Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Alley cropping systems as Ecological Focus Areas : A PLS-analysis of German farmers’ acceptance behaviour
    Otter, Verena ; Beer, Lara - \ 2020
    Journal of Cleaner Production 280 (2020)Part 2. - ISSN 0959-6526
    Agriculture - Alley cropping systems - Ecological Focus Areas - Partial-least-squares-method - Technology acceptance model 2

    “Greening”, which was introduced during the last reform of the Common Agricultural Policy, targets the enhancement of ecological sustainability in European agriculture. Due to its association with such sustainability gains, growing agricultural wood, either as short rotation coppices or as agroforestry systems using for example the alley cropping system method, is one option to fulfil the Greening requirement of providing Ecological Focus Areas. However, agricultural wood in general or as an Ecological Focus Area is still of only minor relevance in most European countries. Particularly in Germany, where farmers are nowadays increasingly confronted with a conflict between the goals of realising their own profits and meeting societies’ sustainability expectations, alley cropping systems are grown on a few field trials only. Reasons can likely be found in national specificities of political support for alley cropping systems as Ecological Focus Areas and in psycho-economic determinants of farmers’ acceptance; an under-researched topic so far. To close this research gap, this study aims at identifying determinants of farmers’ acceptance of alley cropping systems as Ecological Focus Areas. The conceptual framework developed is based on the Technology Acceptance Model 2. Survey data from 238 German farmers were collected and analysed by means of Partial-Least-Squares estimation. The results show that farmers’ experience with alley cropping systems as Ecological Focus Areas is rather low but they generally consider agricultural wood as useful in fulfilling Greening requirements. The intention to grow is explained by 44% of the model and actual growing behaviour by 48%. The perceived cost-usefulness-ratio, stakeholder influences and expected image effects are identified as the main drivers of farmers’ acceptance of alley cropping systems as Ecological Focus Areas. Based on these results, important implications are derived, to address to politicians, agricultural consultants, chambers of agriculture or farmers’ associations.

    Enduring Behavioral Effects Induced by Birth by Caesarean Section in the Mouse
    Morais, Livia H. ; Golubeva, Anna V. ; Moloney, Gerard M. ; Moya-Pérez, Angela ; Ventura-Silva, Ana Paula ; Arboleya, Silvia ; Bastiaanssen, Thomaz F.S. ; O'Sullivan, Orla ; Rea, Kieran ; Borre, Yuliya ; Scott, Karen A. ; Patterson, Elaine ; Cherry, Paul ; Stilling, Roman ; Hoban, Alan E. ; Aidy, Sahar El; Sequeira, Ana M. ; Beers, Sasja ; Moloney, Rachel D. ; Renes, Ingrid B. ; Wang, Shugui ; Knol, Jan ; Ross, R.P. ; O'Toole, Paul W. ; Cotter, Paul D. ; Stanton, Catherine ; Dinan, Timothy G. ; Cryan, John F. - \ 2020
    Current Biology 30 (2020)19. - ISSN 0960-9822 - p. 3761 - 3774.e6.
    behavior - Caesarean section - co-housing - gut-brain axis - microbiota - microbiota gut-brain axis - prebiotics - probiotics

    Birth by Caesarean (C)-section impacts early gut microbiota colonization and is associated with an increased risk of developing immune and metabolic disorders. Moreover, alterations of the microbiome have been shown to affect neurodevelopmental trajectories. However, the long-term effects of C-section on neurobehavioral processes remain unknown. Here, we demonstrated that birth by C-section results in marked but transient changes in microbiome composition in the mouse, in particular, the abundance of Bifidobacterium spp. was depleted in early life. Mice born by C-section had enduring social, cognitive, and anxiety deficits in early life and adulthood. Interestingly, we found that these specific behavioral alterations induced by the mode of birth were also partially corrected by co-housing with vaginally born mice. Finally, we showed that supplementation from birth with a Bifidobacterium breve strain, or with a dietary prebiotic mixture that stimulates the growth of bifidobacteria, reverses selective behavioral alterations in C-section mice. Taken together, our data link the gut microbiota to behavioral alterations in C-section-born mice and suggest the possibility of developing adjunctive microbiota-targeted therapies that may help to avert long-term negative consequences on behavior associated with C-section birth mode.

    Protein drink from beer industry waste products
    Safi, Carl - \ 2020
    Eenvoudig, goed weiden : De drie stappen van nieuw Nederlands weiden
    Philipsen, A.P. ; Lenssinck, F.A.J. ; Jong, K. de; Hin, K.J. ; Mekkelholt, Winnie ; Bos, A.J. ; Beer, Mark de; Scheepers, R. - \ 2020
    Stichting Weidegang / Wageningen UR Livestock Research - 13 p.
    Animal models for COVID-19
    Munoz-Fontela, César ; Dowling, William E. ; Funnell, Simon G.P. ; Gsell, Pierre S. ; Riveros Balta, Ximena ; Albrecht, Randy A. ; Andersen, Hanne ; Baric, Ralph S. ; Carroll, Miles W. ; Cavaleri, Marco ; Qin, Chuan ; Crozier, Ian ; Dallmeier, Kai ; Waal, Leon de; Wit, Emmie de; Delang, Leen ; Dohm, Erik ; Duprex, W.P. ; Falzarano, Darryl ; Finch, Courtney L. ; Frieman, Matthew B. ; Graham, Barney S. ; Gralinski, Lisa ; Guilfoyle, Kate ; Haagmans, Bart L. ; Hamilton, Geraldine A. ; Hartman, Amy L. ; Herfst, Sander ; Kaptein, Suzanne J.F. ; Klimstra, William ; Knezevic, Ivana ; Krause, Phillip R. ; Kuhn, Jens H. ; Grand, Roger Le; Lewis, Mark ; Liu, Wen-Chun ; Maisonnasse, Pauline ; McElroy, Anita K. ; Munster, Vincent ; Oreshkova, N.D. ; Rasmussen, Angela L. ; Rocha-Pereira, Joana ; Rockx, Barry ; Rodriguez, Estefania ; Rogers, Thomas ; Salguero, Francisco J. ; Schotsaert, Michael ; Stittelaar, Koert ; Thibaut, Hendrik Jan ; Tseng, Chien-Te ; Vergara-Alert, Júlia ; Beer, Martin ; Brasel, Trevor ; Chan, Jasper F.W. ; Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo ; Neyts, Johan ; Perlman, Stanley ; Reed, Douglas S. ; Richt, Jürgen A. ; Roy, Chad J. ; Segalés, Joaquim ; Vasan, Seshadri S. ; Henao-Restrepo, Ana Maria ; Barouch, Dan H. - \ 2020
    Nature 586 (2020)7830. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 509 - 515.
    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the aetiological agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an emerging respiratory infection caused by the introduction of a novel coronavirus into humans late in 2019 (first detected in Hubei province, China). As of 18 September 2020, SARS-CoV-2 has spread to 215 countries, has infected more than 30 million people and has caused more than 950,000 deaths. As humans do not have pre-existing immunity to SARS-CoV-2, there is an urgent need to develop therapeutic agents and vaccines to mitigate the current pandemic and to prevent the re-emergence of COVID-19. In February 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) assembled an international panel to develop animal models for COVID-19 to accelerate the testing of vaccines and therapeutic agents. Here we summarize the findings to date and provides relevant information for preclinical testing of vaccine candidates and therapeutic agents for COVID-19.
    2020 taxonomic update for phylum Negarnaviricota (Riboviria: Orthornavirae), including the large orders Bunyavirales and Mononegavirales
    Kuhn, Jens H. ; Adkins, Scott ; Alioto, Daniela ; Alkhovsky, Sergey V. ; Amarasinghe, Gaya K. ; Anthony, Simon J. ; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana ; Ayllón, María A. ; Bahl, Justin ; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne ; Ballinger, Matthew J. ; Bartonička, Tomáš ; Basler, Christopher ; Bavari, Sina ; Beer, Martin ; Bente, Dennis A. ; Bergeron, Éric ; Bird, Brian H. ; Blair, Carol ; Blasdell, Kim R. ; Bradfute, Steven B. ; Breyta, Rachel ; Briese, Thomas ; Brown, Paul A. ; Buchholz, Ursula J. ; Buchmeier, Michael J. ; Bukreyev, Alexander ; Burt, Felicity ; Buzkan, Nihal ; Calisher, Charles H. ; Cao, Mengji ; Casas, Inmaculada ; Chamberlain, John ; Chandran, Kartik ; Charrel, Rémi N. ; Chen, Biao ; Chiumenti, Michela ; Choi, Ryong ; Clegg, J.C.S. ; Crozier, Ian ; Graça, John V. da; Bó, Elena Dal; Dávila, Alberto M.R. ; Torre, Juan Carlos de la; Lamballerie, Xavier de; Swart, Rik L. de; Bello, Patrick L. Di; Paola, Nicholas Di; Serio, Francesco Di; Dietzgen, Ralf G. ; Digiaro, Michele ; Dolja, Valerian V. ; Dolnik, Olga ; Drebot, Michael A. ; Drexler, Jan Felix ; Dürrwald, Ralf ; Dufkova, Lucie ; Dundon, William G. ; Duprex, W.P. ; Dye, John M. ; Easton, Andrew J. ; Ebihara, Hideki ; Elbeaino, Toufic ; Ergünay, Koray ; Fernandes, Jorlan ; Fooks, Anthony R. ; Formenty, Pierre B.H. ; Forth, Leonie F. ; Fouchier, Ron A.M. ; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana ; Gago-Zachert, Selma ; Gāo, George Fú ; García, María Laura ; García-Sastre, Adolfo ; Garrison, Aura R. ; Gbakima, Aiah ; Goldstein, Tracey ; Gonzalez, Jean Paul J. ; Griffiths, Anthony ; Groschup, Martin H. ; Günther, Stephan ; Guterres, Alexandro ; Hall, Roy A. ; Hammond, John ; Hassan, Mohamed ; Hepojoki, Jussi ; Hepojoki, Satu ; Hetzel, Udo ; Hewson, Roger ; Hoffmann, Bernd ; Hongo, Seiji ; Höper, Dirk ; Horie, Masayuki ; Hughes, Holly R. ; Hyndman, Timothy H. ; Jambai, Amara ; Jardim, Rodrigo ; Jiāng, Dàohóng ; Jin, Qi ; Jonson, Gilda B. ; Junglen, Sandra ; Karadağ, Serpil ; Keller, Karen E. ; Klempa, Boris ; Klingström, Jonas ; Kobinger, Gary ; Kondō, Hideki ; Koonin, Eugene V. ; Krupovic, Mart ; Kurath, Gael ; Kuzmin, Ivan V. ; Laenen, Lies ; Lamb, Robert A. ; Lambert, Amy J. ; Langevin, Stanley L. ; Lee, Benhur ; Lemos, Elba R.S. ; Leroy, Eric M. ; Li, Dexin ; Lǐ, Jiànróng ; Liang, Mifang ; Liú, Wénwén ; Liú, Yàn ; Lukashevich, Igor S. ; Maes, Piet ; Marciel de Souza, William ; Marklewitz, Marco ; Marshall, Sergio H. ; Martelli, Giovanni P. ; Martin, Robert R. ; Marzano, Shin Yi L. ; Massart, Sébastien ; McCauley, John W. ; Mielke-Ehret, Nicole ; Minafra, Angelantonio ; Minutolo, Maria ; Mirazimi, Ali ; Mühlbach, Hans Peter ; Mühlberger, Elke ; Naidu, Rayapati ; Natsuaki, Tomohide ; Navarro, Beatriz ; Navarro, José A. ; Netesov, Sergey V. ; Neumann, Gabriele ; Nowotny, Norbert ; Nunes, Márcio R.T. ; Nylund, Are ; Økland, Arnfinn L. ; Oliveira, Renata C. ; Palacios, Gustavo ; Pallas, Vicente ; Pályi, Bernadett ; Papa, Anna ; Parrish, Colin R. ; Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex ; Pawęska, Janusz T. ; Payne, Susan ; Pérez, Daniel R. ; Pfaff, Florian ; Radoshitzky, Sheli R. ; ul Rahman, Aziz ; Ramos-González, Pedro L. ; Resende, Renato O. ; Reyes, Carina A. ; Rima, Bertus K. ; Romanowski, Víctor ; Robles Luna, Gabriel ; Rota, Paul ; Rubbenstroth, Dennis ; Runstadler, Jonathan A. ; Ruzek, Daniel ; Sabanadzovic, Sead ; Salát, Jiří ; Sall, Amadou Alpha ; Salvato, Maria S. ; Sarpkaya, Kamil ; Sasaya, Takahide ; Schwemmle, Martin ; Shabbir, Muhammad Z. ; Shí, Xiǎohóng ; Shí, Zhènglì ; Shirako, Yukio ; Simmonds, Peter ; Širmarová, Jana ; Sironi, Manuela ; Smither, Sophie ; Smura, Teemu ; Song, Jin Won ; Spann, Kirsten M. ; Spengler, Jessica R. ; Stenglein, Mark D. ; Stone, David M. ; Straková, Petra ; Takada, Ayato ; Tesh, Robert B. ; Thornburg, Natalie J. ; Tomonaga, Keizō ; Tordo, Noël ; Towner, Jonathan S. ; Turina, Massimo ; Tzanetakis, Ioannis ; Ulrich, Rainer G. ; Vaira, Anna Maria ; Hoogen, Bernadette van den; Varsani, Arvind ; Vasilakis, Nikos ; Verbeek, Martin ; Wahl, Victoria ; Walker, Peter J. ; Wang, Hui ; Wang, Jianwei ; Wang, Xifeng ; Wang, Lin Fa ; Wèi, Tàiyún ; Wells, Heather ; Whitfield, Anna E. ; Williams, John V. ; Wolf, Yuri I. ; Wú, Zhìqiáng ; Yang, Xin ; Yáng, Xīnglóu ; Yu, Xuejie ; Yutin, Natalya ; Zerbini, Murilo ; Zhang, Tong ; Zhang, Yong Zhen ; Zhou, Guohui ; Zhou, Xueping - \ 2020
    Archives of Virology 165 (2020). - ISSN 0304-8608 - p. 3023 - 3072.

    In March 2020, following the annual International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) ratification vote on newly proposed taxa, the phylum Negarnaviricota was amended and emended. At the genus rank, 20 new genera were added, two were deleted, one was moved, and three were renamed. At the species rank, 160 species were added, four were deleted, ten were moved and renamed, and 30 species were renamed. This article presents the updated taxonomy of Negarnaviricota as now accepted by the ICTV.

    Aromatic Potential of Diverse Non-Conventional Yeast Species for Winemaking and Brewing
    Gamero, Amparo ; Dijkstra, Annereinou ; Smit, Bart ; Jong, Catrienus de - \ 2020
    Fermentation 6 (2020)2. - ISSN 2311-5637
    Traditionally, Saccharomyces species are those used to conduct industrial alcoholic fermentations. Recently, an increasing interest has arisen with respect to the potential of so-called non-conventional yeasts to improve wine and beer aroma profiles, keeping the particular terroir of each region or for the development of craft beers. In this study, the potential of diverse non-conventional yeasts to improve aroma in winemaking and brewing was investigated, testing several pure and mixed culture combinations. In addition, a comparison between microscale and labscale was carried out in order to assess the value of microwine and microbeer as screening tools. The results indicated that non-Saccharomyces yeasts were good candidates to enhance or diversify aroma profiles in alcoholic beverages, especially regarding acetate ester yield and fruity aromas. However, mixed cultures with Saccharomyces spp. are normally required to achieve a successful fermentation. The adjustment of pithing ratios is crucial for this purpose. Microscale is presented as an effective and efficient screening tool to compare different culture combinations, although scaling-up will always be necessary in order to get results closer to real winemaking or brewing processes
    Selective separation of flavour-active compounds from strip gas using frictional diffusion
    Ammari, Ali ; Schroën, Karin G.P.H. ; Boom, Remko M. - \ 2020
    Separation and Purification Technology 251 (2020). - ISSN 1383-5866
    Beer - Flavour separation - Frictional diffusion - Gas-phase

    Attaining constant flavour composition in products that are produced batch-wise, such as beer, is not trivial given the inherent variability in fermentation. CO2 stripping is feasible but unselective. Condensation of the flavour is possible but energy intensive. We here propose the use of frictional diffusion (also called FricDiff), which is based on differences in diffusion rates in a sweep or carrier gas such as CO2 through an inert porous medium. Application of a slight counter-flow of the sweep gas can be used to adapt the selectivity between different flavours. It is shown that from a difference in diffusion rate of 25%, a selectivity of more than 10 can be obtained between ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate, albeit at the cost of the flavour flux through the porous barrier.

    Inclusion in responsible innovation: revisiting the desirability of opening up
    Mierlo, Barbara Van; Beers, P.J. ; Hoes, Anne-Charlotte - \ 2020
    Journal of Responsible Innovation (2020). - ISSN 2329-9460 - p. 1 - 23.
    We investigate opening up, a crucial aim of responsible innovation, in the situation of companies initiating sector-wide change in order to take societal responsibility. Two case studies in agriculture were conducted, using a framing perspective that enlightens how issues are (re-)defined and acquire meaning in conversations. For both industry-led innovation initiatives, this showed when and how the initiatives’ issue frames opened up and closed down. The results suggest that the inclusion of actors is not the panacea for opening up the innovation processes, given that responsiveness seemed more relevant. Furthermore, we confirm that closing down may occur simultaneously with opening up and as such is an inherent part of responsible innovation processes. Hence, in addition to the advocated opening up, the question of how to balance it with closing down in order to arrive at collaborative action deserves full attention.
    Selective multiresidue determination of highly polar anionic pesticides in plant-based milk, wine and beer using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry
    Herrera Lopez, Sonia ; Dias, Jonatan ; Mol, Hans ; Kok, André de - \ 2020
    Journal of Chromatography. A, Including electrophoresis and other separation methods 1625 (2020). - ISSN 0021-9673
    Glyphosate - HILIC - Metabolites - Multiresidue method - Polar anionic pesticides - Soya milk

    In this work, an easy and fast procedure for the selective multiresidue determination of 14 highly polar pesticides (including glyphosate, glufosinate, ethephon and fosetyl) and metabolites in beverages is presented. After an initial sample dilution (1:1, v/v), the extract is shaken and centrifuged, further diluted and then injected directly into the LC-MS/MS system, using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and tandem mass spectrometry. No clean-up procedure was needed. The method was validated according to the current European guidelines for pesticide residue analysis in food and feed and linearity, limits of detection and quantification, matrix effects, trueness and precision were assessed. For plant-based milk, wine and beer samples, 10, 11 and 12 analytes, respectively, out of 14 were fully validated at 10 µg kg−1, the lowest spike level tested. The matrix effect was negative in most of the cases, showing for some compounds, such as HEPA, up to 80% suppression when compared to the response from standards in solvent. The use of isotopically labelled internal standards is required for the optimal quantification, as it compensates for high and varying matrix effects and also for recovery losses during extraction.

    Effecten van de droge zomer van 2018 op de macrofauna in laaglandbeken
    Verdonschot, R.C.M. ; Verdonschot, P.F.M. ; Knol, Bert ; Schmidt, Gertie ; Scheepens, Mark ; Brugmans, Bart ; Beers, Peter van; Lenssen, John - \ 2020
    H2O online (2020).
    In 2018 werd Nederland geconfronteerd met een droogte van een omvang die zich al decennia niet meer had voorgedaan. Hierdoor vielen in de loop van de zomer steeds meer beken droog. Een dramatisch gezicht, maar ook een kans om te leren wat de impact is van zo’n catastrofe. Daarom hebben waterschappen en provincies samen extra metingen uitgevoerd. Dit leverde belangrijke inzichten in de kwetsbaarheid van beken en aanknopingspunten om deze minder gevoelig te maken voor toekomstige droogteperioden. De opnieuw problematische situatie in 2019 onderstreepte nog eens dat deze kennis hard nodig is.
    Teachers as brokers: adding a university-society perspective to higher education teacher competence profiles
    Oonk, Carla ; Gulikers, Judith T.M. ; Brok, Perry J. den; Wesselink, Renate ; Beers, Pieter Jelle ; Mulder, Martin - \ 2020
    Higher Education 80 (2020). - ISSN 0018-1560 - p. 701 - 718.
    Boundary crossing competence - Higher education - Teacher competence profile - University-society engagement

    Higher education institutions are increasingly engaged with society but contemporary higher education teacher competence profiles do not include university-society oriented responsibilities of teachers. Consequently, comprehensive insights in university-society collaborative performance of higher education teachers are not available. This study empirically develops a teacher profile for an exemplary university-society oriented, multi-stakeholder learning environment and builds an argument for university-society collaborative additions to existing higher education teacher profiles. A showcase example of a new university-society collaborative, multi-stakeholder learning environment, the Regional Learning Environment (RLE), provides the context of analysis. Thirteen RLE establishments were included in the study. The study uses a descriptive qualitative design, triangulating data from RLE documents, teacher interviews and focus groups with teachers and managers on RLE teacher roles, tasks and competencies. The resulting RLE teacher profile comprises nine roles, nineteen tasks and 21 competencies. The new profile echoes scattered indications for teacher responsibilities as identified in previous studies on teaching and learning in university-society collaborative learning settings. The study argues that the role of broker, including boundary crossing competence, and the competency ‘stimulating a collaborative learning attitude’, might be added to existing higher education teacher competence profiles. Adding this university-society engaged perspective to existing teacher competence profiles will support higher education institutions in developing their university-society collaborative responsibilities and subsequent teacher professionalisation trajectories.

    Multimeric single-domain antibody complexes protect against bunyavirus infections
    Wichgers Schreur, Paul J. ; Water, Sandra van de; Harmsen, Michiel ; Bermúdez-Méndez, Erick ; Drabek, Dubravka ; Grosveld, Frank ; Wernike, Kerstin ; Beer, Martin ; Aebischer, Andrea ; Daramola, Olalekan ; Conde, Sara Rodriguez ; Brennan, Karen ; Kozub, Dorota ; Kristiansen, Maiken Søndergaard ; Mistry, Kieran K. ; Deng, Ziyan ; Hellert, Jan ; Guardado-Calvo, Pablo ; Rey, Félix A. ; Keulen, Lucien van; Kortekaas, Jeroen - \ 2020
    eLife 9 (2020). - ISSN 2050-084X

    The World Health Organization has included three bunyaviruses posing an increasing threat to human health on the Blueprint list of viruses likely to cause major epidemics and for which no, or insufficient countermeasures exist. Here, we describe a broadly applicable strategy, based on llama-derived single-domain antibodies (VHHs), for the development of bunyavirus biotherapeutics. The method was validated using the zoonotic Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV), an emerging pathogen of ruminants, as model pathogens. VHH building blocks were assembled into highly potent neutralizing complexes using bacterial superglue technology. The multimeric complexes were shown to reduce and prevent virus-induced morbidity and mortality in mice upon prophylactic administration. Bispecific molecules engineered to present two different VHHs fused to an Fc domain were further shown to be effective upon therapeutic administration. The presented VHH-based technology holds great promise for the development of bunyavirus antiviral therapies.

    Bemestingsschema’s voor Nieuw Nederlands Weiden
    Philipsen, A.P. ; Lenssinck, F.A.J. ; Jong, Kees de; Hin, Kees-Jaap ; Mekkelholt, Winnie ; Bos, Albert-Jan ; Beer, Mark de; Schepers, René - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research - 43 p.
    Nieuw Nederlands Weiden is de oplossing voor melkveehouders die meer vers gras willen omzetten naar melk, maar wel met een eenvoudig en goed inpasbaar systeem. Nieuw Nederlands Weiden is overzichtelijk voor zowel de melkveehouder en de koe, omdat voor beiden, elke dag, duidelijk is waar ze aan toe zijn.
    Groenbemesters en hun rol bij het verbeteren van de bodemkwaliteit: Kwestie van een goede keuze!
    Haagsma, Wiepie ; Beers, Thea van - \ 2020
    Learning about learning in sustainability transitions
    Mierlo, Barbara van; Halbe, Johannes ; Beers, Pieter J. ; Scholz, Geeske ; Vinke-de Kruijf, Joanne - \ 2020
    Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions 34 (2020). - ISSN 2210-4224 - p. 251 - 254.
    Consumption of Bottled Water at the Bottom of the Pyramid: Who Purchases First?
    Howell, Rachel ; Sinha, Kinsuk Mani ; Wagner, Natascha ; Doorn, Neelke ; Beers, Cees van - \ 2020
    Journal of Macromarketing 40 (2020)1. - ISSN 0276-1467 - p. 31 - 50.
    BoP consumers - bottled water - consumption - emerging markets - sub-Saharan Africa

    While consumer and marketing research in developed markets is an established field, research on consumers in an Bottom of the Pyramid (BoP) setting is less established and mostly conceptual or qualitative. This paper examines the individual heterogeneity and the local context of BoP consumers with an empirical study on consumption of low cost bottled water on the Kenyan coast and the capitals of Uganda and Rwanda. The empirical analysis builds on existing research exploring consumer behavior, and it studies a database of 713 bottled water consumers in Kenya, Uganda and Rwanda. Consumers with a higher level of education were less likely to be late consumers. Additionally, early consumers were more likely to purchase due to a purposeful search for a bottled drinking water solution. Since we control for location specific effects we highlight the importance of supply driven consumption in the BoP market. Furthermore, the results suggest that the two water companies may not be reaching their targeted low-income consumers but rather middle class consumers. The research contributes to the larger BoP debate by presenting evidence that consumers in a BoP setting may purchase more on the basis of supply of a product rather than other socio-demographic factors such as income.

    Multinationals and Modernisation of Domestic Value Chains in Africa: Case Studies from Ethiopia
    Tefera, Delelegne A. ; Bijman, Jos ; Slingerland, Maja A. - \ 2020
    Journal of Development Studies 56 (2020)3. - ISSN 0022-0388 - p. 596 - 612.

    Multinationals can facilitate modernisation in food value chains in developing countries. While most studies focus on export chains, insight on domestic food chains is scant. Our study aims to provide detailed insights into the process of upgrading domestic value chains. A rapidly growing beer market has attracted foreign brewery companies to invest in Ethiopia. These foreign brewers have introduced new sourcing structures in order to increase the supply of high quality raw material. We have used a case study design to explore upgrading processes in malt barley chains, where malt barley is both a food and a cash crop. By introducing strong vertical coordination between farmers and buyers, facilitated by producer organisations and NGOs, foreign brewers have been able to upgrade malt barley chains. We found that both farmers and brewers have benefitted from this upgrading process.

    Understanding and governing learning in sustainability transitions : A review
    Mierlo, Barbara van; Beers, Pieter J. - \ 2020
    Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions 34 (2020). - ISSN 2210-4224 - p. 255 - 269.
    Collaborative learning - Interactive learning - Organizational learning - Social learning - Sustainability transition

    Many transitions scholars underscore the importance of learning in sustainability transitions, but the associated learning processes have hardly been conceptualised. The diverse, well-established research fields related to learning are broadly ignored or loosely applied. In this paper, we systematically explore four interesting learning traditions in terms of their value for gaining an in-depth understanding of learning in sustainability transitions and their relevance for fostering learning, by connecting them to key features of transitions. The selected learning traditions from different disciplinary backgrounds provide valuable insights. None of them sufficiently addresses the complexity of transitions. They include, however, a diversity of relevant learning contexts. We conclude that they have value for investigating new areas such as learning in socio-technological regimes and in later phases of a transition, while enlightening forms of learning that have not yet been fully recognised in transition studies, such as superficial learning, unlearning, and learning to resist change.

    Utilization and management of spent brewers grain in Ethiopian dairy farms
    Alvarez Aranguiz, Adolfo ; Berhanu, Tinsae ; Vernooij, Adriaan - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research report 1207) - 27
    This report is based on the information generated through a survey, meetings with stakeholders, visits to farms, and research information already available to the organisation. The acquired knowledge has provided a realistic view of how dairy systems in the study areas in Ethiopia are managed and allowed the realisation of an analysis of the situation at the farm level. This information has then been used to propose the development of future actions so that the efficiency in the utilization of the spent brewery grain on Ethiopia dairy farms is optimised. The presence of numerous breweries in the area studied with a potential capacity of 10,660.000 hl of beer per year and their projected growth in the near future, offers an excellent opportunity to farmers in the area to have access to spent brewery grain at a very affordable price. The information gathered in this study reveals that spent brewery grain is a key ingredient in the dairy cow’s diet in Ethiopia, especially considering the scarcity of land to grow fodders and the quality of available feed. Yet the efficiency at which this by-product is currently utilised is very low. In order to improve the efficiency of its use it will be fundamental to take action in different aspects of the production chain, as listed below: •Improvement of the commercialization chain: At present there is a lack of transparency in thechain, along with transport issues and the lack of compromise of the stakeholders involved. Thissituation limits the ability of farmers to develop a feed budget based in the spent brewery grainutilization. •Storage: Condition and capacity of storage are the main on-farm limitations. Key aspects that willneed to be addressed are the improvement of the storage infrastructure and their capacity. Thepossibility to make silage of spent brewery grain, alone or combined with other feeds, can be aninteresting option to be considered. •Management: There is a manifest lack of knowledge and information on how to manage this by-product, and especially on how to avoid spoilage and heating. Farmers are requesting informationto overcome these issues. •Feeding: The current inefficient use of spent brewery grain as a component of the diet of dairycows is due to a combination of factors which includes not only those just mentioned, but also thelack of knowledge on the nutritional properties of the spent brewery grain and its potential use asan ingredient in the complete diet. According to the information gathered, we can conclude that spent brewery grain is a key ingredient in the diet of dairy cows of the study area and will be a crucial component in the profitability of the Ethiopian dairy farms in the future. The nutrient content of spent brewery grain combined with the low-quality feed available for dairy cows will allow to improve the expression of the animal genetic potential, increment their productivity, and improve animal condition. At the same time, the competitive price of the by-product will help improve the profitability of the dairy farm
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