Records 1 - 20 / 518
Effect of dietary fat sources on fatty acid deposition and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens
Smink, W. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. ; Hovenier, R. ; Geelen, M.J.H. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Beynen, A.C. - \ 2010
Poultry Science 89 (2010)11. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 2432 - 2440.
abdominal fat - unsaturated fats - adipose-tissue - beef tallow - palm oil - accumulation - oxidation - digestion - digestibility - purification
The hypothesis tested was that dietary vegetable fats rich in saturated fatty acids, when compared with a vegetable oil rich in linoleic acid, increase fat deposition in broiler chickens and affect synthesis or oxidation, or both, of individual fatty acids. Diets with native sunflower oil (SO), a 50:50 mix of hydrogenated and native SO, palm oil, and randomized palm oil were fed to broiler chickens. Intake of digestible fat and fatty acids, whole body fatty acid deposition, hepatic fatty acid profile, and hepatic enzyme activities involved in fatty acid oxidation and synthesis were measured. The fat deposition:digestible fat intake ratio was significantly lower for the SO group in comparison with the groups fed the vegetable fats rich in saturated fatty acids. The difference between digestible intake and deposition of C18:2, reflecting its maximum disappearance rate, was highest for the SO group and lowest for the palm oil- and randomized palm oil-fed birds. The calculated minimal rate of de novo synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), calculated as deposition minus digestible intake, was more than 50% lower for the SO group than for the other 3 dietary groups. Based on the fatty acid profiles in the liver, it would appear that increasing contents of C18:2 decrease the desaturation of saturated fatty acids into MUFA. It is concluded that a diet rich in C18:2 in comparison with different kinds of vegetable saturated fatty acids decreases the deposition of fat, especially of MUFA. It appears to be caused by a higher ß-oxidation and a reduced de novo synthesis of MUFA, but this conclusion is not fully supported by the measured activities of enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis and oxidation.
Dietary tryptophan supplementation in privately owned mildly anxious dogs
Bosch, G. ; Beerda, B. ; Beynen, A.C. ; Borg, J.A.M. van der; Poel, A.F.B. van der; Hendriks, W.H. - \ 2009
Applied Animal Behaviour Science 121 (2009)3-4. - ISSN 0168-1591 - p. 197 - 205.
separation anxiety - saliva cortisol - amino-acids - food-intake - serotonin - stress - behavior - plasma - brain - responses
Food composition has been reported to influence mood and behaviour in humans and animals and it could help to reduce unwanted behaviour in dogs. Anxiety-related behaviour is associated with the functioning of the central serotonergic system and here it was investigated if dietary supplementation with the serotonin precursor tryptophan (Trp) affects behaviour in privately owned dogs. For 8 weeks, privately owned dogs were fed a control diet (n = 66) or a diet containing 2.6-fold more Trp than the control diet (n = 72), using a randomised double-blinded, placebo-controlled approach. A third diet fortified with Trp, beet pulp, salmon oil, soy lecithin, and green tea extract was studied for its potential in 69 dogs. Owners reported on their dogs’ behaviour in the home-situation by filling out a web-based questionnaire before the onset of dietary treatment and after 4 and 8 weeks of feeding the diets. Thirty-four dogs fed the control diet and 39 dogs fed the Trp diet were subjected to behaviour tests before and after 8 weeks of dietary treatment. The tests included open-field situations and owner-separation procedures and were set up to measure anxiousness. Blood was collected after 8 weeks from dogs in the control (15 dogs) and Trp (15) groups for evaluation of plasma amino acid concentrations. Dietary effects on behaviour were investigated for significance by means of testing interactions between diet and time, using Residual Maximum Likelihood. Intake of the Trp supplemented diet significantly increased plasma Trp concentrations by 37.4% and its ratio with large neutral amino acids by 31.2% compared to the control diet but owners did not report on behavioural changes that could be attributed to a specific dietary treatment. Also, the dogs’ responses in the behavioural tests, including those in saliva cortisol, were unaffected after 8 weeks of consuming the Trp supplemented food. A number of significant changes in both owner-reported assessments and behavioural responses did occur over time, possibly mirroring a placebo-effect and/or influences of a new diet regardless of its specific composition. It is concluded that intake of diets supplemented solely with Trp or in combination with beet pulp, salmon oil, soy lecithin, and green tea extract does not change (anxiety-related) behaviour in privately owned dogs that do not show clear signs of abnormal behaviour. The influence of dietary Trp intake on behaviour of pathological anxious or chronically stressed dogs remains to be established
Fatty Acid Digestion and Deposition in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Either Native or Randomized Palm Oil
Smink, W. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. ; Hovenier, R. ; Geelen, M.J.H. ; Lobee, H.W.J. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Beynen, A.C. - \ 2008
Poultry Science 87 (2008). - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 506 - 513.
metabolizable energy - digestibility - lard - triacylglycerols - absorption - saturation - tissues - lipids
The hypothesis tested was that randomization of palm oil would increase its digestibility, especially that of its palmitic acid (C16:0) component, with subsequent changes in the fatty acid composition in body tissues. Broiler chickens were fed diets containing either native or randomized palm oil. Diets with either native or a 50/50 mix of native and hydrogenated sunflower oil were also fed. Randomization of palm oil raised the fraction of C16:0 at the sn-2 position of the glycerol molecule from 14 to 32%. Hydrogenation of sunflower oil reduced fat and total saturated fatty acid digestibility, whereas no change in digestibility of total unsaturated fatty acids was found. Randomization of palm oil raised the group mean apparent digestibility of C16:0 by 2.6 and 5.8% units during the starter and grower-finisher phase, respectively. On the basis of the observed digestibilities in the grower-finisher period, it was calculated that the digestibility for C16:0 at the sn-2 and sn-1,3 position was 90 and 51%, respectively. The feeding of randomized instead of native palm oil significantly raised the palmitic acid content of breast meat and abdominal fat and lowered the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids. It is concluded that randomized palm oil may be used as vegetable oil in broiler nutrition with positive effect on saturated fatty acid digestibility when compared with native palm oil and positive effect on firmness of meat when compared with vegetable oils rich in unsaturated fatty acids.
Immune stimulation in fish and chicken through weak low frequency electromagnetic fields
Cuppen, J.J.M. ; Wiegertjes, G.F. ; Lobee, H.W.J. ; Savelkoul, H.F.J. ; Elmusharaf, M.A. ; Beynen, A.C. ; Grooten, H.N.A. ; Smink, W. - \ 2007
Environmentalist 27 (2007)4. - ISSN 0251-1088 - p. 577 - 583.
A hypothesis is proposed how Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field (LF EMF) exposure can stimulate an immune response, based on recent insights in immunology. We hypothesize that the Immunent EMF treatment induces mild stress to cells, which then produce cytokines that function as alarms or so called danger signals for the immune system. In this way EMF treatment takes the place of multiplying pathogens, and the damage these cause, in the triggering of an immune response. In a first series of experiments in¿vitro common carp head kidney-derived phagocytes were used to determine ROS production as a measure for immune activation. Exposure to LF EMF signals (200¿5,000 Hz) at 5 ¿T or 1.5 mT led to 42 or 33% increase in immune activity, respectively, compared to negative control values. EMF could also additionally stimulate chemically pre-stimulated samples up to 18% (5 ¿T) or 22% (1.5 mT). Significance of increase in ROS production in the total series was: p <0.0001. In a second series of experiments in¿vitro commercial goldfish were used. Groups of fish were housed under equal conditions in at least four control tanks and 8¿16 EMF-exposed tanks. Exposure was done with a predominantly vertical field at field strengths (rms) between 0.15 and 50 ¿T. Without treatment mortality was about 50% after 18 days, while the treatment at 5 ¿T reduced it to 20% on average. At field strengths 0.15, 0.5, 1.5, 5, 15 and 50 ¿T an equally strong effect was found. Reducing the field strength to 0.05, 0.06, 0.01 and 0.003 ¿T showed a gradually decreasing effect, which only at 0.003 ¿T is no longer statistically significant. Finally, in¿vitro experiments were done with 560 commercial broiler chickens exposed to infection pressure from coccidiosis. EMF exposure at 6.5 ¿T reduced intestinal lesions by 40% and improved feed conversion by 8%.
Studies on the mechanism by which a high intake of soybean oil depresses the apparent digestibility of fibre in horses
Jansen, W.L. ; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M. ; Cone, J.W. ; Vries, H.T. de; Hallebeek, J.M. ; Hovenier, R. ; Kuilen, J. van der; Huurdeman, C.M. ; Verstappen, D.C.G.M. ; Gresnigt, M.C. ; Beynen, A.C. - \ 2007
Animal Feed Science and Technology 138 (2007)3-4. - ISSN 0377-8401 - p. 298 - 308.
chain fatty-acids - intestinal microflora - bile-acids - inhibition - glucose
An increased intake of soybean oil at the expense of an iso-energetic amount of non-structural carbohydrates reduces the apparent digestibility of fibre in horses. Literature data indicate that bile acids and linoleic acid (C18:2 n ¿ 6) may inhibit growth of pure cultures of microorganisms. In the present series of experiments, the hypotheses tested were that after extra fat intake as soybean oil more bile acids and linoleic acid would enter the caecum which depresses microbial growth and thus also fibre fermentation. Based on measurements of faecal bile acid excretion in horses, no evidence was obtained for a higher influx of bile acids into the caecum after iso-energetic substitution of dietary soybean oil for starch plus glucose. When dietary palm oil was replaced by soybean oil, which caused a six-fold increase in linoleic acid intake, fibre digestibility in horses was not lowered. The infusion of linoleic acid into the caecum of fistulated ponies increased apparent fibre digestibility. It is concluded that the results of the three experiments disprove the hypotheses tested.
High fat intake by ponies reduces both apparent digestibility of dietary cellulose and cellulose fermentation by faeces and isolated caecal and colonic contents
Jansen, W.L. ; Cone, J.W. ; Geelen, S.N.J. ; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M. ; Gelder, A.H. van; Oude Elferink, S.J.W.H. ; Beynen, A.C. - \ 2007
Animal Feed Science and Technology 133 (2007)3-4. - ISSN 0377-8401 - p. 298 - 308.
gas-production - in-vitro - fiber digestion - rumen - bacteria - kinetics - cecum
Inclusion of extra fat in the diet of horses, at the expense of an iso-energetic amount of nonstructural carbohydrates, has been shown to decrease the apparent digestibility of the various dietary fiber fractions, but the mechanism was unknown. It was hypothesized that inclusion of extra fat in the diet depresses the caecal and/or colon microbial degradation of fiber, leading to a decrease in fiber digestion. The hypothesis was tested using six ponies fed either low fat or a high fat ration. In the ponies, the high fat ration lowered apparent NDFom digestibility by 0.089. The 12 ponies were killed and intestinal contents isolated to be used as inoculum with in vitro gas production technique. In general, groups mean maximum gas production from either cellulose or xylan by caecal, colon and faecal bacteria was lower when the ponies had been fed the high fat diet. Cumulative gas production by caecal fluid with xylan as substrate after 20 h of incubation was depressed when the donor animals had been fed the high fat diet. With cellulose as substrate, gas production by caecal contents was lowered by on average 20% after fat feeding of the ponies. There was a diet effect of cell-free caecal fluid on gas production from cellulose by a standard inoculum: fat feeding had an inhibitory impact. It is concluded that fat feeding in ponies inhibits microbial activity in the caecum, which in turn leads to a decrease in fiber digestibility. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
|Multispecies probiotics - composition and functionality
Timmerman, H.M. - \ 2006
Utrecht University. Promotor(en): A.C. Beynen; Frans Rombouts; L.M.A. Akkermans, co-promotor(en): G.T. Rijkers. - Utrecht : s.n. - ISBN 9789039341292 - 320
probiotica - dissertaties - probiotics - theses
Mortality and growth performance of broilers given drinking water supplemented with chicken-specific probiotics
Timmerman, H.M. ; Veldman, A. ; Rombouts, F.M. ; Beynen, A.C. - \ 2006
Poultry Science 85 (2006)8. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 1383 - 1388.
lactobacillus-cultures - fed diets - acidophilus - exclusion - weight - organs - flora
For application in broiler production, we developed a multispecies (MSPB) and a chicken-specific (CSPB) probiotic preparation in fluid form. The MSPB contained different probiotic species of human origin, whereas the CSPB consisted of 7 Lactobacillus species isolated from the digestive tract of chickens. In a field trial with broilers, MSPB treatment resulted in a slight increase (by 1.84%) in broiler productivity based on an index taking into account daily weight gain, feed efficiency, and mortality. The CSPB treatment reduced mortality in 2 subsequent field trials and raised productivity by 2.94 and 8.70%. In a controlled trial with broilers showing a high index of productivity, probiotic treatment further raised productivity by 3.72%. Based on the present 4 studies in combination with 9 studies published earlier, it is suggested that with higher productivity rates of the broilers the effect of probiotics becomes smaller
Health and growth of veal calves fed milk replacers with or without probiotics
Timmerman, H.M. ; Mulder, L. ; Everts, H. ; Espen, D.C. van; Wal, E. van der; Klaassen, G. ; Rouwers, S.M.G. ; Hartemink, R. ; Rombouts, F.M. ; Beynen, A.C. - \ 2005
Journal of Dairy Science 88 (2005)6. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 2154 - 2165.
antibiotic-associated diarrhea - lactic-acid bacteria - lactobacillus-gg - prevention - infection - stress - supplementation - malabsorption - typhimurium - performance
Four experiments with 1-wk-old veal calves were conducted to assess the influence of probiotics on growth and health indicators. In experiments 1 and 2, the liquid probiotic supplements were administered daily from experimental d 1 to 15. The treatment period in experiments 3 and 4 was extended to 56 d. The probiotics used were a multispecies probiotic (MSPB) containing different probiotic species of human origin, or a calf-specific probiotic (CSPB) containing 6 Lactobacillus species isolated from calf feces and selected on the basis of a combination of characteristics. When the data for the 4 experiments were pooled, the probiotics enhanced growth rate during the first 2 wk. During the 8-wk experimental period, average daily gain and feed efficiency were significantly improved in the probiotic-treated groups. The MSPB-induced increase in weight gain was greater when the control calves were considered less healthy based on a health score (an index of diarrhea and therapeutic treatments). Probiotic treatment tended to diminish mortality. The CSPB treatment reduced the incidence of diarrhea and the fecal counts of coliforms. When therapeutic treatment was intensive in the control calves, the ingestion of probiotics reduced the percentage of calves that required therapy and the amount of treatments needed against digestive or respiratory diseases. There was no clear difference in the efficiency of the MSPB and CSPB preparations. Further research is necessary to identify underlying mechanisms and to evaluate the potential of probiotics to improve respiratory health in veal calf production.
Lowering dietary phosphorus concentrations reduces kidney calcification, but does not adversely affect growth, mineral metabolism, and bone development in growing rabbits
Ritskes-Hoitinga, J. ; Grooten, H.N.A. ; Wienk, K.J.H. ; Peters, M.J.T.M. ; Lemmens, A.G. ; Beynen, A.C. - \ 2004
The British journal of nutrition 91 (2004)3. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 367 - 376.
induced nephrocalcinosis - female rats - calcium - restriction
New Zealand White rabbits were used to investigate the influence of increasing dietary P concentrations on growth performance, mineral balance, kidney calcification and bone development. The minimum dietary P requirement of 0.22% (National Research Council) is usually exceeded in commercial natural-ingredient chows, leading to undesirable kidney calcifications. In order to study the optimal dietary P level, rabbits were fed semi-purified diets with four different P levels (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 %; w/w) at a constant dietary Ca concentration (0.5 %) during an 8-week period. Body weight and growth were not influenced by the dietary P level. During two periods (days 20-23 and 48-51), faeces and urine were collected quantitatively for the analysis of Ca, Mg and P and balances were calculated. Increased dietary P intake caused increased urinary and faecal P excretion and P apparent absorption and retention. Faecal Ca excretion increased with higher dietary P levels, whereas urinary Ca excretion reacted inversely. The apparent absorption of Ca became reduced at higher dietary P concentrations, but Ca retention was unchanged. The response of Mg was in a similar direction to that of the Ca balance. Kidney mineral content increased with higher dietary P levels, indicating the presence of calcified deposits. Nephrocalcinosis became more severe in kidney cortex and medulla at increasing dietary P levels, as was confirmed by histological analysis. Femur bone length was not differentially influenced by dietary P. Bone density (g/cm(3)) of the femur diaphysis became significantly lower at the 0.8 % dietary P level as compared with the 0.2 % P group only. The bone Mg content was significantly increased on the 0.8 % P diet, both in the diaphysis and epiphysis. Plasma P concentration increased and plasma Ca decreased with higher dietary P levels, whereas plasma Mg levels were unaffected. The present study shows that the current recommended minimum dietary P level of 0.2 % for rabbits, as advised by the National Research Council in 1977, leads to a normal growth and bone development, but also causes some degree of kidney calcifications at a dietary Ca level of 0.5 %. As the dietary P level of 0.1 % virtually prevented kidney calcification and at the same time did not give evidence for any deleterious effects on growth and bone development, this indicates that the current recommended dietary P level for rabbits should be regarded as a maximum advisable concentration, and that a lower P level may be more optimal.
Changes in the feed intake, pH and osmolality of rumen fluid, and the position of the abomasum of eight dairy cows during a diet-induced left displacement of the abomasum
Winden, S.C.L. van; Brattinga, C.R. ; Muller, K.E. ; Schonewille, J.T. ; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M. ; Beynen, A.C. - \ 2004
Veterinary Record 154 (2004)16. - ISSN 0042-4900 - p. 501 - 504.
metabolic-disorders - risk-factors - cattle - parturition - milk
During the last six weeks of the dry period, eight Holstein-Friesian cows were fed a restricted amount of grass silage; after calving, a mixture of maize silage and concentrates was offered in a feeding regimen designed to induce a displacement of the abomasum. In the first month after calving, the cows were monitored for the following variables: feed intake and composition, milk production, the position of the abomasum, and the pH and osmolality of the rumen contents. In five of the eight cows, a left displacement of the abomasum occurred between four and 21 days after calving in the absence of other diseases. The displacement was temporary, lasting between five and 36 consecutive hours and one or two days in two of the cows (floaters), and for three or more days in the other three. Before these three cows developed the displacement, their abomasum was 4.3 to 7.9 cm higher, its contents had a higher mean osmolality (+19.2 mosmol/kg), and the ratio of roughage to concentrates in their feed was lower (-0-87) than in the three cows that did not develop clinical signs of a displaced abomasum. There were no significant differences in these variables between the floaters and the healthy cows
Monostrain, multistrain and multispecies probiotics - A comparison of functionality and efficacy
Timmerman, H.M. ; Koning, C.J.M. ; Mulder, L. ; Rombouts, F.M. ; Beynen, A.C. - \ 2004
International Journal of Food Microbiology 96 (2004)3. - ISSN 0168-1605 - p. 219 - 233.
escherichia-coli o157-h7 - lactic-acid bacteria - lactobacillus-acidophilus - streptococcus-thermophilus - salmonella-typhimurium - probiotic bacteria - growth - bifidobacterium - cultures - milk
This literature review was carried out to make a comparison of functionality and efficacy between monostrain, multistrain and multispecies probiotics. A monostrain probiotic is defined as containing one strain of a certain species and consequently multistrain probiotics contain more than one strain of the same species or, at least of the same genus. Arbitrarily, the term multispecies probiotics is used for preparations containing strains that belong to one or preferentially more genera. Multispecies probiotics were superior in treating antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children. Growth performance and particularly mortality in broilers could be improved with multistrain probiotics. Mice were better protected against S. Typhimurium infection with a multistrain probiotic. A multispecies probiotic provided the best clearance of E. coli O157:H7 from lambs. Rats challenged with S. Enteritidis showed best post-challenge weight gains when treated with a multispecies probiotic. Possible mechanisms underlying the enhanced effects of probiotic mixtures are discussed. It is also emphasized that strains used in multistrain and multispecies probiotics should be compatible or, preferably, synergistic. The design and use of multistrain and multispecies probiotics should be encouraged.
Effect of dietary protein source on feed intake and small intestinal morphology in newly weaned piglets
Vente-Spreeuwenberg, M.A.M. ; Verdonk, J.M.A.J. ; Bakker, G.C.M. ; Beynen, A.C. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2004
Livestock Production Science 86 (2004)1-3. - ISSN 0301-6226 - p. 169 - 177.
soybean-meal - crypt depth - pigs - performance - age - height - creep
An experiment was designed to study the effect of dietary protein source on feed intake and on small intestinal morphology in newly weaned piglets. In total, 108 piglets were used, without access to creep feed during the suckling period. Piglets were weaned at 27 days of age. They were fed ad libitum one of two iso-nitrogenous experimental diets, which differed in their protein composition and contained either skim milk powder (SMP) or hydrolysed feather meal (FM), the latter component having low ileal protein digestibility. Diets contained equal amounts of indispensable amino acids. On day 4 postweaning, 18 piglets with a similar high feed intake were selected within each dietary treatment and sampled for small intestinal morphology on days 4, 7, or 14 postweaning. The dietary protein source did not affect feed intake during the first three days after weaning. From days 0 (day of weaning) to 2, the mean feed intake increased from 28.9 (S.D. 45.2) to 202.1 (S.D. 129.9) g day-1 piglet-1. In the second week, the feed intake of the selected piglets receiving the SMP diet was higher (P
Dietary protein hydrolysates vs. the intact proteins do not enhance mucosal integrity and growth performance in weaned piglets
Vente-Spreeuwenberg, M.A.M. ; Verdonk, J.M.A.J. ; Koninkx, J.F.J.G. ; Beynen, A.C. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2004
Livestock Production Science 85 (2004)2-3. - ISSN 0301-6226 - p. 151 - 164.
digestive enzyme-activity - small-intestine - soybean-meal - brush-border - feed-intake - pig - age - milk - inflammation - metabolism
Two separate experiments, but using the same diets, were designed to study whether the addition to the diet of protein hydrolysates or crystalline glutamine (gln) affect small intestinal integrity (experiment 1) and growth performance (experiment 2). It was hypothesized that dietary supplementation of hydrolysed proteins would increase the availability of amino acids for the gut wall and therefore result in an improved small intestinal integrity and growth performance of piglets after weaning. The five diets differed in their protein composition: soybean meal and wheat gluten (SBM+WG), SBM and hydrolysed wheat gluten (SBM +HWG), hydrolysed soybean meal and WG (HSBM+WG), SBM and potato protein (SBM+PP), 2% of gln added to SBM and PP (SBM+PP+gln). In experiment 1, 88 piglets of 8.4 kg (S.D.: 0.82) were weaned at 26 days of age (day 0). Piglets were dissected and sampled on days 0, 3, or 7 postweaning. Results showed that the protein hydrolysates did not increase villus height, did not reduce crypt depth and did not raise brush-border aminopeptidase and isomaltase-sucrase activity when compared to the diets containing the unhydrolysed proteins. In experiment 2, 165 piglets of 8.5 kg (S.D.: 1.33) were weaned at 26 days of age. Feed intake and weight gain were not enhanced by the protein hydrolysates. The addition to the diet of crystalline gln resulted in improved average daily gain and feed efficiency by 22 and 17%, respectively (P
Individually assessed creep food consumption by suckled piglets: influence on post-weaning food intake characteristics and indicators of gut structure and hind-gut fermentation
Bruininx, E.M.A.M. ; Schellingerhout, A.B. ; Binnendijk, G.P. ; Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Schrama, J.W. ; Hartog, L.A. den; Everts, H. ; Beynen, A.C. - \ 2004
Animal Science 78 (2004)1. - ISSN 1357-7298 - p. 67 - 75.
housed weanling pigs - feed-intake characteristics - villous height - crypt depth - weaned pigs - performance - weight - growth - diet
Individual food intake characteristics and indicators of gut physiology of group-housed weanling pigs were measured in relation to pre-weaning consumption of creep food. Additionally, the effects of creep food consumption on pre-weaning body weight and gain were assessed. A total of 48 litters was used in two trials. From 11 days of age until weaning (day 28), all 48 litters were given a creep food (12.7 MJ net energy (NE) per kg, 15.2 g lysine per kg) supplemented with 10 g chromium III oxide per kg. Piglets showing green-coloured faeces on three sampling days were designated as good eaters, whereas piglets that never showed green faeces were labelled as non-eaters. Piglets having green faeces once or twice were designated as moderate eaters. Based on availability, body weight, litter origin, genotype and gender 29 good eaters, 32 moderate eaters and 29 non-eaters were selected in the first trial. In the second trial there were 30 good eaters, 33 moderate eaters, and 27 non-eaters. In each trial eight piglets of each creep-food eating type were immediately killed to serve as a reference group. The remaining piglets of each eating type were weaned and placed in pens equipped with computerized feeding stations so that distributions of body weight, litter origin, and gender were similar within pens. In each trial, eight pigs of each eating type were killed 5 days after weaning in order to determine villous heights and crypt depths in the proximal small intestine and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations in the colon. While being suckled, body weight was not related to the pre-weaning consumption of creep food (P > 0.1) whereas average daily gain of the good eaters during the creep feeding period was higher (P <0.05) than that of the moderate and non-eaters. Both morphology measures and VFA concentrations on the day of weaning were unaffected (P > 0.1) by the pre-weaning food consumption. After weaning, food intake and gain of the total group of good eaters were higher (P <0.05) than that of the non-eaters, whereas villous height and villous height : crypt depth ratios did not differ (P > 0.1). Neither total VFA concentration nor the proportion of branched-chain VFA were affected by creep food consumption while being suckled. Total VFA concentration in the colon was positively associated with body-weight gain (P <0.001). This study confirms earlier findings that consumption of creep food while being suckled stimulates food intake and growth after weaning. However, the beneficial effects were not associated with a prevention of damage to morphology of the small intestine.
Proposal for the assessments of phosphorus requirements of dairy cows
Valk, H. ; Beynen, A.C. - \ 2003
Livestock Production Science 79 (2003)2-3. - ISSN 0301-6226 - p. 267 - 272.
One measure to contribute to reducing environmental pollution with phosphorus (P) is to decrease P intake of dairy cows and thus decreasing P excretion with faeces. The current P recommendations are mainly based on data obtained with sheep and goats. We have attempted to the factorial method, i.e., using the net P requirement for maintenance and milk production and the true absorption coefficient. However, inevitable fecal P losses and the true absorption of P are not known for cows. Thus, we have calculated the inevitable P losses, and the true absorption coefficient using data on saliva production, saliva-P content and the efficiency of P re-absorption. The data were either directly or indirectly derived from literature values and experimental results. We propose the following P requirement for dairy cows: P requirement (g/day/600-kg cow)=19+1.43×kg milk. The present recommendation is up to 22% lower than the current recommendations for high-yielding dairy cows used in the UK (AFRC, 1991)
Interrelationship between gut morphology and faeces consistency in newly weaned piglets
Vente-Spreeuwenberg, M.A.M. ; Verdonk, J.M.A.J. ; Beynen, A.C. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2003
Animal Science 77 (2003)1. - ISSN 1357-7298 - p. 85 - 94.
digestive enzyme-activity - small-intestine - brush-border - crypt depth - feed-intake - pig - age - performance - diarrhea - diet
A total of 104 weanling piglets was used to study the interrelationships between faeces consistency and mucosal integrity, as assessed by specific aminopeptidase and isomaltase-sucrase activity, villus height and crypt depth. Piglets were weaned at 26 (s.d. 1.4) days of age, weighing 84 (s.d. 0.70) kg. On the day of weaning (day 0), dissection was performed on one group of eight piglets. The remaining piglets were given restricted amounts of diets containing different protein sources. However, during the first 7 days post weaning 72% of the piglets ate on average less than 0.9 of the amount offered and thus actually had ad libitum access to food. On days 3 or 7 post weaning pigs were weighed and euthanased. Diet composition did not effect small intestine integrity and the data were pooled for further analysis. The weight of the stomach, large intestine and pancreas increased with time post weaning (P <0.001). Small intestine weight decreased from day 0 to 3 and was increased again on day 7, exceeding the pre-weaning value (P <0.001). Isomaltase-sucrase and aminopeptidase activities were decreased on days 3 and 7 when compared with day 0. Villus height was decreased after weaning, followed by an increase on day 7 post weaning at the proximal small intestine, but by a further decrease at the mid small intestine (P <0.001). Crypt depth was increased after weaning (P <0.001). Faeces consistency was scored twice a day on a scale from 0 to 3 with increasing liquid nature. The average percentage of days during which piglets had more-liquid faeces was 26%. During the 1st week post weaning, 73% of the piglets showed a faeces score of 2 during at least 1 day. Villus height was positively correlated with food intake level, brush-border enzyme activity and dry matter content of the chyme. Villus height was negatively correlated with more-liquid faeces. Crypt depth was positively associated with the weight of various parts of the gastro-intestinal tract. It is concluded that this study supports the concept that food intake by weaned piglets determines villus height in the small intestine and brush-border enzyme production which in turn determine the risk of diarrhoea development
Villus height and gut development in weaned piglets receiving diets containing either glucose, lactose or starch
Vente-Spreeuwenberg, M.A.M. ; Verdonk, J.M.A.J. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Beynen, A.C. - \ 2003
The British journal of nutrition 90 (2003)5. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 907 - 913.
small-intestine - crypt depth - feed-intake - pigs - performance - age
The present study was designed to evaluate the differential effects of dietary glucose, lactose and starch on small-intestinal morphology, organ weights, pH of chyme and haptoglobin levels in blood plasma of weaned piglets. It was hypothesised that lactose consumption would ameliorate the weaning-induced decrease in gut integrity. A total of forty-two barrows were used. Piglets were weaned at 27 (sd 0·8) d of age and weighed 8·0 (sd 0·51) kg. On the day before weaning (day -1) all pigs were blocked according to body weight and randomly assigned to seven groups (n 6 per group). The groups differed in diet and day of dissection. On the day of weaning, dissection was performed on one group of six piglets. The remaining groups were fed one of three experimental diets in which glucose, lactose or starch had been iso-energetically exchanged, supplying 24 % dietary energy. The piglets received a liquid diet (air-dry meal:water of 1:2, w/w). The piglets were given access to a maximum of dietary energy in order to prevent confounding between feed intake and villus architecture. The piglets were dissected and sampled on days 0, 3, or 10 post-weaning. The results show that the carbohydrate source did not affect growth performance, organ weights, villus architecture, pH of chyme and plasma haptoglobin level. The weaning transition resulted in decreased villus height and increased haptoglobin levels. In the contents of the caecum and large intestine, the pH decreased after weaning. It is concluded that at least under conditions of similar feed intake and low infectious pressure, dietary lactose does not ameliorate the weaning-induced compromise of small-intestinal integrity when compared with either glucose or starch.
|Individually assessed creep feed consumption by suckling piglets: influence on post-weaning feed intake characteristics and indicators of gut morphology
Bruininx, E.M.A.M. ; Schellingerhout, A.B. ; Binnendijk, G.P. ; Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Schrama, J.W. ; Hartog, L.A. den; Everts, H. ; Beynen, A.C. - \ 2003
In: Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology in Pigs, University of Alberta, Banff Alberta, Canada - p. 143 - 145.
|Effects of sow nutrition during gestation on perinatal piglet viability : a review
Leenhouwers, J.I. ; Jansman, A.J.M. ; Beynen, A.C. ; Lende, T. van der - \ 2002
Lelystad : ID-Lelystad (Rapport ID-Lelystad 2242) - 62 p.