Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Toward the improvement of total nitrogen deposition budgets in the United States
Walker, J.T. ; Beachley, G. ; Amos, H.M. ; Baron, J.S. ; Bash, J. ; Baumgardner, R. ; Bell, M.D. ; Benedict, K.B. ; Chen, X. ; Clow, D.W. ; Cole, A. ; Coughlin, J.G. ; Cruz, K. ; Daly, R.W. ; Decina, S.M. ; Elliott, E.M. ; Fenn, M.E. ; Ganzeveld, L. ; Gebhart, K. ; Isil, S.S. ; Kerschner, B.M. ; Larson, R.S. ; Lavery, T. ; Lear, G.G. ; Macy, T. ; Mast, M.A. ; Mishoe, K. ; Morris, K.H. ; Padgett, P.E. ; Pouyat, R.V. ; Puchalski, M. ; Pye, H.O.T. ; Rea, A.W. ; Rhodes, M.F. ; Rogers, C.M. ; Saylor, R. ; Scheffe, R. ; Schichtel, B.A. ; Schwede, D.B. ; Sexstone, G.A. ; Sive, B.C. ; Sosa, R. ; Templer, P.H. ; Thompson, T. ; Tong, D. ; Wetherbee, G.A. ; Whitlow, T.H. ; Wu, Z. ; Yu, Z. ; Zhang, L. - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 691 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1328 - 1352.
Ammonia - Dry deposition - Organic nitrogen - Oxidized nitrogen - Reactive nitrogen - Wet deposition

Frameworks for limiting ecosystem exposure to excess nutrients and acidity require accurate and complete deposition budgets of reactive nitrogen (Nr). While much progress has been made in developing total Nr deposition budgets for the U.S., current budgets remain limited by key data and knowledge gaps. Analysis of National Atmospheric Deposition Program Total Deposition (NADP/TDep) data illustrates several aspects of current Nr deposition that motivate additional research. Averaged across the continental U.S., dry deposition contributes slightly more (55%) to total deposition than wet deposition and is the dominant process (>90%) over broad areas of the Southwest and other arid regions of the West. Lack of dry deposition measurements imposes a reliance on models, resulting in a much higher degree of uncertainty relative to wet deposition which is routinely measured. As nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions continue to decline, reduced forms of inorganic nitrogen (NHx = NH3 + NH4 +) now contribute >50% of total Nr deposition over large areas of the U.S. Expanded monitoring and additional process-level research are needed to better understand NHx deposition, its contribution to total Nr deposition budgets, and the processes by which reduced N deposits to ecosystems. Urban and suburban areas are hotspots where routine monitoring of oxidized and reduced Nr deposition is needed. Finally, deposition budgets have incomplete information about the speciation of atmospheric nitrogen; monitoring networks do not capture important forms of Nr such as organic nitrogen. Building on these themes, we detail the state of the science of Nr deposition budgets in the U.S. and highlight research priorities to improve deposition budgets in terms of monitoring and flux measurements, leaf- to regional-scale modeling, source apportionment, and characterization of deposition trends and patterns.

Don't judge new foods by their appearance! How visual and oral sensory cues affect sensory perception and liking of novel, heterogeneous foods
Santagiuliana, Marco ; Bhaskaran, Vani ; Scholten, Elke ; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina ; Stieger, Markus - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 77 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 64 - 77.
Composite foods - Mechanical contrast - Particles - Texture perception

This study investigated how exteroceptive and interoceptive cues influence sensory perception and liking of novel, heterogeneous foods. Twelve heterogeneous cheeses were prepared by adding bell pepper pieces to homogeneous processed cheese matrices. Bell pepper pieces differed in size, hardness, and concentration. Consumers (n = 73)evaluated cheeses in three conditions. In the first condition, subjects tasted cheeses and rated them on sensory properties and liking while being blindfolded (interoceptive condition). In the second condition, participants evaluated expected sensory properties and liking of cheeses presented as pictures together with product descriptions (exteroceptive condition). In the third condition, consumers tasted and evaluated cheeses while visual cues and product descriptions were provided (combined condition). The hardness and concentration of bell pepper pieces predominantly determined variations in sensory perception in the interoceptive and combined conditions, whereas bell pepper size or concentration influenced expected sensory properties in the exteroceptive condition the most. Consumers expected to like the cheeses with small-medium sized bell pepper pieces the most. However, from the other conditions, we observed that piece size does not play a role in determining liking, and that cheeses with soft pieces were actually preferred most. From the comparison of the three conditions, we conclude that both visual and oral sensory cues influence texture and flavour perception of heterogeneous cheeses. Consumers’ liking was not influenced by the cheese's exteroceptive cues during the combined condition. In contrast, interoceptive cues as hardness played a large role in determining variations in consumer's hedonic responses. We conclude that for novel, heterogeneous foods liking after consumption is determined by textural product properties and depends to a large extent on the confirmation of consumers’ sensory expectations.

From water as curative agent to enabling waterscapes : Diverse experiences of the ‘therapeutic
Doughty, Karolina - \ 2019
In: Blue Space, Health and Wellbeing / Foley, Ronan, Kearns, Robin, Kistemann, Thomas, Wheeler, Ben, Routledge - ISBN 9780815359142 - p. 79 - 94.
Recent years have seen an increase in scholarly attention applied to the experiential relationship between humans and water. Significant insights have been gained into the human-water relationship more broadly, for instance in regard to the rich and evolving meanings of seascapes (Brown and Humberstone, 2015), as well as the growing literature on the health-enabling potential of being in or near water (Foley, 2010, 2011, 2014; Foley and Kistemann, 2015). In relation to questions about water and health, the literature within and beyond health geography exploring ‘therapeutic blue space’ has emerged strongly, contributing to the already large body of work which has applied the concept of therapeutic landscape (Gesler, 1992) to a wide range of contexts, to investigate how environmental, societal and individual factors interact in the creation of health-enabling places (for a scoping review, see Bell et al., 2018). In Gesler’s (1992) original conceptualisation, a therapeutic landscape is a place (a) where a material setting has been created to support the pursuit of health and wellbeing, (b) which is culturally associated with health and (c) where social practices related to ‘healing’ take place. Through these three elements the ‘healing process’ is situated geographically in places. As such, the therapeutic landscape concept has been applied to a wide range of environments from the perspective of exploring the attribution of health-related meaning to places and landscapes by individuals, groups and more broadly societies.
Combinations of vegetables can be more accepted than individual vegetables
Stokkom, V.L. van; Graaf, C. de; Wang, S. ; Kooten, O. van; Stieger, M. - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 72 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 147 - 158.
Acceptance - Bitterness - Sweetness - Taste - Variety - Vegetables

Enhancing sweetness of vegetables by addition of sucrose or sweeteners can increase acceptance but is not necessarily desirable. An alternative strategy could be to combine vegetables with other vegetables. By offering combinations of vegetables it might be possible to suppress bitterness, enhance sweetness and provide texture variety leading to increased acceptance. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of combining vegetables with other vegetables on sensory properties and acceptance. Carrot (sweet), cucumber (neutral), green bell pepper (bitter) and red bell pepper (sour) were assessed individually and in combination with the other three vegetables in two mixing ratios (1:2 and 2:1). Additionally, four combinations of three vegetables (mixing ratio 1:1:1) were assessed. A trained panel (n = 24) evaluated taste, flavour and texture and a consumer panel (n = 83) evaluated acceptance of all vegetables and combinations. Combining green bell pepper with carrot (1:2 and 2:1) increased sweetness and decreased bitterness. Combining cucumber, carrot or red bell pepper with green bell pepper (1:2) increased bitterness. Mainly sweetness and bitterness were associated with acceptance whereas texture (crunchiness, firmness and juiciness) did not strongly influence acceptance. Cucumber was the most accepted vegetable followed by carrot, red bell pepper and green bell pepper. Acceptance of vegetable combinations can differ from acceptance of individual vegetables depending on vegetable type and mixing ratio. Only 3 of 16 vegetable combinations had higher acceptance compared to the least accepted vegetable in the combination and similar acceptance as the more accepted vegetable in the combination. For 13 of 16 vegetable combinations acceptance did not increase compared to acceptance of individual vegetables. These findings suggest that strategies aimed at increasing vegetable consumption can be devised using specific combinations of vegetables.

Agitated thin-film drying of foods
Qiu, J. ; Boom, R.M. ; Schutyser, M.A.I. - \ 2019
Drying Technology 37 (2019)6. - ISSN 0737-3937 - p. 735 - 744.
Agitated thin-film drying (ATFD) has been proposed for efficient and mild drying of viscous liquid foods, pastes or pureed foods. We report a study on the influence of product and process parameters on ATFD. During ATFD of spinach leaf slurries, the wall temperature mainly affected the specific evaporation rate, while the absolute evaporation rate was proportional to the feed rate. The fact that blade rotation speed had limited effect on the drying rate suggested that the process is limited by heat transfer through the wall. ATFD is especially suited for slurries that show relatively limited sticky behavior during drying and liquid–solid phase transition with corresponding brittle viscoelastic behavior. This was demonstrated by drying juices from tomato and bell pepper, giving poor results, and by drying solutions from whey protein isolate (WPI) and sucrose, which could be successfully dried.
Synthetic bootstrapping of convolutional neural networks for semantic plant part segmentation
Barth, R. ; IJsselmuiden, J. ; Hemming, J. ; Henten, E.J. Van - \ 2019
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 161 (2019). - ISSN 0168-1699 - p. 291 - 304.
Big data - Bootstrapping - Computer vision - Semantic segmentation - Synthetic dataset
A current bottleneck of state-of-the-art machine learning methods for image segmentation in agriculture, e.g. convolutional neural networks (CNNs), is the requirement of large manually annotated datasets on a per-pixel level. In this paper, we investigated how related synthetic images can be used to bootstrap CNNs for successful learning as compared to other learning strategies. We hypothesise that a small manually annotated empirical dataset is sufficient for fine-tuning a synthetically bootstrapped CNN. Furthermore we investigated (i) multiple deep learning architectures, (ii) the correlation between synthetic and empirical dataset size on part segmentation performance, (iii) the effect of post-processing using conditional random fields (CRF) and (iv) the generalisation performance on other related datasets. For this we have performed 7 experiments using the Capsicum annuum (bell or sweet pepper) dataset containing 50 empirical and 10,500 synthetic images with 7 pixel-level annotated part classes. Results confirmed our hypothesis that only 30 empirical images were required to obtain the highest performance on all 7 classes (mean IOU = 0.40) when a CNN was bootstrapped on related synthetic data. Furthermore we found optimal empirical performance when a VGG-16 network was modified to include à trous spatial pyramid pooling. Adding CRF only improved performance on the synthetic data. Training binary classifiers did not improve results. We have found a positive correlation between dataset size and performance. For the synthetic dataset, learning stabilises around 3000 images. Generalisation to other related datasets proved possible.
The devil is in the detail! : Sustainability assessment of African smallholder farming
Marinus, Wytze ; Ronner, E. ; Ven, G.W.J. van de; Kanampiu, Fred ; Adjei-Nsiah, Samuel ; Giller, K.E. - \ 2018
In: Routledge Handbook of Sustainability Indicators / Bell, S., Morse, S., Routledge - ISBN 9781138674769 - p. 427 - 450.

Indicators for sustainability are a hot and debated topic. Sustainable intensification of agriculture is also widely debated due to the divergent views on the future of agriculture and the wide variety of indicators used. Legumes are seen as a key option for sustainable intensification of smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We developed a framework for assessing the sustainability of contrasting farming systems to illustrate the complex balancing act involved, using a case study of the N2Africa project. N2Africa offers legume options to farmers in SSA ( We worked at farm household level and used a hierarchical framework of principles and criteria to select the indicators for sustainability.

One of the main outcomes is a list of questions and hurdles we ran into when developing the framework. This can be used by others as guidance both when choosing indicators and to critically evaluate existing sustainability assessments. We illustrate that many of the decisions made in developing an indicator framework are subjective and that they include important but easily overlooked details. We conclude that, only by being explicit about the steps taken and the assumptions and decisions made, one can develop a sustainability framework that results in meaningful outcomes.

Erratum to: The sponge microbiome project
Moitinho-Silva, Lucas ; Nielsen, Shaun ; Amir, Amnon ; Gonzalez, Antonio ; Ackermann, Gail L. ; Cerrano, Carlo ; Astudillo-Garcia, Carmen ; Easson, Cole ; Sipkema, Detmer ; Liu, Fang ; Steinert, Georg ; Kotoulas, Giorgos ; McCormack, Grace P. ; Feng, Guofang ; Bell, James J. ; Vicente, Jan ; Björk, Johannes R. ; Montoya, Jose M. ; Olson, Julie B. ; Reveillaud, Julie ; Steindler, Laura ; Pineda, Mari Carmen ; Marra, Maria V. ; Ilan, Micha ; Taylor, Michael W. ; Polymenakou, Paraskevi ; Erwin, Patrick M. ; Schupp, Peter J. ; Simister, Rachel L. ; Knight, Rob ; Thacker, Robert W. ; Costa, Rodrigo ; Hill, Russell T. ; Lopez-Legentil, Susanna ; Dailianis, Thanos ; Ravasi, Timothy ; Hentschel, Ute ; Li, Zhiyong ; Webster, Nicole S. ; Thomas, Torsten - \ 2018
GigaScience 7 (2018)12. - ISSN 2047-217X
The Intrinsic Stability of Metal Ion Complexes with Nanoparticulate Fulvic Acids
Town, Raewyn M. ; Duval, Jérôme F.L. ; Leeuwen, Herman P. van - \ 2018
Environmental Science and Technology 52 (2018)20. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 11682 - 11690.

The electrostatic contributions to metal ion binding by fulvic acids (FAs) are characterized in light of recent theoretical developments on description of the net charge density of soft nanoparticles. Under practical electrolyte concentrations, the radius of the small, highly charged soft nanoparticulate FAs is comparable to the electrostatic screening length and their electric potential profile has a bell shape that extends into the surrounding aqueous medium. Consequently, accumulation of counterions in the extraparticulate zone can be significant. By comparison of experimentally derived Boltzmann partitioning coefficients with those computed on the basis of (i) the structural FA particle charge and (ii) the potential profile for a nanoparticulate FA entity equilibrated with indifferent electrolyte, we identify the thickness of the extraparticulate counter charge accumulation shell in 1-1 and 2-1 electrolytes. The results point to the involvement of counterion condensation phenomena and call into question the approaches for modeling electrostatic contributions to ion binding that are invoked by popular equilibrium speciation codes. Overall, the electrostatic contributions to Cdaq2+ and Cuaq2+ association with FA are weaker than those previously found for much larger humic acids (HA). The intrinsic chemical binding strength of CdFA is comparable to that of CdHA, whereas CuFA complexes are weaker than CuHA ones.

Considerations and consequences of allowing DNA sequence data as types of fungal taxa
Zamora, Juan Carlos ; Svensson, Måns ; Kirschner, Roland ; Olariaga, Ibai ; Ryman, Svengunnar ; Parra, Luis Alberto ; Geml, József ; Rosling, Anna ; Adamčík, Slavomír ; Ahti, Teuvo ; Aime, M.C. ; Ainsworth, A.M. ; Albert, László ; Albertó, Edgardo ; García, Alberto Altés ; Ageev, Dmitry ; Agerer, Reinhard ; Aguirre-Hudson, Begoña ; Ammirati, Joe ; Andersson, Harry ; Angelini, Claudio ; Antonín, Vladimír ; Aoki, Takayuki ; Aptroot, André ; Argaud, Didier ; Sosa, Blanca Imelda Arguello ; Aronsen, Arne ; Arup, Ulf ; Asgari, Bita ; Assyov, Boris ; Atienza, Violeta ; Bandini, Ditte ; Baptista-Ferreira, João Luís ; Baral, Hans-Otto ; Baroni, Tim ; Barreto, Robert Weingart ; Beker, Henry ; Bell, Ann ; Bellanger, Jean-Michel ; Bellù, Francesco ; Bemmann, Martin ; Bendiksby, Mika ; Bendiksen, Egil ; Bendiksen, Katriina ; Benedek, Lajos ; Bérešová-Guttová, Anna ; Berger, Franz ; Berndt, Reinhard ; Bernicchia, Annarosa ; Biketova, Alona Yu. ; Bizio, Enrico ; Bjork, Curtis ; Boekhout, Teun ; Boertmann, David ; Böhning, Tanja ; Boittin, Florent ; Boluda, Carlos G. ; Boomsluiter, Menno W. ; Borovička, Jan ; Brandrud, Tor Erik ; Braun, Uwe ; Brodo, Irwin ; Bulyonkova, Tatiana ; Burdsall, Harold H. ; Buyck, Bart ; Burgaz, Ana Rosa ; Calatayud, Vicent ; Callac, Philippe ; Campo, Emanuele ; Candusso, Massimo ; Capoen, Brigitte ; Carbó, Joaquim ; Carbone, Matteo ; Castañeda-ruiz, Rafael F. ; Castellano, Michael A. ; Chen, Jie ; Clerc, Philippe ; Consiglio, Giovanni ; Corriol, Gilles ; Courtecuisse, Régis ; Crespo, Ana ; Cripps, Cathy ; Crous, Pedro W. ; Silva, Gladstone Alves Da ; Silva, Meiriele Da ; Dam, Marjo ; Dam, Nico ; Dämmrich, Frank ; Das, Kanad ; Davies, Linda ; Crop, Eske De; Kesel, Andre De; Kuijper, T.W.M. - \ 2018
IMA fungus 9 (2018)1. - ISSN 2210-6340 - p. 167 - 185.
Nomenclatural type definitions are one of the most important concepts in biological nomenclature. Being physical objects that can be re-studied by other researchers, types permanently link taxonomy (an artificial agreement to classify biological diversity) with nomenclature (an artificial agreement to name biological diversity). Two proposals to amend the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), allowing DNA sequences alone (of any region and extent) to serve as types of taxon names for voucherless fungi (mainly putative taxa from environmental DNA sequences), have been submitted to be voted on at the 11th International Mycological Congress (Puerto Rico, July 2018). We consider various genetic processes affecting the distribution of alleles among taxa and find that alleles may not consistently and uniquely represent the species within which they are contained. Should the proposals be accepted, the meaning of nomenclatural types would change in a fundamental way from physical objects as sources of data to the data themselves. Such changes are conducive to irreproducible science, the potential typification on artefactual data, and massive creation of names with low information content, ultimately causing nomenclatural instability and unnecessary work for future researchers that would stall future explorations of fungal diversity. We conclude that the acceptance of DNA sequences alone as types of names of taxa, under the terms used in the current proposals, is unnecessary and would not solve the problem of naming putative taxa known only from DNA sequences in a scientifically defensible way. As an alternative, we highlight the use of formulas for naming putative taxa (candidate taxa) that do not require any modification of the ICN.
A comparison of VMS and AIS data : The effect of data coverage and vessel position recording frequency on estimates of fishing footprints
Shepperson, Jennifer L. ; Hintzen, Niels T. ; Szostek, Claire L. ; Bell, Ewen ; Murray, Lee G. ; Kaiser, Michel J. - \ 2018
ICES Journal of Marine Science 75 (2018)3. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 988 - 998.
automatic identification system - extent - fisheries - footprint - scallop dredging - vessel monitoring system

Understanding the distribution of fishing activity is fundamental to quantifying its impact on the seabed. Vessel monitoring system (VMS) data provides a means to understand the footprint (extent and intensity) of fishing activity. Automatic Identification System (AIS) data could offer a higher resolution alternative to VMS data, but differences in coverage and interpretation need to be better understood. VMS and AIS data were compared for individual scallop fishing vessels. There were substantial gaps in the AIS data coverage; AIS data only captured 26% of the time spent fishing compared to VMS data. The amount of missing data varied substantially between vessels (45-99% of each individuals' AIS data were missing). A cubic Hermite spline interpolation of VMS data provided the greatest similarity between VMS and AIS data. But the scale at which the data were analysed (size of the grid cells) had the greatest influence on estimates of fishing footprints. The present gaps in coverage of AIS may make it inappropriate for absolute estimates of fishing activity. VMS already provides a means of collecting more complete fishing position data, shielded from public view. Hence, there is an incentive to increase the VMS poll frequency to calculate more accurate fishing footprints.

For Whom the Bells Toll : Alonso and a Regional Science of Decline
Franklin, Rachel S. ; Leeuwen, Eveline S. van - \ 2018
International Regional Science Review 41 (2018)2. - ISSN 0160-0176 - p. 134 - 151.
population decline - regional science - spatial inequality
In his presidential address to the Regional Science Association over thirty years ago, William Alonso presented the case for “Five Bell Shapes in Development” and argued that “the developed countries will enter fully in to the realm of the right-hand tail of these curves” (p. 16) and that this transition might result in several surprises. He proposed, therefore, that we should study the right tail of these “curves” as well as interactions among them. Much of what Alonso suggested has come to pass, although his prognostications were not always exact. And although he touched on several issues of relevance to regional scientists, the discipline has been slow to move away from a growth-centered paradigm. The strength of regional science—the capacity to consider economic, demographic, and geographical aspects of an issue simultaneously—has yet to be focused on some of the “right-hand” challenges that have arisen, population loss, for example. In this article, we provide a review of regional science research within the context of Alonso’s five bells and hypothesize how Alonso’s propositions might differ in today’s world. We then focus more specifically on one particular area: population loss. Using these examples allows us to highlight how regional science might contribute to the conceptualization of “right-hand tail” development challenges, especially where theory, issues of spatial scale, and interregional dependencies are concerned.
Data synthesis methods for semantic segmentation in agriculture : A Capsicum annuum dataset
Barth, R. ; IJsselmuiden, J. ; Hemming, J. ; Henten, E.J. van - \ 2018
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 144 (2018). - ISSN 0168-1699 - p. 284 - 296.
3D modelling - Agriculture - Robotics - Semantic segmentation - Synthetic dataset

This paper provides synthesis methods for large-scale semantic image segmentation datasets of agricultural scenes with the objective to bridge the gap between state-of-the art computer vision performance and that of computer vision in the agricultural robotics domain. We propose a novel methodology to generate renders of random meshes of plants based on empirical measurements, including the automated generation per-pixel class and depth labels for multiple plant parts. A running example is given of Capsicum annuum (sweet or bell pepper) in a high-tech greenhouse. A synthetic dataset of 10,500 images was rendered through Blender, using scenes with 42 procedurally generated plant models with randomised plant parameters. These parameters were based on 21 empirically measured plant properties at 115 positions on 15 plant stems. Fruit models were obtained by 3D scanning and plant part textures were gathered photographically. As reference dataset for modelling and evaluate segmentation performance, 750 empirical images of 50 plants were collected in a greenhouse from multiple angles and distances using image acquisition hardware of a sweet pepper harvest robot prototype. We hypothesised high similarity between synthetic images and empirical images, which we showed by analysing and comparing both sets qualitatively and quantitatively. The sets and models are publicly released with the intention to allow performance comparisons between agricultural computer vision methods, to obtain feedback for modelling improvements and to gain further validations on usability of synthetic bootstrapping and empirical fine-tuning. Finally, we provide a brief perspective on our hypothesis that related synthetic dataset bootstrapping and empirical fine-tuning can be used for improved learning.

The role of smell, taste, flavour and texture cues in the identification of vegetables
Stokkom, V.L. van; Blok, A.E. ; Kooten, O. van; Graaf, C. de; Stieger, M. - \ 2018
Appetite 121 (2018). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 69 - 76.
Flavour - Identification - Smell - Taste - Texture - Vegetables
It has been shown that the identification of many foods including vegetables based on flavour cues is often difficult. The effect of providing texture cues in addition to flavour cues on the identification of foods and the effect of providing taste cues only on the identification of foods have not been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the role of smell, taste, flavour and texture cues in the identification of ten vegetables commonly consumed in The Netherlands (broccoli, cauliflower, French bean, leek, bell pepper, carrot, cucumber, iceberg lettuce, onion and tomato). Subjects (n = 194) were randomly assigned to one of four test conditions which differed in the sensory cues available for vegetable identification: taste, smell (orthonasal), flavour (taste and smell) and flavour-texture (taste, smell and texture). Blindfolded subjects were asked to identify the vegetable from a list of 24 vegetables. Identification was the highest in the flavour-texture condition (87.5%). Identification was significantly lower in the flavour condition (62.8%). Identification was the lowest when only taste cues (38.3%) or only smell cues (39.4%) were provided. For four raw vegetables (carrot, cucumber, onion and tomato) providing texture cues in addition to flavour cues did not significantly change identification suggesting that flavour cues were sufficient to identify these vegetables. Identification frequency increased for all vegetables when perceived intensity of the smell, taste or flavour cue increased. We conclude that providing flavour cues (taste and smell) increases identification compared to only taste or only smell cues, combined flavour and texture cues are needed for the identification of many vegetables commonly consumed in The Netherlands.
Optimising Realism of Synthetic Agricultural Images using Cycle Generative Adversarial Networks
Barth, R. ; IJsselmuiden, J.M.M. ; Hemming, J. ; Henten, E.J. van - \ 2017
In: Proceedings of the IEEE IROS workshop on Agricultural Robotics / Kounalakis, Tsampikos, van Evert, Frits, Ball, David Michael, Kootstra, Gert, Nalpantidis, Lazaros, Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - p. 18 - 22.
A bottleneck of state-of-the-art machine learning methods, e.g. deep learning, for plant part image segmentation in agricultural robotics is the requirement of large manually annotated datasets. As a solution, large synthetic datasets including ground truth can be rendered that realistically reflect the empirical situation. However, a dissimilarity gap can remain between synthetic and empirical data by incomplete manual modelling. This paper contributes to closing this gap by optimising the realism of synthetic agricultural images using unsupervised cycle generative adversarial networks, enabling unpaired image-to-image translation from the synthetic to empirical domain and vice versa. For this purpose, the Capsicum annuum (sweet- or bell pepper) dataset was used, containing 10,500 synthetic and 50 empirical annotated images. Additionally, 225 unlabelled empirical images were used. We hypothesised that the similarity of the synthetic images with the empirical images increases qualitatively and quantitively when translated to the empirical domain and investigated the effect of the translation on the factors color, local texture and morphology. Results showed an increased mean class color distribution correlation with the empirical dataset from 0.62 prior and 0.90 post translation of the synthetic dataset. Qualitatively, synthetic images translate very well in local features such as color,
illumination scattering and texture. However, global features like plant morphology appeared not to be translatable.
The sponge microbiome project
Moitinho-Silva, Lucas ; Nielsen, Shaun ; Amir, Amnon ; Gonzalez, Antonio ; Ackermann, Gail L. ; Cerrano, Carlo ; Astudillo-Garcia, Carmen ; Easson, Cole ; Sipkema, Detmer ; Liu, Fang ; Steinert, Georg ; Kotoulas, Giorgos ; McCormack, Grace P. ; Feng, Guofang ; Bell, James J. ; Vicente, Jan ; Björk, Johannes R. ; Montoya, Jose M. ; Olson, Julie B. ; Reveillaud, Julie ; Steindler, Laura ; Pineda, Mari Carmen ; Marra, Maria V. ; Ilan, Micha ; Taylor, Michael W. ; Polymenakou, Paraskevi ; Erwin, Patrick M. ; Schupp, Peter J. ; Simister, Rachel L. ; Knight, Rob ; Thacker, Robert W. ; Costa, Rodrigo ; Hill, Russell T. ; Lopez-Legentil, Susanna ; Dailianis, Thanos ; Ravasi, Timothy ; Hentschel, Ute ; Li, Zhiyong ; Webster, Nicole S. ; Thomas, Torsten - \ 2017
GigaScience 6 (2017)10. - ISSN 2047-217X
16S rRNA gene - Archaea - Bacteria - Marine sponges - Microbial diversity - Microbiome - Symbiosis
Marine sponges (phylum Porifera) are a diverse, phylogenetically deep-branching clade known for forming intimate partnerships with complex communities of microorganisms. To date, 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies have largely utilised different extraction and amplification methodologies to target the microbial communities of a limited number of sponge species, severely limiting comparative analyses of sponge microbial diversity and structure. Here, we provide an extensive and standardised dataset that will facilitate sponge microbiome comparisons across large spatial, temporal, and environmental scales. Samples from marine sponges (n = 3569 specimens), seawater (n = 370), marine sediments (n = 65) and other environments (n = 29) were collected from different locations across the globe. This dataset incorporates at least 268 different sponge species, including several yet unidentified taxa. The V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced from extracted DNA using standardised procedures. Raw sequences (total of 1.1 billion sequences) were processed and clustered with (i) a standard protocol using QIIME closed-reference picking resulting in 39 543 operational taxonomic units (OTU) at 97% sequence identity, (ii) a de novo clustering using Mothur resulting in 518 246 OTUs, and (iii) a new high-resolution Deblur protocol resulting in 83 908 unique bacterial sequences. Abundance tables, representative sequences, taxonomic classifications, and metadata are provided. This dataset represents a comprehensive resource of sponge-associated microbial communities based on 16S rRNA gene sequences that can be used to address overarching hypotheses regarding host-associated prokaryotes, including host specificity, convergent evolution, environmental drivers of microbiome structure, and the sponge-associated rare biosphere.
Optimal nutrition and the ever-changing dietary landscape : a conference report
Shao, A. ; Drewnowski, A. ; Willcox, D.C. ; Krämer, L. ; Lausted, C. ; Eggersdorfer, M. ; Mathers, J. ; Bell, J.D. ; Randolph, R.K. ; Witkamp, R. ; Griffiths, J.C. - \ 2017
European Journal of Nutrition 56 (2017)suppl.1. - ISSN 1436-6207 - 21 p.
Aging - Big data - Bioactives - Biomarkers - Dietary patterns - Dietary supplements - Longevity - Micronutrients - Obesity - Overfed - Phytonutrients - Sarcopenic obesity - Systems approaches - Undernourished - Wellness

The field of nutrition has evolved rapidly over the past century. Nutrition scientists and policy makers in the developed world have shifted the focus of their efforts from dealing with diseases of overt nutrient deficiency to a new paradigm aimed at coping with conditions of excess—calories, sedentary lifestyles and stress. Advances in nutrition science, technology and manufacturing have largely eradicated nutrient deficiency diseases, while simultaneously facing the growing challenges of obesity, non-communicable diseases and aging. Nutrition research has gone through a necessary evolution, starting with a reductionist approach, driven by an ambition to understand the mechanisms responsible for the effects of individual nutrients at the cellular and molecular levels. This approach has appropriately expanded in recent years to become more holistic with the aim of understanding the role of nutrition in the broader context of dietary patterns. Ultimately, this approach will culminate in a full understanding of the dietary landscape—a web of interactions between nutritional, dietary, social, behavioral and environmental factors—and how it impacts health maintenance and promotion.

Brink, A. van den; Bruns, Diedrich ; Bell, S. ; Tobi, H. - \ 2017
In: Research in Landscape Architecture / van den Brink, Adri, Bruins, Diedrich, Tobi, Hilde, Bell, SImon, Routledge - ISBN 9781138020924 - p. 1 - 8.
A process approach to research in landscape architecture
Tobi, H. ; Brink, A. van den - \ 2017
In: Research in Landscape Architecture / van den Brink, Adri, Bruins, Diedrich, , Hilde Tobi, Bell, Simon, Routledge - ISBN 9781138020924 - p. 24 - 34.
Advancing landscape architecture research
Bruns, Diedrich ; Brink, A. van den; Tobi, H. ; Bell, S. - \ 2017
In: Research in Landscape Architecture / van den Brink, Adri, Bruns, Diedrich, Tobi, Hilde, Bell, Simon, Routledge - ISBN 9781138020924 - p. 11 - 23.
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