Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Potential risk of microplastics transportation into ground water
    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza ; Gertsen, H.F. ; Gooren, H.C. ; Peters, Piet ; Salánki, T.E. ; Ploeg, Martine van der; Besseling, E. ; Koelmans, A.A. ; Geissen, V. - \ 2016
    Geophysical Research Abstracts 18 (2016). - ISSN 1029-7006 - 1 p.
    Effects of microplastics on benthic macroinvertebrates in freshwater ecosystems
    Stuurman, L. ; Redondo Hasselerharm, P.E. ; Peeters, E.T.H.M. ; Besseling, E. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2016
    Effects of microplastics on zooplankton : Microplastic ingestion: the role of taste
    Vroom, Renske ; Halsband, C. ; Besseling, E. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2016
    Ingestion of microplastics by zooplankton has been confirmed both in vitro and in situ and negatively affects feeding rates, survival and fecundity in copepods. Here, we studied ingestion of 15 and 30 μm polystyrene beads by copepods and decapod larvae. Consistent amounts of plastic (0.333 mg l-1) were offered to Acartia longiremis, Calanus finmarchicus, Pseudocalanus sp. in 24 hour incubations. Due to the difference in size the resulting concentrations were 23 particles ml-1 (30 µm) and 148 ml-1 (15 µm). The smaller 15 μm beads were ingested more frequently than 30 μm beads by all species, due to higher encounter rates with the smaller particles. An exception was Pseudocalanus sp., which did not ingest particles of either size. We then investigated whether the ingestion of microplastics was influenced by the presence of a biofilm. A higher proportion of both C. finmarchicus and A. longiremis individuals ingested fouled microbeads than clean beads. The number of beads ingested was also significantly higher when the plastics were fouled. In the presence of algae more copepods ingested microplastic in both fouled treatments (with and without food) than in treatments with clean beads, but the number of plastics ingested was highly variable within replicates. After ingestion, microbeads passed through the gut and egestion in faecal pellets was observed within 1-3 hours. In a long-term exposure, microbeads did not affect survival of C. finmarchicus females. Our findings indicate that biofouling enhances microplastic ingestion and should be taken into account in estimates of potential for trophic transfer.
    Microplastics in the terrestrial ecosystem: Implications for Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae)
    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza ; Gertsen, H.F. ; Gooren, H. ; Peters, P.D. ; Salanki, T.E. ; Ploeg, M.J.C. van der; Besseling, E. ; Koelmans, A.A. ; Geissen, V. - \ 2016
    Environmental Science and Technology 50 (2016)5. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 2685 - 2691.
    Plastic debris is widespread in the environment, but information on the effects of microplastics on terrestrial fauna is completely lacking. Here, we studied the survival and fitness of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) exposed to microplastics (Polyethylene, <150 μm) in litter at concentrations of 7, 28, 45, and 60% dry weight, percentages that, after bioturbation, translate to 0.2 to 1.2% in bulk soil. Mortality after 60 days was higher at 28, 45, and 60% of microplastics in the litter than at 7% w/w and in the control (0%). Growth rate was significantly reduced at 28, 45, and 60% w/w microplastics, compared to the 7% and control treatments. Due to the digestion of ingested organic matter, microplastic was concentrated in cast, especially at the lowest dose (i.e., 7% in litter) because that dose had the highest proportion of digestible organic matter. Whereas 50 percent of the microplastics had a size of <50 μm in the original litter, 90 percent of the microplastics in the casts was <50 μm in all treatments, which suggests size-selective egestion by the earthworms. These concentration-transport and size-selection mechanisms may have important implications for fate and risk of microplastic in terrestrial ecosystems.
    Case Study Systems Innovation Biobased economy in the Netherlands
    Bos, H.L. ; Besseling, Peter - \ 2015
    OECD - 27 p.
    Bioturbator affects and is affected by the concentration of microplastic in sediment
    Besseling, E. ; Foekema, E.M. ; Ren, Y. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2015
    Microplastic in a macro filter feeder: humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae
    Besseling, E. ; Foekema, E.M. ; Franeker, J.A. van; Leopold, M.F. ; Kuhnel, S. ; Bravo Rebolledo, E. ; Mielke, L. ; Hesse, E. ; Ijzer, J. ; Kamminga, A. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2015
    Occurrence of microplastic in the river Rhine and Meuse delta
    Besseling, E. ; Foekema, E.M. ; Hoon, K. de; Wegner, A. ; Gylstra, R. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2015
    Relative importance of PCB uptake from sediment and microplastic by the lugworm Arenicola marina (L.)
    Besseling, E. ; Foekema, E.M. ; Heuvel, M.J. van den; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2015
    Feedbacks between bioturbation and microplastic at the sediment-water interface
    Besseling, E. ; Foekema, E.M. ; Ren, Y. ; Heuvel-Greve, M.J. van den; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2015
    Guidance for the Prognostic Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials in Aquatic Ecosystems
    Koelmans, A.A. ; Diepens, N.J. ; Velzeboer, I. ; Besseling, E. ; Quik, J.T.K. - \ 2015
    Science of the Total Environment 535 (2015). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 141 - 149.
    engineered nanomaterials - tio2 nanoparticles - environmental fate - carbon nanotubes - manufactured nanoparticles - hediste-diversicolor - silver nanoparticles - scrobicularia-plana - cuo nanoparticles - fresh-water
    Our understanding of the environmental fate and effects of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is in a state of fast transition. Recent scientific developments open new and powerful perspectives to define a framework for the prognostic risk assessment of ENMs in aquatic ecosystems. This requires abandoning the reductionist's approach of mechanistic analysis on particle or cellular scales and calls for engineering solutions that deal with uncertainties by applying assessment factors and probabilistic approaches. An ecological risk assessment (ERA) framework for ENMs is similar to that for other classes of substances, in that it requires clear protection goals based on ecosystem services, evidence-based concepts that link exposure to effects, and a transparent tiered effect assessment. Here, we discuss approaches to assess exposure and effects of ENMs. This includes recent developments in ENP fate modeling that greatly expanded the potential of prognostic exposure assessments. For the effect assessment, we advise a cost-effective screening based on principles of read-across as a conservative first tier. The feasibility of using species sensitivity distributions as a higher tier option is discussed. Controlled model ecosystem field experiments are proposed as a highest experimental tier, and are required for the calibration of the lower tiers. An outlook to unify information from various tiers by experimental work, fate modeling, and effect modeling as cost-effective prognostic tools for the ERA of ENMs is provided.
    Microplastic in a macro filter feeder: humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae
    Besseling, E. ; Foekema, E.M. ; Franeker, J.A. van; Leopold, M.F. ; Bravo Rebolledo, E. ; Kühn, S. ; Mielke, L. ; Heberle-Bors, E. ; Ijzer, J. ; Kamminga, P. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2015
    Marine Pollution Bulletin 95 (2015)1. - ISSN 0025-326X - p. 248 - 252.
    marine-environment - plastic ingestion - balaenoptera-physalus - mediterranean sea - north-sea - debris - identification - pollutants - particles - additives
    Marine filter feeders are exposed to microplastic because of their selection of small particles as food source. Baleen whales feed by filtering small particles from large water volumes. Macroplastic was found in baleen whales before. This study is the first to show the presence of microplastic in intestines of a baleen whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). Contents of its gastrointestinal tract were sieved, dissolved in 10% potassium hydroxide and washed. From the remaining dried material, potential synthetic polymer particles were selected based on density and appearance, and analysed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Several polymer types (polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinylchloride, polyethylene terephthalate, nylon) were found, in varying particle shapes: sheets, fragments and threads with a size of 1 mm to 17 cm. This diversity in polymer types and particle shapes, can be interpreted as a representation of the varying characteristics of marine plastic and the unselective way of ingestion by M. novaeangliae.
    Nanoplastics in the aquatic environment
    Koelmans, A.A. ; Besseling, E. ; Shim, W.J. - \ 2015
    In: Marine Anthropogene Litter / Bergmann, M., Gutow, L., Klages, M., Berlin : Springer - ISBN 9783319165103 - p. 325 - 340.
    A growing body of literature reports on the abundance and effects of plastic debris, with an increasing focus on microplastic particles smaller than 5 mm. It has often been suggested that plastic particles in the
    The role of microplastics in bioaccumulation of organic chemicals to aquatic organisms
    Koelmans, A.A. ; Besseling, E. ; Foekema, E.M. - \ 2014
    Modeling the fate of nanoplastic and microplastic in rivers
    Besseling, E. ; Quik, J.T.K. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2014
    Modeling the Fate of Nano- and Microplastics in freshwater systems
    Besseling, E. ; Quik, J.T.K. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2014
    In: Abstract book 24th Annual meeting SETAC Europe : Science across bridges, borders and boundaries. - - p. 238 - 238.
    Riverine transport from land based sources constitutes an important pathway of plastic particles to the marine environment. However, fate and transport models for nano-, micro- and millimetre (NMM) sized particles are lacking. Prognostic fate models can be used to assess retention in freshwaters, to assess exposure to aquatic organisms and to quantify transport to sea. Here, we present a novel model for NMM polymer particles implemented for the river Dommel. The spatially and temporally explicit model accounts for advective transport, homo- and hetero-aggregation, sedimentation-resuspension, polymer degradation and burial. Experimental data on particle behaviour as well as literature data are used to parameterize the model. Model behaviour was tested by varying particle radius from 30 nm to 5 mm, for two polystyrene emission scenarios; a point source scenario and a realistic scenario with a combination of diffuse and WWTP (waste water treatment plant) sources. It appears that particle size, biofilm formation and water turbulence have dramatic effects on the fate and retention of NMM sized polymer particles in the Dommel catchment and on the positioning of the accumulation hot spots along the river.
    Plastik-Partikeln auch im Suesswasser schaedlich (interview mit Ellen Besseling)
    Besseling, Ellen - \ 2014
    Nanoplastic affects growth of S. obliquus and reproduction of D. magna
    Besseling, E. ; Wang, B. ; Lürling, M.F.L.L.W. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2014
    Environmental Science and Technology 48 (2014)20. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 12336 - 12343.
    green-alga scenedesmus - cyanobacterium microcystis-aeruginosa - daphnia-magna - microplastic pollution - polystyrene particles - marine-environment - surface-properties - nanoparticles - size - behavior
    The amount of nano- and microplastic in the aquatic environment rises due to the industrial production of plastic and the degradation of plastic into smaller particles. Concerns have been raised about their incorporation into food webs. Little is known about the fate and effects of nanoplastic, especially for the freshwater environment. In this study, effects of nano-polystyrene (nano-PS) on the growth and photosynthesis of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and the growth, mortality, neonate production, and malformations of the zooplankter Daphnia magna were assessed. Nano-PS reduced population growth and reduced chlorophyll concentrations in the algae. Exposed Daphnia showed a reduced body size and severe alterations in reproduction. Numbers and body size of neonates were lower, while the number of neonate malformations among neonates rose to 68% of the individuals. These effects of nano-PS were observed between 0.22 and 103 mg nano-PS/L. Malformations occurred from 30 mg of nano-PS/L onward. Such plastic concentrations are much higher than presently reported for marine waters as well as freshwater, but may eventually occur in sediment pore waters. As far as we know, these results are the first to show that direct life history shifts in algae and Daphnia populations may occur as a result of exposure to nanoplastic.
    Plastic nanodeeltjes ook schadelijk voor zoetwaterorganismen (interview met Bart Koelmans en Ellen Besseling)
    Koelmans, Bart ; Besseling, Ellen - \ 2014
    Ecotoxic Effects of Nano Plastic on Freshwater plankton (Scenedesmus obliquus and Daphnia magna)
    Besseling, E. ; Wang, B. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2014
    In: Book of Abstracts of the International workshop 'Fate and impact of microplastics in marine ecosystems'. - - p. 40 - 40.
    The amount of nano- and microparticles in the aquatic environment rises due to the industrial production of nanoplastic and the degradation of macroplastic into small particles. Little is known about the fate and effects of nanoplastic, while there are lots of speculations about possible effects. In this study, the effects of nano polystyrene on performance of green algae Scenedesmus obliquus and zooplankton Daphnia magna were assessed. At high doses inhibiting effects on the growth of S. obliquus were shown. During chronic tests the suspensions of nano polystyrene were not lethal to D. magna but reproduction effects were observed. Interestingly, aqueous vs. dietary exposure to nano polystyrene played an important role in the occurrence of effects on D. magna. Thereby this study provides a novel indication about the importance of uptake routes in nano plastic exposure.
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