Shifts in national land use and food production in Great Britain after a climate tipping point
Ritchie, Paul D.L. ; Smith, Greg S. ; Davis, Katrina J. ; Fezzi, Carlo ; Halleck-Vega, Solmaria ; Harper, Anna B. ; Boulton, Chris A. ; Binner, Amy R. ; Day, Brett H. ; Gallego-Sala, Angela V. ; Mecking, Jennifer V. ; Sitch, Stephen A. ; Lenton, Timothy M. ; Bateman, Ian J. - \ 2020
Nature Food 1 (2020)1. - ISSN 2662-1355 - p. 76 - 83.
Climate change is expected to impact agricultural land use. Steadily accumulating changes in temperature and water availability can alter the relative profitability of different farming activities and promote land-use changes. There is also potential for high-impact ‘climate tipping points’, where abrupt, nonlinear change in climate occurs, such as the potential collapse of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Here, using data from Great Britain, we develop a methodology to analyse the impacts of a climate tipping point on land use and economic outcomes for agriculture. We show that economic and land-use impacts of such a tipping point are likely to include widespread cessation of arable farming with losses of agricultural output that are an order of magnitude larger than the impacts of climate change without an AMOC collapse. The agricultural effects of AMOC collapse could be ameliorated by technological adaptations such as widespread irrigation, but the amount of water required and the costs appear to be prohibitive in this instance.
Large changes in Great Britain's vegetation and agricultural land-use predicted under unmitigated climate change
Ritchie, P.D.L. ; Harper, Anna B. ; Smith, G.S. ; Kahana, R. ; Kendon, Elizabeth J. ; Lewis, Huw ; Fezzi, Carlo ; Halleck Vega, Sol Maria ; Boulton, C.A. ; Bateman, I.J. ; Lenton, T.M. - \ 2019
Environmental Research Letters 14 (2019). - ISSN 1748-9326
vegetation productivity - GB - arable production - unmitigated climate change - RCP8.5
The impact of climate change on vegetation including agricultural production has been the focus of many studies. Climate change is expected to have heterogeneous effects across locations globally, and the diversity of land uses characterising Great Britain (GB) presents a unique opportunity to testmethods for assessing climate change effects and impacts. GB is a relatively cool and damp country, hence, the warmer and generally drier growing season conditions projected for the future are expected to increase arable production. Here we use state-of-the-art, kilometre-scale climate change scenarios to drive a land surface model (JULES; Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) and anECOnometricAGricultural land use model (ECO-AG). Under unmitigated climate change, by the end of the century, the growing season in GB is projected to get>5 °C warmer and 140 mm drier on average. Rising levels of atmospheric CO2 are predicted to counteract the generally negative impacts of climate change on vegetation productivity in JULES. Given sufficient precipitation, warming favours higher value arable production over grassland agriculture, causing a predicted westward expansion of arable farming in ECO-AG. However, drying in the East and Southeast, without any CO2 fertilisation effect, is severe enough to cause a predicted reversion from arable to grassland farming. Irrigation, if implemented, could maintain this land in arable production. However, the predicted irrigation demand of ∼200 mm (per growing season) in many locations is comparable to annual predicted runoff, potentially demanding large-scale redistribution of water between seasons and/or across the country. The strength of the CO2 fertilisation effect emerges as a crucial uncertainty in projecting the impact of climate change on GB vegetation, especially farming land-use decisions.
Phylogenetic analyses and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter spp. from diarrhoeal patients and chickens in Botswana
Vries, Stefan P.W. De; Vurayai, Moses ; Holmes, Mark ; Gupta, Srishti ; Bateman, Michael ; Goldfarb, David ; Maskell, Duncan J. ; Matsheka, Maitshwarelo Ignatius ; Grant, Andrew J. - \ 2018
PLoS ONE 13 (2018)3. - ISSN 1932-6203
Campylobacter spp. are a leading cause of bacterial enteritis worldwide, including countries in Africa, and have been identified by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as one of the high priority antimicrobial resistant pathogens. However, at present there is little knowledge on the prevalence, molecular epidemiology or antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter spp. isolates in Botswana, both in patients and in the zoonotic context. Some data indicate that ~14% of diarrhoeal disease cases in a paediatric setting can be ascribed to Campylobacter spp., urging the need for the magnitude of Campylobacter-associated diarrhoea to be established. In this survey, we have characterised the genomic diversity of Campylobacter spp. circulating in Botswana isolated from cases of diarrhoeal disease in humans (n = 20) and from those that colonised commercial broiler (n = 35) and free-range (n = 35) chickens. Phylogeny showed that the Campylobacter spp. isolated from the different poultry and human sources were highly related, suggesting that zoonotic transmission has likely occurred. We found that for Campylobacter spp. isolated from humans, broilers and free-range chickens, 52% was positive for tetO, 47% for gyrA-T86I, 72% for blaOXA-61, with 27% carrying all three resistance determinants. No 23S mutations conferring macrolide resistance were detected in this survey. In summary, our study provides insight into Campylobacter spp. in poultry reservoirs and in diarrhoeal patients, and the relevance for treatment regimens in Botswana.
Development and application of a duplex PCR assay for detection of Crangon crangon bacilliform virus in populations of European brown shrimp (Crangon crangon)
Eynde, Benigna Van; Christiaens, Olivier ; Delbare, Daan ; Cooreman, Kris ; Bateman, Kelly S. ; Stentiford, Grant D. ; Dullemans, Annette M. ; Oers, Monique M. van; Smagghe, Guy - \ 2018
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 153 (2018). - ISSN 0022-2011 - p. 195 - 202.
Aquaculture - CcBV - Crustacean - Diagnostic - Disease - Nudiviridae
Crangon crangon bacilliform virus (CcBV) was first discovered in 2004 in European brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) caught along the English coast. This study describes a duplex PCR assay developed for the detection of CcBV, based on amplification of the lef-8 gene (211 bp) of CcBV and the E75 gene (105 bp) of C. crangon as an internal amplification control. The lef-8 and E75 primer pairs were designed based on preliminary genome sequencing information of the virus and transcriptomic data available for C. crangon, respectively. Sequencing of the resulting amplicons confirmed the specificity of this PCR assay and sequence analysis of the lef-8 fragment revealed amino acid identity percentages ranging between 31 and 42% with members of the Nudiviridae, proposing that CcBV may reside within this family.Finally, the duplex PCR assay was applied to samples of C. crangon hepatopancreas tissue collected along the Belgian coast to screen for the presence of CcBV. The prevalence of CcBV averaged 87%, which is comparable to previous reports of high prevalence, based upon histological analysis, in shrimp collected along the English coast. Development of a specific and sensitive PCR assay to detect CcBV will provide a useful tool for future aquaculture and research programs involving C. crangon.
Genome assembly of E. coli KV7, a BLA-CTX-containing strain isolated from a pig
Bateman, Michael D. ; Vries, S.P.W. de; Gupta, Srishti ; Guardabassi, Luca ; Cavaco, Lina M. ; Grant, Andrew J. ; Holmes, Mark A. - \ 2017
e. coli - PRJEB19461 - ERP021501
We report the chromosome and plasmid sequences of a spontaneous nalidixic acid resistant derivative of the ESBL-producing E. coli strain KV7. E. coli KV7 was originally isolated from a healthy pig that was treated prophylactically with ceftiofur. KV7 belongs to serotype O27 and phylogenetic group D, and has been used in experimental infection of piglets to study the effect of beta-lactam antibiotics on selection and persistence of ESBL-producing E. coli. A combination of PacBio and Illumina sequencing allowed us to provide a SNP-corrected single-contig assembly for the chromosome and each of six plasmids.
Genome and plasmid sequences of Escherichia coli KV7, an extended- spectrum β-Lactamase isolate derived from feces of a healthy pig
Bateman, Michael D. ; Vries, Stefan P.W. de; Gupta, Srishti ; Guardabassi, Luca ; Cavaco, Lina M. ; Grant, Andrew J. ; Holmes, Mark A. - \ 2017
Genome Announcements 5 (2017)38. - ISSN 2169-8287 - 2 p.
We present single-contig assemblies for Escherichia coli strain KV7 (serotype O27, phylogenetic group D) and its six plasmids, isolated from a healthy pig, as determined by PacBio RS II and Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The chromosome of 4,997,475 bp and G+C content of 50.75% harbored 4,540 protein-encoding genes.
Viruses of invertebrates related to the food-chain
Oers, Monique M. van; Bateman, Kelly S. ; Stentiford, Grant D. - \ 2017
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 147 (2017). - ISSN 0022-2011 - 3 p.
|Development of a duplex PCR as screening tool for the detection of Crangon crangon bacilliform virus in the European brown shrimp Crangon crangon
Eynde, B. van; Christaens, O. ; Delbare, D. ; Bateman, K.S. ; Stentiford, G. ; Dullemans, A.M. ; Oers, M.M. van; Smagghe, G. - \ 2016
The brown shrimp Crangon crangon is an important species ecologically and economically. Due to low landings of large animals (less than 2 % > 7cm) and a growing demand for living shrimps, C. crangon was identified as a candidate for aquaculture. However, in 2004, researchers found thatthis species could be infected with C. Crangon Bacilliform Virus, an intranuclear bacilliform virus mainly infecting the hepatopancreas. This virus,acting as an extra stress factor, could affect the health status of C. crangon reared in captivity, resulting in higher mortality. CCBV could therefore bethe reason why the life cycle of C. crangon was never closed in captivity. A screening tool for the detection of CCBV was developed in order toexamine the infection severity. The research focused on the optimization of a duplex PCR, which amplifies an internal amplification control geneand a viral gene. Once the duplex PCR was optimized with reared shrimp, a prevalence study was conducted with wild samples from several regionsof the Belgian Coast. Results indicate that the prevalence of CCBV is between 80 and 94 % in the examined populations. The high prevalence canindicate that the virus is transmitted from female to offspring. To confirm this hypothesis, more experiments are needed to determine how thisvirus is transmitted to the offspring. The development of a detection tool for CCBV offers the ability to rapidly and reliably screen wild and reared C.crangon and also transmission can be studied in more detail. This will enable us to select healthy and virus-free individuals, which will not onlycontribute to the rearing of this species, but also for research purposes, allowing us to use standardized bioassay tests.
Diagnosing the unknown - advancing the taxonomy of aquatic invertebrate viruses
Bateman, K.S. ; Stentiford, G.D. ; Oers, M.M. van - \ 2014
In: Proceeding of the 2014 IC on Invertebrate Pathology and Microbial Control & 47th Annual Meeting of the Society for Invertebrate Pathology. - Julius Kühn-Institut - p. 127 - 127.
Comment on “Bateman in Nature: Predation on Offspring Reduces the Potential for Sexual Selection”
Ramm, S.A. ; Jonker, R.M. ; Reinhold, K. ; Szekely, T. ; Trillmich, F. ; Schmoll, T. ; Schielzeth, H. ; Freckleton, R.P. - \ 2013
Science 340 (2013)6132. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 549 - 549.
Byers and Dunn’s (Reports, 9 November 2012, p.802) conclusion that predation constrains sexual selection is problematic for three reasons: their nonstandard calculation of Bateman slopes; their assertion that random processes do not influence reproductive success; and the statistically unjustifiable use of 6 variables to explain just 10 observations.
Himantoglossum jankae (Orchidaceae: Orchideae), a new name for a long-misnamed lizard orchid
Molnar, A. ; Kreutz, C.A.J. ; Ovari, M. ; Sennikov, A.N. ; Bateman, R.M. ; Takacs, A. ; Somlyay, L. ; Sramko, G. - \ 2012
Phytotaxa 73 (2012). - ISSN 1179-3155 - p. 8 - 12.
A new name, Himantoglossum jankae, is given to the widely recognised lizard orchid species that is distributed primarily in the Balkan Peninsula and the northwestern region of Asia Minor and has been erroneously named H. caprinum in most previous literature. The new species differs from its closest relatives in having the combination of relatively large, reddish-purple coloured flowers and labella that bear red papillate spots and comparatively long spurs. We present a morphological description of H. jankae, together with illustrations, distribution information and diagnostic comparisons with H. calcaratum, H. adriaticum and H. caprinum.
|Track and tyre width influences sprayer boom movement
Michielsen, J.M.G.P. ; Zande, J.C. van de - \ 2004
In: International advances in pesticide application 2004, London, 5-7 January 2004 / Bateman, R.P., Warwick : Association of Applied Biologists - p. 481 - 488.
|Effect of sprayer boom movement on spray deposition and biological efficacy
Zande, J.C. van de; Michielsen, J.M.G.P. ; Stallinga, H. ; Meier, R. ; Schepers, H.T.A.M. - \ 2004
In: International advances in pesticide application 2004, London, 5-7 January 2004 / Bateman, R.P., Warwick : Association of Applied Biologists - p. 91 - 98.
|Fine nozzles can be used and reduce spray drift : when used at low boom height and smaller nozzle spacing
Stallinga, H. ; Zande, J.C. van de; Michielsen, J.M.G.P. ; Velde, P. van - \ 2004
In: International advances in pesticide application 2004, London, 5-7 January 2004 / Bateman, R.P., Warwick : Association of Applied Biologists - p. 141 - 148.
|Controlling infection of cereal grain by toxigenic Fusarium spp. using fungal competitors
Dawson, W.A.J.M. ; Bateman, G.L. ; Köhl, J. ; Haas, B.H. de; Lombaers-van der Plas, C.H. ; Corazza, L. ; Luongo, L. ; Galli, M. ; Jestoi, M. ; Rizzo, A. - \ 2002
In: Proceedings of the BCPC Conference 2002: Pest & Diseases. - [S.l.] : [s.n.], 2002 - p. 347 - 352.
|On the origin of the triploid cultivated potato Solanum juzepczukii.
Kardolus, J.P. ; Zevenbergen, M. ; Berg, R.G. van den - \ 1997
In: Hollingsworth P., Bateman R. and Gornall R. (Eds) Abstracts 'Advances in plant molecular systematics'. University of Glasgow (1997)