It thus remains unknown whether above- and belowground overyielding are correlated. Moreover, it is unknown how belowground community level overyielding translates to the species level. We investigated above- and belowground overyielding in the Jena Trait-Based Biodiversity Experiment, at both the community and species level and across two 8-species pools. We found that above- and belowground overyielding were positively correlated at the community level and at the species level—for seven out of the 13 investigated species. Some plant species performed better in mixtures compared to monocultures and others performed worse, but the majority did so simultaneously above- and belowground. However, plants invested more in aboveground overyielding than belowground. Based on this disproportional investment in overyielding aboveground, we conclude that light was more limiting than belowground resources in the present study, which requires individual species to compete more for light than for belowground resources.

Twenty-three unsolved problems in hydrology (UPH)–a community perspective
Blöschl, Günter ; Bierkens, Marc F.P. ; Chambel, Antonio ; Cudennec, Christophe ; Destouni, Georgia ; Fiori, Aldo ; Kirchner, James W. ; McDonnell, Jeffrey J. ; Savenije, Hubert H.G. ; Sivapalan, Murugesu ; Stumpp, Christine ; Toth, Elena ; Volpi, Elena ; Carr, Gemma ; Lupton, Claire ; Salinas, Josè ; Széles, Borbála ; Viglione, Alberto ; Aksoy, Hafzullah ; Allen, Scott T. ; Amin, Anam ; Andréassian, Vazken ; Arheimer, Berit ; Aryal, Santosh K. ; Baker, Victor ; Bardsley, Earl ; Barendrecht, Marlies H. ; Bartosova, Alena ; Batelaan, Okke ; Berghuijs, Wouter R. ; Beven, Keith ; Blume, Theresa ; Bogaard, Thom ; Borges de Amorim, Pablo ; Böttcher, Michael E. ; Boulet, Gilles ; Breinl, Korbinian ; Brilly, Mitja ; Brocca, Luca ; Buytaert, Wouter ; Castellarin, Attilio ; Castelletti, Andrea ; Chen, Xiaohong ; Chen, Yangbo ; Chen, Yuanfang ; Chifflard, Peter ; Claps, Pierluigi ; Clark, Martyn P. ; Collins, Adrian L. ; Croke, Barry ; Dathe, Annette ; David, Paula C. ; Barros, Felipe P.J. de; Rooij, Gerrit de; Baldassarre, Giuliano Di; Driscoll, Jessica M. ; Duethmann, Doris ; Dwivedi, Ravindra ; Eris, Ebru ; Farmer, William H. ; Feiccabrino, James ; Ferguson, Grant ; Ferrari, Ennio ; Ferraris, Stefano ; Fersch, Benjamin ; Finger, David ; Foglia, Laura ; Fowler, Keirnan ; Gartsman, Boris ; Gascoin, Simon ; Gaume, Eric ; Gelfan, Alexander ; Geris, Josie ; Gharari, Shervan ; Gleeson, Tom ; Glendell, Miriam ; Gonzalez Bevacqua, Alena ; González-Dugo, María P. ; Grimaldi, Salvatore ; Gupta, A.B. ; Guse, Björn ; Han, Dawei ; Hannah, David ; Harpold, Adrian ; Haun, Stefan ; Heal, Kate ; Helfricht, Kay ; Herrnegger, Mathew ; Hipsey, Matthew ; Hlaváčiková, Hana ; Hohmann, Clara ; Holko, Ladislav ; Hopkinson, Christopher ; Hrachowitz, Markus ; Illangasekare, Tissa H. ; Inam, Azhar ; Innocente, Camyla ; Istanbulluoglu, Erkan ; Jarihani, Ben ; Kalantari, Zahra ; Kalvans, Andis ; Khanal, Sonu ; Khatami, Sina ; Kiesel, Jens ; Kirkby, Mike ; Knoben, Wouter ; Kochanek, Krzysztof ; Kohnová, Silvia ; Kolechkina, Alla ; Krause, Stefan ; Kreamer, David ; Kreibich, Heidi ; Kunstmann, Harald ; Lange, Holger ; Liberato, Margarida L.R. ; Lindquist, Eric ; Link, Timothy ; Liu, Junguo ; Loucks, Daniel Peter ; Luce, Charles ; Mahé, Gil ; Makarieva, Olga ; Malard, Julien ; Mashtayeva, Shamshagul ; Maskey, Shreedhar ; Mas-Pla, Josep ; Mavrova-Guirguinova, Maria ; Mazzoleni, Maurizio ; Mernild, Sebastian ; Misstear, Bruce Dudley ; Montanari, Alberto ; Müller-Thomy, Hannes ; Nabizadeh, Alireza ; Nardi, Fernando ; Neale, Christopher ; Nesterova, Nataliia ; Nurtaev, Bakhram ; Odongo, Vincent O. ; Panda, Subhabrata ; Pande, Saket ; Pang, Zhonghe ; Papacharalampous, Georgia ; Perrin, Charles ; Pfister, Laurent ; Pimentel, Rafael ; Polo, María J. ; Post, David ; Prieto Sierra, Cristina ; Ramos, Maria Helena ; Renner, Maik ; Reynolds, José Eduardo ; Ridolfi, Elena ; Rigon, Riccardo ; Riva, Monica ; Robertson, David E. ; Rosso, Renzo ; Roy, Tirthankar ; Sá, João H.M. ; Salvadori, Gianfausto ; Sandells, Mel ; Schaefli, Bettina ; Schumann, Andreas ; Scolobig, Anna ; Seibert, Jan ; Servat, Eric ; Shafiei, Mojtaba ; Sharma, Ashish ; Sidibe, Moussa ; Sidle, Roy C. ; Skaugen, Thomas ; Smith, Hugh ; Spiessl, Sabine M. ; Stein, Lina ; Steinsland, Ingelin ; Strasser, Ulrich ; Su, Bob ; Szolgay, Jan ; Tarboton, David ; Tauro, Flavia ; Thirel, Guillaume ; Tian, Fuqiang ; Tong, Rui ; Tussupova, Kamshat ; Tyralis, Hristos ; Uijlenhoet, Remko ; Beek, Rens van; Ent, Ruud J. van der; Ploeg, Martine van der; Loon, Anne F. Van; Meerveld, Ilja van; Nooijen, Ronald van; Oel, Pieter R. van; Vidal, Jean Philippe ; Freyberg, Jana von; Vorogushyn, Sergiy ; Wachniew, Przemyslaw ; Wade, Andrew J. ; Ward, Philip ; Westerberg, Ida K. ; White, Christopher ; Wood, Eric F. ; Woods, Ross ; Xu, Zongxue ; Yilmaz, Koray K. ; Zhang, Yongqiang - \ 2019
Hydrological Sciences Journal 64 (2019)10. - ISSN 0262-6667 - p. 1141 - 1158.
hydrology - interdisciplinary - knowledge gaps - research agenda - science questions

This paper is the outcome of a community initiative to identify major unsolved scientific problems in hydrology motivated by a need for stronger harmonisation of research efforts. The procedure involved a public consultation through online media, followed by two workshops through which a large number of potential science questions were collated, prioritised, and synthesised. In spite of the diversity of the participants (230 scientists in total), the process revealed much about community priorities and the state of our science: a preference for continuity in research questions rather than radical departures or redirections from past and current work. Questions remain focused on the process-based understanding of hydrological variability and causality at all space and time scales. Increased attention to environmental change drives a new emphasis on understanding how change propagates across interfaces within the hydrological system and across disciplinary boundaries. In particular, the expansion of the human footprint raises a new set of questions related to human interactions with nature and water cycle feedbacks in the context of complex water management problems. We hope that this reflection and synthesis of the 23 unsolved problems in hydrology will help guide research efforts for some years to come.

Baseline and power analyses for the assessment of beach litter reductions in the European OSPAR region
Schulz, Marcus ; Walvoort, Dennis J.J. ; Barry, Jon ; Fleet, David M. ; Loon, Willem M.G.M. van - \ 2019
Environmental Pollution 248 (2019). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 555 - 564.
Baseline value - Beach litter - litteR - Non-parametrical power analysis - Reduction target

Marine litter pollution is a global environmental problem. Beach litter is a part of this problem, and is widely monitored in Europe. The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires a reduction of beach litter. A reduction of 30% has been proposed in the European Plastics Strategy. The aims of this study are to develop (a) a method to calculate sufficiently stable and precise baseline values for beach litter, and (b) to derive a method of power analysis to estimate the number of beach litter surveys, necessary to detect a given reduction, using these baseline values. Beach litter data from the OSPAR (Oslo Paris Convention) region were used, and tailor-made statistical methods were implemented in open source software, litteR. Descriptive statistics and Theil-Sen and Mann-Kendall trend analyses were calculated for the most abundant beach litter types, for 14 survey sites. The length of a baseline period necessary to obtain a specified precision of the mean baseline value, expressed as Coefficient of Variation (CV), was calculated. Power analyses were performed using Monte Carlo simulations combined with Wilcoxon tests to determine significant deviations of the simulated datasets from the baseline mean values. For most survey sites, the mean length of monitoring periods necessary to achieve a CV < 10% amounts to four to five years with four surveys a year. The mean number of surveys necessary to detect a statistically significant reduction of 30% with 80% power ranges from 14 to 20. Power analyses show that a reduction of 10% is difficult to detect, because more than 24 surveys are needed. In contrary, a reduction of 40–50% can be detected easily with a small (<12) number of surveys. The new methods could also be applied to other areas where similar beach litter surveys are performed.

The Future of Complementarity : Disentangling Causes from Consequences
Barry, Kathryn E. ; Mommer, Liesje ; Ruijven, Jasper van; Wirth, Christian ; Wright, Alexandra J. ; Bai, Yongfei ; Connolly, John ; Deyn, Gerlinde B. De; Kroon, Hans de; Isbell, Forest ; Milcu, Alexandru ; Roscher, Christiane ; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael ; Schmid, Bernhard ; Weigelt, Alexandra - \ 2019
Trends in Ecology and Evolution 34 (2019)2. - ISSN 0169-5347 - p. 167 - 180.
Abiotic facilitation - Biodiversity - Biotic feedbacks - Complementarity - Complementarity effect - Ecosystem functioning - Plant-soil feedback - Resource partitioning - Resource tracers - Stress amelioration

Evidence suggests that biodiversity supports ecosystem functioning. Yet, the mechanisms driving this relationship remain unclear. Complementarity is one common explanation for these positive biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationships. Yet, complementarity is often indirectly quantified as overperformance in mixture relative to monoculture (e.g., ‘complementarity effect’). This overperformance is then attributed to the intuitive idea of complementarity or, more specifically, to species resource partitioning. Locally, however, several unassociated causes may drive this overperformance. Here, we differentiate complementarity into three types of species differences that may cause enhanced ecosystem functioning in more diverse ecosystems: (i) resource partitioning, (ii) abiotic facilitation, and (iii) biotic feedbacks. We argue that disentangling these three causes is crucial for predicting the response of ecosystems to future biodiversity loss.

A comparison of the EU regulatory approach to directed mutagenesis with that of other jurisdictions, consequences for international trade and potential steps forward
Eriksson, Dennis ; Kershen, Drew ; Nepomuceno, Alexandre ; Pogson, Barry J. ; Prieto, Humberto ; Purnhagen, Kai ; Smyth, Stuart ; Wesseler, Justus ; Whelan, Agustina - \ 2019
New Phytologist 222 (2019)4. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 1673 - 1684.
CJEU - directed mutagenesis - genetically modified organism (GMO) - genome editing - precision breeding

A special regulatory regime applies to products of recombinant nucleic acid modifications. A ruling from the European Court of Justice has interpreted this regulatory regime in a way that it also applies to emerging mutagenesis techniques. Elsewhere regulatory progress is also ongoing. In 2015, Argentina launched a regulatory framework, followed by Chile in 2017 and recently Brazil and Colombia. In March 2018, the USDA announced that it will not regulate genome-edited plants differently if they could have also been developed through traditional breeding. Canada has an altogether different approach with their Plants with Novel Traits regulations. Australia is currently reviewing its Gene Technology Act. This article illustrates the deviation of the European Union's (EU's) approach from the one of most of the other countries studied here. Whereas the EU does not implement a case-by-case approach, this approach is taken by several other jurisdictions. Also, the EU court ruling adheres to a process-based approach while most other countries have a stronger emphasis on the regulation of the resulting product. It is concluded that, unless a functioning identity preservation system for products of directed mutagenesis can be established, the deviation results in a risk of asynchronous approvals and disruptions in international trade.

Multi-stakeholder development of a serious game to explore the water-energy-food-land-climate nexus : The SIM4NEXUS approach
Sušnik, Janez ; Chew, Chengzi ; Domingo, Xavier ; Mereu, Simone ; Trabucco, Antonio ; Evans, Barry ; Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, Lydia ; Savić, Dragan A. ; Laspidou, Chrysi ; Brouwer, Floor - \ 2018
Water 10 (2018)2. - ISSN 2073-4441
Nexus - Participatory modelling - Serious game - System dynamics - Water-food-land-energy-climate

Water, energy, food, land and climate form a tightly-connected nexus in which actions on one sector impact other sectors, creating feedbacks and unanticipated consequences. This is especially because at present, much scientific research and many policies are constrained to single discipline/sector silos that are often not interacting (e.g., water-related research/policy). However, experimenting with the interaction and determining how a change in one sector could impact another may require unreasonable time frames, be very difficult in practice and may be potentially dangerous, triggering any one of a number of unanticipated side-effects. Current modelling often neglects knowledge from practice. Therefore, a safe environment is required to test the potential cross-sectoral implications of policy decisions in one sector on other sectors. Serious games offer such an environment by creating realistic 'simulations', where long-term impacts of policies may be tested and rated. This paper describes how the ongoing (2016-2020) Horizon2020 project SIM4NEXUS will develop serious games investigating potential plausible cross-nexus implications and synergies due to policy interventions for 12 multi-scale case studies ranging from regional to global. What sets these games apart is that stakeholders and partners are involved in all aspects of the modelling definition and process, from case study conceptualisation, quantitative model development including the implementation and validation of each serious game. Learning from playing a serious game is justified by adopting a proof-of-concept for a specific regional case study in Sardinia (Italy). The value of multi-stakeholder involvement is demonstrated, and critical lessons learned for serious game development in general are presented.

An investigation of behaviours displayed by pre-weaned dairy calves in different group sizes on commercial Irish dairy farms
Barry, John ; Bokkers, Eddie ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Kennedy, E. - \ 2018
- 1 p.

Colostrum and calf serum IgG concentrations on commercial pasture-based Irish dairy farms
Barry, John ; Bokkers, Eddie ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Kennedy, E. - \ 2018
- 1 p.
Measuring colostrum quality on commercial farms is essential, as its quality has a large influence on calf welfare. Although data from commercial Irish dairy farms shows large within, and between, farm variability in colostrum quality high blood serum IgG concentrations were found among calves on farms. This indicates colostrum management standards are good, which contributes to good welfare.
Transnational Road Research Programme, Call 2013: Roads and Wildlife : Final Programme Report
Grift, E.A. van der; OBrien, Eugene ; Elmeros, M. ; Grift-Simeonova, V.S. van der; MacGearailt, Seamus ; Corrigan, Barry ; Wilson-Parr, Ryan ; Carey, Ciaràn - \ 2018
- 34 p.
Risk assessment paradigm for glutamate
Roberts, Ashley ; Lynch, Barry ; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. - \ 2018
Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism 73 (2018)Suppl 5. - ISSN 0250-6807 - p. 53 - 64.
Acceptable daily intake - Glutamate - Macronutrient - Risk assessment

Background: Re-evaluation of the use of glutamic acid and glutamate salts (referred to as glutamate hereafter) by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) proposed a group acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 30 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day. Summary: This ADI is below the normal dietary intake, while even intake of free glutamate by breast-fed babies can be above this ADI. In addition, the pre-natal developmental toxicity study selected by EFSA, has never been used by regulatory authorities worldwide for the safety assessment of glutamate despite it being available for nearly 40 years. Also, the EFSA ignored that toxicokinetic data provide support for eliminating the use of an uncertainty factor for interspecies differences in kinetics. Key Messages: A 3-generation reproductive toxicity study in mice that includes extensive brain histopathology, provides a better point of departure showing no effects up to the highest dose tested of 6,000 mg/kg bw/day. Furthermore, kinetic data support use of a compound-specific uncertainty factor of 25 instead of 100. Thus, an ADI of at least 240 mg/kg bw/day would be indicated. In fact, there is no compelling evidence to indicate that the previous ADI of "not specified" warrants any change.

Prevalence of Leptospira spp. and Seoul hantavirus in brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) in four regions in the Netherlands, 2011-2015
Maas, Miriam ; Vries, Ankje De; Reusken, Chantal ; Buijs, Jan ; Goris, Marga ; Hartskeerl, Rudy ; Ahmed, Ahmed ; Tulden, Peter van; Swart, Arno ; Pijnacker, Roan ; Koene, Miriam ; Lundkvist, Åke ; Heyman, Paul ; Rockx, Barry ; Giessen, Joke Van Der - \ 2018
Infection Ecology and Epidemiology 8 (2018)1. - ISSN 2000-8686
epidemiology - hantavirus - Leptospirosis - prevalence - Rattus norvegicus - Seoul virus

Background: Brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) may carry pathogens that can be a risk for public health. Brown rats in the Netherlands were tested for the zoonotic pathogens Leptospira spp. and Seoul hantavirus (SEOV), in order to obtain insight in their prevalence. Methods and results: Cross-sectional studies were performed at four locations from 2011 to 2015. The rats were tested for Leptospira spp. using real-time PCR and/or culture resulting in a prevalence ranging between 33–57%. Testing for SEOV was done through an adapted human Seoul hantavirus ELISA and real-time RT-PCR. Although at several locations the ELISA indicated presence of SEOV antibodies, none could be confirmed by focus reduction neutralization testing. Conclusion: The results indicate a widespread presence of Leptospira spp. in brown rats in the Netherlands, including areas with a low leptospirosis incidence in humans. No evidence for circulation of SEOV was found in this study.

Data from: Below-ground resource partitioning alone cannot explain the biodiversity–ecosystem function relationship: a field test using multiple tracers
Jesch, Annette ; Barry, Kathryn E. ; Ravenek, Janneke M. ; Bachmann, Dörte ; Strecker, Tanja ; Weigelt, Alexandra ; Buchmann, Nina ; Kroon, Hans de; Gessler, Arthur ; Mommer, L. ; Roscher, Christiane ; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael - \ 2018
ecosystem function and services - Jena Experiment - Levins B - resource uptake - water uptake - stable isotopes - rare element tracers - complementarity - proportional similarity
An investigation of serum IgG concentrations and rates of passive transfer among calves on commercial Irish dairy farms
Barry, John ; Bokkers, Eddie ; Kennedy, E. - \ 2018
- 1 p.
Natural disasters and agricultural protection : A panel data analysis
Klomp, Jeroen ; Hoogezand, Barry - \ 2018
World Development 104 (2018). - ISSN 0305-750X - p. 404 - 417.
Agriculture - Natural disasters - Trade protection

We explore the impact of natural disasters on the degree of agricultural protection using data from 76 countries thereby covering more than 70 of the most traded agricultural commodities. Theoretically, the direction of this effect is not a priori directly clear as it balances the trade-off between protecting the economic interests of the domestic agricultural sector on the one hand and ensuring food availability for the society at large on the other. Our most important findings suggest that natural disasters generally raise agricultural trade controls to favor domestic farmers. These barriers are mainly provided by limiting imports in the aftermath of a natural event. However, the protection pattern differs among countries. To be more specific, floods and storms increase agricultural protection in high-income countries, while trade barriers in many LDCs are reduced during periods of extreme drought in an attempt to diminish food scarcity. Finally, it turns out that a large part of the change in agricultural protection caused by a natural disaster is explained by a number of commodity specific particularities (i.e., food vs. cash crops).

Below-ground resource partitioning alone cannot explain the biodiversity-ecosystem function relationship : A field test using multiple tracers
Jesch, Annette ; Barry, Kathryn E. ; Ravenek, Janneke M. ; Bachmann, Dörte ; Strecker, Tanja ; Weigelt, Alexandra ; Buchmann, Nina ; Kroon, Hans de; Gessler, Arthur ; Mommer, Liesje ; Roscher, Christiane ; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael - \ 2018
Journal of Ecology 106 (2018)5. - ISSN 0022-0477 - p. 2002 - 2018.
Complementarity - Ecosystem function - Jena Experiment - Levins B - Proportional similarity - Rare element tracers - Resource uptake - Stable isotopes
Below-ground resource partitioning is among the most prominent hypotheses for driving the positive biodiversity-ecosystem function relationship. However, experimental tests of this hypothesis in biodiversity experiments are scarce, and the available evidence is not consistent. We tested the hypothesis that resource partitioning in space, in time or in both space and time combined drives the positive effect of diversity on both plant productivity and total community resource uptake. At the community level, we predicted that total community resource uptake and biomass production above- and below-ground will increase with increased species richness or functional group richness. We predicted that, at the species level, resource partition breadth will become narrower, and that overlap between the resource partitions of different species will become smaller with increasing species richness or functional group richness. We applied multiple resource tracers (Li and Rb as potassium analogues, the water isotopologues-H2 18O and 2H2O, and 15N) in three seasons at two depths across a species and functional group richness gradient at a grassland biodiversity experiment. We used this multidimensional resource tracer study to test if plant species partition resources with increasing plant diversity across space, time or both simultaneously. At the community level, total community resource uptake of nitrogen and potassium and above- and below-ground biomass increased significantly with increasing species richness but not with increasing functional group richness. However, we found no evidence that resource partition breadth or resource partition overlap decreased with increasing species richness for any resource in space, time or both space and time combined. Synthesis. These findings indicate that below-ground resource partitioning may not drive the enhanced resource uptake or biomass production found here. Instead, other mechanisms such as facilitation, species-specific biotic feedback or above-ground resource partitioning are likely necessary for enhanced overall ecosystem function.
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