Improved prediction of potassium and nitrogen in dried bell pepper leaves with visible and near-infrared spectroscopy utilising wavelength selection techniques
Mishra, Puneet ; Herrmann, Ittai ; Angileri, Mariagiovanna - \ 2021
Talanta 225 (2021). - ISSN 0039-9140
Chemometrics - Green chemistry - Multivariate - Non-destructive - Plants - Spectral phenotyping
Wet chemistry analysis of agricultural plant materials such as leaves is widely performed to quantify key chemical components to understand plant physiological status. Visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy is an interesting tool to replace the wet chemistry analysis, often labour intensive and time-consuming. Hence, this study accesses the potential of Vis-NIR spectroscopy to predict nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) concentration in bell pepper leaves. In the chemometrics perspective, the study aims to identify key Vis-NIR wavelengths that are most correlated to the N and K, and hence, improves the predictive performance for N and K in bell pepper leaves. For wavelengths selection, six different wavelength selection techniques were used. The performances of several wavelength selection techniques were compared to identify the best technique. As a baseline comparison, the partial least-square (PLS) regression analysis was used. The results showed that the Vis-NIR spectroscopy has the potential to predict N and K in pepper leaves with root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.28 and 0.44%, respectively. The wavelength selection in general improved the predictive performance of models for both K and N compared to the PLS regression. With wavelength selection, the RMSEP's were decreased by 19% and 15% for N and K, respectively, compared to the PLS regression. The results from the study can support the development of protocols for non-destructive prediction of key plant chemical components such as K and N without wet chemistry analysis.
Linking oral processing behavior to bolus properties and dynamic sensory perception of processed cheeses with bell pepper pieces
Aguayo-mendoza, Monica G. ; Chatonidi, Georgia ; Piqueras-fiszman, Betina ; Stieger, Markus - \ 2021
Food Quality and Preference 88 (2021). - ISSN 0950-3293
The addition of food particles to food matrices is a convenient approach that allows to steer oral behavior, sensory perception and satiation. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of physical-chemical properties of heterogenous foods on oral processing behavior, bolus properties and dynamic sensory perception. Bell pepper gel pieces varying in fracture stress and concentration were added to processed cream cheese matrices differing in texture. Addition of bell pepper gel pieces to processed cheeses increased consumption time, decreased eating rate and led to harder and less adhesive bolus with more saliva incorporated. Addition of bell pepper gel pieces to processed cheeses decreased dominance rate and duration of creaminess, smoothness, melting and dairy flavor and increased graininess and bell pepper flavor. Increasing fracture stress of bell pepper gel pieces from 100 to 300 kPa resulted in longer consumption time and lower eating rate. For hard/non-adhesive processed cheese matrices increasing gel pieces fracture stress lead to a boli with larger particles and more saliva. These changes were accompanied by decreased dominance perception of creaminess and bell pepper flavor and increased dominance of graininess. Increasing the concentration of bell pepper gel pieces from 15 to 30% did not affect oral behavior but led to the formation of harder and less adhesive bolus with larger particles and less saliva that were perceived with reduced dominance of creaminess, meltiness and dairy flavor while dominance of graininess and bell pepper flavor increased. Changing the texture of the cheese matrix from soft/adhesive to hard/non-adhesive decreased consumption time, increased eating rate, did not influence bolus properties and decreased dominance rate of creaminess, smoothness and melting sensations. Number of chews and total consumption time were positively correlated with saliva content of the bolus, number of bolus particles, bolus hardness, dominance of firmness, chewiness and graininess. We conclude that the modification of physical-chemical properties of processed cheeses and embedded bell pepper gel pieces can be a strategy to steer oral behavior and bolus properties which consequently determine dynamic sensory perception.
Adiposity, metabolites, and colorectal cancer risk : Mendelian randomization study
Bull, Caroline J. ; Bell, Joshua A. ; Murphy, Neil ; Sanderson, Eleanor ; Davey Smith, George ; Timpson, Nicholas J. ; Banbury, Barbara L. ; Albanes, Demetrius ; Berndt, Sonja I. ; Bézieau, Stéphane ; Bishop, Timothy ; Brenner, Hermann ; Buchanan, Daniel D. ; Burnett-Hartman, Andrea ; Casey, Graham ; Castellví-Bel, Sergi ; Chan, Andrew T. ; Chang-Claude, Jenny ; Cross, Amanda J. ; Chapelle, Albert de la; Figueiredo, Jane C. ; Gallinger, Steven J. ; Gapstur, Susan M. ; Giles, Graham G. ; Gruber, Stephen B. ; Gsur, Andrea ; Hampe, Jochen ; Hampel, Heather ; Harrison, Tabitha A. ; Hoffmeister, Michael ; Hsu, Li ; Huang, Wen Yi ; Huyghe, Jeroen R. ; Jenkins, Mark A. ; Joshu, Corinne E. ; Keku, Temitope O. ; Kühn, Tilman ; Kweon, Sun Seog ; Marchand, Loic Le; Li, Christopher I. ; Li, Li ; Lindblom, Annika ; Martín, Vicente ; May, Anne M. ; Milne, Roger L. ; Moreno, Victor ; Newcomb, Polly A. ; Offit, Kenneth ; Ogino, Shuji ; Phipps, Amanda I. ; Platz, Elizabeth A. ; Potter, John D. ; Qu, Conghui ; Quirós, José Ramón ; Rennert, Gad ; Riboli, Elio ; Sakoda, Lori C. ; Schafmayer, Clemens ; Schoen, Robert E. ; Slattery, Martha L. ; Tangen, Catherine M. ; Tsilidis, Kostas K. ; Ulrich, Cornelia M. ; Duijnhoven, Fränzel J.B. van; Guelpen, Bethany van; Visvanathan, Kala ; Vodicka, Pavel ; Vodickova, Ludmila ; Wang, Hansong ; White, Emily ; Wolk, Alicja ; Woods, Michael O. ; Wu, Anna H. ; Campbell, Peter T. ; Zheng, Wei ; Peters, Ulrike ; Vincent, Emma E. ; Gunter, Marc J. - \ 2020
BMC Medicine 18 (2020)1. - ISSN 1741-7015
Body mass index - CCFR - Colorectal cancer - CORECT - Epidemiology - GECCO - Mendelian randomization - Metabolism - NMR - Waist-to-hip ratio
Background: Higher adiposity increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but whether this relationship varies by anatomical sub-site or by sex is unclear. Further, the metabolic alterations mediating the effects of adiposity on CRC are not fully understood. Methods: We examined sex- and site-specific associations of adiposity with CRC risk and whether adiposity-associated metabolites explain the associations of adiposity with CRC. Genetic variants from genome-wide association studies of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, unadjusted for BMI; N = 806,810), and 123 metabolites from targeted nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics (N = 24,925), were used as instruments. Sex-combined and sex-specific Mendelian randomization (MR) was conducted for BMI and WHR with CRC risk (58,221 cases and 67,694 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium, Colorectal Cancer Transdisciplinary Study, and Colon Cancer Family Registry). Sex-combined MR was conducted for BMI and WHR with metabolites, for metabolites with CRC, and for BMI and WHR with CRC adjusted for metabolite classes in multivariable models. Results: In sex-specific MR analyses, higher BMI (per 4.2 kg/m2) was associated with 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08, 1.38) times higher CRC odds among men (inverse-variance-weighted (IVW) model); among women, higher BMI (per 5.2 kg/m2) was associated with 1.09 (95% CI = 0.97, 1.22) times higher CRC odds. WHR (per 0.07 higher) was more strongly associated with CRC risk among women (IVW OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.43) than men (IVW OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.81, 1.36). BMI or WHR was associated with 104/123 metabolites at false discovery rate-corrected P ≤ 0.05; several metabolites were associated with CRC, but not in directions that were consistent with the mediation of positive adiposity-CRC relations. In multivariable MR analyses, associations of BMI and WHR with CRC were not attenuated following adjustment for representative metabolite classes, e.g., the univariable IVW OR for BMI with CRC was 1.12 (95% CI = 1.00, 1.26), and this became 1.11 (95% CI = 0.99, 1.26) when adjusting for cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein particles. Conclusions: Our results suggest that higher BMI more greatly raises CRC risk among men, whereas higher WHR more greatly raises CRC risk among women. Adiposity was associated with numerous metabolic alterations, but none of these explained associations between adiposity and CRC. More detailed metabolomic measures are likely needed to clarify the mechanistic pathways.
Pathways linking biodiversity to human health: A conceptual framework
Marselle, Melissa ; Hartig, Terry ; Cox, Daniel ; Bell, Sian de; Knapp, Sonja ; Lindley, Sarah ; Triguero-Mas, Margarita ; Boehning-Gaese, Katrin ; Cook, Penny ; Vries, S. de; Heintz-Buschart, Anna ; Hofmann, Max ; Irvine, Kate ; Kabisch, Nadja ; Kolek, Franziska ; Kraemer, Roland ; Markevych, Iana ; Martens, Doerte ; Mueller, Ruth ; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark ; Potts, Jackie ; Stadler, Jutta ; Walton, Samantha ; Warber, Sara L. ; Bonn, Aletta - \ 2020
Are we ready to track climate-driven shifts in marine species across international boundaries? - A global survey of scientific bottom trawl data
A. Maureaud, Aurore ; Frelat, Romain ; Pécuchet, Laurène ; Shackell, Nancy ; Mérigot, Bastien ; Pinsky, Malin L. ; Amador, Kofi ; Anderson, Sean C. ; Arkhipkin, Alexander ; Auber, Arnaud ; Barri, Iça ; Bell, Richard J. ; Belmaker, Jonathan ; Beukhof, Esther ; Camara, Mohamed L. ; Guevara-Carrasco, Renato ; Choi, Junghwa ; Christensen, Helle T. ; Conner, Jason ; Cubillos, Luis A. ; Diadhiou, Hamet D. ; Edelist, Dori ; Emblemsvåg, Margrete ; Ernst, Billy ; Fairweather, Tracey P. ; Fock, Heino O. ; Friedland, Kevin D. ; Garcia, Camilo B. ; Gascuel, Didier ; Gislason, Henrik ; Goren, Menachem ; Guitton, Jérôme ; Jouffre, Didier ; Hattab, Tarek ; Hidalgo, Manuel ; Kathena, Johannes N. ; Knuckey, Ian ; Kidé, Saïkou O. ; Koen-Alonso, Mariano ; Koopman, Matt ; Kulik, Vladimir ; León, Jacqueline P. ; Levitt-Barmats, Y. ; Lindegren, Martin ; Llope, Marcos ; Massiot-Granier, Félix ; Masski, Hicham ; McLean, Matthew ; Meissa, Beyah ; Mérillet, Laurène ; Mihneva, Vesselina ; Nunoo, Francis K.E. ; O'Driscoll, Richard ; O'Leary, Cecilia A. ; Petrova, Elitsa ; Ramos, Jorge E. ; Refes, Wahid ; Román-Marcote, Esther ; Siegstad, Helle ; Sobrino, Ignacio ; Sólmundsson, Jón ; Sonin, Oren ; Spies, Ingrid ; Steingrund, Petur ; Stephenson, Fabrice ; Stern, Nir ; Tserkova, Feriha ; Tserpes, Georges ; Tzanatos, Evangelos ; Rijn, Itai van; Zwieten, Paul A.M. van; Vasilakopoulos, Paraskevas ; Yepsen, Daniela V. ; Ziegler, Philippe ; T. Thorson, James - \ 2020
Global Change Biology (2020). - ISSN 1354-1013 - 17 p.
bottom trawl survey - climate change - demersal fish - fisheries policy - global data synthesis - open science - species distribution - transboundary conservation
Marine biota are redistributing at a rapid pace in response to climate change and shifting seascapes. While changes in fish populations and community structure threaten the sustainability of fisheries, our capacity to adapt by tracking and projecting marine species remains a challenge due to data discontinuities in biological observations, lack of data availability, and mismatch between data and real species distributions. To assess the extent of this challenge, we review the global status and accessibility of ongoing scientific bottom trawl surveys. In total, we gathered metadata for 283,925 samples from 95 surveys conducted regularly from 2001 to 2019. We identified that 59% of the metadata collected are not publicly available, highlighting that the availability of data is the most important challenge to assess species redistributions under global climate change. Given that the primary purpose of surveys is to provide independent data to inform stock assessment of commercially important populations, we further highlight that single surveys do not cover the full range of the main commercial demersal fish species. An average of 18 surveys is needed to cover at least 50% of species ranges, demonstrating the importance of combining multiple surveys to evaluate species range shifts. We assess the potential for combining surveys to track transboundary species redistributions and show that differences in sampling schemes and inconsistency in sampling can be overcome with spatio-temporal modeling to follow species density redistributions. In light of our global assessment, we establish a framework for improving the management and conservation of transboundary and migrating marine demersal species. We provide directions to improve data availability and encourage countries to share survey data, to assess species vulnerabilities, and to support management adaptation in a time of climate-driven ocean changes.
Boron Adsorption to Ferrihydrite with Implications for Surface Speciation in Soils : Experiments and Modeling
Eynde, Elise Van; Mendez, Juan C. ; Hiemstra, Tjisse ; Comans, Rob N.J. - \ 2020
ACS Earth and Space Chemistry 4 (2020)8. - ISSN 2472-3452 - p. 1269 - 1280.
boron - CD-MUSIC modeling - ferrihydrite - goethite - humic acid
The adsorption and desorption of boric acid onto reactive materials such as metal (hydr)oxides and natural organic matter are generally considered to be controlling processes for the leaching and bioavailability of boron (B). We studied the interaction of B with ferrihydrite (Fh), a nanosized iron (hydr)oxide omnipresent in soil systems, using batch adsorption experiments at different pH values and in the presence of phosphate as a competing anion. Surface speciation of B was described with a recently developed multisite ion complexation (MUSIC) and charge distribution (CD) approach. To gain insight into the B adsorption behavior in whole-soil systems, and in the relative contribution of Fh in particular, the pH-dependent B speciation was evaluated for soils with representative amounts of ferrihydrite, goethite, and organic matter. The pH-dependent B adsorption envelope of ferrihydrite is bell-shaped with a maximum around pH 8-9. In agreement with spectroscopy, modeling suggests formation of a trigonal bidentate complex and an additional outer-sphere complex at low to neutral pH values. At high pH, a tetrahedral bidentate surface species becomes important. In the presence of phosphate, B adsorption decreases strongly and only formation of the outer-sphere surface complex is relevant. The pH-dependent B adsorption to Fh is rather similar to that of goethite. Multisurface modeling predicts that ferrihydrite may dominate the B binding in soils at low to neutral pH and that the relative contribution of humic material increases significantly at neutral and alkaline pH conditions. This study identifies ferrihydrite and natural organic matter (i.e., humic substances) as the major constituents that control the B adsorption in topsoils.
Development of a population of Boswellia elongata Balf. F. in Homhil nature sanctuary, Socotra island (Yemen)
Lvončík, Samuel ; Vahalík, Petr ; Bongers, Frans ; Peijnenburg, Jan ; Hušková, Karolína ; Rensburg, Julian Jansen van; Hamdiah, Salem ; Maděra, Petr - \ 2020
Rendiconti Lincei 31 (2020). - ISSN 2037-4631 - p. 747 - 759.
Age structure - Boswellia elongata - Population - Regeneration - Socotra
We assessed seven decades of change in the largest known population of the endangered endemic Boswellia elongata Balf. F. (Burseraceae) on Socotra Island (Yemen). To quantify the population change we evaluated tree number and locations on digitized images from various sources in the period 1956–2017 and combined this with direct field measurements of the population between 2011 and 2017. Our study reveals that the Homhil Nature Sanctuary B. elongata population shows a continuous decline since 1956. The steady but slow natural decline was strongly accelerated by two catastrophic cyclones in November 2015, when 38% of the trees were directly destroyed by strong winds. During the following 2 years 29% of the remaining trees died additionally. The remaining population has a bell-shaped size distribution; most trees are around 40 cm in diameter (range 18 to 70 cm). Tree ring analysis of 11 dead trees with a diameter of 29 to 44 cm without bark, resulted in estimated tree ages between 80 and 101 years. We estimate that similar-sized trees showing strong signs of senescence have a maximum age of a little over 100 years. The age structure of the Homhil population is, therefore, unbalanced with large sized trees prevailing. Natural regeneration is absent for decades. Viable seeds are available and have been shown to germinate, but the development of seedlings into saplings is a bottleneck. If the decline continues at the current rate, only 30 trees will remain there in 2036. Protection, planting and awareness activities are needed to keep this unique frankincense tree in Homhil Nature Sanctuary.
Drivers of decoupling and recoupling of crop and livestock systems at farm and territorial scales
Garrett, Rachael D. ; Ryschawy, Julie ; Bell, Lindsay W. ; Cortner, Owen ; Ferreira, Joice ; Garik, Anna Victoria N. ; Gil, Juliana D.B. ; Klerkx, Laurens ; Moraine, Marc ; Peterson, Caitlin A. ; Reis, Júlio César Dos; Valentim, Judson F. - \ 2020
Ecology and Society 25 (2020)1. - ISSN 1708-3087
Innovation - Integrated crop livestock systems - Mixed farming systems - Socio-technical transitions - Sustainable agriculture - Technology adoption
Crop and livestock production have become spatially decoupled in existing commercial agricultural regimes throughout the world. These segregated high input production systems contribute to some of the world’s most pressing sustainability challenges, including climate change, nutrient imbalances, water pollution, biodiversity decline, and increasingly precarious rural livelihoods. There is substantial evidence that by closing the loop in nutrient and energy cycles, recoupling crop and livestock systems at farm and territorial scales can help reduce the environmental externalities associated with conventional commercial farming without declines in profitability or yields. Yet such “integrated” crop and livestock systems remain rare as a proportion of global agricultural area. Based on an interdisciplinary workshop and additional literature review, we provide a comprehensive historical and international perspective on why integrated crop and livestock systems have declined in most regions and what conditions have fostered their persistence and reemergence in others. We also identify levers for encouraging the reemergence of integrated crop and livestock systems worldwide. We conclude that a major disruption of the current regime would be needed to foster crop-livestock reintegration, including a redesign of research programs, credit systems, payments for ecosystem services, insurance programs, and food safety regulations to focus on whole farm outcomes and the creation of a circular economy. An expansion of the number of integrated crop and livestock systems field trials and demonstrations and efforts to brand integrated crop and livestock systems as a form of sustainable agriculture through the development of eco-labels could also improve adoption, but would likely be unsuccessful at encouraging wide-scale change without a more radical transformation of the research and policy landscape.
Integrative policy development for healthier people and ecosystems : A European case analysis
White, Piran C.L. ; Guégan, Jean François ; Keune, Hans ; Bell, Sian De; Geijzendorffer, Ilse R. ; Hermans, Tia ; Prieur-Richard, Anne Hélène ; Iroegbu, Chinny ; Stone, Dave ; Vanwambeke, Sophie ; Vries, Sjerp de; Ford, Adriana ; Graham, Hilary - \ 2020
Area 52 (2020)3. - ISSN 0004-0894 - p. 495 - 504.
biodiversity - cross-sectoral policy - ecosystem services - environment - evidence - public health
There is growing evidence of the inter-relationships between ecosystems and public health. This creates opportunities for the development of cross-sectoral policies and interventions that provide dual benefits to public health and to the natural environment. These benefits are increasingly articulated in strategy documents at national and regional level, yet implementation of integrative policies on the ground remains limited and fragmented. Here, we use a workshop approach to identify some features of this evidence–implementation gap based on policy and practice within a number of western European countries. The driving forces behind some recent moves towards more integrative policy development and implementation show important differences between countries, reflecting the non-linear and complex nature of the policy-making process. We use these case studies to illustrate some of the key barriers to greater integrative policy development identified in the policy analysis literature. Specific barriers we identify include: institutional barriers; differing time perspectives in public health and ecosystem management; contrasting historical development of public health and natural environment disciplinary policy agendas; an incomplete evidence base relating investment in the natural environment to benefits for public health; a lack of appropriate outcome measures including benefit–cost trade-offs; and finally a lack of integrative policy frameworks across the health and natural environment sectors. We also identify opportunities for greater policy integration and examples of good practice from different countries. However, we note there is no single mechanism that will deliver integrative policy for healthier people and ecosystems in all countries and situations. National governments, national public agencies, local governments, research institutions, and professional bodies all share a responsibility to identify and seize opportunities for influencing policy change, whether incremental or abrupt, to ensure that ecosystems and the health of society are managed so that the interests of future generations, as well as present generations, can be protected.
Red rust thrips in smallholder organic export banana in Latin America and the Caribbean : Pathways for control, compatible with organic certification
Arias de López, M. ; Corozo-Ayovi, R.E. ; Delgado, R. ; Osorio, B. ; Moyón, D. ; Rengifo, D. ; Suárez, P. ; Paulino, A. ; Medrano, S. ; Sanchez, L. ; Rojas, J.C. ; Vegas, U. ; Alburqueque, D. ; Staver, C. ; Tol, R. van; Clercx, L. - \ 2020
Acta Horticulturae 1272 (2020). - ISSN 0567-7572 - p. 153 - 161.
Bio-insecticides - Biological control of thrips - Organic banana
Since 2010, red rust thrips (RRT) have become a serious pest in organic export banana plantations, causing yield losses of 30-40%. Although RRT blemishes on banana peel are only cosmetic, exporters apply zero tolerance. During 2014-2017, FONTAGRO co-financed studies on measures to reduce RRT damage in smallholder organic export banana. Research was initially guided by an IPM approach based on thrips population thresholds and linked abiotic factors, in order to schedule practices. Initial studies resulted in a preventive model for thrips management based on the year-round use of transparent bags with 3-mm orifices to protect bunches just as the bell emerges and before bracts open. This approach minimizes losses due to both Chaetanaphothrips signipennis found in Peru and Ecuador and Chaetanaphothrips orchidii common in the Dominican Republic. Experiments to develop scouting methods and establish thresholds suggested three conclusions: C. signipennnis flies very little, complicating trapping even with pheromones; thresholds for economic damage are very low; and scouting is difficult, costly and not practical for decision making. Routine monitoring of losses caused by RRT and other factors should be done during packing. Experiments to test the effectiveness of bagging and the use of applied products to repel or kill thrips showed that bagging alone reduced losses by 90-100% compared to bunches with no bag. Applications of organic products to the bell at bagging and the leaf whorl and the upper bunch stem simultaneously with other bunch practices reduced losses further by 0-8%. Studies of biological control identified predators, parasitoids and entomopathogens which attack different stages of thrips. Preliminary lab and release studies suggest that biological control should be further developed. However, RRT form part of a complex of insect bunch pests, and the use of general or targeted applications should be reviewed to avoid the use of products which reduce beneficial organisms.
Recovery of eggplant field waste as a source of phytochemicals
Mauro, Rosario Paolo ; Agnello, Michele ; Rizzo, Valeria ; Graziani, Giulia ; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Leonardi, Cherubino ; Giuffrida, Francesco - \ 2020
Scientia Horticulturae 261 (2020). - ISSN 0304-4238
Anthocyanins - Polyphenols - Residual waste - Solanum melongena L. - Steroidal glycoalkaloids
The influence of ripening stage was evaluated on fruit characteristics of three widely cultivated eggplant cultivars (Birgah, Black Bell and Black Moon), with the aim to characterize their fruit residual waste for phytochemicals extraction. At overripening stage, eggplant fruits showed the highest average weight, dry matter content and weight incidence of the pulp. Total anthocyanins concentration of the peel (mainly represented by nasunin) was higher at commercial ripening, whereas total polyphenols (most of all 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid) and steroidal glycoalkaloids (α-solasonine and α-solamargine) peaked at the overripening stage. Because of these modifications, every ton of fresh fruit gave up to 59 g of total anthocyanins, 1054 g CAE of total polyphenols and 252 g of total glycoalkaloids, depending on cultivar and fruit ripening stage. This study highlighted the possibility to manage the choice of cultivar and harvest time in the view of valorise this raw material for phytochemical extraction.
Integrating livestock production into whole-farm system models of mixed crop–livestock systems
Descheemaeker, K.K.E. ; Bell, L. - \ 2019
In: Advances in Crop modelling for a sustainable agriculture / Boote , K., Cambridge : Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing Limited - ISBN 9781786762405 - p. 239 - 275.
Crop-livestock farming systems integrate various biophysical components with farm decision-making. Whole-farm system models help to understand the complexity arising from this integration and are useful tools to explore effects of interventions and to design improved systems. After describing the generic characteristics of crop-livestock systems, this chapter gives an account of the separate component models, from which whole-farm models are usually assembled. Most attention goes to the wide diversity in pasture, livestock and manure models, while approaches to represent farm management in models are also discussed. The interactions between farm components strongly determine model functioning and performance, and often present modelling challenges to capture them. With a focus on grazing, manure dynamics and animal mobility, the authors assess the key processes governing these interactions and review how models represent them. Further, the representation of feed quality in crop model outputs and the management of time scales and carry-over effects is dealt with. Finally, the authors provide two examples of common whole-farm model applications from contrasting environments.
Antimicrobial Effects Caused by Aloe barbadensis Miller on Bacteria Associated with Mastitis in Dairy Cattle
Forno-Bell, Natalia ; Bucarey, Sergio A. ; García, Diego ; Iragüen, Daniela ; Chacón, Oscar ; San Martín, Betty - \ 2019
Natural Product Communications 14 (2019)12. - ISSN 1934-578X
Aloe barbadensis Miller - aloe emodin - aloin - anthraquinones - antimicrobial - mastitis - natural products
It is known that the primary etiological agents associated with bovine mastitis show high levels of antimicrobial resistance. In this paper, we studied a possible alternative to antimicrobial treatment, Aloe barbadensis Miller (A. vera). Our goal was to determine the viability of bacteria upon treatment with a methanolic extract of A. vera gel, rich in anthraquinones such as aloin A, aloin B, and aloe emodin. To this purpose, we used fluorescence spectrometry to study the following bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus uberis, and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The results show that treatment with A. vera gel extract disrupted the cell membrane causing lysis in 75% of Staphylococcus aureus, in 88% of E. coli, in 97% of Streptococcus uberis, and in 88% of MRSA cells. Cell membrane disruption is attributed to the presence of anthraquinones. Further study is needed to determine whether other phenolic compounds present in the extract, influencing antimicrobial activity, could be used to develop pharmaceutical formulations to treat bovine mastitis.
Global patterns and drivers of ecosystem functioning in rivers and riparian zones
Tiegs, Scott D. ; Costello, David M. ; Isken, Mark W. ; Woodward, Guy ; McIntyre, Peter B. ; Gessner, Mark O. ; Chauvet, Eric ; Griffiths, Natalie A. ; Flecker, Alex S. ; Acuña, Vicenç ; Albariño, Ricardo ; Allen, Daniel C. ; Alonso, Cecilia ; Andino, Patricio ; Arango, Clay ; Aroviita, Jukka ; Barbosa, Marcus V.M. ; Barmuta, Leon A. ; Baxter, Colden V. ; Bell, Thomas D.C. ; Bellinger, Brent ; Boyero, Luz ; Brown, Lee E. ; Bruder, Andreas ; Bruesewitz, Denise A. ; Burdon, Francis J. ; Callisto, Marcos ; Canhoto, Cristina ; Capps, Krista A. ; Castillo, María M. ; Clapcott, Joanne ; Colas, Fanny ; Colón-Gaud, Checo ; Cornut, Julien ; Crespo-Pérez, Verónica ; Cross, Wyatt F. ; Culp, Joseph M. ; Danger, Michael ; Dangles, Olivier ; Eyto, Elvira De; Derry, Alison M. ; Villanueva, Veronica Díaz ; Douglas, Michael M. ; Elosegi, Arturo ; Encalada, Andrea C. ; Entrekin, Sally ; Espinosa, Rodrigo ; Ethaiya, Diana ; Ferreira, Verónica ; Ferriol, Carmen ; Flanagan, Kyla M. ; Fleituch, Tadeusz ; Follstad Shah, Jennifer J. ; Barbosa, André Frainer ; Friberg, Nikolai ; Frost, Paul C. ; Garcia, Erica A. ; Lago, Liliana García ; Soto, Pavel Ernesto García ; Ghate, Sudeep ; Giling, Darren P. ; Gilmer, Alan ; Gonçalves, José Francisco ; Gonzales, Rosario Karina ; Graça, Manuel A.S. ; Grace, Mike ; Grossart, Hans Peter ; Guérold, François ; Gulis, Vlad ; Hepp, Luiz U. ; Higgins, Scott ; Hishi, Takuo ; Huddart, Joseph ; Hudson, John ; Imberger, Samantha ; Iñiguez-Armijos, Carlos ; Iwata, Tomoya ; Janetski, David J. ; Jennings, Eleanor ; Kirkwood, Andrea E. ; Koning, Aaron A. ; Kosten, Sarian ; Kuehn, Kevin A. ; Laudon, Hjalmar ; Leavitt, Peter R. ; Lemes Da Silva, Aurea L. ; Leroux, Shawn J. ; LeRoy, Carri J. ; Lisi, Peter J. ; MacKenzie, Richard ; Marcarelli, Amy M. ; Masese, Frank O. ; McKie, Brendan G. ; Medeiros, Adriana Oliveira ; Meissner, Kristian ; Miliša, Marko ; Mishra, Shailendra ; Miyake, Yo ; Moerke, Ashley ; Mombrikotb, Shorok ; Mooney, Rob ; Moulton, Tim ; Muotka, Timo ; Negishi, Junjiro N. ; Neres-Lima, Vinicius ; Nieminen, Mika L. ; Nimptsch, Jorge ; Ondruch, Jakub ; Paavola, Riku ; Pardo, Isabel ; Patrick, Christopher J. ; Peeters, Edwin T.H.M. ; Pozo, Jesus ; Pringle, Catherine ; Prussian, Aaron ; Quenta, Estefania ; Quesada, Antonio ; Reid, Brian ; Richardson, John S. ; Rigosi, Anna ; Rincón, José ; Rîşnoveanu, Geta ; Robinson, Christopher T. ; Rodríguez-Gallego, Lorena ; Royer, Todd V. ; Rusak, James A. ; Santamans, Anna C. ; Selmeczy, Géza B. ; Simiyu, Gelas ; Skuja, Agnija ; Smykla, Jerzy ; Sridhar, Kandikere R. ; Sponseller, Ryan ; Stoler, Aaron ; Swan, Christopher M. ; Szlag, David ; Teixeira-De Mello, Franco ; Tonkin, Jonathan D. ; Uusheimo, Sari ; Veach, Allison M. ; Vilbaste, Sirje ; Vought, Lena B.M. ; Wang, Chiao Ping ; Webster, Jackson R. ; Wilson, Paul B. ; Woelfl, Stefan ; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A. ; Yates, Adam G. ; Yoshimura, Chihiro ; Yule, Catherine M. ; Zhang, Yixin X. ; Zwart, Jacob A. - \ 2019
Science Advances 5 (2019)1. - ISSN 2375-2548 - p. 14966 - 14973.
River ecosystems receive and process vast quantities of terrestrial organic carbon, the fate of which depends strongly on microbial activity. Variation in and controls of processing rates, however, are poorly characterized at the global scale. In response, we used a peer-sourced research network and a highly standardized carbon processing assay to conduct a global-scale field experiment in greater than 1000 river and riparian sites. We found that Earth's biomes have distinct carbon processing signatures. Slow processing is evident across latitudes, whereas rapid rates are restricted to lower latitudes. Both the mean rate and variability decline with latitude, suggesting temperature constraints toward the poles and greater roles for other environmental drivers (e.g., nutrient loading) toward the equator. These results and data set the stage for unprecedented "next-generation biomonitoring" by establishing baselines to help quantify environmental impacts to the functioning of ecosystems at a global scale.
Comparison of methods to measure methane for use in genetic evaluation of dairy cattle
Garnsworthy, Philip C. ; Difford, Gareth F. ; Bell, Matthew J. ; Bayat, Ali R. ; Huhtanen, Pekka ; Kuhla, Björn ; Lassen, Jan ; Peiren, Nico ; Pszczola, Marcin ; Sorg, Diana ; Visker, Marleen H.P.W. ; Yan, Tianhai - \ 2019
Animals 9 (2019)10. - ISSN 2076-2615
Dairy cows - Environment - Genetic evaluation - Greenhouse gases - Methane
Partners in Expert Working Group WG2 of the COST Action METHAGENE have used several methods for measuring methane output by individual dairy cattle under various environmental conditions. Methods included respiration chambers, the sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique, breath sampling during milking or feeding, the GreenFeed system, and the laser methane detector. The aim of the current study was to review and compare the suitability of methods for large-scale measurements of methane output by individual animals, which may be combined with other databases for genetic evaluations. Accuracy, precision and correlation between methods were assessed. Accuracy and precision are important, but data from different sources can be weighted or adjusted when combined if they are suitably correlated with the ‘true’ value. All methods showed high correlations with respiration chambers. Comparisons among alternative methods generally had lower correlations than comparisons with respiration chambers, despite higher numbers of animals and in most cases simultaneous repeated measures per cow per method. Lower correlations could be due to increased variability and imprecision of alternative methods, or maybe different aspects of methane emission are captured using different methods. Results confirm that there is sufficient correlation between methods for measurements from all methods to be combined for international genetic studies and provide a much-needed framework for comparing genetic correlations between methods should these become available.
Toward the improvement of total nitrogen deposition budgets in the United States
Walker, J.T. ; Beachley, G. ; Amos, H.M. ; Baron, J.S. ; Bash, J. ; Baumgardner, R. ; Bell, M.D. ; Benedict, K.B. ; Chen, X. ; Clow, D.W. ; Cole, A. ; Coughlin, J.G. ; Cruz, K. ; Daly, R.W. ; Decina, S.M. ; Elliott, E.M. ; Fenn, M.E. ; Ganzeveld, L. ; Gebhart, K. ; Isil, S.S. ; Kerschner, B.M. ; Larson, R.S. ; Lavery, T. ; Lear, G.G. ; Macy, T. ; Mast, M.A. ; Mishoe, K. ; Morris, K.H. ; Padgett, P.E. ; Pouyat, R.V. ; Puchalski, M. ; Pye, H.O.T. ; Rea, A.W. ; Rhodes, M.F. ; Rogers, C.M. ; Saylor, R. ; Scheffe, R. ; Schichtel, B.A. ; Schwede, D.B. ; Sexstone, G.A. ; Sive, B.C. ; Sosa, R. ; Templer, P.H. ; Thompson, T. ; Tong, D. ; Wetherbee, G.A. ; Whitlow, T.H. ; Wu, Z. ; Yu, Z. ; Zhang, L. - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 691 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1328 - 1352.
Ammonia - Dry deposition - Organic nitrogen - Oxidized nitrogen - Reactive nitrogen - Wet deposition
Frameworks for limiting ecosystem exposure to excess nutrients and acidity require accurate and complete deposition budgets of reactive nitrogen (Nr). While much progress has been made in developing total Nr deposition budgets for the U.S., current budgets remain limited by key data and knowledge gaps. Analysis of National Atmospheric Deposition Program Total Deposition (NADP/TDep) data illustrates several aspects of current Nr deposition that motivate additional research. Averaged across the continental U.S., dry deposition contributes slightly more (55%) to total deposition than wet deposition and is the dominant process (>90%) over broad areas of the Southwest and other arid regions of the West. Lack of dry deposition measurements imposes a reliance on models, resulting in a much higher degree of uncertainty relative to wet deposition which is routinely measured. As nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions continue to decline, reduced forms of inorganic nitrogen (NHx = NH3 + NH4 +) now contribute >50% of total Nr deposition over large areas of the U.S. Expanded monitoring and additional process-level research are needed to better understand NHx deposition, its contribution to total Nr deposition budgets, and the processes by which reduced N deposits to ecosystems. Urban and suburban areas are hotspots where routine monitoring of oxidized and reduced Nr deposition is needed. Finally, deposition budgets have incomplete information about the speciation of atmospheric nitrogen; monitoring networks do not capture important forms of Nr such as organic nitrogen. Building on these themes, we detail the state of the science of Nr deposition budgets in the U.S. and highlight research priorities to improve deposition budgets in terms of monitoring and flux measurements, leaf- to regional-scale modeling, source apportionment, and characterization of deposition trends and patterns.
Don't judge new foods by their appearance! How visual and oral sensory cues affect sensory perception and liking of novel, heterogeneous foods
Santagiuliana, Marco ; Bhaskaran, Vani ; Scholten, Elke ; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina ; Stieger, Markus - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 77 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 64 - 77.
Composite foods - Mechanical contrast - Particles - Texture perception
This study investigated how exteroceptive and interoceptive cues influence sensory perception and liking of novel, heterogeneous foods. Twelve heterogeneous cheeses were prepared by adding bell pepper pieces to homogeneous processed cheese matrices. Bell pepper pieces differed in size, hardness, and concentration. Consumers (n = 73)evaluated cheeses in three conditions. In the first condition, subjects tasted cheeses and rated them on sensory properties and liking while being blindfolded (interoceptive condition). In the second condition, participants evaluated expected sensory properties and liking of cheeses presented as pictures together with product descriptions (exteroceptive condition). In the third condition, consumers tasted and evaluated cheeses while visual cues and product descriptions were provided (combined condition). The hardness and concentration of bell pepper pieces predominantly determined variations in sensory perception in the interoceptive and combined conditions, whereas bell pepper size or concentration influenced expected sensory properties in the exteroceptive condition the most. Consumers expected to like the cheeses with small-medium sized bell pepper pieces the most. However, from the other conditions, we observed that piece size does not play a role in determining liking, and that cheeses with soft pieces were actually preferred most. From the comparison of the three conditions, we conclude that both visual and oral sensory cues influence texture and flavour perception of heterogeneous cheeses. Consumers’ liking was not influenced by the cheese's exteroceptive cues during the combined condition. In contrast, interoceptive cues as hardness played a large role in determining variations in consumer's hedonic responses. We conclude that for novel, heterogeneous foods liking after consumption is determined by textural product properties and depends to a large extent on the confirmation of consumers’ sensory expectations.
From water as curative agent to enabling waterscapes : Diverse experiences of the ‘therapeutic
Doughty, Karolina - \ 2019
In: Blue Space, Health and Wellbeing / Foley, Ronan, Kearns, Robin, Kistemann, Thomas, Wheeler, Ben, Routledge - ISBN 9780815359142 - p. 79 - 94.
Recent years have seen an increase in scholarly attention applied to the experiential relationship between humans and water. Significant insights have been gained into the human-water relationship more broadly, for instance in regard to the rich and evolving meanings of seascapes (Brown and Humberstone, 2015), as well as the growing literature on the health-enabling potential of being in or near water (Foley, 2010, 2011, 2014; Foley and Kistemann, 2015). In relation to questions about water and health, the literature within and beyond health geography exploring ‘therapeutic blue space’ has emerged strongly, contributing to the already large body of work which has applied the concept of therapeutic landscape (Gesler, 1992) to a wide range of contexts, to investigate how environmental, societal and individual factors interact in the creation of health-enabling places (for a scoping review, see Bell et al., 2018). In Gesler’s (1992) original conceptualisation, a therapeutic landscape is a place (a) where a material setting has been created to support the pursuit of health and wellbeing, (b) which is culturally associated with health and (c) where social practices related to ‘healing’ take place. Through these three elements the ‘healing process’ is situated geographically in places. As such, the therapeutic landscape concept has been applied to a wide range of environments from the perspective of exploring the attribution of health-related meaning to places and landscapes by individuals, groups and more broadly societies.
Combinations of vegetables can be more accepted than individual vegetables
Stokkom, V.L. van; Graaf, C. de; Wang, S. ; Kooten, O. van; Stieger, M. - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 72 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 147 - 158.
Acceptance - Bitterness - Sweetness - Taste - Variety - Vegetables
Enhancing sweetness of vegetables by addition of sucrose or sweeteners can increase acceptance but is not necessarily desirable. An alternative strategy could be to combine vegetables with other vegetables. By offering combinations of vegetables it might be possible to suppress bitterness, enhance sweetness and provide texture variety leading to increased acceptance. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of combining vegetables with other vegetables on sensory properties and acceptance. Carrot (sweet), cucumber (neutral), green bell pepper (bitter) and red bell pepper (sour) were assessed individually and in combination with the other three vegetables in two mixing ratios (1:2 and 2:1). Additionally, four combinations of three vegetables (mixing ratio 1:1:1) were assessed. A trained panel (n = 24) evaluated taste, flavour and texture and a consumer panel (n = 83) evaluated acceptance of all vegetables and combinations. Combining green bell pepper with carrot (1:2 and 2:1) increased sweetness and decreased bitterness. Combining cucumber, carrot or red bell pepper with green bell pepper (1:2) increased bitterness. Mainly sweetness and bitterness were associated with acceptance whereas texture (crunchiness, firmness and juiciness) did not strongly influence acceptance. Cucumber was the most accepted vegetable followed by carrot, red bell pepper and green bell pepper. Acceptance of vegetable combinations can differ from acceptance of individual vegetables depending on vegetable type and mixing ratio. Only 3 of 16 vegetable combinations had higher acceptance compared to the least accepted vegetable in the combination and similar acceptance as the more accepted vegetable in the combination. For 13 of 16 vegetable combinations acceptance did not increase compared to acceptance of individual vegetables. These findings suggest that strategies aimed at increasing vegetable consumption can be devised using specific combinations of vegetables.
Agitated thin-film drying of foods
Qiu, J. ; Boom, R.M. ; Schutyser, M.A.I. - \ 2019
Drying Technology 37 (2019)6. - ISSN 0737-3937 - p. 735 - 744.
Agitated thin-film drying (ATFD) has been proposed for efficient and mild drying of viscous liquid foods, pastes or pureed foods. We report a study on the influence of product and process parameters on ATFD. During ATFD of spinach leaf slurries, the wall temperature mainly affected the specific evaporation rate, while the absolute evaporation rate was proportional to the feed rate. The fact that blade rotation speed had limited effect on the drying rate suggested that the process is limited by heat transfer through the wall. ATFD is especially suited for slurries that show relatively limited sticky behavior during drying and liquid–solid phase transition with corresponding brittle viscoelastic behavior. This was demonstrated by drying juices from tomato and bell pepper, giving poor results, and by drying solutions from whey protein isolate (WPI) and sucrose, which could be successfully dried.