Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    High land-use intensity in grasslands constrains wild bee species richness in Europe. Biological Conservation
    Ekroos, Johan ; Kleijn, D. ; Batáry, Péter ; Albrecht, M. ; Baldi, A. ; Blüthgen, Nico ; Knop, E. ; Kovacs-Hostyanszki, Aniko ; Smith, Henrik - \ 2020
    Biological Conservation 241 (2020)108255. - ISSN 0006-3207 - 8 p.
    There is widespread concern regarding declines in bee populations given their importance for the functioning of both natural and managed ecosystems. An increasing number of studies find negative relations between bee species richness and simplification of agricultural landscapes, but the role of land-use intensity and its relative importance compared to landscape simplification remain less clear. We compared the relative effects of nitrogen inputs, as a proxy for land-use intensity, and proportion of natural and semi-natural habitat, as a measure of landscape complexity on total bee species richness, rare species richness and dominant crop-visiting species richness. We used data from 282 grasslands across five countries, covering the entire range of low intensity, no-input systems, to high-input sites (>400 kg N/ha/year). We found consistent negative impacts of increasing land-use intensity at a regional scale on total bee species richness and dominant crop-visiting species across Europe, but no such effects of landscape complexity. In contrast, the richness of rare bee species was not significantly related to increasing land-use intensity. Nevertheless, based on species accumulation curves, grasslands with no nitrogen inputs had higher total bee richness and higher shares of rare species compared with sites with high nitrogen inputs (>125 kg N/ha/year). Our results highlight the importance of retaining grasslands characterised by low land-use intensity across agricultural landscapes to promote bee diversity.
    Transferring biodiversity-ecosystem function research to the management of ‘real-world’ ecosystems
    Manning, P. ; Loos, Jacqueline ; Barnes, Andrew D. ; Batáry, Péter ; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A. ; Buchmann, Nina ; Deyn, Gerlinde B. De; Ebeling, Anne ; Eisenhauer, Nico ; Fischer, Markus ; Fründ, Jochen ; Grass, Ingo ; Isselstein, Johannes ; Jochum, M. ; Klein, Alexandra M. ; Klingenberg, Esther O.F. ; Landis, Douglas A. ; Lepš, Jan ; Lindborg, Regina ; Meyer, Sebastian T. ; Temperton, Vicky M. ; Westphal, Catrin ; Tscharntke, Teja - \ 2019
    In: Advances in Ecological Research Academic Press Inc. (Advances in Ecological Research ) - p. 323 - 356.
    BEF research - Biodiversity experiments - Ecosystem management - Ecosystem services - Grasslands - Knowledge transfer

    Biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) research grew rapidly following concerns that biodiversity loss would negatively affect ecosystem functions and the ecosystem services they underpin. However, despite evidence that biodiversity strongly affects ecosystem functioning, the influence of BEF research upon policy and the management of ‘real-world’ ecosystems, i.e., semi-natural habitats and agroecosystems, has been limited. Here, we address this issue by classifying BEF research into three clusters based on the degree of human control over species composition and the spatial scale, in terms of grain, of the study, and discussing how the research of each cluster is best suited to inform particular fields of ecosystem management. Research in the first cluster, small-grain highly controlled studies, is best able to provide general insights into mechanisms and to inform the management of species-poor and highly managed systems such as croplands, plantations, and the restoration of heavily degraded ecosystems. Research from the second cluster, small-grain observational studies, and species removal and addition studies, may allow for direct predictions of the impacts of species loss in specific semi-natural ecosystems. Research in the third cluster, large-grain uncontrolled studies, may best inform landscape-scale management and national-scale policy. We discuss barriers to transfer within each cluster and suggest how new research and knowledge exchange mechanisms may overcome these challenges. To meet the potential for BEF research to address global challenges, we recommend transdisciplinary research that goes beyond these current clusters and considers the social-ecological context of the ecosystems in which BEF knowledge is generated. This requires recognizing the social and economic value of biodiversity for ecosystem services at scales, and in units, that matter to land managers and policy makers.

    Effectiveness of agri-environmental management on pollinators is moderated more by ecological contrast than by landscape structure or land-use intensity
    Marja, Riho ; Kleijn, David ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Klein, Alexandra Maria ; Frank, Thomas ; Batáry, Péter - \ 2019
    Ecology Letters 22 (2019)9. - ISSN 1461-023X - p. 1493 - 1500.
    Agri-environmental schemes - bees - biodiversity - butterflies - ecosystem services - flower strips - hoverflies - land-use intensity - meta-analysis

    Agri-environment management (AEM) started in the 1980s in Europe to mitigate biodiversity decline, but the effectiveness of AEM has been questioned. We hypothesize that this is caused by a lack of a large enough ecological contrast between AEM and non-treated control sites. The effectiveness of AEM may be moderated by landscape structure and land-use intensity. Here, we examined the influence of local ecological contrast, landscape structure and regional land-use intensity on AEM effectiveness in a meta-analysis of 62 European pollinator studies. We found that ecological contrast was most important in determining the effectiveness of AEM, but landscape structure and regional land-use intensity played also a role. In conclusion, the most successful way to enhance AEM effectiveness for pollinators is to implement measures that result in a large ecological improvement at a local scale, which exhibit a strong contrast to conventional practices in simple landscapes of intensive land-use regions.

    Data from: The interplay of landscape composition and configuration: new pathways to manage functional biodiversity and agro-ecosystem services across Europe
    Martin, Emily A. ; Dainese, Matteo ; Clough, Yann ; Báldi, András ; Bommarco, R. ; Gagic, Vesna ; Garratt, Michael P.D. ; Holzschuh, Andrea ; Kleijn, D. ; Kovács-Hostyánszki, Anikó ; Marini, Lorenzo ; Potts, Simon G. ; Smith, Henrik G. ; Hassan, Diab Al; Albrecht, Matthias ; Andersson, Georg K.S. ; Asís, Josep D. ; Aviron, Stéphanie ; Balzan, M.V. ; Baños-Picón, Laura ; Bartomeus, Ignasi ; Batáry, Péter ; Burel, Francoise ; Caballero-lópez, Berta ; Concepción, Elena D. ; Coudrain, Valérie ; Dänhardt, Juliana ; Diaz, Mario ; Diekötter, Tim ; Dormann, Carsten F. ; Duflot, Rémi ; Entling, Martin H. ; Farwig, Nina ; Fischer, Christina ; Frank, Thomas ; Garibaldi, Lucas A. ; Hermann, John ; Herzog, Felix ; Inclán, Diego J. ; Jacot, Katja ; Jauker, Frank ; Jeanneret, Philippe ; Kaiser, Marina ; Krauss, Jochen ; Féon, Violette Le; Marshall, Jon ; Moonen, Anna Camilla ; Moreno, Gerardo ; Riedinger, Verena ; Rundlöf, Maj ; Rusch, Adrien ; Scheper, J.A. ; Schneider, Gudrun ; Schüepp, Christof ; Stutz, Sonja ; Sutter, Louis ; Tamburini, Giovanni ; Thies, Carsten ; Tormos, José ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Tschumi, Matthias ; Uzman, Deniz ; Wagner, Christian ; Zubair Anjum, Muhammad ; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf - \ 2019
    University of Würzburg
    biodiversity - agroecosystem - landscape composition - landscape configuration - functional traits - arthropods - natural pest control - pollination - yields
    Managing agricultural landscapes to support biodiversity and ecosystem services is a key aim of a sustainable agriculture. However, how the spatial arrangement of crop fields and other habitats in landscapes impacts arthropods and their functions is poorly known. Synthesising data from 49 studies (1515 landscapes) across Europe, we examined effects of landscape composition (% habitats) and configuration (edge density) on arthropods in fields and their margins, pest control, pollination and yields. Configuration effects interacted with the proportions of crop and non‐crop habitats, and species’ dietary, dispersal and overwintering traits led to contrasting responses to landscape variables. Overall, however, in landscapes with high edge density, 70% of pollinator and 44% of natural enemy species reached highest abundances and pollination and pest control improved 1.7‐ and 1.4‐fold respectively. Arable‐dominated landscapes with high edge densities achieved high yields. This suggests that enhancing edge density in European agroecosystems can promote functional biodiversity and yield‐enhancing ecosystem services.
    The interplay of landscape composition and configuration: new pathways to manage functional biodiversity and agroecosystem services across Europe
    Martin, Emily A. ; Dainese, Matteo ; Clough, Yann ; Báldi, András ; Bommarco, Riccardo ; Gagic, Vesna ; Garratt, Michael P.D. ; Holzschuh, Andrea ; Kleijn, David ; Kovács-Hostyánszki, Anikó ; Marini, Lorenzo ; Potts, Simon G. ; Smith, Henrik G. ; Hassan, Diab Al; Albrecht, Matthias ; Andersson, Georg K.S. ; Asís, Josep D. ; Aviron, Stéphanie ; Balzan, Mario V. ; Baños-Picón, Laura ; Bartomeus, Ignasi ; Batáry, Péter ; Burel, Francoise ; Caballero-López, Berta ; Concepción, Elena D. ; Coudrain, Valérie ; Dänhardt, Juliana ; Diaz, Mario ; Diekötter, Tim ; Dormann, Carsten F. ; Duflot, Rémi ; Entling, Martin H. ; Farwig, Nina ; Fischer, Christina ; Frank, Thomas ; Garibaldi, Lucas A. ; Hermann, John ; Herzog, Felix ; Inclán, Diego ; Jacot, Katja ; Jauker, Frank ; Jeanneret, Philippe ; Kaiser, Marina ; Krauss, Jochen ; Féon, Violette Le; Marshall, Jon ; Moonen, Anna Camilla ; Moreno, Gerardo ; Riedinger, Verena ; Rundlöf, Maj ; Rusch, Adrien ; Scheper, Jeroen ; Schneider, Gudrun ; Schüepp, Christof ; Stutz, Sonja ; Sutter, Louis ; Tamburini, Giovanni ; Thies, Carsten ; Tormos, José ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Tschumi, Matthias ; Uzman, Deniz ; Wagner, Christian ; Zubair-Anjum, Muhammad ; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf - \ 2019
    Ecology Letters 22 (2019)7. - ISSN 1461-023X - p. 1083 - 1094.
    Agroecology - arthropod community - biological control - edge density - pest control - pollination - response trait - semi-natural habitat - trait syndrome - yield

    Managing agricultural landscapes to support biodiversity and ecosystem services is a key aim of a sustainable agriculture. However, how the spatial arrangement of crop fields and other habitats in landscapes impacts arthropods and their functions is poorly known. Synthesising data from 49 studies (1515 landscapes) across Europe, we examined effects of landscape composition (% habitats) and configuration (edge density) on arthropods in fields and their margins, pest control, pollination and yields. Configuration effects interacted with the proportions of crop and non-crop habitats, and species’ dietary, dispersal and overwintering traits led to contrasting responses to landscape variables. Overall, however, in landscapes with high edge density, 70% of pollinator and 44% of natural enemy species reached highest abundances and pollination and pest control improved 1.7- and 1.4-fold respectively. Arable-dominated landscapes with high edge densities achieved high yields. This suggests that enhancing edge density in European agroecosystems can promote functional biodiversity and yield-enhancing ecosystem services.

    Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition
    Karp, Daniel S. ; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca ; Meehan, Timothy D. ; Martin, Emily A. ; Declerck, Fabrice ; Grab, Heather ; Gratton, Claudio ; Hunt, Lauren ; Larsen, Ashley E. ; Martínez-Salinas, Alejandra ; O’Rourke, Megan E. ; Rusch, Adrien ; Poveda, Katja ; Jonsson, Mattias ; Rosenheim, Jay A. ; Schellhorn, Nancy A. ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Wratten, Stephen D. ; Zhang, Wei ; Iverson, Aaron L. ; Adler, Lynn S. ; Albrecht, Matthias ; Alignier, Audrey ; Angelella, Gina M. ; Zubair Anjum, Muhammad ; Avelino, Jacques ; Batáry, Péter ; Baveco, Johannes M. ; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A. ; Birkhofer, Klaus ; Bohnenblust, Eric W. ; Bommarco, Riccardo ; Brewer, Michael J. ; Caballero-López, Berta ; Carrière, Yves ; Carvalheiro, Luísa G. ; Cayuela, Luis ; Centrella, Mary ; Ćetković, Aleksandar ; Henri, Dominic Charles ; Chabert, Ariane ; Costamagna, Alejandro C. ; La Mora, Aldo De; Kraker, Joop De; Desneux, Nicolas ; Diehl, Eva ; Diekötter, Tim ; Dormann, Carsten F. ; Eckberg, James O. ; Entling, Martin H. ; Fiedler, Daniela ; Franck, Pierre ; Veen, F.J.F. van; Frank, Thomas ; Gagic, Vesna ; Garratt, Michael P.D. ; Getachew, Awraris ; Gonthier, David J. ; Goodell, Peter B. ; Graziosi, Ignazio ; Groves, Russell L. ; Gurr, Geoff M. ; Hajian-Forooshani, Zachary ; Heimpel, George E. ; Herrmann, John D. ; Huseth, Anders S. ; Inclán, Diego J. ; Ingrao, Adam J. ; Iv, Phirun ; Jacot, Katja ; Johnson, Gregg A. ; Jones, Laura ; Kaiser, Marina ; Kaser, Joe M. ; Keasar, Tamar ; Kim, Tania N. ; Kishinevsky, Miriam ; Landis, Douglas A. ; Lavandero, Blas ; Lavigne, Claire ; Ralec, Anne Le; Lemessa, Debissa ; Letourneau, Deborah K. ; Liere, Heidi ; Lu, Yanhui ; Lubin, Yael ; Luttermoser, Tim ; Maas, Bea ; Mace, Kevi ; Madeira, Filipe ; Mader, Viktoria ; Cortesero, Anne Marie ; Marini, Lorenzo ; Martinez, Eliana ; Martinson, Holly M. ; Menozzi, Philippe ; Mitchell, Matthew G.E. ; Miyashita, Tadashi ; Molina, Gonzalo A.R. ; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A. ; O’Neal, Matthew E. ; Opatovsky, Itai ; Ortiz-Martinez, Sebaastian ; Nash, Michael ; Östman, Örjan ; Ouin, Annie ; Pak, Damie ; Paredes, Daniel ; Parsa, Soroush ; Parry, Hazel ; Perez-Alvarez, Ricardo ; Perović, David J. ; Peterson, Julie A. ; Petit, Sandrine ; Philpott, Stacy M. ; Plantegenest, Manuel ; Plećaš, Milan ; Pluess, Therese ; Pons, Xavier ; Potts, Simon G. ; Pywell, Richard F. ; Ragsdale, David W. ; Rand, Tatyana A. ; Raymond, Lucie ; Ricci, Benoît ; Sargent, Chris ; Sarthou, Jean-Pierre ; Saulais, Julia ; Schäckermann, Jessica ; Schmidt, Nick P. ; Schneider, Gudrun ; Schüepp, Christof ; Sivakoff, Frances S. ; Smith, Henrik G. ; Stack Whitney, Kaitlin ; Stutz, Sonja ; Szendrei, Zsofia ; Takada, Mayura B. ; Taki, Hisatomo ; Tamburini, Giovanni ; Thomson, Linda J. ; Tricault, Yann ; Tsafack, Noelline ; Tschumi, Matthias ; Valantin-Morison, Muriel ; Trinh, Mai Van; Werf, Wopke Van Der; Vierling, Kerri T. ; Werling, Ben P. ; Wickens, Jennifer B. ; Wickens, Victoria J. ; Woodcock, Ben A. ; Wyckhuys, Kris ; Xiao, Haijun ; Yasuda, Mika ; Yoshioka, Akira - \ 2018
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (2018)33. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. E7863 - E7870.
    IPM
    The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are measured. Here, we use a pest-control database encompassing 132 studies and 6,759 sites worldwide to model natural enemy and pest abundances, predation rates, and crop damage as a function of landscape composition. Our results showed that although landscape composition explained significant variation within studies, pest and enemy abundances, predation rates, crop damage, and yields each exhibited different responses across studies, sometimes increasing and sometimes decreasing in landscapes with more noncrop habitat but overall showing no consistent trend. Thus, models that used landscape-composition variables to predict pest-control dynamics demonstrated little potential to explain variation across studies, though prediction did improve when comparing studies with similar crop and landscape features. Overall, our work shows that surrounding noncrop habitat does not consistently improve pest management, meaning habitat conservation may bolster production in some systems and depress yields in others. Future efforts to develop tools that inform farmers when habitat conservation truly represents a win–win would benefit from increased understanding of how landscape effects are modulated by local farm management and the biology of pests and their enemies.
    Dataset supplementing Lichtenberg et al. (2017) A global synthesis of the effects of diversified farming systems on arthropod diversity within fields and across agricultural landscapes. Global Change Biology
    Lichtenberg, Elinor M. ; Kennedy, Christina M. ; Kremen, Claire ; Batáry, Péter ; Berendse, F. ; Bommarco, Riccardo ; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A. ; Carvalheiro, Luísa G. ; Snyder, William E. ; Williams, Neal M. - \ 2017
    University of Texas at Austin
    agricultural management schemes - arthropod diversity - functional groups - landscape complexity - meta-analysis - evenness - biodiversity - organic farming - plant diversity
    This dataset contains data and scripts that supplement the publication
    A global synthesis of the effects of diversified farming systems on arthropod diversity within fields and across agricultural landscapes
    Lichtenberg, Elinor M. ; Kennedy, Christina M. ; Kremen, Claire ; Batáry, Péter ; Berendse, Frank ; Bommarco, Riccardo ; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A. ; Carvalheiro, Luísa G. ; Snyder, William E. ; Williams, Neal M. ; Winfree, Rachael ; Klatt, Björn K. ; Åström, Sandra ; Benjamin, Faye ; Brittain, Claire ; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca ; Clough, Yann ; Danforth, Bryan ; Diekötter, Tim ; Eigenbrode, Sanford D. ; Ekroos, Johan ; Elle, Elizabeth ; Freitas, Breno M. ; Fukuda, Yuki ; Gaines-Day, Hannah R. ; Grab, Heather ; Gratton, Claudio ; Holzschuh, Andrea ; Isaacs, Rufus ; Isaia, Marco ; Jha, Shalene ; Jonason, Dennis ; Jones, Vincent P. ; Klein, Alexandra Maria ; Krauss, Jochen ; Letourneau, Deborah K. ; Macfadyen, Sarina ; Mallinger, Rachel E. ; Martin, Emily A. ; Martinez, Eliana ; Memmott, Jane ; Morandin, Lora ; Neame, Lisa ; Otieno, Mark ; Park, Mia G. ; Pfiffner, Lukas ; Pocock, Michael J.O. ; Ponce, Carlos ; Potts, Simon G. ; Poveda, Katja ; Ramos, Mariangie ; Rosenheim, Jay A. ; Rundlöf, Maj ; Sardiñas, Hillary ; Saunders, Manu E. ; Schon, Nicole L. ; Sciligo, Amber R. ; Sidhu, C.S. ; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Veselý, Milan ; Weisser, Wolfgang W. ; Wilson, Julianna K. ; Crowder, David W. - \ 2017
    Global Change Biology 23 (2017)11. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 4946 - 4957.
    Agricultural management schemes - Arthropod diversity - Biodiversity - Evenness - Functional groups - Landscape complexity - Meta-analysis - Organic farming - Plant diversity
    Agricultural intensification is a leading cause of global biodiversity loss, which can reduce the provisioning of ecosystem services in managed ecosystems. Organic farming and plant diversification are farm management schemes that may mitigate potential ecological harm by increasing species richness and boosting related ecosystem services to agroecosystems. What remains unclear is the extent to which farm management schemes affect biodiversity components other than species richness, and whether impacts differ across spatial scales and landscape contexts. Using a global metadataset, we quantified the effects of organic farming and plant diversification on abundance, local diversity (communities within fields), and regional diversity (communities across fields) of arthropod pollinators, predators, herbivores, and detritivores. Both organic farming and higher in-field plant diversity enhanced arthropod abundance, particularly for rare taxa. This resulted in increased richness but decreased evenness. While these responses were stronger at local relative to regional scales, richness and abundance increased at both scales, and richness on farms embedded in complex relative to simple landscapes. Overall, both organic farming and in-field plant diversification exerted the strongest effects on pollinators and predators, suggesting these management schemes can facilitate ecosystem service providers without augmenting herbivore (pest) populations. Our results suggest that organic farming and plant diversification promote diverse arthropod metacommunities that may provide temporal and spatial stability of ecosystem service provisioning. Conserving diverse plant and arthropod communities in farming systems therefore requires sustainable practices that operate both within fields and across landscapes.
    How Agricultural Intensification Affects Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services
    Emmerson, M. ; Morales, M.B. ; Oñate, J.J. ; Batáry, P. ; Berendse, F. ; Liira, J. ; Aavik, T. ; Guerrero, I. ; Bommarco, R. ; Eggers, S. ; Pärt, T. ; Tscharntke, T. ; Weisser, W. ; Clement, L. ; Bengtsson, J. - \ 2016
    Advances in Ecological Research 55 (2016). - ISSN 0065-2504 - p. 43 - 97.
    Agricultural intensification - Agriculture - Agroecology - Biodiversity - Ecosystem services - Europe - Landscape diversity - Pesticide - Scale

    As the world's population continues to grow, the demand for food, fodder, fibre and bioenergy will increase. In Europe, the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has driven the intensification of agriculture, promoting the simplification and specialization of agroecosystems through the decline in landscape heterogeneity, the increased use of chemicals per unit area, and the abandonment of less fertile areas. In combination, these processes have eroded the quantity and quality of habitat for many plants and animals, and hence decreased biodiversity and the abundance of species across a hierarchy of trophic levels and spatial scales within Europe. This biodiversity loss has led to profound changes in the functioning of European agroecosystems over the last 50 years. Here, we synthesize the findings from a large-scale pan-European investigation of the combined effects of agricultural intensification on a range of agroecosystem services. These include (1) the persistence of high conservation value species; (2) the level of biological control of agricultural pests and (3) the functional diversity of a number of taxonomic groups, including birds, beetles and arable weeds. The study encompasses a gradient of geography-bioclimate and agricultural intensification that enables the large-scale measurement of ecological impacts of agricultural intensification across European agroecosystems. We provide an overview of the role of the CAP as a driver of agricultural intensification in the European Union, and we demonstrate compelling negative relationships between the application of pesticides and the various components of biodiversity studied on a pan-European scale.

    The role of agri-environment schemes in conservation and environmental management
    Batary, P. ; Dicks, L.V. ; Kleijn, D. ; Sutherland, W.J. - \ 2015
    Conservation Biology 29 (2015)4. - ISSN 0888-8892 - p. 1006 - 1016.
    land-use intensity - ecosystem services - agricultural landscapes - farmland birds - biodiversity - metaanalysis - europe - benefits - intensification - pollinators
    Over half of the European landscape is under agricultural management and has been for millennia. Many species and ecosystems of conservation concern in Europe depend on agricultural management and are showing ongoing declines. Agri-environment schemes (AES) are designed partly to address this. They are a major source of nature conservation funding within the European Union (EU) and the highest conservation expenditure in Europe. We reviewed the structure of current AES across Europe. Since a 2003 review questioned the overall effectiveness of AES for biodiversity, there has been a plethora of case studies and meta-analyses examining their effectiveness. Most syntheses demonstrate general increases in farmland biodiversity in response to AES, with the size of the effect depending on the structure and management of the surrounding landscape. This is important in the light of successive EU enlargement and ongoing reforms of AES. We examined the change in effect size over time by merging the data sets of 3 recent meta-analyses and found that schemes implemented after revision of the EU's agri-environmental programs in 2007 were not more effective than schemes implemented before revision. Furthermore, schemes aimed at areas out of production (such as field margins and hedgerows) are more effective at enhancing species richness than those aimed at productive areas (such as arable crops or grasslands). Outstanding research questions include whether AES enhance ecosystem services, whether they are more effective in agriculturally marginal areas than in intensively farmed areas, whether they are more or less cost-effective for farmland biodiversity than protected areas, and how much their effectiveness is influenced by farmer training and advice? The general lesson from the European experience is that AES can be effective for conserving wildlife on farmland, but they are expensive and need to be carefully designed and targeted.
    Harnessing the biodiversity value of Central and Eastern European farmland
    Sutcliffe, L.M.E. ; Batary, P. ; Kormann, U. ; Baldi, A. ; Dicks, L.V. ; Herzon, I. ; Kleijn, D. ; Tscharntke, T. - \ 2015
    Diversity and Distributions 21 (2015)6. - ISSN 1366-9516 - p. 722 - 730.
    agri-environmental measures - buntings miliaria-calandra - common agricultural policy - land-use intensity - species richness - bird populations - member states - eu accession - intensification - conservation
    A large proportion of European biodiversity today depends on habitat provided by low-intensity farming practices, yet this resource is declining as European agriculture intensifies. Within the European Union, particularly the central and eastern new member states have retained relatively large areas of species-rich farmland, but despite increased investment in nature conservation here in recent years, farmland biodiversity trends appear to be worsening. Although the high biodiversity value of Central and Eastern European farmland has long been reported, the amount of research in the international literature focused on farmland biodiversity in this region remains comparatively tiny, and measures within the EU Common Agricultural Policy are relatively poorly adapted to support it. In this opinion study, we argue that, 10 years after the accession of the first eastern EU new member states, the continued under-representation of the low-intensity farmland in Central and Eastern Europe in the international literature and EU policy is impeding the development of sound, evidence-based conservation interventions. The biodiversity benefits for Europe of existing low-intensity farmland, particularly in the central and eastern states, should be harnessed before they are lost. Instead of waiting for species-rich farmland to further decline, targeted research and monitoring to create locally appropriate conservation strategies for these habitats is needed now.
    Effects of grazing and biogeographic regions on grassland biodiversity in Hungary: analysing assemblages of 1200 species
    Báldi, A. ; Batáry, P. ; Kleijn, D. - \ 2013
    Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 166 (2013). - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 28 - 34.
    agri-environment schemes - land-use intensity - farmland birds - european countries - landscape scale - conservation - diversity - management - plant - communities
    Agricultural intensification is a major threat to biodiversity. Agri-environment schemes, the main tools to counteract negative impacts of agriculture on the environment, are having mixed effects on biodiversity. One reason for this may be the limited number of species (groups) covered by most studies. Here, we compared species richness and abundance of 10 different species groups on extensively (0.5 cattle/ha) and intensively (1.0–1.2 cattle/ha) grazed semi-natural pastures in 42 fields in three Hungarian regions. Plants, birds and arthropods (leafhoppers, true bugs, orthopterans, leaf-beetles, weevils, bees, carabids, spiders) were sampled. We recorded 347 plant species, 748 territories of 43 bird species, and 51,883 individuals of 808 arthropod species. Compared to West European farmlands, species richness was generally very high. Grazing intensity had minor effects on ¿ and ¿ diversity, abundance and composition of the species assemblages. Region had significant effects on species richness and abundance of four taxa, and had strong effects on ¿ diversity and species composition of all taxa. Regional differences therefore contributed significantly to the high overall biodiversity. We conclude that both grazing regimes deliver significant biodiversity benefits. Agri-environmental policy at the EU level should promote the maintenance of large scale extensive farming systems. At the national level, the effectiveness of agri-environment schemes should be improved via promoting and using research evidence
    Combining biodiversity conservation with agricultural intensification
    Tscharntke, T. ; Batáry, P. ; Clough, Y. ; Kleijn, D. ; Scherber, C. ; Thies, C. ; Wanger, T.C. ; Westphal, C. - \ 2012
    In: Land Use Intensification: Effects on Agriculture, Biodiversity and Ecological Processes / Lindenmayer, D., Cunningham, S., Young, A., Collingwood, Australia : CSIRO Publishing (Advances in agroecology ) - ISBN 9780643104075 - p. 7 - 15.
    publisher's description There can be little doubt that there are truly colossal challenges associated with providing food, fibre and energy for an expanding world population without further accelerating already rapid rates of biodiversity loss and undermining the ecosystem processes on which we all depend. These challenges are further complicated by rapid changes in climate and its additional direct impacts on agriculture, biodiversity and ecological processes. There are many different viewpoints about the best way to deal with the myriad issues associated with land use intensification and this book canvasses a number of these from different parts of the tropical and temperate world. Chapters focus on whether science can suggest new and improved approaches to reducing the conflict between productive land use and biodiversity conservation. Who should read this book? Policy makers in regional, state and federal governments, as well as scientists and the interested lay public.
    Interactive effects of landscape context constrain the effectiveness of local agri-environmental management
    Concepción, E.D. ; Díaz, M. ; Kleijn, D. ; Báldi, A. ; Batáry, P. ; Clough, Y. ; Gabriel, D. ; Herzog, F. ; Holzschuh, A. ; Knop, E. ; Marshall, J.P. ; Tscharntke, T. ; Verhulst, J. - \ 2012
    Journal of Applied Ecology 49 (2012)5. - ISSN 0021-8901 - p. 695 - 705.
    different spatial scales - farmland biodiversity - agricultural landscapes - species-diversity - field margins - schemes - corridors - europe - matrix - birds
    summary 1. Ecological theory predicts that the effectiveness of local agri-environmental management to enhance species richness at field scales will be the highest at intermediate levels of landscape complexity because of nonlinear effects of landscape context on field-scale diversity. 2. We examined how landscape complexity determined effectiveness of local agri-environmental management in terms of effects on species richness of birds, plants, spiders and bees in 232 extensive and intensive paired fields (112 arable fields and 120 grasslands) from 18 regions located in six European countries. 3. As predicted, landscape complexity enhanced field-scale species richness in a mostly nonlinear (sigmoidal) way, with earlier species richness increases in extensive than in intensive fields along landscape complexity gradients. Length of semi-natural boundaries (for arable fields) and proportion of unfarmed habitat (for grasslands) were the landscape features influencing species richness. 4. The relationships between effectiveness of local management and landscape complexity for all taxa were best described with hump-shaped curves, indicating the highest effectiveness at intermediate landscape complexities. 5. Synthesis and applications. We used models to investigate how and why effects of local management intensity on species richness vary along wide gradients of landscape complexity. We conclude that landscape-scale management options should take priority over local extensification measures within agri-environmental programmes. These programmes should follow a hierarchical multi-scale approach directed to address landscape-scale constraints on local diversity.
    Landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns and processes - eight hypotheses
    Tscharntke, T. ; Tylianakis, J.M. ; Rand, T.A. ; Didham, R.K. ; Fahrig, L. ; Batary, P. ; Bengtsson, J. ; Clough, Y. ; Crist, T.O. ; Dormann, C. ; Ewers, R.M. ; Frund, J. ; Holt, R.D. ; Holzschuh, A. ; Klein, A.M. ; Kleijn, D. ; Kremen, C. ; Landis, D.A. ; Laurance, W.F. ; Lindenmayer, D.B. ; Scherber, C. ; Sodhi, N. ; Steffan-Dewenter, I. ; Thies, C. ; Putten, W.H. van der; Westphal, C. - \ 2012
    Biological Reviews 87 (2012)3. - ISSN 1464-7931 - p. 661 - 685.
    different spatial scales - agri-environment schemes - land-use intensity - experimentally fragmented landscape - species-area relationships - tropical habitat gradient - soil decomposer community - biological-control agents - natural enemy diversity - food-web str
    Understanding how landscape characteristics affect biodiversity patterns and ecological processes at local and landscape scales is critical for mitigating effects of global environmental change. In this review, we use knowledge gained from human-modified landscapes to suggest eight hypotheses, which we hope will encourage more systematic research on the role of landscape composition and configuration in determining the structure of ecological communities, ecosystem functioning and services. We organize the eight hypotheses under four overarching themes. Section A: ‘landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns' includes (1) the landscape species pool hypothesis—the size of the landscape-wide species pool moderates local (alpha) biodiversity, and (2) the dominance of beta diversity hypothesis—landscape-moderated dissimilarity of local communities determines landscape-wide biodiversity and overrides negative local effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Section B: ‘landscape moderation of population dynamics' includes (3) the cross-habitat spillover hypothesis—landscape-moderated spillover of energy, resources and organisms across habitats, including between managed and natural ecosystems, influences landscape-wide community structure and associated processes and (4) the landscape-moderated concentration and dilution hypothesis—spatial and temporal changes in landscape composition can cause transient concentration or dilution of populations with functional consequences. Section C: ‘landscape moderation of functional trait selection’ includes (5) the landscape-moderated functional trait selection hypothesis—landscape moderation of species trait selection shapes the functional role and trajectory of community assembly, and (6) the landscape-moderated insurance hypothesis—landscape complexity provides spatial and temporal insurance, i.e. high resilience and stability of ecological processes in changing environments. Section D: ‘landscape constraints on conservation management' includes (7) the intermediate landscape-complexity hypothesis—landscape-moderated effectiveness of local conservation management is highest in structurally simple, rather than in cleared (i.e. extremely simplified) or in complex landscapes, and (8) the landscape-moderated biodiversity versus ecosystem service management hypothesis—landscape-moderated biodiversity conservation to optimize functional diversity and related ecosystem services will not protect endangered species. Shifting our research focus from local to landscape-moderated effects on biodiversity will be critical to developing solutions for future biodiversity and ecosystem service management.
    Letter to the editor: Conservation: Limits of Land Sparing
    Fischer, J. ; Batáry, P. ; Bawa, K. ; Brussaard, L. ; Chappell, M.J. ; Clough, Y. ; Daily, G. ; Dorrough, J. ; Hartel, T. ; Jackson, L.E. ; Klein, A.M. ; Kremen, C. ; Kuemmerle, T. ; Lindenmayer, D.B. ; Mooney, H.A. ; Perfecto, I. ; Philpott, S.M. ; Tscharntke, T. ; Meer, J. van der; Wanger, T.C. ; Wehrden, H. von - \ 2011
    Science 334 (2011)6056. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 593 - 593.
    biodiversity conservation - food
    Landscape-mediated biodiversity effects of agri-environmental management - a meta-analysis.
    Batáry, P. ; Báldi, A. ; Kleijn, D. ; Tscharntke, T. - \ 2011
    Proceedings of the Royal Society. B: Biological Sciences 278 (2011)1713. - ISSN 0962-8452 - p. 1894 - 1902.
    agricultural land-use - file-drawer problem - farmland biodiversity - ecosystem service - natural enemies - pollinator diversity - european countries - biological-control - crop pollination - habitat
    Agri-environmental management (AEM) is heralded as being key to biodiversity conservation on farmland, yet results of these schemes have been mixed, making their general utility questionable. We test with meta-analysis whether the benefits of AEM for species richness and abundance of plants and animals are determined by the surrounding landscape context. Across all studies (109 observations for species richness and 114 observations for abundance), AEM significantly increased species richness and their abundance. More specifically, we test the hypothesis that AEM benefits species richness and abundance (i.e. increases the difference between fields with and without AEM) more in simple than in complex landscapes. In croplands, species richness but not abundance was significantly enhanced in simple but not in complex landscapes. In grasslands, AEM effectively enhanced species richness and abundance regardless of landscape context. Pollinators were significantly enhanced by AEM in simple but not in complex landscapes in both croplands and grasslands. Our results highlight that the one-size-fits-all approach of many agri-environmental programmes is not an efficient way of spending the limited funds available for biodiversity conservation on farmland. Therefore, we conclude that AEM should be adapted to landscape structure and the species groups at which they are targeted.
    Effect of conservation management on bees and insect-pollinated grassland plant communities in three European countries
    Batáry, P. ; Báldi, A. ; Sárospataki, M. ; Kohler, F. ; Verhulst, J. ; Knop, E. ; Herzog, F. ; Kleijn, D. - \ 2010
    Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 136 (2010)1-2. - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 35 - 39.
    agri-environment schemes - intensively farmed landscapes - grazing intensity - agricultural intensification - promoting biodiversity - farmland biodiversity - diversity - scale - assemblages - populations
    It is now widely accepted that agricultural intensification drives the decline of biodiversity and related ecosystem services like pollination. Conservation management, such as agri-environment schemes (AES), has been introduced to counteract these declines, but in Western European countries these tend to produce mixed biodiversity benefits. Not much is known about the effects of AES in Central and Eastern European countries. We evaluated the effect of reduced stocking rates (0.5 cow/ha vs. >1 cow/ha) on bees and insect-pollinated plants in semi-natural pastures in Hungary. We sampled bees using sweep net and transect surveys in the edge and interior of the fields three times in 2003. On the same transects, we also estimated the cover of all plant species. We found no management effect on species richness and abundance with respect to cover of bees and insect-pollinated plants, but grazing intensity resulted in differences in species composition of insect-pollinated plants. Furthermore, we compared our results with those of a similar study carried out in Switzerland, and the Netherlands, but with different management regimes. There were positive effects of management in Switzerland, but conservation effects were lacking in the Netherlands. Species richness of both bees and insect-pollinated plants was highest in Hungary, intermediate in Switzerland and lowest in the Netherlands. Across all countries, the richness of insect-pollinated plants was a good predictor of bee species richness. Grassland extensification schemes were effective for bees and insect-pollinated plants in the country with intermediate land-use intensity and biodiversity only (Switzerland). The absence of effects in the Netherlands may have been caused by the management being highly intensive on both field types. In Hungarian grasslands biodiversity levels were high regardless of management and both investigated stocking rates may be qualified as conservation management. Therefore, agricultural policy in Hungary should encourage the maintenance of a variety of traditional grazing practices for conserving this still highly diverse pollinator fauna.
    On the relationship between farmland biodiversity and land-use intensity in Europe
    Kleijn, D. ; Kohler, F. ; Báldi, A. ; Batáry, P. ; Concepción, E.D. ; Clough, Y. ; Diaz, M. ; Gabriel, D. ; Holzschuh, A. ; Knop, E. ; Marshall, E.J.P. ; Tscharntke, T. ; Verhulst, J. - \ 2009
    Proceedings of the Royal Society. B: Biological Sciences 276 (2009)1658. - ISSN 0962-8452 - p. 903 - 909.
    agri-environment schemes - agricultural intensification - species richness - bird populations - diversity - landscape - areas - conservation - scale - set
    Worldwide agriculture is one of the main drivers of biodiversity decline. Effective conservation strategies depend on the type of relationship between biodiversity and land-use intensity, but to date the shape of this relationship is unknown. We linked plant species richness with nitrogen (N) input as an indicator of land-use intensity on 130 grasslands and 141 arable fields in six European countries. Using Poisson regression, we found that plant species richness was significantly negatively related to N input on both field types after the effects of confounding environmental factors had been accounted for. Subsequent analyses showed that exponentially declining relationships provided a better fit than linear or unimodal relationships and that this was largely the result of the response of rare species (relative cover less than 1%). Our results indicate that conservation benefits are disproportionally more costly on high-intensity than on low-intensity farmland. For example, reducing N inputs from 75 to 0 and 400 to 60¿kg¿ha-1¿yr-1 resulted in about the same estimated species gain for arable plants. Conservation initiatives are most (cost-)effective if they are preferentially implemented in extensively farmed areas that still support high levels of biodiversity
    Effects of local and landscape scale and cattle grazing intensity on Orthoptera assemblages of the Hungarian Great Plain
    Batary, P. ; Orci, K.M. ; Baldi, A. ; Kleijn, D. ; Kisbenedek, T. ; Erdas, S. - \ 2007
    Basic and Applied Ecology 8 (2007)3. - ISSN 1439-1791 - p. 280 - 290.
    agri-environment schemes - insect communities - plant diversity - biodiversity - abundance - conservation - grasshoppers - populations - acrididae - land
    The aims of this study were to test the influence of grazing intensity, effects of local and landscape parameters, and regional effects on orthopteran assemblages. We made our investigations on extensively and intensively grazed cattle pastures in three regions of the Hungarian Great Plain. The regions differed in landscape complexity; one region was situated in a structurally simple landscape with large landscape units, one in a structurally complex landscape with marshy patches and trees in the grasslands and one in a landscape with intermediate structural complexity. In each region we had seven pairs of differently managed grasslands, which differed in grazing intensity. Grasshoppers were recorded once in July 2003 using sweepnet catches and visual and acoustic observations in two 95 m long transects at each site (84 transects in total). Botanical surveys and measurements of other local factors were also made for each transect. After samplings, we digitised the most important land-use types using aerial photographs to produce landscape scale parameters within 100 and 500 m circles around every site. Analysing the management, regional, landscape and local effects on species richness with linear mixed models, we showed only strong significant regional differences. Linear mixed models for Orthoptera abundance yielded significant regional effects and marginal management effects. However, after including local and landscape parameters in a separate model a marginal local effect was found instead of a management effect in addition to the significant regional effect. Logistic regression models of 15 species also revealed the importance of local factors, particularly the importance of grass height, which is highly dependent on grazing intensity. We conclude that management intensity has indirect effects on Orthoptera species richness and abundance. Landscape scale parameters are also important, at least for some species.
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