Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Batch stripping of flavour active compounds from beer: Effect of dry matter and ethanol on equilibrium and mass transfer in a packed column
Ammari, Ali ; Schroën, Karin - \ 2019
Food and Bioproducts Processing 118 (2019). - ISSN 0960-3085 - p. 306 - 317.
Alcohol - CO - Equilibrium - Ester - Henry's law constant - Mass transfer coefficient

Physiochemical similarities of volatile compounds and their interactions with the beer matrix are the main challenging factors in selective separation of ethanol for the production of non-alcoholic beer and removal of excess (off-)flavours produced during fermentation, such as isoamyl acetate. In this paper, we are especially interested in the effect of beer dry matter, a complex mixture of carbohydrates and proteins, and of ethanol on flavour behaviour during treatment with a packed bed column using CO2 as a stripping agent. By analysing the gas phase at different dry matter concentrations, we observed that its’ presence is a facilitating factor for ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate release, whereas isoamyl alcohol is retained in the liquid phase. These effects are a result of combined mass transfer effects and affinity for carbon dioxide, which are both affected by the presence of ethanol in the feed stream. Mass transfer analysis of isoamyl alcohol and ethanol revealed that the resistance is not controlled by their solubility in water but the affinity to CO2.

Consumption of Bottled Water at the Bottom of the Pyramid: Who Purchases First?
Howell, Rachel ; Sinha, Kinsuk Mani ; Wagner, Natascha ; Doorn, Neelke ; Beers, Cees van - \ 2019
Journal of Macromarketing (2019). - ISSN 0276-1467
BoP consumers - bottled water - consumption - emerging markets - sub-Saharan Africa

While consumer and marketing research in developed markets is an established field, research on consumers in an Bottom of the Pyramid (BoP) setting is less established and mostly conceptual or qualitative. This paper examines the individual heterogeneity and the local context of BoP consumers with an empirical study on consumption of low cost bottled water on the Kenyan coast and the capitals of Uganda and Rwanda. The empirical analysis builds on existing research exploring consumer behavior, and it studies a database of 713 bottled water consumers in Kenya, Uganda and Rwanda. Consumers with a higher level of education were less likely to be late consumers. Additionally, early consumers were more likely to purchase due to a purposeful search for a bottled drinking water solution. Since we control for location specific effects we highlight the importance of supply driven consumption in the BoP market. Furthermore, the results suggest that the two water companies may not be reaching their targeted low-income consumers but rather middle class consumers. The research contributes to the larger BoP debate by presenting evidence that consumers in a BoP setting may purchase more on the basis of supply of a product rather than other socio-demographic factors such as income.

In vier stappen experimenteren met Internet of Things
Robbemond, R.M. ; Voort, Manfred van der; Man, Ard-Pieter de; Strang, Stephan ; Beer, Colinda de; Verdouw, C.N. ; Savelkouls, Carlijn - \ 2019
Wageningen University & Research - 3 p.
Validation of an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the quantification of cysteinylated aldehydes and application to malt and beer samples
Bustillo Trueba, P. ; Jaskula-Goiris, B. ; Clippeleer, J. De; Goiris, K. ; Praet, T. ; Sharma, U.K. ; Eycken, E. Van der; Sanders, M.G. ; Vincken, J.P. ; Brabanter, J. De; Rouck, G. De; Aerts, G. ; Cooman, L. De - \ 2019
Journal of Chromatography. A, Including electrophoresis and other separation methods 1604 (2019). - ISSN 0021-9673
2-substituted 1,3-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acids - Beer - Cysteinylated aldehydes - Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry - Malt - Method validation

This paper describes the method validation for the simultaneous determination of seven cysteinylated aldehydes, i.e. 2-substituted 1,3-thiazolidines-4-carboxylic acids, using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS). Authentic reference compounds were first synthesized for identification and quantification purposes. Moreover, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and 13C NMR) was applied for verification of their structure, while ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS) was applied for estimation of the purity. The method for quantification of cysteinylated aldehydes in model solutions has been validated according to the criteria and procedures described in international standards. The synthesized compounds were successfully identified via UHPLC–MS by comparing retention time and MS spectra with the commercial reference compounds. Method validation revealed good linearity (R2 > 0.995) over the range of 0.4–2.2 µg/L to approximately 1000 µg/L, depending on the analyte. The limits of quantification varied from 0.9 to 4.3 µg/L depending on the nature of the compound. Furthermore, evaluation of the method showed good accuracy and stability of the standard solutions. Reported chromatographic recoveries ranged from 112 to 120%. Consequently, the currently described method was applied on malt and beer samples. For the first time, quantification of cysteinylated aldehydes was obtained in malt. In contrast, in fresh beers unambiguous identification of these compounds was not achieved.

Effect of Ethanol and Temperature on Partition Coefficients of Ethyl Acetate, Isoamyl Acetate, and Isoamyl Alcohol: Instrumental and Predictive Investigation
Ammari, Ali ; Schroen, Karin - \ 2019
Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data 64 (2019)8. - ISSN 0021-9568 - p. 3224 - 3230.

For alcoholic beverages such as beer, downstream processing for either dealcoholization or off-flavor removal requires both quantitative data and suitable predictive methods. Along with experimental investigations, we use a method initially developed for studying the solubility of gases in two or more miscible liquid solvents to monitor the effect of ethanol on air-water partition coefficients of three major flavors found in beer, namely, isoamyl alcohol, ethyl acetate, and isoamyl acetate. In the ethanol concentration range between 0 and 0.1 mole fraction, a slight, rather linear increase in the Henry's solubility coefficient was observed. This overall behavior can be captured well using Henry coefficients for aqueous binary and ternary systems together with the Wohl expansion for excess Gibbs free energy coupled with the one-parameter Margules equation. Based on the developed model, the Wohl's expansion parameter for ethanol-water is introduced as the solvent-solvent interaction parameter. The van 't Hoff parameters for temperature dependence of Henry coefficients for binary water-flavor solutions are determined in the range of 30 to 60 °C.

Selective Particle Filtering in a Large Acoustophoretic Serpentine Channel
Kandemir, M.H. ; Wagterveld, R.M. ; Yntema, D.R. ; Keesman, K.J. - \ 2019
Scientific Reports 9 (2019)1. - ISSN 2045-2322 - 1 p.

The objective of this study is to investigate the performance of a serpentine channel for acoustically driven selective particle filtering. The channel consists of sharp corners and straight sections, and the acoustic field is affecting the particles throughout the channel. A prototype of the separator channel is manufactured using 3D printing. Acoustic waves are generated by a piezoelectric transducer operating near 2 MHz. Computer simulations are carried out to explore and visualize the flow field and acoustic field in the separator. Selective particle trapping is aimed to be achieved in the hairpin sections, which is confirmed by experiments. Spherical polyethylene particles of 34 µm, 70 µm and 100 µm diameter are used to demonstrate selective trapping by adjusting the flow rate in the channel or voltage input to the transducer. In addition, wheat beer containing yeast up to 20 µm size is selectively filtered by adjusting the flow rate to the channel. Experiments demonstrate that selective particle filtering is possible in the serpentine channel as both methods yield clear separation thresholds.

General Framing of Low-, Mid-, and High-Level Data Fusion With Examples in the Life Sciences
Smolinska, Agnieszka ; Engel, Jasper ; Szymanska, Ewa ; Buydens, Lutgarde ; Blanchet, Lionel - \ 2019
In: Data Fusion Methodology and Applications Elsevier Ltd, Academic Press (Data Handling in Science and Technology ) - ISBN 9780444639844 - p. 51 - 79.
Analytical technique - Data fusion - Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry - Kernel-based data fusion - Liquid chromatography - Microbiome data

The constant development of analytical techniques leads to an increase in the amount of information available to describe phenomena in life science. In parallel, the inherent complexity of life science makes it almost impossible to obtain a comprehensive description using only one technical modality. Therefore, it became very popular to combine several biological or technical platforms/modalities to obtain a better understanding of the underlying problems. Merging different types of measurements/platforms into a single analysis is, however, a complex topic. Combining various platforms into single analysis is defined as data fusion. We describe here different types of data fusion strategies: the well-established low-, mid-, and high-level data fusion and the more recently introduced sustainable mid-level data fusion and kernel-based data fusion. For each type, we provide a detailed description. To illustrate these various data fusion approaches, we rely on four real data sets, namely, exhaled breath data of patients with Crohn disease (CD) obtained by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS), 454 pyrosequencing microbiome data of patients with CD, and metabolic profiling of beer brands by GC-MS and positive and negative ion modes of liquid chromatography.

Multinationals and Modernisation of Domestic Value Chains in Africa: Case Studies from Ethiopia
Tefera, Delelegne A. ; Bijman, Jos ; Slingerland, Maja A. - \ 2019
Journal of Development Studies (2019). - ISSN 0022-0388

Multinationals can facilitate modernisation in food value chains in developing countries. While most studies focus on export chains, insight on domestic food chains is scant. Our study aims to provide detailed insights into the process of upgrading domestic value chains. A rapidly growing beer market has attracted foreign brewery companies to invest in Ethiopia. These foreign brewers have introduced new sourcing structures in order to increase the supply of high quality raw material. We have used a case study design to explore upgrading processes in malt barley chains, where malt barley is both a food and a cash crop. By introducing strong vertical coordination between farmers and buyers, facilitated by producer organisations and NGOs, foreign brewers have been able to upgrade malt barley chains. We found that both farmers and brewers have benefitted from this upgrading process.

Effect of adding hop aroma in beer analysed by temporal dominance of sensations and emotions coupled with temporal liking
Silva, Ana Patricia ; Voss, Hans Peter ; Zyl, Hannelize van; Hogg, Tim ; Graaf, Cees de; Pintado, Manuela ; Jager, Gerry - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 75 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 54 - 63.
Individual sensory properties of food and beverages are not perceived independently during consumption and their interaction will determine what consumers perceive and prefer. Many dynamic processes are involved in flavour release during the consumption experience and therefore its perception should be measured dynamically. To investigate how dynamic sensory and emotion profiles interact and how this relates to temporal liking, this study used a multi-sip approach with temporal dominance of sensations (TDS), temporal dominance of emotions (TDE) and temporal liking (TL), to compare three beers with small sensory differences in hop aroma: control beer (0% hop aroma), low_c beer (0.08% hop aroma) and high_c beer (0.16% hop aroma). Seventy-one beer consumers consumed a glass of each beer while performing TDE + TL and TDS + TL, on consecutive days in a sensory lab. Adding different concentrations of hop aroma in beer resulted in different dynamic sensory profiles without a difference in liking. The attribute floral was dominant in the high_c beer and in the last stage of consumption. TDE revealed an improvement of the emotional profile of the high_c beer at the beginning of consumption: three positive emotions, relaxed, pleased and happy were dominant, whereas for the other beers, one positive and one negative emotion were dominant, relaxed or pleased and disappointed. Overall differences between beers based on total duration of dominance were clear when looking at sensations rather than emotions while the combination of dynamic profiles of sensations and emotions showed a slight discrimination between the beers. It can be concluded that the subtle changes in the aroma resulted in differences in temporal dominance of sensations, did not affect liking and only slightly changed the emotion profile. The method used in this study remains to be proven further for use in food-related research and new product development, especially in the case of subtle changes.
Reviewing the taxonomy of Podaxis : Opportunities for understanding extreme fungal lifestyles
Conlon, Benjamin H. ; Aanen, Duur K. ; Beemelmanns, Christine ; Beer, Z.W. de; Fine Licht, Henrik H. De; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina ; Schiøtt, Morten ; Poulsen, Michael - \ 2019
Fungal Biology 123 (2019)3. - ISSN 1878-6146 - p. 183 - 187.
Basidiomycota - Drought - Extremophile - Low water activity - Termite

There are few environments more hostile and species-poor than deserts and the mounds of Nasutitermitinae termites. However, despite the very different adaptations required to survive in such extreme and different environments, the fungal genus Podaxis is capable of surviving in both: where few other fungi are reported to grow. Despite their prominence in the landscape and their frequent documentation by early explorers, there has been relatively little research into the genus. Originally described by Linnaeus in 1771, in the early 20th Century, the then ∼25 species of Podaxis were almost entirely reduced into one species: Podaxis pistillaris. Since this reduction, several new species of Podaxis have been described but without consideration of older descriptions. This has resulted in 44 recognised species names in Index Fungorum but the vast majority of studies and fungarium specimens still refer to P. pistillaris. Studies of Podaxis' extremely different lifestyles is hampered by its effective reduction to a single-species genus. Here we examine the history of the taxonomy of Podaxis before focusing on its extreme lifestyles. From this, we consider how the muddled taxonomy of Podaxis may be resolved; opening up further avenues for future research into this enigmatic fungal genus.

Taxonomy of the order Bunyavirales : second update 2018
Maes, Piet ; Adkins, Scott ; Alkhovsky, Sergey V. ; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana ; Ballinger, Matthew J. ; Bente, Dennis A. ; Beer, Martin ; Bergeron, Éric ; Blair, Carol D. ; Briese, Thomas ; Buchmeier, Michael J. ; Burt, Felicity J. ; Calisher, Charles H. ; Charrel, Rémi N. ; Choi, Il Ryong ; Clegg, J.C.S. ; Torre, Juan Carlos de la; Lamballerie, Xavier de; DeRisi, Joseph L. ; Digiaro, Michele ; Drebot, Mike ; Ebihara, Hideki ; Elbeaino, Toufic ; Ergünay, Koray ; Fulhorst, Charles F. ; Garrison, Aura R. ; Gāo, George Fú ; Gonzalez, Jean Paul J. ; Groschup, Martin H. ; Günther, Stephan ; Haenni, Anne Lise ; Hall, Roy A. ; Hewson, Roger ; Hughes, Holly R. ; Jain, Rakesh K. ; Jonson, Miranda Gilda ; Junglen, Sandra ; Klempa, Boris ; Klingström, Jonas ; Kormelink, Richard ; Lambert, Amy J. ; Langevin, Stanley A. ; Lukashevich, Igor S. ; Marklewitz, Marco ; Martelli, Giovanni P. ; Mielke-Ehret, Nicole ; Mirazimi, Ali ; Mühlbach, Hans Peter ; Naidu, Rayapati ; Zhang, Yong Zhen - \ 2019
Archives of Virology 164 (2019)3. - ISSN 0304-8608 - p. 927 - 941.

In October 2018, the order Bunyavirales was amended by inclusion of the family Arenaviridae, abolishment of three families, creation of three new families, 19 new genera, and 14 new species, and renaming of three genera and 22 species. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Bunyavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).

Brain Responses to Anticipation and Consumption of Beer with and without Alcohol
Smeets, Paul A.M. ; Graaf, Cees de - \ 2019
Chemical Senses 44 (2019)1. - ISSN 0379-864X - p. 51 - 60.

Beer is a popular alcoholic beverage worldwide. Nonalcoholic beer (NA-beer) is increasingly marketed. Brain responses to beer and NA-beer have not been compared. It could be that the flavor of beer constitutes a conditioned stimulus associated with alcohol reward. Therefore, we investigated whether oral exposure to NA-beer with or without alcohol elicits similar brain responses in reward-related areas in a context where regular alcoholic beer is expected. Healthy men (n = 21) who were regular beer drinkers were scanned using functional MRI. Participants were exposed to word cues signaling delivery of a 10-mL sip of chilled beer or carbonated water (control) and subsequent sips of NA-beer with or without alcohol or water (control). Beer alcohol content was not signaled. The beer cue elicited less activation than the control cue in the primary visual cortex, supplementary motor area (reward-related region) and bilateral inferior frontal gyrus/frontal operculum. During tasting, there were no significant differences between the 2 beers. Taste activation after swallowing was significantly greater for alcoholic than for NA-beer in the inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insula and dorsal prefrontal cortex (superior frontal gyrus). This appears to be due to sensory stimulation by ethanol rather than reward processing. In conclusion, we found no differences in acute brain reward upon consumption of NA-beer with and without alcohol, when presented in a context where regular alcoholic beer is expected. This suggests that in regular consumers, beer flavor rather than the presence of alcohol is the main driver of the consumption experience.

Educating for self-interest or -transcendence? An empirical approach to investigating the role of moral competencies in opportunity recognition for sustainable development
Ploum, Lisa ; Blok, Vincent ; Lans, Thomas ; Omta, Onno - \ 2019
Business Ethics: a European review. 28 (2019)2. - ISSN 0962-8770 - p. 243 - 260.

Entrepreneurship education with a focus on sustainable development primarily teaches students to develop a profit-driven mentality. As sustainable development is a value-oriented and normative concept, the role of individual ethical norms and values in entrepreneurial processes has been receiving increased attention. Therefore, this study addresses the role of moral competence in the process of idea generation for sustainable development. A mixed method design was developed in which would-be entrepreneurs were subjected to a questionnaire (n = 398) and to real-life decision-making processes in a case assignment (n = 96). The results provide stepping stones for implementing (moral) competencies in entrepreneurship education as a possible avenue to move away from a sole focus on a profit-driven mentality.

Men and women differ in gastric fluid retention and neural activation after consumption of carbonated beverages
Camps, Guido ; Graaf, Kees de; Smeets, Paul A.M. - \ 2018
The Journal of Nutrition 148 (2018)10. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 1976 - 1983.
Bloating - Carbonated drinks - Cerebral blood flow - Gastric emptying - Gender - Perfusion fMRI

Background: The most commonly consumed carbonated beverages are soda and beer. Carbon dioxide increases gastric volume, which can lead to epigastric discomfort. Women are more susceptible to this; however, correlations with neural activity and gastric distention are unknown. Objective: This study sought to determine the subjective, gastric, and neural correlates of epigastric discomfort in men and women. Methods: Thirty-four healthy, normal-weight adults [17 women; mean ± SD body mass index (BMI; kg/m2): 22.3 ± 1.9; 17 men; BMI: 22.8 ± 1.8] participated in a randomized crossover study with 2 treatments: ingestion of 500 mL beer or soda. Before and after consumption, gastric content and brain activity were measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Participants rated fullness, bloating, hunger, and nausea at baseline and at t = 0, 10, 20, and 30 min together with gastric MRI. Brain activity [cerebral blood flow (CBF)] was measured at baseline and at t = 5 and 35 min. Liquid, gas, and total gastric volume (TGV) were segmented from gastric MRI. Ratings and gastric content areas under the curve (AUCs) were tested with a mixed model with sex and drink as factors. Results: For subjective ratings, only nausea in the beer condition scored significantly greater for women (9.4-point increase; P = 0.045). Liquid stomach content was significantly greater for women (2525 mL × min increase; P = 0.019). In both men and women, the strongest correlation for bloating was with TGV (r = 0.45, P < 0.01) and for nausea was with the liquid fraction AUC (r = 0.45, P < 0.01). CBF changes did not differ between the drinks. Men showed greater CBF than women in the left precentral and postcentral gyri at t = 5 min. Conclusions: There are differences between sexes when it comes to appetite ratings, gastric fluid retention, and neural activation. Discomfort in women may be related to fluid rather than gas in the stomach, because they retain more fluid than men. Differences between men and women should be considered when studying digestion.

Searching for Podaxis on the trails of early explorers in southern Africa
Buys, M. ; Conlon, B. ; Fine Licht, Henrik H. De; Aanen, D.K. ; Poulsen, M. ; Beer, Z.W. de - \ 2018
South African Journal of Botany 115 (2018). - ISSN 0254-6299 - p. 317 - 317.
Podaxis pistillaris is the name often given to the torpedo-shaped mushrooms forming on termite mounds across southern Africa during the rainy season. Linnaeus described the species in 1871 based on a specimen from India. In 1881, he described a second species as Lycoperdon carcinomale from a South African specimen he received from Thunberg. In 1812, Burchell made a painting of the fungus during his exploration of southern Africa. In 1933, all 33 Podaxis species described by that time from Africa, Asia, Australia and the USA, were lumped as synonyms of P. pistillaris. Another 12 species were subsequently described, but most authors treated all these fungi as P. pistillaris. In a quest to resolve the taxonomy of the fungus, we studied Southern African specimens from various herbaria, and some specimens from the USA, Mexico, India, and Africa. We also visited the sites where Thunberg collected his specimen (Western Cape) and where Burchell made his painting (Northern Cape), but could not find fresh specimens. We distributed flyers to local communities in these areas and requested that they contact us should Podaxis be observed. Within six weeks we received specimens from a farm close to Burchell’s camp site, and more from the Northern and Eastern Cape. Ribosomal DNA sequences were successfully obtained from all the fresh and almost all herbarium specimens, including some older than 100 years. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the southern African specimens separate in at least five distinct species, some of which might represent novel taxa
If We Ever Get to Mars, the Beer Might Not Be Bad
Wamelink, Wieger - \ 2018
Referenties en maatlatten voor natuurlijke watertypen voor de Kaderrichtlijn Water 2021-2027
Altenburg, W. ; Arts, G. ; Baretta-Bekker, J.G. ; Berg, M.S. van den; Broek Broek, T. van den; Buskens, R. ; Bijkerk, R. ; Coops, H.C. ; Dam, H. van; Ee, G. van; Evers, C.H.M. ; Franken, R. ; Higler, B. ; Ietswaart, T. ; Jaarsma, N. ; Jong, D.J. de; Joosten, A.M.T. ; Klinge, M. ; Knoben, R.A.E. ; Kranenbarg, J. ; Loon, W.M.G.M. van; Noordhuis, R. ; Pot, R. ; Twisk, F. ; Verdonschot, P.F.M. ; Vlek, H. ; Backx, J.J.G.M. ; Beers, M. ; Buijse, A.D. ; Duursema, G. ; Fagel, M. ; Leeuw, J. de; Molen, J. van der; Nijboer, R.C. ; Postma, J. ; Vriese, T. ; Duijts, R. ; Hartholt, J.G. ; Jager, Z. ; Stikvoort, E.C. ; Walvoort, D. - \ 2018
Amersfoort : Stowa (Stowa rapport 2018-49) - ISBN 9789057738135 - 481
Effects of waste stream combinations from brewing industry on performance of black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)
Chia, Shaphan Y. ; Tanga, Chrysantus M. ; Osuga, Isaac M. ; Mohamed, Samira A. ; Khamis, Fathiya M. ; Salifu, Daisy ; Sevgan, Subramanian ; Fiaboe, Komi K.M. ; Niassy, Saliou ; Loon, Joop J.A. van; Dicke, Marcel ; Ekesi, Sunday - \ 2018
PeerJ 2018 (2018)11. - ISSN 2167-8359
Agro-industrial by-products - Hermetia illucens - Mass rearing - Net energy - Protein quality - Quality control parameters

Background: In recent years, there has been a rapidly growing demand for readily accessible substrates for mass production of Black Soldier Fly, Hermetia illucens Linnaeus. Beer production results in various by-products that typically end up in uncontrolled dumpsites constituting pollution problems, which merits urgent attention. The present study investigated whether the 12 formulated diets composed of brewers’ spent grains (BSGs), brewers’ yeast and cane molasses can serve as substrate for H. illucens production. Methods: Four different BSGs were selected and formulated into 12 diets, aiming at varying protein and net energy levels. The diets were offered to newly hatched (∼1 h old) H. illucens larvae and the influence on developmental duration, survival, wet weight, pre-oviposition time, fecundity, and longevity were compared. Results: Developmental duration of the larvae (16–21 days) and pre-pupae (8–11 days) differed significantly across the different diets. The developmental duration of the pupae (8.7–9.1 days) was not affected by diet. The larval (86–99.2%), pre-pupal (71–95%), and pupal (65–91%) survival rates varied significantly between flies reared on the different diets. The pre-oviposition time was similar for flies provided with water (7–11 days) and 10% sugar solution (8–14 days) or across the different diets. The mean fecundity per female ranged from 324–787 eggs and did not differ between females provided with water or sugar solution. However, the number of eggs laid per female varied significantly across the different diets when provided with water. The longevity of starved H. illucens adults was significantly lower (5 days) compared to those provided with water (11–14 days) or sugar solution (14–15 days). Discussion: The implications of these findings as part of a quality control procedure for commercial production of high-quality H. illucens larvae as an alternative protein ingredient in livestock and aquaculture feed are discussed.

Understanding and governing learning in sustainability transitions : A review
Mierlo, Barbara van; Beers, Pieter J. - \ 2018
Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions (2018). - ISSN 2210-4224 - 15 p.
Collaborative learning - Interactive learning - Organizational learning - Social learning - Sustainability transition

Many transitions scholars underscore the importance of learning in sustainability transitions, but the associated learning processes have hardly been conceptualised. The diverse, well-established research fields related to learning are broadly ignored or loosely applied. In this paper, we systematically explore four interesting learning traditions in terms of their value for gaining an in-depth understanding of learning in sustainability transitions and their relevance for fostering learning, by connecting them to key features of transitions. The selected learning traditions from different disciplinary backgrounds provide valuable insights. None of them sufficiently addresses the complexity of transitions. They include, however, a diversity of relevant learning contexts. We conclude that they have value for investigating new areas such as learning in socio-technological regimes and in later phases of a transition, while enlightening forms of learning that have not yet been fully recognised in transition studies, such as superficial learning, unlearning, and learning to resist change.

Simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B1, fumonisin B1 and deoxynivalenol in beer samples with a label-free monolithically integrated optoelectronic biosensor
Pagkali, Varvara ; Petrou, Panagiota S. ; Makarona, Eleni ; Peters, Jeroen ; Haasnoot, Willem ; Jobst, Gerhard ; Moser, Isabella ; Gajos, Katarzyna ; Budkowski, Andrzej ; Economou, Anastasios ; Misiakos, Konstantinos ; Raptis, Ioannis ; Kakabakos, Sotirios E. - \ 2018
Journal of Hazardous Materials 359 (2018). - ISSN 0304-3894 - p. 445 - 453.
Aflatoxin B - Beer - Deoxynivalenol - Fumonisin B - Monolithically integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometers

A label-free optical biosensor for the fast simultaneous determination of three mycotoxins, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), fumonisin B1 (FB1) and deoxynivalenol (DON), in beer samples is presented. The biosensor is based on an array of ten Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) monolithically integrated along with their respective broad-band silicon light sources onto a single chip. Multi-analyte determination is accomplished by functionalizing the sensing arms of individual MZIs with mycotoxin-protein conjugates. Assay is performed by pumping over the chip mixtures of calibrators or samples with a mixture of specific monoclonal antibodies, followed by reaction with a secondary anti-mouse IgG antibody. Reactions are monitored in real-time by continuously recording the MZI output spectra, which are then subjected to Discrete Fourier Transform to convert spectrum shifts to phase shifts. The detection limits achieved for AFB1, FB1 and DON were 0.8, 5.6 and 24 ng/ml, respectively, while the assay duration was 12 min. Recovery values ranging from 85 to 115% were determined in beer samples spiked with known concentrations of the three mycotoxins. In addition, beers of different types and origin were analysed with the biosensor developed and the results were compared with those provided by established laboratory methods, further supporting the accuracy of the proposed device.

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