Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Verspreiding fusarium via drijfmest risico
    Visser, Chris de - \ 2020
    Intestinal Permeability Measured by Urinary Sucrose Excretion Correlates with Serum Zonulin and Faecal Calprotectin Concentrations in UC Patients in Remission
    Wegh, C.A.M. ; Roos, N.M. De; Hovenier, R. ; Meijerink, J. ; Besseling-Van Der Vaart, I. ; Hemert, S. Van; Witteman, B.J.M. - \ 2019
    Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism 2019 (2019). - ISSN 2090-0724

    Background and Aims. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is associated with an increased intestinal permeability, possibly through a dysbiosis of intestinal bacteria. We investigated which markers are most relevant to assess intestinal permeability in UC patients and whether probiotics had an effect on these markers. Methods. In this twelve-week placebo-controlled randomized double-blind study, twenty-five subjects with UC in remission received either placebo or a multispecies probiotics. Samples of blood, urine, and faeces were taken at baseline, week 6, and week 12 to assess intestinal permeability and inflammation. Diaries and Bristol stool scale were kept to record stool frequency and consistency. Quality of life was scored from 32-224 with the inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire (IBD-Q). Results. This group of UC patients, in clinical remission, did not show increased intestinal permeability at baseline of this study. During the study, no significant group or time effects were found for intestinal permeability measured by the 5-sugar absorption test, serum zonulin, and faecal zonulin. Likewise, the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP), calprotectin, and the cytokines IFNγ, TNFα, IL-6, and IL-10 were not significantly affected. Stool frequency and consistency were not significantly affected either. The IBD-Q score, 194 for the probiotics group and 195 for the placebo group, remained unaffected. Correlations were tested between all outcomes; urinary sucrose excretion was significantly correlated with serum zonulin (r = 0.62) and faecal calprotectin (r = 0.55). Faecal zonulin was not significantly correlated with any of the other markers. Conclusion. Serum zonulin may be a more relevant biomarker of intestinal permeability than faecal zonulin, due to its correlation with other biomarkers of intestinal permeability. UC patients in remission did not show an effect of the probiotic treatment or a change in gut permeability. This should not discourage further studies because effects might be present during active disease or shortly after a flare up.

    Quantifying ecological risks of aquatic micro- and nanoplastic
    Besseling, Ellen ; Redondo-Hasselerharm, Paula ; Foekema, Edwin M. ; Koelmans, Albert A. - \ 2019
    Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 49 (2019)1. - ISSN 1064-3389 - p. 32 - 80.
    Microplastic - Nanoplastics - exposure - risk assesment - Species sensitivity distributions
    Diverse effects of nano- and microplastic (NMP) have been demonstrated in the laboratory. We provide a broad review of current knowledge on occurrence, measurement, modeling approaches, fate, exposure, effects, and effect thresholds as regard to microplastics in the aquatic environment. Using this
    information, we perform a ‘proof of concept’ risk assessment for NMP, accounting for the diversity of the material. New data is included showing how bioturbation affects exposure, and exposure is evaluated based on literature data and model analyses. We review exposure and effect data and provide a
    worst case risk characterization, by comparing HC5 effect thresholds from ‘all inclusive’ Species Sensitivity Distributions (SSDs) with the highest environmental concentrations reported. HC5 values show wide confidence intervals yet suggest that sensitive aquatic organisms in near-shore surface waters might be at risk.
    Quality criteria for the analysis of microplastic in biota samples: a critical review
    Hermsen, Enya ; Mintenig, Svenja M. ; Besseling, E. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2018
    Environmental Science and Technology 52 (2018)18. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 10230 - 10240.
    Data on ingestion of microplastics by marine biota are quintessential for monitoring and risk assessment of microplastics in the environment. Current studies, however, portray a wide spread in results on the occurrence of microplastic ingestion, highlighting a lack of comparability of results which might be attributed to a lack of standardisation of methods. We critically review and evaluate recent microplastic ingestion studies in aquatic biota, propose a quality assessment method for such studies, and apply the assessment method to the reviewed studies. The quality assessment method uses ten criteria: Sampling method and strategy, Sample size, Sample processing and storage, Laboratory preparation, Clean air conditions, Negative controls, Positive controls, Target component, Sample (pre-)treatment, and Polymer identification. The results of this quality assessment show a dire need for stricter quality assurance in microplastic ingestion studies. On average studies score 8.0 out of 20 points for ‘completeness of information’, and ‘zero’ for ‘reliability’. Alongside the assessment method, a standardised protocol for detecting microplastic in biota samples incorporating these criteria is provided.
    Micro- and nanoplastic in the aquatic environment : from rivers to whales
    Besseling, Ellen - \ 2018
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A.A. Koelmans, co-promotor(en): Dr. E.M. Foekema. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463432597 - 312

    Although plastic has unquestionable benefits to modern society, its current use leads to pollution of the environment. Via direct disposal and degradation of larger plastic items, microplastic and nanoplastic particles reach the environment. Potential negative effects include ecological harm to species due to particle effects of plastic and effects of plastic on the transfer of chemicals between organisms and the environment. The particle characteristics as well as many environmentally relevant processes affect the fate of micro- and nanoplastic particles, the exposure, effects and consecutive risk to organisms. This thesis addresses a great number of these characteristics and processes in depth from the riverine towards the marine environment and combines these with other fate and effect studies from the literature to derive a provisional quantitative analysis of the ecological risk of micro- and nanoplastic in the aquatic environment.

    Erratum to: Modeling the Fate and Transport of Plastic Debris in Freshwaters: Review and Guidance
    Kooi, M. ; Besseling, E. ; Kroeze, C. ; Wezel, A.P. van; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2018
    In: Freshwater Microplastics / Wagner, Martin, Lambert, Scott, Cham : Springer (The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry ) - ISBN 9783319616148 - p. E1 - E1.
    Modeling the fate and transport of plastic debris in freshwaters : Review and Guidance
    Kooi, Merel ; Besseling, Ellen ; Kroeze, Carolien ; Wenzel, Annemarie P. van; Koelmans, Albert A. - \ 2018
    In: Freshwater Microplastics Springer Verlag (Handbook of Environmental Chemistry ) - ISBN 9783319616148 - p. 125 - 152.
    Fate - Freshwater - Microplastics - Modeling - Nanoplastics
    Contamination with plastic debris has been recognized as one of today’s major environmental quality problems. Because most of the sources are land based, concerns are increasingly focused on the freshwater and terrestrial environment. Fate and transport models for plastic debris can complement information from measurements and will play an important role in the prospective risk assessment of plastic debris. We review the present knowledge with respect to fate and transport modeling of plastic debris in freshwater catchment areas, focusing especially on nano- and microplastics. Starting with a brief overview of theory and models for nonplastic particles, we discuss plastic-specific properties, processes, and existing mass-balance-, multimedia-, and spatiotemporally explicit fate models. We find that generally many theoretical and conceptual approaches from models developed earlier for other types of (low density) particles apply also to plastic debris. A unique feature of plastic debris, however, is its combination of high persistence, low density, and extremely wide size distribution, ranging from the nanometer to the >cm scale. This causes the system behavior of plastic debris to show a far wider variety than most other materials or chemicals. We provide recommendations for further development of these models and implications and guidance for how fate and transport models can be used in a framework for the tiered risk assessment of plastic debris.
    Modeling the fate and transport of plastic debris in fresh waters. Review and guidance
    Kooi, M. ; Besseling, E. ; Kroeze, C. ; Wenzel, A.P. van; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2018
    In: Freshwater Microplastics / Wagner, M., Lambert, S., Springer (The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry ) - ISBN 9783319616155 - p. 125 - 152.
    Fate - Freshwater - Microplastics - Modeling - Nanoplastics
    Contamination with plastic debris has been recognized as one of today’s major environmental quality problems. Because most of the sources are land based, concerns are increasingly focused on the freshwater and terrestrial environment. Fate and transport models for plastic debris can complement information from measurements and will play an important role in the prospective risk assessment of plastic debris. We review the present knowledge with respect to fate and transport modeling of plastic debris in freshwater catchment areas, focusing especially on nano- and microplastics. Starting with a brief overview of theory and models for nonplastic particles, we discuss plastic-specific properties, processes, and existing mass-balance-, multimedia-, and spatiotemporally explicit fate models. We find that generally many theoretical and conceptual approaches from models developed earlier for other types of (low density) particles apply also to plastic debris. A unique feature of plastic debris, however, is its combination of high persistence, low density, and extremely wide size distribution, ranging from the nanometer to the >cm scale. This causes the system behavior of plastic debris to show a far wider variety than most other materials or chemicals. We provide recommendations for further development of these models and implications and guidance for how fate and transport models can be used in a framework for the tiered risk assessment of plastic debris.
    Risks of Plastic Debris : Unravelling Fact, Opinion, Perception, and Belief
    Koelmans, Albert A. ; Besseling, Ellen ; Foekema, Edwin ; Kooi, Merel ; Mintenig, Svenja ; Ossendorp, Bernadette C. ; Redondo-Hasselerharm, Paula E. ; Verschoor, Anja ; Wezel, Annemarie P. van; Scheffer, Marten - \ 2017
    Environmental Science and Technology 51 (2017)20. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 11513 - 11519.
    Researcher and media alarms have caused plastic debris to be perceived as a major threat to humans and animals. However, although the waste of plastic in the environment is clearly undesirable for aesthetic and economic reasons, the actual environmental risks of different plastics and their associated chemicals remain largely unknown. Here we show how a systematic assessment of adverse outcome pathways based on ecologically relevant metrics for exposure and effect can bring risk assessment within reach. Results of such an assessment will help to respond to the current public worry in a balanced way and allow policy makers to take measures for scientifically sound reasons.
    Export of microplastics from land to sea. A modelling approach
    Siegfried, Max ; Koelmans, A.A. ; Besseling, E. ; Kroeze, C. - \ 2017
    Water Research 127 (2017). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 249 - 257.
    Quantifying the transport of plastic debris from river to sea is crucial for assessing the risks of plastic debris to human health and the environment. We present a global modelling approach to analyse the composition and quantity of point-source microplastic fluxes from European rivers to the sea. The model accounts for different types and sources of microplastics entering river systems via point sources. We combine information on these sources with information on sewage management and plastic retention during river transport for the largest European rivers. Sources of microplastics include personal care products, laundry, household dust and tyre and road wear particles (TRWP). Most of the modelled microplastics exported by rivers to seas are synthetic polymers from TRWP (42%) and plastic-based textiles abraded during laundry (29%). Smaller sources are synthetic polymers and plastic fibres in household dust (19%) and microbeads in personal care products (10%). Microplastic export differs largely among European rivers, as a result of differences in socio-economic development and technological status of sewage treatment facilities. About two-thirds of the microplastics modelled in this study flow into the Mediterranean and Black Sea. This can be explained by the relatively low microplastic removal efficiency of sewage treatment plants in the river basins draining into these two seas. Sewage treatment is generally more efficient in river basins draining into the North Sea, the Baltic Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. We use our model to explore future trends up to the year 2050. Our scenarios indicate that in the future river export of microplastics may increase in some river basins, but decrease in others. Remarkably, for many basins we calculate a reduction in river export of microplastics from point-sources, mainly due to an anticipated improvement in sewage treatment.
    Fe3O4 nanoparticles coated with a guanidinium-functionalized polyelectrolyte extend the pH range for phosphate binding
    Paltrinieri, Laura ; Wang, Min ; Sachdeva, Sumit ; Besseling, Nicolaas A.M. ; Sudhölter, Ernst J.R. ; Smet, Louis C.P.M. De - \ 2017
    Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for energy and sustainability 5 (2017)35. - ISSN 2050-7488 - p. 18476 - 18485.

    In this work commercially available Fe3O4 NPs were coated with polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH) and PAH functionalized with guanidinium groups (PAH-Gu) for investigating the phosphate adsorption properties under alkaline conditions. The coating can be prepared easily and rapidly and results in Fe3O4 NPs with improved properties related to phosphate binding and colloidal stability. At a low initial phosphate concentration (2 mg L-1), the novel Fe3O4@PAH-Gu material was able to remove phosphate rather independently of the pH condition (4.0, 3.6 and 3.7 mg g-1 at pH = 5, 8 and 10, respectively), whereas for the uncoated Fe3O4 NPs the amount of adsorbed phosphate drops by >75% upon changing from acidic to alkaline conditions (0.84 mg g-1 at pH = 10). Under alkaline conditions, the fastest adsorption was observed for Fe3O4@PAH-Gu followed by Fe3O4@PAH and Fe3O4. This can be related to the additional interaction forces due to the presence of primary amine groups (in PAH and PAH-Gu) and Gu groups (in PAH-Gu only) in coatings. Over 80% of the phosphate adsorbed on the novel Fe3O4@PAH-Gu material was successfully desorbed and the coated NPs were re-used over three adsorption/desorption cycles. This work will stimulate the design and preparation of functionalized polyelectrolytes for an extended area of applications, especially for the selective removal of target compounds from wastewater.

    Aging of microplastics promotes their ingestion by marine zooplankton
    Vroom, Renske J.E. ; Koelmans, Bart ; Besseling, Ellen ; Halsband, C. - \ 2017
    Environmental Pollution 231 (2017). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 987 - 996.
    Biofouling - Ingestion - Marine - Microplastics - Zooplankton
    Microplastics (<5 mm) are ubiquitous in the marine environment and are ingested by zooplankton with possible negative effects on survival, feeding, and fecundity. The majority of laboratory studies has used new and pristine microplastics to test their impacts, while aging processes such as weathering and biofouling alter the characteristics of plastic particles in the marine environment. We investigated zooplankton ingestion of polystyrene beads (15 and 30 μm) and fragments (≤30 μm), and tested the hypothesis that microplastics previously exposed to marine conditions (aged) are ingested at higher rates than pristine microplastics. Polystyrene beads were aged by soaking in natural local seawater for three weeks. Three zooplankton taxa ingested microplastics, excluding the copepod Pseudocalanus spp., but the proportions of individuals ingesting plastic and the number of particles ingested were taxon and life stage specific and dependent on plastic size. All stages of Calanus finmarchicus ingested polystyrene fragments. Aged microbeads were preferred over pristine ones by females of Acartia longiremis as well as juvenile copepodites CV and adults of Calanus finmarchicus. The preference for aged microplastics may be attributed to the formation of a biofilm. Such a coating, made up of natural microbes, may contain similar prey as the copepods feed on in the water column and secrete chemical exudates that aid chemodetection and thus increase the attractiveness of the particles as food items. Much of the ingested plastic was, however, egested within a short time period (2–4 h) and the survival of adult Calanus females was not affected in an 11-day exposure. Negative effects of microplastics ingestion were thus limited. Our findings emphasize, however, that aging plays an important role in the transformation of microplastics at sea and ingestion by grazers, and should thus be considered in future microplastics ingestion studies and estimates of microplastics transfer into the marine food web.
    The effect of microplastic on chemical uptake by the lugworm Arenicola marina (L.) under environmentally relevant conditions
    Besseling, E. ; Foekema, E.M. ; Heuvel-Greve, M.J. van den; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2017
    Environmental Science and Technology 51 (2017)15. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 8795 - 8804.
    It has been hypothesized that ingestion of microplastic increases exposure of aquatic organisms to hydrophobic contaminants. To date, most laboratory studies investigated chemical transfer from ingested microplastic without taking other exposure pathways into account. Therefore we studied the effect of polyethylene (PE) microplastic in sediment on PCB uptake by Arenicola marina as a model species, quantifying uptake fluxes from all natural exposure pathways. PCB concentrations in sediment, biota lipids (Clip) and porewater measured with passive samplers were used to derive lipid-normalized bioaccumulation metrics Clip, Biota sediment accumulation factor (BSAF), Bioaccumulation factor (BAF) and the Biota plastic accumulation factor (BPAF). Small effects of PE addition were detected suggesting slightly increased or decreased bioaccumulation. However, the differences decreased in magnitude dependent on the metric used to assess bioaccumulation, in the order: Clip>BSAF>BPAF>BAF, and were non-significant for BAF. The fact that BAF, i.e. normalization of Clip on porewater concentration, largely removed all effects of PE, shows that PE did not act as a measurable vector of PCBs. Biodynamic model analysis confirmed that PE ingestion contributed marginally to bioaccumulation. This work confirmed model-based predictions on the limited relevance of microplastic for bioaccumulation under environmentally realistic conditions, and illustrated the importance of assessing exposure through all media in microplastic bioaccumulation studies.
    Detection of low numbers of microplastics in North Sea fish using strict quality assurance criteria
    Hermsen, E. ; Pompe, R. ; Besseling, E. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2017
    Marine Pollution Bulletin 122 (2017)1-2. - ISSN 0025-326X - p. 253 - 258.
    We investigated 400 individual fish of four North Sea species: Atlantic Herring, Sprat, Common Dab, and Whiting on ingestion of > 20 μm microplastic. Strict quality assurance criteria were followed in order to control contamination during the study. Two plastic particles were found in only 1 (a Sprat) out of 400 individuals (0.25%, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.09–1.1%). The particles were identified to consist of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) through FTIR spectroscopy. No contamination occurred during the study, showing the method applied to be suitable for microplastic ingestion studies in biota. We discuss the low particle count for North Sea fish with those in other studies and suggest a relation between reported particle count and degree of quality assurance applied. Microplastic ingestion by fish may be less common than thought initially, with low incidence shown in this study, and other studies adhering to strict quality assurance criteria.
    Fate of nano- and microplastic in freshwater systems: A modeling study
    Besseling, Ellen ; Quik, Joris T.K. ; Sun, Muzhi ; Koelmans, Bart - \ 2017
    Environmental Pollution 220 (2017)Part A. - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 540 - 548.
    microplastics - particles - water pollution - water quality - sedimentation - fresh water - hydrodynamics - microplastics - deeltjes - waterverontreiniging - waterkwaliteit - sedimentatie - zoet water - hydrodynamica
    Riverine transport to the marine environment is an important pathway for microplastic. However, information on fate and transport of nano- and microplastic in freshwater systems is lacking. Here we present scenario studies on the fate and transport of nano-to millimetre sized spherical particles like microbeads (100 nm–10 mm) with a state of the art spatiotemporally resolved hydrological model. The model accounts for advective transport, homo- and heteroaggregation, sedimentation-resuspension, polymer degradation, presence of biofilm and burial. Literature data were used to parameterize the model and additionally the attachment efficiency for heteroaggregation was determined experimentally. The attachment efficiency ranged from 0.004 to 0.2 for 70 nm and 1050 nm polystyrene particles aggregating with kaolin or bentonite clays in natural freshwater. Modeled effects of polymer density (1–1.5 kg/L) and biofilm formation were not large, due to the fact that variations in polymer density are largely overwhelmed by excess mass of suspended solids that form heteroaggregates with microplastic. Particle size had a dramatic effect on the modeled fate and retention of microplastic and on the positioning of the accumulation hot spots in the sediment along the river. Remarkably, retention was lowest (18–25%) for intermediate sized particles of about 5 μm, which implies that the smaller submicron particles as well as larger micro- and millimetre sized plastic are preferentially retained. Our results suggest that river hydrodynamics affect microplastic size distributions with profound implications for emissions to marine systems.
    Incorporation of microplastics from litter into burrows of Lumbricus terrestris
    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza ; Gertsen, H.F. ; Gooren, H. ; Peters, P. ; Salanki, T.E. ; Ploeg, M. van der; Besseling, E. ; Koelmans, A.A. ; Geissen, V. - \ 2017
    Environmental Pollution 220 (2017). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 523 - 531.
    Pollution caused by plastic debris is an urgent environmental problem. Here, we assessed the effects of microplastics in the soil surface litter on the formation and characterization of burrows built by the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris in soil and quantified the amount of microplastics that was transported and deposited in L. terrestris burrows.

    Worms were exposed to soil surface litter treatments containing microplastics (Low Density Polyethylene) for 2 weeks at concentrations of 0%, 7%, 28%, 45% and 60%. The latter representing environmentally realistic concentrations found in hot spot soil locations. There were significantly more burrows found when soil was exposed to the surface treatment composed of 7% microplastics than in all other treatments. The highest amount of organic matter in the walls of the burrows was observed after using the treatments containing 28 and 45% microplastics. The highest microplastic bioturbation efficiency ratio (total microplastics (mg) in burrow walls/initial total surface litter microplastics (mg)) was found using the concentration of 7% microplastics, where L. terrestris introduced 73.5% of the surface microplastics into the burrow walls. The highest burrow wall microplastic content per unit weight of soil (11.8 ± 4.8 g kg-1) was found using a concentration of 60% microplastics. L. terrestris was responsible for size-selective downward transport when exposed to concentrations of 7, 28 and 45% microplastics in the surface litter, as the fraction ≤50 μm microplastics in burrow walls increased by 65% compared to this fraction in the original surface litter plastic. We conclude that the high biogenic incorporation rate of the small-fraction microplastics from surface litter into burrow walls causes a risk of leaching through preferential flow into groundwater bodies. Furthermore, this leaching may have implications for the subsequent availability of microplastics to terrestrial organisms or for the transport of plastic-associated organic contaminants in soil.
    Effects of supplementation of the synbiotic Ecologic® 825/FOS P6 on intestinal barrier function in healthy humans : A randomized controlled trial
    Wilms, E. ; Gerritsen, J. ; Smidt, H. ; Besseling-van der Vaart, I. ; Rijkers, G.T. ; Garcia Fuentes, A.R. ; Masclee, A.A.M. ; Troost, F.J. - \ 2016
    PLoS ONE 11 (2016)12. - ISSN 1932-6203

    Background and Aims: Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics have been suggested as dietary strategies to improve intestinal barrier function. This study aimed to assess the effect of two weeks synbiotic supplementation on intestinal permeability under basal and stressed conditions. Secondary aims were the assessment of two weeks synbiotic supplementation on systemic immune function and gastrointestinal symptoms including defecation pattern. Design: Twenty healthy adults completed a double-blind, controlled, randomized, parallel design study. Intervention: Groups either received synbiotic (1.5 × 1010 CFU Ecologic® 825 + 10 g fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS P6) per day) or control supplements for two weeks. Outcomes: Intestinal segment specific permeability was assessed non-invasively by oral administration of multiple sugar probes and, subsequently, assessing the excretion of these probes in urine. This test was conducted at baseline and at the end of intervention, in the absence and in the presence of an indomethacin challenge. Indomethacin was applied to induce a compromised gut state. Plasma zonulin, cytokines and chemokines were measured at baseline and at the end of intervention. Gastrointestinal symptoms and stool frequency were recorded at baseline and daily during intervention. Results: Significantly more male subjects were in the synbiotic group compared to the control group (P = 0.025). Indomethacin significantly increased urinary lactulose/rhamnose ratio versus without indomethacin, both in the control group (P = 0.005) and in the synbiotic group (P = 0.017). Urinary sugar recoveries and ratios, plasma levels of zonulin, cytokines and chemokines, and gastrointestinal symptom scores were not significantly different after control or synbiotic intervention. Stool frequency within the synbiotic group was significantly increased during synbiotic intervention compared to baseline (P = 0.039) and higher compared to control intervention (P = 0.045). Conclusion: Two weeks Ecologic® 825/FOS P6 supplementation increased stool frequency, but did not affect intestinal permeability neither under basal nor under indomethacin-induced stressed conditions, immune function or gastrointestinal symptoms in healthy adults.

    To Eat Or Not To Eat: The Role Of Taste In Microplastic Ingestion By Zooplankton
    Vroom, Renske ; Besseling, E. ; Koelmans, A.A. ; Halsband, C. - \ 2016
    Effects of microplastics on benthic macroinvertebrates in freshwater ecosystems
    Redondo Hasselerharm, P.E. ; Falahudin, D. ; Peeters, E.T.H.M. ; Besseling, E. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2016
    Biofouling of microplastics promotes their ingestion by marine zooplankton: implications for food web magnification and experimental design
    Vroom, Renske ; Besseling, E. ; Koelmans, A.A. ; Halsband, C. - \ 2016
    Potential risk of microplastics transportation into ground water
    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza ; Gertsen, H.F. ; Gooren, H.C. ; Peters, Piet ; Salánki, T.E. ; Ploeg, Martine van der; Besseling, E. ; Koelmans, A.A. ; Geissen, V. - \ 2016
    Geophysical Research Abstracts 18 (2016). - ISSN 1029-7006 - 1 p.
    Effects of microplastics on benthic macroinvertebrates in freshwater ecosystems
    Stuurman, L. ; Redondo Hasselerharm, P.E. ; Peeters, E.T.H.M. ; Besseling, E. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2016
    Effects of microplastics on zooplankton : Microplastic ingestion: the role of taste
    Vroom, Renske ; Halsband, C. ; Besseling, E. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2016
    Ingestion of microplastics by zooplankton has been confirmed both in vitro and in situ and negatively affects feeding rates, survival and fecundity in copepods. Here, we studied ingestion of 15 and 30 μm polystyrene beads by copepods and decapod larvae. Consistent amounts of plastic (0.333 mg l-1) were offered to Acartia longiremis, Calanus finmarchicus, Pseudocalanus sp. in 24 hour incubations. Due to the difference in size the resulting concentrations were 23 particles ml-1 (30 µm) and 148 ml-1 (15 µm). The smaller 15 μm beads were ingested more frequently than 30 μm beads by all species, due to higher encounter rates with the smaller particles. An exception was Pseudocalanus sp., which did not ingest particles of either size. We then investigated whether the ingestion of microplastics was influenced by the presence of a biofilm. A higher proportion of both C. finmarchicus and A. longiremis individuals ingested fouled microbeads than clean beads. The number of beads ingested was also significantly higher when the plastics were fouled. In the presence of algae more copepods ingested microplastic in both fouled treatments (with and without food) than in treatments with clean beads, but the number of plastics ingested was highly variable within replicates. After ingestion, microbeads passed through the gut and egestion in faecal pellets was observed within 1-3 hours. In a long-term exposure, microbeads did not affect survival of C. finmarchicus females. Our findings indicate that biofouling enhances microplastic ingestion and should be taken into account in estimates of potential for trophic transfer.
    Microplastics in the terrestrial ecosystem: Implications for Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae)
    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza ; Gertsen, H.F. ; Gooren, H. ; Peters, P.D. ; Salanki, T.E. ; Ploeg, M.J.C. van der; Besseling, E. ; Koelmans, A.A. ; Geissen, V. - \ 2016
    Environmental Science and Technology 50 (2016)5. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 2685 - 2691.
    Plastic debris is widespread in the environment, but information on the effects of microplastics on terrestrial fauna is completely lacking. Here, we studied the survival and fitness of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) exposed to microplastics (Polyethylene, <150 μm) in litter at concentrations of 7, 28, 45, and 60% dry weight, percentages that, after bioturbation, translate to 0.2 to 1.2% in bulk soil. Mortality after 60 days was higher at 28, 45, and 60% of microplastics in the litter than at 7% w/w and in the control (0%). Growth rate was significantly reduced at 28, 45, and 60% w/w microplastics, compared to the 7% and control treatments. Due to the digestion of ingested organic matter, microplastic was concentrated in cast, especially at the lowest dose (i.e., 7% in litter) because that dose had the highest proportion of digestible organic matter. Whereas 50 percent of the microplastics had a size of <50 μm in the original litter, 90 percent of the microplastics in the casts was <50 μm in all treatments, which suggests size-selective egestion by the earthworms. These concentration-transport and size-selection mechanisms may have important implications for fate and risk of microplastic in terrestrial ecosystems.
    Case Study Systems Innovation Biobased economy in the Netherlands
    Bos, H.L. ; Besseling, Peter - \ 2015
    OECD - 27 p.
    Bioturbator affects and is affected by the concentration of microplastic in sediment
    Besseling, E. ; Foekema, E.M. ; Ren, Y. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2015
    Microplastic in a macro filter feeder: humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae
    Besseling, E. ; Foekema, E.M. ; Franeker, J.A. van; Leopold, M.F. ; Kuhnel, S. ; Bravo Rebolledo, E. ; Mielke, L. ; Hesse, E. ; Ijzer, J. ; Kamminga, A. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2015
    Occurrence of microplastic in the river Rhine and Meuse delta
    Besseling, E. ; Foekema, E.M. ; Hoon, K. de; Wegner, A. ; Gylstra, R. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2015
    Relative importance of PCB uptake from sediment and microplastic by the lugworm Arenicola marina (L.)
    Besseling, E. ; Foekema, E.M. ; Heuvel, M.J. van den; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2015
    Feedbacks between bioturbation and microplastic at the sediment-water interface
    Besseling, E. ; Foekema, E.M. ; Ren, Y. ; Heuvel-Greve, M.J. van den; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2015
    Guidance for the Prognostic Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials in Aquatic Ecosystems
    Koelmans, A.A. ; Diepens, N.J. ; Velzeboer, I. ; Besseling, E. ; Quik, J.T.K. - \ 2015
    Science of the Total Environment 535 (2015). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 141 - 149.
    engineered nanomaterials - tio2 nanoparticles - environmental fate - carbon nanotubes - manufactured nanoparticles - hediste-diversicolor - silver nanoparticles - scrobicularia-plana - cuo nanoparticles - fresh-water
    Our understanding of the environmental fate and effects of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is in a state of fast transition. Recent scientific developments open new and powerful perspectives to define a framework for the prognostic risk assessment of ENMs in aquatic ecosystems. This requires abandoning the reductionist's approach of mechanistic analysis on particle or cellular scales and calls for engineering solutions that deal with uncertainties by applying assessment factors and probabilistic approaches. An ecological risk assessment (ERA) framework for ENMs is similar to that for other classes of substances, in that it requires clear protection goals based on ecosystem services, evidence-based concepts that link exposure to effects, and a transparent tiered effect assessment. Here, we discuss approaches to assess exposure and effects of ENMs. This includes recent developments in ENP fate modeling that greatly expanded the potential of prognostic exposure assessments. For the effect assessment, we advise a cost-effective screening based on principles of read-across as a conservative first tier. The feasibility of using species sensitivity distributions as a higher tier option is discussed. Controlled model ecosystem field experiments are proposed as a highest experimental tier, and are required for the calibration of the lower tiers. An outlook to unify information from various tiers by experimental work, fate modeling, and effect modeling as cost-effective prognostic tools for the ERA of ENMs is provided.
    Microplastic in a macro filter feeder: humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae
    Besseling, E. ; Foekema, E.M. ; Franeker, J.A. van; Leopold, M.F. ; Bravo Rebolledo, E. ; Kühn, S. ; Mielke, L. ; Heberle-Bors, E. ; Ijzer, J. ; Kamminga, P. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2015
    Marine Pollution Bulletin 95 (2015)1. - ISSN 0025-326X - p. 248 - 252.
    marine-environment - plastic ingestion - balaenoptera-physalus - mediterranean sea - north-sea - debris - identification - pollutants - particles - additives
    Marine filter feeders are exposed to microplastic because of their selection of small particles as food source. Baleen whales feed by filtering small particles from large water volumes. Macroplastic was found in baleen whales before. This study is the first to show the presence of microplastic in intestines of a baleen whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). Contents of its gastrointestinal tract were sieved, dissolved in 10% potassium hydroxide and washed. From the remaining dried material, potential synthetic polymer particles were selected based on density and appearance, and analysed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Several polymer types (polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinylchloride, polyethylene terephthalate, nylon) were found, in varying particle shapes: sheets, fragments and threads with a size of 1 mm to 17 cm. This diversity in polymer types and particle shapes, can be interpreted as a representation of the varying characteristics of marine plastic and the unselective way of ingestion by M. novaeangliae.
    Nanoplastics in the aquatic environment
    Koelmans, A.A. ; Besseling, E. ; Shim, W.J. - \ 2015
    In: Marine Anthropogene Litter / Bergmann, M., Gutow, L., Klages, M., Berlin : Springer - ISBN 9783319165103 - p. 325 - 340.
    A growing body of literature reports on the abundance and effects of plastic debris, with an increasing focus on microplastic particles smaller than 5 mm. It has often been suggested that plastic particles in the
    The role of microplastics in bioaccumulation of organic chemicals to aquatic organisms
    Koelmans, A.A. ; Besseling, E. ; Foekema, E.M. - \ 2014
    Modeling the fate of nanoplastic and microplastic in rivers
    Besseling, E. ; Quik, J.T.K. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2014
    Modeling the Fate of Nano- and Microplastics in freshwater systems
    Besseling, E. ; Quik, J.T.K. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2014
    In: Abstract book 24th Annual meeting SETAC Europe : Science across bridges, borders and boundaries. - - p. 238 - 238.
    Riverine transport from land based sources constitutes an important pathway of plastic particles to the marine environment. However, fate and transport models for nano-, micro- and millimetre (NMM) sized particles are lacking. Prognostic fate models can be used to assess retention in freshwaters, to assess exposure to aquatic organisms and to quantify transport to sea. Here, we present a novel model for NMM polymer particles implemented for the river Dommel. The spatially and temporally explicit model accounts for advective transport, homo- and hetero-aggregation, sedimentation-resuspension, polymer degradation and burial. Experimental data on particle behaviour as well as literature data are used to parameterize the model. Model behaviour was tested by varying particle radius from 30 nm to 5 mm, for two polystyrene emission scenarios; a point source scenario and a realistic scenario with a combination of diffuse and WWTP (waste water treatment plant) sources. It appears that particle size, biofilm formation and water turbulence have dramatic effects on the fate and retention of NMM sized polymer particles in the Dommel catchment and on the positioning of the accumulation hot spots along the river.
    Plastik-Partikeln auch im Suesswasser schaedlich (interview mit Ellen Besseling)
    Besseling, Ellen - \ 2014
    Nanoplastic affects growth of S. obliquus and reproduction of D. magna
    Besseling, E. ; Wang, B. ; Lürling, M.F.L.L.W. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2014
    Environmental Science and Technology 48 (2014)20. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 12336 - 12343.
    green-alga scenedesmus - cyanobacterium microcystis-aeruginosa - daphnia-magna - microplastic pollution - polystyrene particles - marine-environment - surface-properties - nanoparticles - size - behavior
    The amount of nano- and microplastic in the aquatic environment rises due to the industrial production of plastic and the degradation of plastic into smaller particles. Concerns have been raised about their incorporation into food webs. Little is known about the fate and effects of nanoplastic, especially for the freshwater environment. In this study, effects of nano-polystyrene (nano-PS) on the growth and photosynthesis of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and the growth, mortality, neonate production, and malformations of the zooplankter Daphnia magna were assessed. Nano-PS reduced population growth and reduced chlorophyll concentrations in the algae. Exposed Daphnia showed a reduced body size and severe alterations in reproduction. Numbers and body size of neonates were lower, while the number of neonate malformations among neonates rose to 68% of the individuals. These effects of nano-PS were observed between 0.22 and 103 mg nano-PS/L. Malformations occurred from 30 mg of nano-PS/L onward. Such plastic concentrations are much higher than presently reported for marine waters as well as freshwater, but may eventually occur in sediment pore waters. As far as we know, these results are the first to show that direct life history shifts in algae and Daphnia populations may occur as a result of exposure to nanoplastic.
    Plastic nanodeeltjes ook schadelijk voor zoetwaterorganismen (interview met Bart Koelmans en Ellen Besseling)
    Koelmans, Bart ; Besseling, Ellen - \ 2014
    Ecotoxic Effects of Nano Plastic on Freshwater plankton (Scenedesmus obliquus and Daphnia magna)
    Besseling, E. ; Wang, B. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2014
    In: Book of Abstracts of the International workshop 'Fate and impact of microplastics in marine ecosystems'. - - p. 40 - 40.
    The amount of nano- and microparticles in the aquatic environment rises due to the industrial production of nanoplastic and the degradation of macroplastic into small particles. Little is known about the fate and effects of nanoplastic, while there are lots of speculations about possible effects. In this study, the effects of nano polystyrene on performance of green algae Scenedesmus obliquus and zooplankton Daphnia magna were assessed. At high doses inhibiting effects on the growth of S. obliquus were shown. During chronic tests the suspensions of nano polystyrene were not lethal to D. magna but reproduction effects were observed. Interestingly, aqueous vs. dietary exposure to nano polystyrene played an important role in the occurrence of effects on D. magna. Thereby this study provides a novel indication about the importance of uptake routes in nano plastic exposure.
    Microplastics as vectors of chemical contaminants
    Koelmans, A.A. ; Besseling, E. ; Foekema, E.M. - \ 2014
    Verkennend Onderzoek Microplastic in het beheersgebied van Waterschap Rivierenland
    Besseling, E. ; Foekema, E.M. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - 18
    oppervlaktewater - waterverontreiniging - microplastics - aquatische ecologie - ecotoxicologie - inventarisaties - rijk van nijmegen - betuwe - alblasserwaard - land van maas en waal - surface water - water pollution - microplastics - aquatic ecology - ecotoxicology - inventories - rijk van nijmegen - betuwe - alblasserwaard - land van maas en waal
    Waterschap Rivierenland (WSRL) heeft samen met Wageningen UR een verkennend onderzoek gedaan naar de aanwezigheid van microplastics in haar wateren. Er was interesse in de volgende drie vragen: 1. Waar zit het microplastic? (in bagger en/of oppervlaktewater, in landelijk of stedelijk gebied?) In welke vorm wordt het plastic aangetroffen en in welke concentraties? 2. Waar komt het plastic vandaan? (effluent, landbouw, inlaat, etc.) 3. Wat doet het plastic in het systeem / wat zijn de effecten?
    Leaching of Plastic Additives to Marine Organisms
    Koelmans, A.A. ; Besseling, E. ; Foekema, E.M. - \ 2014
    Environmental Pollution 187 (2014). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 49 - 54.
    bisphenol-a - environment - water - bioaccumulation - wildlife - pellets - fish - microplastics - accumulation - contaminants
    It is often assumed that ingestion of microplastics by aquatic species leads to increased exposure to plastic additives. However, experimental data or model based evidence is lacking. Here we assess the potential of leaching of nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in the intestinal tracts of Arenicola marina (lugworm) and Gadus morhua North Sea cod.). We use a biodynamic model that allows calculations of the relative contribution of plastic ingestion to total exposure of aquatic species to chemicals residing in the ingested plastic. Uncertainty in the most crucial parameters is accounted for by probabilistic modelling. Our conservative analysis shows that plastic ingestion by the lugworm yields NP and BPA concentrations that stay below the lower ends of global NP and BPA concentration ranges, and therefore are not likely to constitute a relelvant exposure pathway. For cod, plastic ingestion appears to be a negligible pathway for exposure to NP and BPA.
    Correction to Plastic as a carrier of POs to aquatic organisms
    Koelmans, A.A. ; Besseling, E. ; Wegner, A. ; Foekema, E.M. - \ 2013
    Environmental Science and Technology 47 (2013)15. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 8992 - 8993.
    Plastic as a Carrier of POPs to Aquatic Organisms: A Model Analysis
    Koelmans, A.A. ; Besseling, E. ; Wegner, A. ; Foekema, E.M. - \ 2013
    Environmental Science and Technology 47 (2013)14. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 7812 - 7820.
    polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons - polychlorinated-biphenyls pcbs - mytilus-edulis l. - marine-environment - arenicola-marina - deposit feeders - resin pellets - field data - food webs - bioaccumulation
    It has been hypothesized that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in microplastic may pose a risk to aquatic organisms. Here we develop and analyze a conceptual model that simulates the effects of plastic on bioaccumulation of POPs. The model accounts for dilution of exposure concentration by sorption of POPs to plastic (POP “dilution”), increased bioaccumulation by ingestion of plastic-containing POPs (“carrier”), and decreased bioaccumulation by ingestion of clean plastic (“cleaning”). The model is parametrized for the lugworm Arenicola marina and evaluated against recently published bioaccumulation data for this species from laboratory bioassays with polystyrene microplastic. Further scenarios include polyethylene microplastic, nanosized plastic, and open marine systems. Model analysis shows that plastic with low affinity for POPs such as polystyrene will have a marginal decreasing effect on bioaccumulation, governed by dilution. For stronger sorbents such as polyethylene, the dilution, carrier, and cleaning mechanism are more substantial. In closed laboratory bioassay systems, dilution and cleaning dominate, leading to decreased bioaccumulation. Also in open marine systems a decrease is predicted due to a cleaning mechanism that counteracts biomagnification. However, the differences are considered too small to be relevant from a risk assessment perspective.
    Plastic as a carrier of POPs to aquatic organisms. A model analysis
    Koelmans, A.A. ; Besseling, E. ; Wegner, A. ; Foekema, E.M. - \ 2013
    In: 23rd Annual Meeting of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 12 - 16 May, Glasgow. - - p. 36 - 36.
    It has been hypothesised that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in microplastic may pose a risk to aquatic organisms. Here, we present a conceptual model for bioaccumulation of POPs including uptake from water, food and ingested plastic. The model accounts for dilution of exposure concentration by sorption of POPs to plastic (POP 'dilution'), increased bioaccumulation by ingestion of plastic containing POPs ('carrier'), and decreased bioaccumulation by ingestion of clean plastic ('cleaning'). A dynamically modelled absorption efficiency from plastic is proposed, which is calculated from particle size, POP polymer diffusivities, the time variable gradient between plastic and organism POP concentrations, and gut retention time. The model is parameterised for the lugworm Arenicola marina and evaluated against recently published polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioaccumulation data for this species from laboratory bioassays with polystyrene microplastic. Further scenarios include polyethylene
    Effects of microplastic on fitness and PCB bioaccumulation by the lugworm Arenicola marina
    Besseling, E. ; Wegner, A. ; Foekema, E.M. ; Heuvel_Greve, van den, M.J. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2013
    Environmental Science and Technology 47 (2013)1. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 593 - 600.
    dutch wadden sea - polychlorinated-biphenyls - corophium-volutator - organic pollutants - plastic ingestion - tidal flats - sediment - environment - transport - chemicals
    It has been speculated that marine microplastics may cause negative effects on benthic marine organisms and increase bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Here, we provide the first controlled study of plastic effects on benthic organisms including transfer of POPs. The effects of polystyrene (PS) microplastic on survival, activity, and bodyweight, as well as the transfer of 19 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were assessed in bioassays with Arenicola marina (L.). PS was pre-equilibrated in natively contaminated sediment. A positive relation was observed between microplastic concentration in the sediment and both uptake of plastic particles and weight loss by A. marina. Furthermore, a reduction in feeding activity was observed at a PS dose of 7.4% dry weight. A low PS dose of 0.074% increased bioaccumulation of PCBs by a factor of 1.1-3.6, an effect that was significant for SPCBs and several individual congeners. At higher doses, bioaccumulation decreased compared to the low dose, which however, was only significant for PCB105. PS had statistically significant effects on the organisms' fitness and bioaccumulation, but the magnitude of the effects was not high. This may be different for sites with different plastic concentrations, or plastics with a higher affinity for POPs.
    Fate and effects of nano- and microplastic on marine foodwebs
    Besseling, Ellen - \ 2012
    Fate and effects of nano- and microplastic on marine foodwebs
    Besseling, Ellen - \ 2012
    Effects of nanopolystyrene on the feeding behavior of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis L.)
    Wegner, A. ; Besseling, E. ; Foekema, E.M. ; Kamermans, P. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2012
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 31 (2012)11. - ISSN 0730-7268 - p. 2490 - 2497.
    marine-environment - gold nanoparticles - algal concentration - cerastoderma-edule - plastic particles - filtration-rate - accumulation - suspension - nanomaterials - bivalves
    As the industrial production of nanoplastic and the degradation of microplastic into smaller particles at sea increase, the potential amount of nanoplastics in the marine environment rises. It has been reported that mussels uptake 100-nm polystyrene (PS) beads; to date, however, the effects of this uptake on the organism are unknown. In the present study, the authors investigated the effects of 30-nm PS on the feeding behavior of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) by exposing the organism to different nano PS and different algae (Pavlova lutheri) concentrations. The state of nano PS aggregation in the exposure medium was assessed using dynamic light scattering. In all treatments that contained nano PS, M. edulis produced pseudofeces. The total weight of the feces and pseudofeces increased with increasing nano PS and increasing algae concentration. Furthermore, M. edulis reduced its filtering activity when nano PS was present but still caused a decrease in the apparent nano PS concentration in the water. The presence of nano PS around the foot of M. edulis after the bioassay confirmed that the organism removed nano PS from the water. Chronic effect studies are therefore needed to investigate the effects of nanoplastics in M. edulis and possible consequences for its predators, including humans.
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