Effects of Dutch livestock production on human health and the environment
Post, Pim M. ; Hogerwerf, Lenny ; Bokkers, Eddie A.M. ; Baumann, Bert ; Fischer, Paul ; Rutledge-Jonker, Susanna ; Hilderink, Henk ; Hollander, Anne ; Hoogsteen, Martine J.J. ; Liebman, Alex ; Mangen, Marie-Josée J. ; Manuel, Henk Jan ; Mughini-Gras, Lapo ; Poll, Ric van; Posthuma, Leo ; Pul, Addo van; Rutgers, Michiel ; Schmitt, Heike ; Steenbergen, Jim van; Sterk, Hendrika A.M. ; Verschoor, Anja ; Vries, Wilco de; Wallace, Robert G. ; Wichink Kruit, Roy ; Lebret, Erik ; Boer, Imke J.M. de - \ 2020
Science of the Total Environment 737 (2020). - ISSN 0048-9697
Animal production - Climate impact - Disability-adjusted life year (DALY) - Environmental impact - Livestock farming
Observed multiple adverse effects of livestock production have led to increasing calls for more sustainable livestock production. Quantitative analysis of adverse effects, which can guide public debate and policy development in this area, is limited and generally scattered across environmental, human health, and other science domains. The aim of this study was to bring together and, where possible, quantify and aggregate the effects of national-scale livestock production on 17 impact categories, ranging from impacts of particulate matter, emerging infectious diseases and odor annoyance to airborne nitrogen deposition on terrestrial nature areas and greenhouse gas emissions. Effects were estimated and scaled to total Dutch livestock production, with system boundaries including feed production, manure management and transport, but excluding slaughtering, retail and consumption. Effects were expressed using eight indicators that directly express Impact in the sense of the Drivers-Pressures-State-Impact-Response framework, while the remaining 14 express Pressures or States. Results show that livestock production may contribute both positively and negatively to human health with a human disease burden (expressed in disability-adjusted life years) of up to 4% for three different health effects: those related to particulate matter, zoonoses, and occupational accidents. The contribution to environmental impact ranges from 2% for consumptive water use in the Netherlands to 95% for phosphorus transfer to soils, and extends beyond Dutch borders. While some aggregation across impact categories was possible, notably for burden of disease estimates, further aggregation of disparate indicators would require normative value judgement. Despite difficulty of aggregation, the assessment shows that impacts receive a different contribution of different animal sectors. While some of our results are country-specific, the overall approach is generic and can be adapted and tuned according to specific contexts and information needs in other regions, to allow informed decision making across a broad range of impact categories.
Environmental Impact Reporting in Agriculture (EIRA) : Creating a link between agricultural investments and environmental impact
Negra, C. ; Houtkamp, J.M. ; Havemann, T. ; Baumann, Karsten ; Werneck, F. ; Janssen, H. ; Kuikman, P.J. ; Vullings, L.A.E. - \ 2019
- 28 p.
Cancer Prevention Europe
Wild, Christopher P. ; Espina, Carolina ; Bauld, Linda ; Bonanni, Bernardo ; Brenner, Hermann ; Brown, Karen ; Dillner, Joakim ; Forman, David ; Kampman, Ellen ; Nilbert, Mef ; Steindorf, Karen ; Storm, Hans ; Vineis, Paolo ; Baumann, Michael ; Schüz, Joachim - \ 2019
Molecular Oncology 13 (2019)3. - ISSN 1574-7891 - p. 528 - 534.
cancer - Cancer Prevention Europe - Europe
The case for cancer prevention in Europe is the same as for all other parts of the world. The number of cancers is increasing, driven by demographic change and evolution in the exposure to risk factors, while the cost of treating patients is likewise spiralling. Estimations suggest that around 40% of cancers in Europe could be prevented if current understanding of risk and protective factors was translated into effective primary prevention, with further reductions in cancer incidence and mortality by screening, other approaches to early detection, and potentially medical prevention. However, the infrastructure for cancer prevention tends to be fragmented between and within different countries in Europe. This lack of a coordinated approach recently led to the foundation of Cancer Prevention Europe (Forman et al., 2018), a collaborative network with the main aims of strengthening cancer prevention in Europe by increasing awareness of the needs, the associated required resources and reducing inequalities in access to cancer prevention across Europe. This article showcases the need for strengthening cancer prevention and introduces the objectives of Cancer Prevention Europe and its foreseen future role in reducing the European cancer burden.
Aetiology and progression of cancer: Role of body fatness, physical activity, diet, and other lifestyle factors
Duijnhoven, F.J.B. van; Kampman, E. - \ 2016
In: Oxford Textbook of Oncology / Kerr, David J., Haller, Daniel G., van de Velde, C.J.H., Baumann, M., Oxford University Press - ISBN 9780199656103
Worldwide, there is a large difference in cancer rates. These rates may change over generations when people move from one part of the world to another. This occurs because these generations adapt their lifestyle to that of the host country, indicating that lifestyle factors are important in the aetiology of cancer. In this chapter an overview of established associations between body fatness, physical activity, diet, and other lifestyle factors and the development of cancer is given. About one-third of all cancers worldwide are caused by an unhealthy lifestyle. Evidence-based recommendations for the general population to decrease their risk of cancer have been set. Guidelines for individuals who are diagnosed with cancer, however, are lacking, due to limited evidence on the role of lifestyle during and after cancer treatment. Research should now be directed towards the role of body fatness, physical activity, diet, and other lifestyle factors in cancer progression.
Understanding isoprene photooxidation using observations and modeling over a subtropical forest in the southeastern US
Su, Luping ; Patton, Edward G. ; Vilà-guerau De Arellano, Jordi ; Guenther, Alex B. ; Kaser, Lisa ; Yuan, Bin ; Xiong, Fulizi ; Shepson, Paul B. ; Zhang, Li ; Miller, David O. ; Brune, William H. ; Baumann, Karsten ; Edgerton, Eric ; Weinheimer, Andrew ; Misztal, Pawel K. ; Park, Jeong-Hoo ; Goldstein, Allen H. ; Skog, Kate M. ; Keutsch, Frank N. ; Mak, John E. - \ 2016
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16 (2016)12. - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 7725 - 7741.
The emission, dispersion, and photochemistry of isoprene (C5H8) and related chemical species in the convective boundary layer (CBL) during sunlit daytime were studied over a mixed forest in the southeastern United States by combining ground-based and aircraft observations. Fluxes of isoprene and monoterpenes were quantified at the top of the forest canopy using a high-resolution proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS). Snapshot (∼ 2 min sampling duration) vertical profiles of isoprene, methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) + methacrolein (MACR), and monoterpenes were collected from aircraft every hour in the CBL (100–1000 m). Both ground-based and airborne collected volatile organic compound (VOC) data are used to constrain the initial conditions of a mixed-layer chemistry model (MXLCH), which is applied to examine the chemical evolution of the O3–NOx–HOx–VOC system and how it is affected by boundary layer dynamics in the CBL. The chemical loss rate of isoprene (∼ 1 h) is similar to the turbulent mixing timescale (0.1–0.5 h), which indicates that isoprene concentrations are equally dependent on both photooxidation and boundary layer dynamics. Analysis of a model-derived concentration budget suggests that diurnal evolution of isoprene inside the CBL is mainly controlled by surface emissions and chemical loss; the diurnal evolution of O3 is dominated by entrainment. The NO to HO2 ratio (NO : HO2) is used as an indicator of anthropogenic impact on the CBL chemical composition and spans a wide range (1–163). The fate of hydroxyl-substituted isoprene peroxyl radical (HOC5H8OO·; ISOPOO) is strongly affected by NO : HO2, shifting from NO-dominant to NO–HO2-balanced conditions from early morning to noontime. This chemical regime change is reflected in the diurnal evolution of isoprene hydroxynitrates (ISOPN) and isoprene hydroxy hydroperoxides (ISOPOOH).
A review of the application of optical and radar remote sensing data fusion to land use mapping and monitoring
Joshi, Neha ; Baumann, Matthias ; Ehammer, Andrea ; Reiche, Johannes - \ 2016
Remote Sensing 8 (2016)1. - ISSN 2072-4292 - 23 p.
ALOS PALSAR - Decision tree - ERS-1 and -2 - Land cover - Landsat - Machine learning - Meta-analysis - Optical - Pixel- and segment-level analyses - Synthetic aperture radar
The wealth of complementary data available from remote sensing missions can hugely aid efforts towards accurately determining land use and quantifying subtle changes in land use management or intensity. This study reviewed 112 studies on fusing optical and radar data, which offer unique spectral and structural information, for land cover and use assessments. Contrary to our expectations, only 50 studies specifically addressed land use, and five assessed land use changes, while the majority addressed land cover. The advantages of fusion for land use analysis were assessed in 32 studies, and a large majority (28 studies) concluded that fusion improved results compared to using single data sources. Study sites were small, frequently 300-3000 km2 or individual plots, with a lack of comparison of results and accuracies across sites. Although a variety of fusion techniques were used, pre-classification fusion followed by pixel-level inputs in traditional classification algorithms (e.g., Gaussian maximum likelihood classification) was common, but often without a concrete rationale on the applicability of the method to the land use theme being studied. Progress in this field of research requires the development of robust techniques of fusion to map the intricacies of land uses and changes therein and systematic procedures to assess the benefits of fusion over larger spatial scales.
In Situ Spatially and Temporally Resolved Measurements of Salt Concentration between Charging Porous Electrodes for Desalination by Capacitive Deionization
Suss, M.E. ; Biesheuvel, P.M. ; Baumann, T.E. ; Stadermann, M. ; Santiago, J.G. - \ 2014
Environmental Science and Technology 48 (2014)3. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 2008 - 2015.
mesoporous carbon - constant-current - ion-transport - waste-water - membrane - efficiency - performance - electrolytes - optimization - porosity
Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an emerging water desalination technique. In CDI, pairs of porous electrode capacitors are electrically charged to remove salt from brackish water present between the electrodes. We here present a novel experimental technique allowing measurement of spatially and temporally resolved salt concentration between the CDI electrodes. Our technique measures the local fluorescence intensity of a neutrally charged fluorescent probe which is collisionally quenched by chloride ions. To our knowledge, our system is the first to measure in situ and spatially resolved chloride concentration in a laboratory CDI cell. We here demonstrate good agreement between our dynamic measurements of salt concentration in a charging, millimeter-scale CDI system to the results of a modified Donnan porous electrode transport model. Further, we utilize our dynamic measurements to demonstrate that salt removal between our charging CDI electrodes occurs on a longer time scale than the capacitive charging time scales of our CDI cell. Compared to typical measurements of CDI system performance (namely, measurements of outflow ionic conductivity), our technique can enable more advanced and better-controlled studies of ion transport in CDI systems, which can potentially catalyze future performance improvements.
On interval branch-and-bound for additively separable functions with common variables
Berenguel, J.L. ; Casado, L.G. ; García, I. ; Hendrix, E.M.T. ; Messine, F. - \ 2013
Journal of Global Optimization 56 (2013)3. - ISSN 0925-5001 - p. 1101 - 1121.
constrained global optimization - baumann - forms
Interval branch-and-bound (B&B) algorithms are powerful methods which look for guaranteed solutions of global optimisation problems. The computational effort needed to reach this aim, increases exponentially with the problem dimension in the worst case. For separable functions this effort is less, as lower dimensional sub-problems can be solved individually. The question is how to design specific methods for cases where the objective function can be considered separable, but common variables occur in the sub-problems. This paper is devoted to establish the bases of B&B algorithms for separable problems. New B&B rules are presented based on derived properties to compute bounds. A numerical illustration is elaborated with a test-bed of problems mostly generated by combining traditional box constrained global optimisation problems, to show the potential of using the derived theoretical basis.
On lower bounds using separable terms in interval B&B for one-dimensional poblems
Berenguel, J.L. ; Casado, L.G. ; García, I. ; Hendrix, E.M.T. ; Messine, F. - \ 2012
In: Proceedings of the Global Optimization Workshop 2012, 26-29 June 2012, Natal, Brazil / Aloise, D., Hansen, P., Rocha, C., URFN - p. 39 - 42.
Interval Branch-and-Bound (B&B) algorithms are powerful methods which aim for guaranteed solutions of Global Optimization problems. Lower bounds for a function in a given interval can be obtained directly with Interval Arithmetic. The use of lower bounds based on Taylor forms show a faster convergence to the minimum with decreasing size of the search interval. Our research focuses on one dimensional functions that can be decomposed into several terms (sub-functions). The question is whether using this characteristic leads to sharper bounds when based on bounds of the sub-functions. This paper deals with separable functions in two sub-functions. The use of the separability is investigated for the so-called Baumann form and Lower Bound Value Form (LBVF). It is proven that using the additively separability in the LBVF form may lead to a combination of linear minorants that are sharper than the original one. Numerical experiments confirm this improving behaviour and also show that not all separable methods do always provide sharper additively lower bounds. Additional research is needed to obtain better lower bounds for multiplicatively separable functions and to address higher dimensional problems.
On lower bounds using additively separable terms in interval B&B
Berenguel, J.L. ; Casado, L.G. ; García, I. ; Hendrix, E.M.T. - \ 2012
In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference, 18-21 June 2012, Salvador de Bahia, Brazil, Proceedings Part III / Murgante, B., Osvaldo, G., Misra, S., Heidelberg : Springer (Lecture Notes in Computer Science ) - p. 119 - 132.
Interval Branch-and-Bound (B&B) algorithms are powerful methods which aim for guaranteed solutions of Global Optimisation problems. Lower bounds for a function in a given interval can be obtained directly with Interval Arithmetic. The use of lower bounds based on Taylor forms show a faster convergence to the minimum with decreasing size of the search interval. Our research focuses on one dimensional functions that can be decomposed into several terms (sub-functions). The question is whether using this characteristic leads to sharper bounds when based on bounds of the sub-functions. This paper deals with functions that are an addition of two sub-functions, also called additively separable functions. The use of the separability is investigated for the so-called Baumann form and Lower Bound Value Form (LBVF). It is proven that using the separability in the LBVF form may lead to a combination of linear minorants that are sharper than the original one. Numerical experiments confirm this improving behaviour and also show that not all separable methods do always provide sharper lower bounds.
Landbouwpraktijk en waterkwaliteit in Nederland, periode 1992-2010
Baumann, R.A. ; Hooijboer, A.E.J. ; Vrijhoef, A. ; Fraters, B. ; Kotte, M. ; Daatselaar, C.H.G. ; Olsthoorn, C.S.M. ; Bosma, J.N. - \ 2012
landbouw - graslanden - bemesting - dierlijke meststoffen - stikstof - eu regelingen - monitoring - agriculture - grasslands - fertilizer application - animal manures - nitrogen - eu regulations - monitoring
Het stikstofoverschot in de Nederlandse landbouw is tussen 1992 en 2010 met bijna 50 procent afgenomen. Dit is een gevolg van maatregelen die vanwege de Europese Nitraatrichtlijn in de Nederlandse landbouw zijn genomen, zoals minder mest gebruiken gedurende een kortere tijd van het jaar. Dit blijkt uit een inventarisatie van de ontwikkelingen in de grond- en oppervlaktewaterkwaliteit en de landbouwpraktijk. De rapportage hiervan is een vierjaarlijkse Europese verplichting.
Enzymatic synthesis of b-xylosyl-oligosaccharides by transxylosylation using
Dilokpimol, A. ; Nakai, H. ; Gotfredsen, C.H. ; Appeldoorn, M.M. ; Baumann, M.J. ; Nakai, N. ; Schols, H.A. ; Hachem, M.A. ; Svensson, B. - \ 2011
Carbohydrate Research : an international journal 346 (2011)3. - ISSN 0008-6215 - p. 421 - 429.
alpha-l-arabinofuranosidase - trichoderma-reesei - purification - hydrolysis - expression - proteins - sequence - niger - xlnd - xylooligosaccharides
Two b-xylosidases of glycoside hydrolase family 3 (GH 3) from Aspergillus nidulans FGSC A4, BxlA and BxlB were produced recombinantly in Pichia pastoris and secreted to the culture supernatants in yields of 16 and 118 mg/L, respectively. BxlA showed about sixfold higher catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) than BxlB towards para-nitrophenyl b-D-xylopyranoside (pNPX) and b-1,4-xylo-oligosaccharides (degree of polymerisation 2–6). For both enzymes kcat/Km decreased with increasing b-1,4-xylo-oligosaccharide chain length. Using pNPX as donor with 9 monosaccharides, 7 disaccharides and two sugar alcohols as acceptors 18 different b-xylosyl-oligosaccharides were synthesised in 2–36% (BxlA) and 6–66% (BxlB) yields by transxylosylation. BxlA utilised the monosaccharides D-mannose, D-lyxose, D-talose, D-xylose, D-arabinose, L-fucose, D-glucose, D-galactose and D-fructose as acceptors, whereas BxlB used the same except for D-lyxose, D-arabinose and L-fucose. BxlB transxylosylated the disaccharides xylobiose, lactulose, sucrose, lactose and turanose in upto 35% yield, while BxlA gave inferior yields on these acceptors. The regioselectivity was acceptor dependent and primarily involved b-1,4 or 1,6 product linkage formation although minor products with different linkages were also obtained. Five of the 18 transxylosylation products obtained from D-lyxose, D-galactose, turanose and sucrose (two products) as acceptors were novel xylosyl- oligosaccharides, b-D-Xylp-(1?4)-D-Lyxp, b-D-Xylp-(1?6)-D-Galp, b-D-Xylp-(1?4)-a-D-Glcp-(1?3)- b-D-Fruf, b-D-Xylp-(1?4)-a-D-Glcp-(1?2)-b-D-Fruf, and b-D-Xylp-(1?6)-b-D-Fruf-(2?1)-a-D-Glcp, as structure-determined by 2D NMR, indicating that GH3 b-xylosidases are able to transxylosylate a larger variety of carbohydrate acceptors than earlier reported. Furthermore, transxylosylation of certain acceptors resulted in mixtures. Some of these products are also novel, but the structures of the individual products could not be determined.
Efficient chemoenzymatic oligosaccharide synthesis by reverse phosphorolysis using cellobiose phosphorylase and cellodextrin phosphorylase from Clostridium thermocellum
Nakai, H. ; Abou Hachem, M. ; Petersen, B.O. ; Westphal, Y. ; Mannerstedt, K. ; Baumann, M.J. ; Dilokpimol, A. ; Schols, H.A. ; Duus, J.O. ; Svensson, B. - \ 2010
Biochimie 92 (2010)12. - ISSN 0300-9084 - p. 1818 - 1826.
cellvibrio-gilvus - reaction-mechanism - ruminococcus-flavefaciens - chitobiose phosphorylase - maltose phosphorylase - vibrio-proteolyticus - thermotoga-maritima - escherichia-coli - cellulomonas-uda - d-glucose
Inverting cellobiose phosphorylase (CtCBP) and cellodextrin phosphorylase (CtCDP) from Clostridium thermocellum ATCC27405 of glycoside hydrolase family 94 catalysed reverse phosphorolysis to produce cellobiose and cellodextrins in 57% and 48% yield from alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate as donor with glucose and cellobiose as acceptor, respectively. Use of alpha-D-glucosyl 1-fluoride as donor increased product yields to 98% for CtCBP and 68% for CtCDP. CtCBP showed broad acceptor specificity forming beta-glucosyl disaccharides with beta-(1-->4)- regioselectivity from five monosaccharides as well as branched beta-glucosyl trisaccharides with beta-(1-->4)-regioselectivity from three (1-->6)-linked disaccharides. CtCDP showed strict beta-(1-->4)-regioselectivity and catalysed linear chain extension of the three beta-linked glucosyl disaccharides, cellobiose, sophorose, and laminaribiose, whereas 12 tested monosaccharides were not acceptors. Structure analysis by NMR and ESI-MS confirmed two beta-glucosyl oligosaccharide product series to represent novel compounds, i.e. beta-D-glucopyranosyl-[(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl](n)-(1-->2)-D-gluco pyranose, and beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl](n)-(1-->3)-D-glucop yranose (n = 1-7). Multiple sequence alignment together with a modelled CtCBP structure, obtained using the crystal structure of Cellvibrio gilvus CBP in complex with glucose as a template, indicated differences in the subsite +1 region that elicit the distinct acceptor specificities of CtCBP and CtCDP. Thus Glu636 of CtCBP recognized the Cl hydroxyl of beta-glucose at subsite +1, while in CtCDP the presence of Ala800 conferred more space, which allowed accommodation of Cl substituted disaccharide acceptors at the corresponding subsites +1 and +2. Furthermore, CtCBP has a short Glu496-Thr500 loop that permitted the C6 hydroxyl of glucose at subsite +1 to be exposed to solvent, whereas the corresponding longer loop Thr637-Lys648 in CtCDP blocks binding of C6-linked disaccharides as acceptors at subsite +1. High yields in chemoenzymatic synthesis, a novel regioselectivity, and novel oligosaccharides including products of CtCDP catalysed oligosaccharide oligomerisation using alpha-D-glucosyl 1-fluoride, all together contribute to the formation of an excellent basis for rational engineering of CBP and CDP to produce desired oligosaccharides.
Aspergillus nidulans-galactosidase of glycoside hydrolase family 36 catalyses the formation of -galacto-oligosaccharides by transglycosylation
Nakai, H. ; Baumann, M.J. ; Petersen, B.O. ; Westphal, Y. ; Hachem, M.A. ; Dilokpimol, A. ; Duus, J.O. ; Schols, H.A. ; Svensson, B. - \ 2010
FEBS Journal 277 (2010)17. - ISSN 1742-464X - p. 3538 - 3551.
molecular-cloning - bifidobacterium-adolescentis - n-acetylgalactosaminidase - escherichia-coli - pichia-pastoris - phanerochaete-chrysosporium - clostridium-perfringens - functional expression - lactobacillus-reuteri - thermotoga-maritima
The -galactosidase from Aspergillus nidulans (AglC) belongs to a phylogenetic cluster containing eukaryotic -galactosidases and -galacto-oligosaccharide synthases of glycoside hydrolase family 36 (GH36). The recombinant AglC, produced in high yield (0.65 g·L-1 culture) as His-tag fusion in Escherichia coli, catalysed efficient transglycosylation with -(1¿6) regioselectivity from 40 mm 4-nitrophenol -d-galactopyranoside, melibiose or raffinose, resulting in a 37–74% yield of 4-nitrophenol -d-Galp-(1¿6)-d-Galp, -d-Galp-(1¿6)--d-Galp-(1¿6)-d-Glcp and -d-Galp-(1¿6)--d-Galp-(1¿6)-d-Glcp-(1¿ß2)-d-Fruf (stachyose), respectively. Furthermore, among 10 monosaccharide acceptor candidates (400 mm) and the donor 4-nitrophenol -d-galactopyranoside (40 mm), -(1¿6) linked galactodisaccharides were also obtained with galactose, glucose and mannose in high yields of 39–58%. AglC did not transglycosylate monosaccharides without the 6-hydroxymethyl group, i.e. xylose, l-arabinose, l-fucose and l-rhamnose, or with axial 3-OH, i.e. gulose, allose, altrose and l-rhamnose. Structural modelling using Thermotoga maritima GH36 -galactosidase as the template and superimposition of melibiose from the complex with human GH27 -galactosidase supported that recognition at subsite +1 in AglC presumably requires a hydrogen bond between 3-OH and Trp358 and a hydrophobic environment around the C-6 hydroxymethyl group. In addition, successful transglycosylation of eight of 10 disaccharides (400 mm), except xylobiose and arabinobiose, indicated broad specificity for interaction with the +2 subsite. AglC thus transferred -galactosyl to 6-OH of the terminal residue in the -linked melibiose, maltose, trehalose, sucrose and turanose in 6–46% yield and the ß-linked lactose, lactulose and cellobiose in 28–38% yield. The product structures were identified using NMR and ESI-MS and five of the 13 identified products were novel, i.e. -d-Galp-(1¿6)-d-Manp; -d-Galp-(1¿6)-ß-d-Glcp-(1¿4)-d-Glcp; -d-Galp-(1¿6)-ß-d-Galp-(1¿4)-d-Fruf; -d-Galp-(1¿6)-d-Glcp-(1¿1)-d-Glcp; and -d-Galp-(1¿6)--d-Glcp-(1¿3)-d-Fruf.
The maltodextrin transport system and metabolism in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and production of novel a-glucosides through reverse phosphorolysis by maltose phosphorylase
Nakai, H. ; Baumann, M.J. ; Petersen, B.O. ; Westphal, Y. ; Schols, H.A. ; Dilokpimol, A. ; Hachem, M.A. ; Lathinen, S.J. ; Duus, J.O. ; Svensson, B. - \ 2009
FEBS Journal 276 (2009). - ISSN 1742-464X - p. 7353 - 7365.
escherichia-coli - bacillus-subtilis - crystal-structure - thermoanaerobacter-brockii - trehalose phosphorylase - streptococcus-pneumoniae - cellobiose phosphorylase - nucleotide-sequence - lactococcus-lactis - cloned gene
A gene cluster involved in maltodextrin transport and metabolism was identified in the genome of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, which encoded a maltodextrin-binding protein, three maltodextrin ATP-binding cassette transporters and five glycosidases, all under the control of a transcriptional regulator of the LacI-GalR family. Enzymatic properties are described for recombinant maltose phosphorylase (MalP) of glycoside hydrolase family 65 (GH65), which is encoded by malP (GenBank: AAV43670.1) of this gene cluster and produced in Escherichia coli. MalP catalyses phosphorolysis of maltose with inversion of the anomeric configuration releasing ß-glucose 1-phosphate (ß-Glc 1-P) and glucose. The broad specificity of the aglycone binding site was demonstrated by products formed in reverse phosphorolysis using various carbohydrate acceptor substrates and ß-Glc 1-P as the donor. MalP showed strong preference for monosaccharide acceptors with equatorial 3-OH and 4-OH, such as glucose and mannose, and also reacted with 2-deoxy glucosamine and 2-deoxy N-acetyl glucosamine. By contrast, none of the tested di- and trisaccharides served as acceptors. Disaccharide yields obtained from 50 mmß-Glc 1-P and 50 mm glucose, glucosamine, N-acetyl glucosamine, mannose, xylose or l-fucose were 99, 80, 53, 93, 81 and 13%, respectively. Product structures were determined by NMR and ESI-MS to be a-Glcp-(1¿4)-Glcp (maltose), a-Glcp-(1¿4)-GlcNp (maltosamine), a-Glcp-(1¿4)-GlcNAcp (N-acetyl maltosamine), a-Glcp-(1¿4)-Manp, a-Glcp-(1¿4)-Xylp and a-Glcp-(1¿4)- l-Fucp, the three latter being novel compounds. Modelling using L. brevis GH65 as the template and superimposition of acarbose from a complex with Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum GH15 glucoamylase suggested that loop 3 of MalP involved in substrate recognition blocked the binding of candidate acceptors larger than monosaccharides.
|Analysis of photoacoustic signal from cassava flour
Boban, M. ; Baumann, I. ; Bicanic, D.D. - \ 2008
In: Proceedings of the 2008 Joint Central European Congress, 4th Central European Congress on Food (CEF), 6th Croatian Congress of Food Technologists, Biotechnologists and Nutritionists, Cavtat, Croatia, 15-17 May, 2008. - Cavtat, Croatia : CE Food - p. 635 - 643.
Dietary intake and risk evaluation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in The Netherlands
Bakker, M.I. ; Winter-Sorkina, R. ; Mul, A. de; Boon, P.E. ; Donkersgoed, G. van; Klaveren, J.D. van; Baumann, B.A. ; Hijman, W.C. ; Leeuwen, S.P.J. van; Boer, J. de; Zeilmaker, M.J. - \ 2008
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 52 (2008)2. - ISSN 1613-4125 - p. 204 - 216.
brominated flame retardants - neonatal brain-development - human exposure - spontaneous behavior - market-basket - adult mice - 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether - developmental exposure - house-dust - pbdes
The current study aims at estimating the dietary intake of PBDEs in the Netherlands and evaluating the resultant risk. Dietary intake was estimated using results of PBDE analyses in Dutch food products from 2003/2004 and consumption data of the third Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (1997/1998). Assuming that non-detects represent levels of half the detection limit, the median long-term intake of the Dutch population of the sum of five major PBDEs (namely PBDEs 47, 99, 100, 153+154) is 0.79 ng/kg body weight bw/day (P97.5: 1.62 ng/kg bw/day). When non-detects are considered as zeros the values are 0.53 (median) and 1.34 (P97.5) ng/kg bw/day. Environmental concentrations of PBDEs in Europe are expected to decline in the near future because of the ban on penta- and octaBDE technical products. However, it will take at least a decade before this will result in lower PBDE concentrations in food products. Hence, a regular monitoring program for PBDEs is recommended. A risk evaluation at the most sensitive endpoints of BDE 99 carried out in this paper indicates that, although the long-term exposure to BDE 99 is well below the human exposure threshold level for neurodevelopmental toxicity, it may be close to that for reproductive toxicity.
Research on iodine deficiency and goiter in the 19th and early 20th centuries
Zimmermann, M.B. - \ 2008
The Journal of Nutrition 138 (2008)11. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 2060 - 2063.
switzerland - prevention
In 1811, Courtois noted a violet vapor arising from burning seaweed ash and Gay-Lussac subsequently identified the vapor as iodine, a new element. The Swiss physician Coindet, in 1813, hypothesized the traditional treatment of goiter with seaweed was effective because of its iodine content and successfully treated goitrous patients with iodine. Two decades later, the French chemist Boussingault, working in the Andes Mountains, was the first to advocate prophylaxis with iodine-rich salt to prevent goiter. The French chemist Chatin was the first to publish, in 1851, the hypothesis that iodine deficiency was the cause of goiter. In 1883, Semon suggested myxedema was due to thyroid insufficiency and the link between goiter, myxedema, and iodine was established when, in 1896, Baumann and Roos discovered iodine in the thyroid. In the first 2 decades of the 20th century, pioneering studies by Swiss and American physicians demonstrated the efficacy of iodine prophylaxis in the prevention of goiter and cretinism. Switzerland's iodized salt program has been operating uninterrupted since 1922. Today, control of the iodine deficiency disorders is an integral part of most national nutrition strategies.
Focus on ecological weed management : what is hindering adoption?
Bastiaans, L. ; Paolini, R. ; Baumann, D.T. - \ 2008
Weed Research 48 (2008)6. - ISSN 0043-1737 - p. 481 - 491.
intercropping system - spring wheat - farming systems - lolium-rigidum - united-states - aerobic rice - crop density - competition - suppression - herbicides
Despite increased concerns regarding the heavy reliance of many cropping systems on chemical weed control, adoption of ecological weed management practices is only steadily progressing. For this reason, this paper reflects on both the possibilities and limitations of cultural weed control practices. Cultural weed control utilises a number of principles, predominantly: (i) a reduced recruitment of weed seedlings from the soil seedbank, (ii) an alteration of crop¿weed competitive relations to the benefit of the crop and (iii) a gradual reduction of the size of the weed seedbank. Compared with chemical control, the general applicability, reliability and efficacy of most measures is only moderate, and consequently, cultural control strategies need to consist of a combination of measures, resulting in increased systems complexity. Combined with the trade-offs connected to some of the measures, this hampers large-scale implementation. It is argued that tailoring cultural weed management strategies to the needs and skills of individual farmers would be an important step forward. Research can aid in improving the utilisation of cultural weed control strategies by focussing on a broadening of the range of available measures and by providing clear quantitative insight in efficacy, variability in outcome and trade-offs of these measures.
Diversiteit als basis voor alternatief onkruidbeheer
Bastiaans, L. ; Zhao, D.L. ; Hollander, N.G. den; Baumann, D.T. ; Kruidhof, H.M. - \ 2008
Gewasbescherming 39 (2008). - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 47S - 47S.