Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Next-generation biological control: the need for integrating genetics and genomics
    Leung, Kelley ; Ras, Erica ; Ferguson, Kim B. ; Ariëns, Simone ; Babendreier, Dirk ; Bijma, Piter ; Bourtzis, Kostas ; Brodeur, Jacques ; Bruins, Margreet A. ; Centurión, Alejandra ; Chattington, Sophie R. ; Chinchilla-Ramírez, Milena ; Dicke, Marcel ; Fatouros, Nina E. ; González-Cabrera, Joel ; Groot, Thomas V.M. ; Haye, Tim ; Knapp, Markus ; Koskinioti, Panagiota ; Hesran, Sophie Le; Lyrakis, Manolis ; Paspati, Angeliki ; Pérez-Hedo, Meritxell ; Plouvier, Wouter N. ; Schlötterer, Christian ; Stahl, Judith M. ; Thiel, Andra ; Urbaneja, Alberto ; Zande, Louis van de; Verhulst, Eveline C. ; Vet, Louise E.M. ; Visser, Sander ; Werren, John H. ; Xia, Shuwen ; Zwaan, Bas J. ; Magalhães, Sara ; Beukeboom, Leo W. ; Pannebakker, Bart A. - \ 2020
    Biological Reviews (2020). - ISSN 1464-7931
    artificial selection - biological control - genetics - genome assembly - genomics - insect breeding - microbiome - modelling

    Biological control is widely successful at controlling pests, but effective biocontrol agents are now more difficult to import from countries of origin due to more restrictive international trade laws (the Nagoya Protocol). Coupled with increasing demand, the efficacy of existing and new biocontrol agents needs to be improved with genetic and genomic approaches. Although they have been underutilised in the past, application of genetic and genomic techniques is becoming more feasible from both technological and economic perspectives. We review current methods and provide a framework for using them. First, it is necessary to identify which biocontrol trait to select and in what direction. Next, the genes or markers linked to these traits need be determined, including how to implement this information into a selective breeding program. Choosing a trait can be assisted by modelling to account for the proper agro-ecological context, and by knowing which traits have sufficiently high heritability values. We provide guidelines for designing genomic strategies in biocontrol programs, which depend on the organism, budget, and desired objective. Genomic approaches start with genome sequencing and assembly. We provide a guide for deciding the most successful sequencing strategy for biocontrol agents. Gene discovery involves quantitative trait loci analyses, transcriptomic and proteomic studies, and gene editing. Improving biocontrol practices includes marker-assisted selection, genomic selection and microbiome manipulation of biocontrol agents, and monitoring for genetic variation during rearing and post-release. We conclude by identifying the most promising applications of genetic and genomic methods to improve biological control efficacy.

    A nature inclusive vision for Bonaire in 2050
    Verweij, Peter ; Cormont, Anouk ; Nel, Jeanne ; Rooij, Bertram de; Jones-Walters, Lawrence ; Slijkerman, Diana ; Soma, Katrine ; Eurpen, Michiel van; Pourier, Sherwin ; Coolen, Quirijn ; Mone, Ghislaine ; Bervoets, Tadzio ; Clarenda, Julianka ; Slobbe, Frank van; Christiaan, Danilo ; Meyer, Kalli de; Vries, Yoeri de; Eleana, Reynolds ; Hoetjes, Paul ; Meijer-Sedney, Esther ; Velden, Henk van de; Bertuol, Paulo ; Eckrich, Caren ; Engel, Sabine ; Francisca, Roxanne-Liana ; Wolf, Wijnand de; Beukeboom, Elsmarie ; Cranston, Cristely ; Almenkerk, Jan Jaap van; Baren, Pieter van; Debrot, Dolfi ; Janssen, John ; Hennen, Wil ; Henkens, Rene ; Mücher, Sander ; vd Geest, Matthijs ; Selnes, Trond ; Dominguez Teles, Iago - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research report 3023) - 41
    Actualisatie van stikstof- en fosfaatgehalten van akkerbouwgewassen met een groot areaal
    Ruijter, F.J. de; Dijk, W. van; Geel, W.C.A. van; Holshof, G. ; Postma, R. ; Wilting, P. - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Business unit Agrosysteemkunde (Rapport / Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research (WPR), Business unit Agrosysteemkunde WPR-957) - 95
    Gewasopbrengsten zijn in de loop der jaren veranderd, en ten behoeve van het mestbeleid is inzicht nodig in de mate waarin de afvoer met stikstof (N) en fosfaat (P) ook is gewijzigd. Afvoer van N en P wordt veelal berekend uit min of meer gemeten opbrengsten en gewasspecifieke verstekwaarden voor de N- en P-gehalten. Deze verstekwaarden zijn grotendeels ontleend aan proeven van tientallen jaren geleden. Zo wordt nog veel gebruik gemaakt van de database ‘Kiezen uit Gehalten III’ die goeddeels gebaseerd is op een publicatie van Beukeboom uit 1996, en de Adviesbasis voor de bemesting van akkerbouw- en vollegrondsgroentengewassen van Van Dijk uit 2003. Er zijn aanwijzingen dat gestegen opbrengsten samengaan met gedaalde gehalten, waardoor een actualisatie van N- en P- gehalten in geoogst product nodig is. N- en P-gehaltes zijn bepaald voor bouwlandgewassen met een groot areaal. Hiervoor is een uitgebreide dataset opgezet met voornamelijk gegevens uit het onderzoek en deels uit de praktijk voor de periode 1990-2019. N- en P-gehaltes zijn voornamelijk bepaald op basis van situaties met bemesting rondom het adviesniveau. Ten opzichte van eerder gehanteerde verstekwaarden zijn N- gehalten uit de voorliggende studie lager, met uitzondering van consumptieaardappelen waarbij het gehalte vergelijkbaar was, en zetmeelaardappelen en snijmais waarbij het gehalte hoger was. De P- gehalten uit de voorliggende studie zijn lager voor consumptieaardappelen, suikerbieten en granen, vergelijkbaar voor pootaardappelen en peen, en hoger voor zetmeelaardappelen, ui en snijmais. Voor een aantal gewassen heeft grondsoort invloed op het N- of P-gehalte en zijn afzonderlijke gehalten voor klei en zand gegeven. Opbrengstniveau heeft soms effect op het gehalte: N- en P- gehalten nemen af met toenemend opbrengstniveau bij de gewassen suikerbiet, zaaiui en wintertarwe. Dit is ook het geval voor de N-gehalten bij snijmais en korrelmais, en het P-gehalte bij zomergerst. Bij de gewassen pootaardappel en korrelmais werd voor het P-gehalte juist een hoger gehalte gevonden met toenemend opbrengstniveau.
    Next generation biological control – an introduction
    Hesran, Sophie Le; Ras, Erica ; Wajnberg, Eric ; Beukeboom, Leo W. - \ 2019
    Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 167 (2019)7. - ISSN 0013-8703 - p. 579 - 583.
    antagonistic micro-organisms - artificial selection - biocontrol - efficacy improvement - experimental evolution - genetic variation - induced plant resistance - molecular tools - natural enemies - parasitoids - pathogens - predators
    Food systems for sustainable development : proposals for a profound four-part transformation
    Caron, Patrick ; Ferrero y de Loma-Osorio, Gabriel ; Nabarro, David ; Hainzelin, Etienne ; Guillou, Marion ; Andersen, Inger ; Arnold, Tom ; Astralaga, Margarita ; Beukeboom, Marcel ; Bickersteth, Sam ; Bwalya, Martin ; Caballero, Paula ; Campbell, Bruce M. ; Divine, Ntiokam ; Fan, Shenggen ; Frick, Martin ; Friis, Anette ; Gallagher, Martin ; Halkin, Jean Pierre ; Hanson, Craig ; Lasbennes, Florence ; Ribera, Teresa ; Rockstrom, Johan ; Schuepbach, Marlen ; Steer, Andrew ; Tutwiler, Ann ; Verburg, Gerda - \ 2018
    Agronomy for Sustainable Development 38 (2018)4. - ISSN 1774-0746
    Agriculture - Climate change - Food systems - Koronivia - Nexus - Sustainable development - Transformation

    Evidence shows the importance of food systems for sustainable development: they are at the nexus that links food security, nutrition, and human health, the viability of ecosystems, climate change, and social justice. However, agricultural policies tend to focus on food supply, and sometimes, on mechanisms to address negative externalities. We propose an alternative. Our starting point is that agriculture and food systems’ policies should be aligned to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This calls for deep changes in comparison with the paradigms that prevailed when steering the agricultural change in the XXth century. We identify the comprehensive food systems transformation that is needed. It has four parts: first, food systems should enable all people to benefit from nutritious and healthy food. Second, they should reflect sustainable agricultural production and food value chains. Third, they should mitigate climate change and build resilience. Fourth, they should encourage a renaissance of rural territories. The implementation of the transformation relies on (i) suitable metrics to aid decision-making, (ii) synergy of policies through convergence of local and global priorities, and (iii) enhancement of development approaches that focus on territories. We build on the work of the “Milano Group,” an informal group of experts convened by the UN Secretary General in Milan in 2015. Backed by a literature review, what emerges is a strategic narrative linking climate, agriculture and food, and calling for a deep transformation of food systems at scale. This is critical for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement. The narrative highlights the needed consistency between global actions for sustainable development and numerous local-level innovations. It emphasizes the challenge of designing differentiated paths for food systems transformation responding to local and national expectations. Scientific and operational challenges are associated with the alignment and arbitration of local action within the context of global priorities.

    Maternal provision of non-sex-specific transformer messenger RNA in sex determination of the wasp Asobara tabida
    Geuverink, Elzemiek ; Verhulst, E.C. ; Leussen, M. van; Zande, L. ; Beukeboom, Leo W. - \ 2018
    Insect Molecular Biology 27 (2018)1. - ISSN 0962-1075 - p. 99 - 109.
    Doublesex - Hymenoptera - Maternal provision - Sex determination - Transformer - Transformer-2
    In many insect species maternal provision of sex-specifically spliced messenger RNA (mRNA) of sex determination genes is an essential component of the sex determination mechanism. In haplodiploid Hymenoptera, maternal provision in combination with genomic imprinting has been shown for the parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis, known as maternal effect genomic imprinting sex determination (MEGISD). Here, we characterize the sex determination cascade of Asobara tabida, another hymenopteran parasitoid. We show the presence of the conserved sex determination genes doublesex (dsx), transformer (tra) and transformer-2 (tra2) orthologues in As. tabida. Of these, At-dsx and At-tra are sex-specifically spliced, indicating a conserved function in sex determination. At-tra and At-tra2 mRNA is maternally provided to embryos but, in contrast to most studied insects, As. tabida females transmit a non-sex-specific splice form of At-tra mRNA to the eggs. In this respect, As. tabida sex determination differs from the MEGISD mechanism. How the paternal genome can induce female development in the absence of maternal provision of sex-specifically spliced mRNA remains an open question. Our study reports a hitherto unknown variant of maternal effect sex determination and accentuates the diversity of insect sex determination mechanisms.
    Maternal provision of transformer-2 is required for female development and embryo viability in the wasp Nasonia vitripennis
    Geuverink, Elzemiek ; Rensink, Anna H. ; Rondeel, Inge ; Beukeboom, Leo W. ; Zande, Louis van de; Verhulst, Eveline C. - \ 2017
    Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 90 (2017). - ISSN 0965-1748 - p. 23 - 33.
    Diploid males - Nasonia vitripennis - RNA interference - Sex determination - Transformer - Transformer-2

    In insect sex determination a primary signal starts the genetic sex determination cascade that, in most insect orders, is subsequently transduced down the cascade by a transformer (tra) ortholog. Only a female-specifically spliced tra mRNA yields a functional TRA-protein that forms a complex with TRA2, encoded by a transformer-2 (tra2) ortholog, to act as a sex specific splicing regulator of the downstream transcription factors doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru). Here, we identify the tra2 ortholog of the haplodiploid parasitoid wasp N. vitripennis (Nv-tra2) and confirm its function in N. vitripennis sex determination. Knock down of Nv-tra2 by parental RNA interference (pRNAi) results in complete sex reversal of diploid offspring from female to male, indicating the requirement of Nv-tra2 for female sex determination. As Nv-tra2 pRNAi leads to frequent lethality in early developmental stages, maternal provision of Nv-tra2 transcripts is apparently also required for another, non-sex determining function during embryogenesis. In addition, lethality following Nv-tra2 pRNAi appears more pronounced in diploid than in haploid offspring. This diploid lethal effect was also observed following Nv-tra pRNAi, which served as a positive control in our experiments. As diploid embryos from fertilized eggs have a paternal chromosome set in addition to the maternal one, this suggests that either the presence of this paternal chromosome set or the dosage effect resulting from the diploid state is incompatible with the induced male development in N. vitripennis caused by either Nv-tra2 or Nv-tra pRNAi. The role of Nv-tra2 in activating the female sex determination pathway yields more insight into the sex determination mechanism of Nasonia.

    Locomotion during digestion changes current estimates of seed dispersal kernels by fish
    Leeuwen, C.H.A. van; Beukeboom, R. ; Nolet, B.A. ; Bakker, E.S. ; Pollux, B.J.A. - \ 2016
    Functional Ecology 30 (2016). - ISSN 0269-8463 - p. 215 - 225.
    1.Dispersal of seeds by animals is an important mechanism regulating plant diversity, range expansions and invasions. Many birds, mammals, fish and reptiles regularly ingest, transport and excrete viable seeds (known as endozoochory). 2.The effectiveness of endozoochory is modelled in dispersal kernels: functions that describe seed shadows in the landscape by combining movement of animals with experimentally obtained seed retention times and survival. 3.Currently, dispersal kernels use experimental data from resting animals, yet only moving animals disperse seeds. Although physical activity is known to affect digestive processes, little is known on how and to what extent this may influence current estimates of endozoochory. Activity may either prolong seed retention in the animal's gut (locomotion-priority mode hypothesis) or may not affect seed excretion rate (digestion-priority mode hypothesis), and may affect seed survival and germination positively or negatively. 4.We tested how activity alters dispersal estimates in fish. We compared the seed dispersal potential of two riparian plant species (Carex acuta and Carex riparia) by the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) subjected to three different activity levels: low (basal metabolic rate, BMR), medium (2 × BMR) or high activity (3 × BMR). 5.Physical activity of the fish did not affect the number of intact retrieved seeds over 15 h of activity, but significantly affected seed retrieval patterns over time for both seed species. More active fish started seed excretion about 1 h later and kept excreting seeds at least 2 h longer. Effects of gut passage on germination could only be tested for C. acuta, where it reduced the percentage of germinating seeds by 22%, independent of the activity level. Seeds ingested by the fish germinated on average 3·5 days later than non-ingested control seeds. Seed retention times did not affect the timing of germination. 6.Our results support the locomotion-priority mode hypothesis and show that modelling dispersal kernels using parameters from inactive fish may underestimate potential dispersal distances. Because a trade-off between physical activity and digestive physiology is likely common in animals, it should be taken into account in future modelling of endozoochorous seed dispersal kernels.
    Data from: Locomotion during digestion changes current estimates of seed dispersal kernels by fish
    Leeuwen, C.H.A. van; Beukeboom, R. ; Nolet, B.A. ; Bakker, E.S. ; Pollux, B.J.A. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University & Research
    endozoochory - germination - ichthyochory - metabolic rate - riparian plants - seed retention time - Carex - Carex acuta - Carex riparia - Cyprinus carpio
    Dispersal of seeds by animals is an important mechanism regulating plant diversity, range expansions and invasions. Many birds, mammals, fish, and reptiles regularly ingest, transport and excrete viable seeds (known as endozoochory). The effectiveness of endozoochory is modelled in dispersal kernels: functions that describe seed shadows in the landscape by combining movement of animals with experimentally obtained seed retention times and survival. Currently, dispersal kernels use experimental data from resting animals, yet only moving animals disperse seeds. Although physical activity is known to affect digestive processes, little is known on how and to what extent this may influence current estimates of endozoochory. Activity may either prolong seed retention in the animal's gut (locomotion-priority mode hypothesis) or may not affect seed excretion rate (digestion-priority mode hypothesis), and may affect seed survival and germination positively or negatively. We tested how activity alters dispersal estimates in fish. We compared the seed dispersal potential of two riparian plant species (Carex acuta and C. riparia) by the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) subjected to three different activity levels: low (basal metabolic rate, BMR), medium (2×BMR), or high activity (3×BMR). Physical activity of the fish did not affect the number of intact retrieved seeds over 15 h of activity, but significantly affected seed retrieval patterns over time for both seed species. More active fish started seed excretion about 1 h later and kept excreting seeds at least 2 h longer. Effects of gut passage on germination could only be tested for C. acuta, where it reduced the percentage of germinating seeds by 22%, independent of the activity level. Seeds ingested by the fish germinated on average 3.5 days later than non-ingested control seeds. Seed retention times did not affect the timing of germination. Our results support the locomotion-priority mode hypothesis, and show that modelling dispersal kernels using parameters from inactive fish may underestimate potential dispersal distances. Because a trade-off between physical activity and digestive physiology is likely common in animals, it should be taken into account in future modelling of endozoochorous seed dispersal kernels.
    Population-level consequences of complementary sex determination in a solitary parasitoid
    Boer, J.G. de; Groenen, M. ; Pannebakker, B.A. ; Beukeboom, L.W. ; Kraus, Robert - \ 2015
    Wageningen UR
    population genetics - whole genome sequencing - SNPcomplementary sex determination - inbreeding - biological control
    Background: Sex determination mechanisms are known to be evolutionarily labile but the factors driving transitions in sex determination mechanisms are poorly understood. All insects of the Hymenoptera are haplodiploid, with males normally developing from unfertilized haploid eggs. Under complementary sex determination (CSD), diploid males can be produced from fertilized eggs that are homozygous at the sex locus. Diploid males have near-zero fitness and thus represent a genetic load, which is especially severe under inbreeding. Here, we study mating structure and sex determination in the parasitoid Cotesia vestalis to investigate what may have driven the evolution of two complementary sex determination loci in this species. Results: We genotyped Cotesia vestalis females collected from eight fields in four townships in Western Taiwan. 98 SNP markers were developed by aligning Illumina sequence reads of pooled DNA of eight different females against a de novo assembled genome of C. vestalis. This proved to be an efficient method for this non-model species and provides a resource for future use in related species. We found significant genetic differentiation within the sampled population but variation could not be attributed to sampling locations by AMOVA. Non-random mating was detected, with 8.1% of matings between siblings. Diploid males, detected by flow cytometry, were produced at a rate of 1.4% among diploids. Conclusions: We think that the low rate of diploid male production is best explained by a CSD system with two independent sex loci, supporting laboratory findings on the same species. Fitness costs of diploid males in C. vestalis are high because diploid males can mate with females and produce infertile triploid offspring. This severe fitness cost of diploid males combined with non-random mating may have resulted in evolution from single locus CSD to CSD with two independent loci.
    Diploid males support a two-step mechanism of endosymbiont-induced thelytoky in a parasitoid wasp
    Ma, W.J. ; Pannebakker, B.A. ; Zande, L. van de; Schwander, T. ; Wertheim, B. ; Beukeboom, L.W. - \ 2015
    BMC Evolutionary Biology 15 (2015). - ISSN 1471-2148
    leptopilina-clavipes hymenoptera - sex-determination - parthenogenetic populations - quantitative pcr - insect sex - wolbachia - host - reproduction - braconidae - determines
    Background Haplodiploidy, where females develop from diploid, fertilized eggs and males from haploid, unfertilized eggs, is abundant in some insect lineages. Some species in these lineages reproduce by thelytoky that is caused by infection with endosymbionts: infected females lay haploid eggs that undergo diploidization and develop into females, while males are very rare or absent. It is generally assumed that in thelytokous wasps, endosymbionts merely diploidize the unfertilized eggs, which would then trigger female development. Results We found that females in the parasitoid wasp Asobara japonica infected with thelytoky-inducing Wolbachia produce 0.7–1.2 % male offspring. Seven to 39 % of these males are diploid, indicating that diploidization and female development can be uncoupled in A. japonica. Wolbachia titer in adults was correlated with their ploidy and sex: diploids carried much higher Wolbachia titers than haploids, and diploid females carried more Wolbachia than diploid males. Data from introgression lines indicated that the development of diploid individuals into males instead of females is not caused by malfunction-mutations in the host genome but that diploid males are most likely produced when the endosymbiont fails to activate the female sex determination pathway. Our data therefore support a two-step mechanism by which endosymbionts induce thelytoky in A. japonica: diploidization of the unfertilized egg is followed by feminization, whereby each step correlates with a threshold of endosymbiont titer during wasp development. Conclusions Our new model of endosymbiont-induced thelytoky overthrows the view that certain sex determination mechanisms constrain the evolution of endosymbiont-induced thelytoky in hymenopteran insects. Endosymbionts can cause parthenogenesis through feminization, even in groups in which endosymbiont-diploidized eggs would develop into males following the hosts’ sex determination mechanism. In addition, our model broadens our understanding of the mechanisms by which endosymbionts induce thelytoky to enhance their transmission to the next generation. Importantly, it also provides a novel window to study the yet-poorly known haplodiploid sex determination mechanisms in haplodiploid insects.
    Population-level consequences of complementary sex determination in a solitary parasitoid
    Boer, J.G. de; Groenen, M.A.M. ; Pannebakker, B.A. ; Beukeboom, L.W. ; Kraus, R.H.S. - \ 2015
    BMC Evolutionary Biology 15 (2015). - ISSN 1471-2148 - 11 p.
    biological-control introduction - multilocus genotype data - wasp cotesia-glomerata - bee apis-mellifera - genetic-structure - linkage analysis - mating system - diploid males - determination mechanisms - ascertainment bias
    BACKGROUND: Sex determination mechanisms are known to be evolutionarily labile but the factors driving transitions in sex determination mechanisms are poorly understood. All insects of the Hymenoptera are haplodiploid, with males normally developing from unfertilized haploid eggs. Under complementary sex determination (CSD), diploid males can be produced from fertilized eggs that are homozygous at the sex locus. Diploid males have near-zero fitness and thus represent a genetic load, which is especially severe under inbreeding. Here, we study mating structure and sex determination in the parasitoid Cotesia vestalis to investigate what may have driven the evolution of two complementary sex determination loci in this species. RESULTS: We genotyped Cotesia vestalis females collected from eight fields in four townships in Western Taiwan. 98 SNP markers were developed by aligning Illumina sequence reads of pooled DNA of eight different females against a de novo assembled genome of C. vestalis. This proved to be an efficient method for this non-model species and provides a resource for future use in related species. We found significant genetic differentiation within the sampled population but variation could not be attributed to sampling locations by AMOVA. Non-random mating was detected, with 8.1% of matings between siblings. Diploid males, detected by flow cytometry, were produced at a rate of 1.4% among diploids. CONCLUSIONS: We think that the low rate of diploid male production is best explained by a CSD system with two independent sex loci, supporting laboratory findings on the same species. Fitness costs of diploid males in C. vestalis are high because diploid males can mate with females and produce infertile triploid offspring. This severe fitness cost of diploid males combined with non-random mating may have resulted in evolution from single locus CSD to CSD with two independent loci
    Genetics of decayed sexual traits in a parasitoid wasp with endosymbiont-induced asexuality
    Ma, W.J. ; Pannebakker, B.A. ; Beukeboom, L.W. ; Schwander, T. ; Zande, L. van de - \ 2014
    Heredity 113 (2014). - ISSN 0018-067X - p. 424 - 431.
    wolbachia-induced parthenogenesis - leptopilina-clavipes hymenoptera - local mate competition - asobara-japonica - drosophila-melanogaster - muscidifurax-uniraptor - antibiotic-treatment - telenomus-nawai - reproduction - populations
    Trait decay may occur when selective pressures shift, owing to changes in environment or life style, rendering formerly adaptive traits non-functional or even maladaptive. It remains largely unknown if such decay would stem from multiple mutations with small effects or rather involve few loci with major phenotypic effects. Here, we investigate the decay of female sexual traits, and the genetic causes thereof, in a transition from haplodiploid sexual reproduction to endosymbiont-induced asexual reproduction in the parasitoid wasp Asobara japonica. We take advantage of the fact that asexual females cured of their endosymbionts produce sons instead of daughters, and that these sons can be crossed with sexual females. By combining behavioral experiments with crosses designed to introgress alleles from the asexual into the sexual genome, we found that sexual attractiveness, mating, egg fertilization and plastic adjustment of offspring sex ratio (in response to variation in local mate competition) are decayed in asexual A. japonica females. Furthermore, introgression experiments revealed that the propensity for cured asexual females to produce only sons (because of decayed sexual attractiveness, mating behavior and/or egg fertilization) is likely caused by recessive genetic effects at a single locus. Recessive effects were also found to cause decay of plastic sex-ratio adjustment under variable levels of local mate competition. Our results suggest that few recessive mutations drive decay of female sexual traits, at least in asexual species deriving from haplodiploid sexual ancestors.
    Development of a Nasonia vitripennis outbred laboratory population for genetic analysis
    Zande, L. van de; Ferber, S. ; Haan, A. de; Beukeboom, L.W. ; Heerwaarden, J. van; Pannebakker, B.A. - \ 2014
    Molecular Ecology Resources 14 (2014)3. - ISSN 1755-098X - p. 578 - 587.
    parasitoid wasp nasonia - local mate competition - sex-ratio - drosophila-melanogaster - natural-populations - ectoparasitic wasp - hymenoptera - genome - evolution - recombination
    The parasitoid wasp genus Nasonia has rapidly become a genetic model system for developmental and evolutionary biology. The release of its genome sequence led to the development of high-resolution genomic tools, for both interspecific and intraspecific research, which has resulted in great advances in understanding Nasonia biology. To further advance the utility of Nasonia vitripennis as a genetic model system and to be able to fully exploit the advantages of its fully sequenced and annotated genome, we developed a genetically variable and well-characterized experimental population. In this study, we describe the establishment of the genetically diverse HVRx laboratory population from strains collected from the field in the Netherlands. We established a maintenance method that retains genetic variation over generations of culturing in the laboratory. As a characterization of its genetic composition, we provide data on the standing genetic variation and estimate the effective population size (Ne ) by microsatellite analysis. A genome-wide description of polymorphism is provided through pooled resequencing, which yielded 417 331 high-quality SNPs spanning all five Nasonia chromosomes. The HVRx population and its characterization are freely available as a community resource for investigators seeking to elucidate the genetic basis of complex trait variation using the Nasonia model system
    Data from: Development of a Nasonia vitripennis outbred laboratory population for genetic analysis
    Zande, L. van de; Ferber, S. ; Haan, A. de; Beukeboom, L.W. ; Heerwaarden, J. van; Pannebakker, B.A. - \ 2013
    University of Groningen
    parasitoid wasp - single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) - pooled resequencing - genetic variation - effective population size - laboratory strain
    The parasitoid wasp genus Nasonia has rapidly become a genetic model system for developmental and evolutionary biology. The release of its genome sequence led to the development of high-resolution genomic tools, for both interspecific and intraspecific research, which has resulted in great advances in understanding Nasonia biology. To further advance the utility of Nasonia vitripennis as a genetic model system and to be able to fully exploit the advantages of its fully sequenced and annotated genome, we developed a genetically variable and well-characterized experimental population. In this study, we describe the establishment of the genetically diverse HVRx laboratory population from strains collected from the field in the Netherlands. We established a maintenance method that retains genetic variation over generations of culturing in the laboratory. As a characterization of its genetic composition, we provide data on the standing genetic variation and estimate the effective population size (Ne) by microsatellite analysis. A genome-wide description of polymorphism is provided through pooled resequencing, which yielded 417 331 high-quality SNPs spanning all five Nasonia chromosomes. The HVRx population and its characterization are freely available as a community resource for investigators seeking to elucidate the genetic basis of complex trait variation using the Nasonia model system.
    Prezygotic Isolation in the Parasitoid Wasp Genus Nasonia
    Giesbers, M.C.W.G. ; Gerritsma, S. ; Buellesbach, J. ; Diao, W. ; Pannebakker, B.A. ; Zande, L. van de; Schmitt, T. ; Beukeboom, L.W. - \ 2013
    In: Speciation: Natural Processes, Genetics and Biodiversity Nova Science Publishers - ISBN 9781626184091 - p. 165 - 192.
    Absence of complementary sex determination in the parasitoid wasp genus asobara (hymenoptera: braconidae)
    Ma, W.J. ; Kuijper, B. ; Boer, J.G. de; Zande, L. van de; Beukeboom, L.W. ; Wertheim, B. ; Pannebakker, B.A. - \ 2013
    PLoS ONE 8 (2013)4. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 9 p.
    nasonia-vitripennis hymenoptera - tabida nees braconidae - drosophila-melanogaster - cotesia-vestalis - determining mechanisms - inbreeding depression - determination pathway - diploid males - populations - models
    An attractive way to improve our understanding of sex determination evolution is to study the underlying mechanisms in closely related species and in a phylogenetic perspective. Hymenopterans are well suited owing to the diverse sex determination mechanisms, including different types of Complementary Sex Determination (CSD) and maternal control sex determination. We investigated different types of CSD in four species within the braconid wasp genus Asobara that exhibit diverse life-history traits. Nine to thirteen generations of inbreeding were monitored for diploid male production, brood size, offspring sex ratio, and pupal mortality as indicators for CSD. In addition, simulation models were developed to compare these observations to predicted patterns for multilocus CSD with up to ten loci. The inbreeding regime did not result in diploid male production, decreased brood sizes, substantially increased offspring sex ratios nor in increased pupal mortality. The simulations further allowed us to reject CSD with up to ten loci, which is a strong refutation of the multilocus CSD model. We discuss how the absence of CSD can be reconciled with the variation in life-history traits among Asobara species, and the ramifications for the phylogenetic distribution of sex determination mechanisms in the Hymenoptera
    Sex determination meltdown upon biological control introduction of the parasitoid Cotesia rubecula?
    Boer, J.G. de; Kuijper, B. ; Heimpel, G.E. ; Beukeboom, L.W. - \ 2012
    Evolutionary Applications 5 (2012)5. - ISSN 1752-4563 - p. 444 - 454.
    ant solenopsis-invicta - pieris-rapae lepidoptera - determination mechanisms - bracon-hebetor - mating system - wasp - hymenoptera - population - glomerata - genetics
    Natural enemies may go through genetic bottlenecks during the process of biological control introductions. Such bottlenecks are expected to be particularly detrimental in parasitoid Hymenoptera that exhibit complementary sex determination (CSD). CSD is associated with a severe form of inbreeding depression because homozygosity at one or multiple sex loci leads to the production of diploid males that are typically unviable or sterile. We observed that diploid males occur at a relatively high rate (8–13% of diploid adults) in a field population of Cotesia rubecula in Minnesota, USA, where this parasitoid was introduced for biological control of the cabbage white Pieris rapae. However, our laboratory crosses suggest two-locus CSD in a native Dutch population of C. rubecula and moderately high diploid males survival (approximately 70%), a scenario expected to produce low proportions of diploid males. We also show that courtship behavior of diploid males is similar to that of haploid males, but females mated to diploid males produce only very few daughters that are triploid. We use our laboratory data to estimate sex allele diversity in the field population of C. rubecula and discuss the possibility of a sex determination meltdown from two-locus CSD to effective single-locus CSD during or after introduction.
    Functional and evolutionary insights from the genomes of three parasitoid nasonia species
    Werren, John H. ; Richards, Stephen ; Desjardins, Christopher A. ; Niehuis, Oliver ; Gadau, Jurgen ; Colbourne, John K. ; Beukeboom, Leo W. ; Desplan, Claude ; Elsik, Christine G. ; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J.P. ; Kitts, Paul ; Lynch, Jeremy A. ; Murphy, Terence ; Oliveira, Deodoro C.S.G. ; Smith, Christopher D. ; Zande, Louis De Van; Worley, Kim C. ; Zdobnov, Evgeny M. ; Aerts, Maarten ; Albert, Stefan ; Anaya, Victor H. ; Anzola, Juan M. ; Barchuk, Angel R. ; Behura, Susanta K. ; Bera, Agata N. ; Berenbaum, May R. ; Bertossa, Rinaldo C. ; Bitondi, Márcia M.G. ; Bordenstein, Seth R. ; Bork, Peer ; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich ; Brunain, Marleen ; Cazzamali, Giuseppe ; Chaboub, Lesley ; Chacko, Joseph ; Chavez, Dean ; Childers, Christopher P. ; Choi, Jeong Hyeon ; Clark, Michael E. ; Claudianos, Charles ; Clinton, Rochelle A. ; Cree, Andrew G. ; Cristino, Alexandre S. ; Dang, Phat M. ; Darby, Alistair C. ; Graaf, Dirk C. De; Devreese, Bart ; Dinh, Huyen H. ; Edwards, Rachel ; Elango, Navin ; Elhaik, Eran ; Ermolaeva, Olga ; Evans, Jay D. ; Foret, Sylvain ; Fowler, Gerald R. ; Gerlach, Daniel ; Gibson, Joshua D. ; Gilbert, Donald G. ; Graur, Dan ; Gründer, Stefan ; Hagen, Darren E. ; Han, Yi ; Hauser, Frank ; Hultmark, Da ; Hunter Iv, Henry C. ; Hurst, Gregory D.D. ; Jhangian, Shalini N. ; Jiang, Huaiyang ; Johnson, Reed M. ; Jones, Andrew K. ; Junier, Thomas ; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko ; Kamping, Albert ; Kapustin, Yuri ; Kechavarzi, Bobak ; Kim, Jaebum ; Kim, Jay ; Kiryutin, Boris ; Koevoets, Tosca ; Kovar, Christie L. ; Kriventseva, Evgenia V. ; Kucharski, Robert ; Lee, Heewook ; Lee, Sandra L. ; Lees, Kristin ; Lewis, Lora R. ; Loehlin, David W. ; Logsdon, John M. ; Lopez, Jacqueline A. ; Lozado, Ryan J. ; Maglott, Donna ; Maleszka, Ryszard ; Mayampurath, Anoop ; Mazur, Danielle J. ; McClure, Marcella A. ; Moore, Andrew D. ; Morgan, Margaret B. ; Muller, Jean ; Munoz-Torres, Monica C. ; Muzny, Donna M. ; Nazareth, Lynne V. ; Neupert, Susanne ; Nguyen, Ngoc B. ; Nunes, Francis M.F. ; Oakeshott, John G. ; Okwuonu, Geoffrey O. ; Pannebakker, Bart A. ; Pejaver, Vikas R. ; Peng, Zuogang ; Pratt, Stephen C. ; Predel, Reinhard ; Pu, Ling Ling ; Ranson, Hilary ; Raychoudhury, Rhitoban ; Rechtsteiner, Andreas ; Reese, Justin T. ; Reid, Jeffrey G. ; Riddle, Megan ; Robertson, I.I.H.M. ; Romero-Severson, Jeanne ; Rosenberg, Miriam ; Sackton, Timothy B. ; Sattelle, David B. ; Schlüns, Helge ; Schmitt, Thomas ; Schneider, Martina ; Schüler, Andreas ; Schurko, Andrew M. ; Shuker, David M. ; Simões, Zila L.P. ; Sinha, Saurabh ; Smith, Zachary ; Solovyev, Victor ; Souvorov, Alexandre ; Springauf, Andreas ; Stafflinger, Elisabeth ; Stage, Deborah E. ; Stanke, Mario ; Tanaka, Yoshiaki ; Telschow, Arndt ; Vattathil, Carol Trent Selina ; Verhulst, I.I.E.C. ; Viljakainen, Lumi ; Wanner, Kevin W. ; Waterhouse, Robert M. ; Whitfield, James B. ; Wilkes, Timothy E. ; Williamson, Michael ; Willis, Judith H. ; Wolschin, Florian ; Wyder, Stefan ; Yamada, Takuji ; Yi, Soojin V. ; Zecher, Courtney N. ; Zhang, Lan ; Gibbs, Richard A. - \ 2010
    Science 327 (2010)5963. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 343 - 348.

    We report here genome sequences and comparative analyses of three closely related parasitoid wasps: Nasonia vitripennis, N. giraulti, and N. tongicomis. Parasitoids are important regulators of arthropod populations, including major agricultural pests and disease vectors, and Nasonia is an emerging genetic model, particularly for evolutionary and developmental genetics. Key findings include the identification of a functional DNA methylation tool kit; hymenopteran-spedfic genes including diverse venoms; lateral gene transfers among Pox viruses, Wolbachia, and Nasonia; and the rapid evolution of genes involved in nuclearmitochondrial interactions that are implicated in spedation. Newly developed genome resources advance Nasonia for genetic research, accelerate mapping and cloning of quantitative trait loci, and will ultimately provide tools and knowledge for further increasing the utility of parasitoids as pest insect-control agents.

    A comparison of recombination frequencies in intraspecific versus interspecific mapping populations of Nasonia
    Beukeboom, L.W. ; Niehuis, O. ; Pannebakker, B.A. ; Koevoets, T. ; Gibson, J.D. ; Shuker, D.M. ; De Zande, L. Van; Gadau, J. - \ 2010
    Heredity 104 (2010)3. - ISSN 0018-067X - p. 302 - 309.
    Hybrids - Insects - Linkage map - Microsatellites - Recombination - Speciation

    We present the first intraspecific linkage map for Nasonia vitripennis based on molecular markers. The map consists of 36 new microsatellite markers, extracted from the Nasonia genome sequence, and spans 515 cM. The five inferred linkage groups correspond to the five chromosomes of Nasonia. Comparison of recombination frequencies of the marker intervals spread over the whole genome (N = 33 marker intervals) between the intraspecific N. vitripennis map and an interspecific N. vitripennis × N. giraulti map revealed a slightly higher (1.8%) recombination frequency in the intraspecific cross. We further considered an N. vitripennis × N. longicornis map with 29 microsatellite markers spanning 430 cM. Recombination frequencies in the two interspecific crosses differed neither between reciprocal crosses nor between mapping populations of embryos and adults. No major chromosomal rearrangements were found for the analyzed genomic segments. The observed differential F 2 hybrid male mortality has no significant effect on the genome-wide recombination frequency in Nasonia. We conclude that interspecific crosses between the different Nasonia species, a hallmark of Nasonia genetics, are generally suitable for mapping quantitative and qualitative trait loci for species differences.

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