Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Factors related to free-range use in commercial laying hens
    Bestman, Monique ; Verwer, Cynthia ; Niekerk, Thea van; Leenstra, Ferry ; Reuvekamp, Berry ; Amsler-Kepalaite, Zivile ; Maurer, Veronika - \ 2019
    Applied Animal Behaviour Science 214 (2019). - ISSN 0168-1591 - p. 57 - 63.
    Free-range - Laying hens - Organic - Range use

    Free-range use is expected to contribute to the welfare of laying hens, and more so if a high proportion of the hens in a flock uses the range. In the Netherlands and Switzerland, data were collected about free-range use, genotype, rearing conditions, housing system, management, performance, health, welfare and behaviour in 169 free-range and organic layer flocks by farm visits at an age between 45 and 66 weeks. The aim of this study was to identify which factors are related to free-range use. We analysed the % of hens seen outside when conditions for ranging were optimal (% Hens Out). Based on literature and expert knowledge, 26 potential correlating factors were subjected to preselection. Pearson correlation, independent samples t-tests and one-way ANOVA's were performed to investigate correlation between the factors and % Hens Out one by one. Twelve factors appeared to be related significantly to % Hens Out and these were entered in a linear regression model: country, production system, genotype, flock size, stocking density, presence of roosters, feather damage, keel bone damage, health at 60 weeks, outside access during rearing, type of ventilation, and amount of daylight in the house. The final model for the total sample explained 47% of the variation in % Hens Out and contained 5 variables. A higher % Hens Out was associated with brown genotype, smaller flock size, roosters in the flock, better feather cover and natural ventilation. Further analyses were done with subsets of the database for either free-range or organic flocks in either the Netherlands or Switzerland. No factors could be found that explained % Hens Out in Dutch free-range flocks. A better feather score and higher amount of daylight explained 44% of the variation in % Hens Out in Dutch organic flocks. Roosters and rearing on the laying farm explained 41% of the variation in % Hens Out in Swiss free-range flocks. Les fearfulness and brown genotypes or more than one genotype per flock explained 33% of the variation in % Hens Out in Swiss organic flocks. The results may contribute to improving range use by laying hens.

    Wormbelasting van de uitloop
    Niekerk, T.G.C.M. van; Bestman, Monique ; Rodenburg, T.B. ; Haas, E.N. de; Tuyttens, F. - \ 2018
    De Pluimveehouderij (2018). - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 22 - 23.
    Aanvullend op het Welfare Quality-protocol voor leghennen zijn modules ontwikkeld om de snavelpunten en de borstbenen nauwkeuriger te monitoren. Deze modules zijn uitgetest op acht commerciële legbedrijven. Er kwamen een aantal interessante verbanden te voorschijn.
    Natte teelten: plant- en zaaimethoden van lisdodde
    Geurts, Jeroen ; Vroom, Renske ; Pijlman, Jeroen ; Bestman, Monique ; Eekeren, Nick van; Houwelingen, K.M. van; Lenssinck, F.A.J. - \ 2017
    V-focus (2017)6. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 24 - 26.
    Monitoring van functionele agrobiodiversiteit in de melkveehouderij : Ontwikkeling van KPI's
    Zijlstra, J. ; Blokland, P.W. ; Eekeren, N. van; Migchels, G. ; Polman, N. ; Bestman, M. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 984) - 47
    Notmaßnahmen gegen Federpicken
    Niekerk, Thea van; Jong, Ingrid de; Krimpen, Marinus van; Reuvekamp, Berry ; Tuijl, Otto van; Bestman, Monique - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research - 32
    Emergency measures against feather pecking
    Niekerk, Thea van; Jong, Ingrid de; Krimpen, Marinus van; Reuvekamp, Berry ; Tuijl, Otto van; Bestman, Monique - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research - 32
    How to fulfill EU requirements to feed organic laying hens 100% organic ingredients
    Krimpen, M.M. Van; Leenstra, F. ; Maurer, V. ; Bestman, M. - \ 2016
    Journal of Applied Poultry Research 25 (2016)1. - ISSN 1056-6171 - p. 129 - 138.
    EU requirements - laying hens - methionine - organic - protein

    From December 2017 onward, including non-organic protein sources in diets for organic poultry will no longer be allowed in the EU. Moreover, in the EU the use of synthetic amino acids in organic diets is prohibited. The main dietary challenge in European organic egg production is to fulfill the protein requirement, especially the methionine (Met) requirement of the hens. Currently available Met-rich ingredients are discussed. In the group of ingredients of plant origin, expelled sunflower seed has a relatively high digestible Met content and is also commonly available. Met content of plant ingredients can be increased by selection of high Met varieties and by specifically breeding on high Met content, e.g. by crossing different breeds. Plant processing techniques might be helpful to concentrate the protein and digestible Met content of ingredients. Applying the dry fractionation technique on legumes and cereals might result in protein concentrates with CP content of at least 50%. A further development of simple separation techniques, which separate the hulls from the other plant fractions and reduce the fiber content after de-hulling, might be helpful to increase digestible Met content. Energy dilution of the diet, concomitant with a proportional reduction in other nutrients, is an option as well to fulfill the requirement of 100% organic diets. As a consequence, hens have to consume more feed to meet their nutrient requirements. There are options to fulfill the requirement of 100% ingredients of organic origin, but if the practical, economical, and footprint issues are taken into account, the list of options is very small.

    Bestman, M.W.P. ; Verwer, C.M. ; Leenstra, F.R. ; Niekerk, T.G.C.M. van; Reuvekamp, B.F.J. - \ 2015
    De Pluimveehouderij 43 (2015)11. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 29 - 29.
    pluimveehouderij - snavelkappen - verenkleed - hennen - uitloop - biologische landbouw - dierenwelzijn - verenpikken - pluimvee - dierlijke productie - diergedrag - diergezondheid - poultry farming - debeaking - plumage - hens - outdoor run - organic farming - animal welfare - feather pecking - poultry - animal production - animal behaviour - animal health
    Onderzoek weerspreekt dat kippen met onbehandelde snavels eerder kaal en kaler worden dan behandelde hennen, zoals vaak wordt gesteld. Er is weinig verschil in verenkleed tussen bio- en vrije-uitloophennen.
    Haltungsbedingungen, Leistung und Gesundheit von gängstigen Legehennen-Geotypen in öko- und Freilandhaltungen in Frankreich, der Schweiz und den Niederlanden
    Maurer, V. ; Bestman, M.W.P. ; Sambeek, F. ; Leenstra, F.R. - \ 2015
    In: Proceedings of the 13. Wissenschaftstagung Ökologischer Landbau. - - p. 498 - 501.
    Walnoten in de uitloop
    Bestman, M. ; Oosterbaan, A. - \ 2014
    De Pluimveehouderij 44 (2014). - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 26 - 27.
    dierenwelzijn - uitloop - pluimveehouderij - beplantingen - walnoten - bomen - opbrengsten - pluimvee - dierlijke productie - huisvesting, dieren - animal welfare - outdoor run - poultry farming - plantations - walnuts - trees - yields - poultry - animal production - animal housing
    Bomen voor Buitenkippen is op excursie geweest naar enkele beplantingen waar al veel ervaring is opgedaan met walnotenbomen.
    Laying hen performance in different production systems; why do they differ and how to close the gap? Results of discussions with groups of farmers in The Netherlands, Switzerland and France, benchmarking and model calculations
    Leenstra, F.R. ; Maurer, V. ; Galea, F. ; Bestman, M.W.P. ; Amsler, Z. ; Visscher, J. ; Vermeij, I. ; Krimpen, M.M. van - \ 2014
    European Poultry Science 78 (2014)3. - ISSN 1612-9199 - p. 1 - 10.
    pluimveehouderij - hennen - uitloop - biologische landbouw - eierproductie - huisvesting van kippen - pluimveevoeding - dierenwelzijn - poultry farming - hens - outdoor run - organic farming - egg production - chicken housing - poultry feeding - animal welfare - egg-production systems - free-range - feather pecking - risk-factors - welfare - uk
    Free range and organic systems expose the laying hen more to unexpected events and adverse climatic conditions than barn and cage systems. In France, The Netherlands and Switzerland the requirements for a hen suitable to produce in free range and organic systems were discussed with farmers. The farmers preferred for these systems a more 'robust' hen, more specifically defined as a heavier hen with good eating capacity
    The ideal hen for organic and free range systems
    Maurer, V. ; Amsler, Z. ; Zeltner, E. ; Leenstra, F.R. ; Niekerk, T.G.C.M. van; Reuvekamp, B.F.J. ; Bestman, M.W.P. ; Verwer, C.M. ; Sambeek, F. ; Galea, F. - \ 2014
    pluimveehouderij - biologische landbouw - huisvesting van kippen - hennen - scharrelhouderij - genotypen - diergezondheid - poultry farming - organic farming - chicken housing - hens - free range husbandry - genotypes - animal health
    The aim of LowInputBreeds is to develop a system to evaluate layer genotypes in free range and organic systems and to optimise the management of those systems.
    Database in de maak
    Niekerk, T.G.C.M. ; Reuvekamp, B.F.J. ; Bestman, M.W.P. - \ 2013
    De Pluimveehouderij 43 (2013)2. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 27 - 27.
    pluimveehouderij - databanken - uitloop - hennen - dierenwelzijn - huisvesting van kippen - verenpikken - poultry farming - databases - outdoor run - hens - animal welfare - chicken housing - feather pecking
    Het project Low Input Breeds zoekt de ideale uitloopkip. Na een eerste inventarisatie wordt nu in detail een groot aantal koppels gevolgd. Alvast wat eerste resultaten.
    Organic and free range egg production systems: effects of genotype and management
    Leenstra, F.R. ; Maurer, V. ; Bestman, M.W.P. ; Sambeek, F. - \ 2013
    In: Book of Abstracts of the 64th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science, 26-30 August, 2013. - Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086862283 - p. 504 - 504.
    Noodmaatregelen tegen pikkerij
    Niekerk, T.G.C.M. van; Jong, I.C. de; Krimpen, M.M. van; Reuvekamp, B.F.J. ; Tuijl, O. van; Bestman, M. - \ 2013
    [Lelystad] : Livestock Research Wageningen UR - 32
    pluimveehouderij - verenpikken - hennen - vleeskuikens - vleeskuikenouderdieren - dierenwelzijn - diergedrag - diergezondheid - maatregelen - uitloop - huisvesting van kippen - dierlijke productie - pluimvee - poultry farming - feather pecking - hens - broilers - broiler breeders - animal welfare - animal behaviour - animal health - measures - outdoor run - chicken housing - animal production - poultry
    Deze uitgave geeft een kort overzicht van maatregelen die pluimveehouders kunnen treffen tegen beschadigend pikgedrag. De uitgave is bedoeld voor pluimveehouders met leghennen of vleeskuikenouderdieren.
    The prevention and control of feather pecking: application to commercial systems
    Nicol, C.J. ; Bestman, M. ; Gilani, A.M. ; Haas, E.N. de; Jong, I.C. de; Lampton, S. ; Wagenaar, J.P. ; Weeks, C.A. ; Rodenburg, T.B. - \ 2013
    Worlds Poultry Science Journal 69 (2013)4. - ISSN 0043-9339 - p. 775 - 788.
    housed laying hens - gallus-gallus-domesticus - housing systems - risk-factors - alternative systems - stocking density - flock size - furnished cages - light-intensity - rearing factors
    Studies on the prevalence of feather pecking in different commercial laying hen 23 systems and its welfare and economic impacts are reviewed in the following paper. 24 Current methods for controlling feather pecking include beak-trimming and alterations to light regimes, but these methods have significant disadvantages from the perspective of bird welfare. A substantial body of research has now identified risk factors for feather pecking during both the rearing and laying periods. It is argued that these findings can be translated into optimised management practices that can prevent and control feather pecking whilst simultaneously conferring welfare benefits. The genetic basis of feather pecking is considered, and studies that suggest group selection techniques could produce birds with a reduced tendency to feather peck in commercial flocks are highlighted. Keywords: laying hen; feather pecking; beak-trimming; light; risk factor; genetic selection
    The prevention and control of feather pecking in laying hens: identifying the underlying principles
    Rodenburg, T.B. ; Krimpen, M.M. van; Jong, I.C. de; Haas, E.N. de; Kops, M.S. ; Riedstra, B.J. ; Nordquist, R.E. ; Wagenaar, J.P. ; Bestman, M.W.P. ; Nicol, C.J. - \ 2013
    Worlds Poultry Science Journal 69 (2013)2. - ISSN 0043-9339 - p. 361 - 374.
    nonstarch polysaccharide concentration - gallus-gallus-domesticus - heart-rate-variability - open-field response - rhode-island red - tonic immobility - nutrient dilution - manual restraint - eating behavior - different ages
    Feather pecking (FP) in laying hens remains an important economic and welfare issue. This paper reviews the literature on causes of FP in laying hens. With the ban on conventional cages in the EU from 2012 and the expected future ban on beak trimming in many European countries, addressing this welfare issue has become more pressing than ever. The aim of this review paper is to provide a detailed overview of underlying principles of FP. FP is affected by many different factors and any approach to prevent or reduce FP in commercial flocks should acknowledge that fact and use a multifactorial approach to address this issue. Two forms of FP can be distinguished: gentle FP and severe FP. Severe FP causes the most welfare issues in commercial flocks. Severe FP is clearly related to feeding and foraging behaviour and its development seems to be enhanced in conditions where birds have difficulty in coping with environmental stressors. Stimulating feeding and foraging behaviour by providing high-fibre diets and suitable litter from an early age onwards, and controlling fear and stress levels through genetic selection, reducing maternal stress and improving the stockmanship skills of the farmer, together offer the best prospect for preventing or controlling FP.
    Op zoek naar de ideale hen
    Leenstra, F.R. ; Bestman, M.W.P. - \ 2013
    In: Biologisch ondernemen : legpluimvee / Janmaat, L., Driebergen : Louis Bolk Instituut - p. 12 - 13.
    dierveredeling - biologische landbouw - pluimveehouderij - hennen - selectief fokken - selectie - eigenschappen - animal breeding - organic farming - poultry farming - hens - selective breeding - selection - properties
    Heeft de biologische pluimveehouderij een ander type hen nodig dan de reguliere houderijsystemen? Is zo’n hen beschikbaar of moet die nog worden gefokt? Wat wordt verstaan onder ‘de’ biologische pluimveehouderij? Zijn dat bedrijven met 18.000 hennen die alleen mengvoer voeren of zijn dat bedrijven met eigen voer verbouw of met een koppeltje van 100-200 dieren die de restjes op het gemengd bedrijf moeten opeten?
    Biologisch ondernemen : legpluimvee
    Janmaat, L. ; Asseldonk, T. van; Bestman, M.W.P. ; Bruggen, M. van; Daniels, L. ; Groot, M. ; Krimpen, M. van; Leenstra, F.R. ; Paardekooper, R. ; Verwer, C.M. ; Wagenaar, J.P. - \ 2012
    Driebergen : Louis Bolk Instituut - 27
    pluimvee - pluimveehouderij - biologische landbouw - ondernemerschap - duurzame veehouderij - hennen - kennisoverdracht - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - poultry - poultry farming - organic farming - entrepreneurship - sustainable animal husbandry - hens - knowledge transfer - farm management
    Biologisch Ondernemen is een speciale uitgave van het bedrijfsnetwerk biologische pluimveehouderij.
    Laying hens : a practical guide for layer focused management
    Bestman, M.W.P. ; Ruis, M.A.W. - \ 2012
    Zutphen [etc.] : Roodbont [etc.] (Poultry signals ) - ISBN 9789087401245 - 119 p.
    dierlijke productie - pluimvee - hennen - kippen - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - huisvesting, dieren - pluimveehouderij - animal production - poultry - hens - fowls - animal welfare - animal health - animal housing - poultry farming
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