Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Soil eutrophication shaped the composition of pollinator assemblages during the past century
    Carvalheiro, Luísa G. ; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C. ; Franzén, Markus ; Aguirre-Gutiérrez, Jesús ; Garibaldi, Lucas A. ; Helm, Aveliina ; Michez, Denis ; Pöyry, Juha ; Reemer, Menno ; Schweiger, Oliver ; Leon van den, Berg ; WallisDeVries, Michiel F. ; Kunin, William E. - \ 2020
    Ecography 43 (2020)2. - ISSN 0906-7590 - p. 209 - 221.
    extinction debt - herbivory - historical biodiversity changes - nitrogen deposition - nitrophily - pollinator communities

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition and other sources of environmental eutrophication have increased substantially over the past century worldwide, notwithstanding the recent declining trends in Europe. Despite the recognized susceptibility of plants to eutrophication, few studies evaluated how impacts propagate to consumers, such as pollinators. Here we aim to test if soil eutrophication contributes to the temporal dynamics of pollinators and their larval resources. We used a temporally and spatially explicit historical dataset with information on species occurrences to test if soil eutrophication, and more specifically nitrogen deposition, contributes to the patterns of change of plant and pollinator richness in the Netherlands over an 80 yr period. We focus on bees and butterflies, two groups for which we have good knowledge of larval resources that allowed us to define groups of species with different nitrogen related diet preferences. For each group we estimated richness changes between different 20-yr periods at local, regional and national scale, using analytical methods developed for analyzing richness changes based on collection data. Our findings suggest that the impacts of soil eutrophication on plant communities propagate to higher trophic levels, but with a time-lag. Pollinators with nitrogen-related diet preferences were particularly affected, in turn potentially impairing the performance of pollinator-dependent plants. Pollinator declines continued even after their focal plants started to recover. In addition, our results suggest that current levels of nitrogen deposition still have a negative impact on most groups here analyzed, constraining richness recoveries and accentuating declines. Our results indicate that the global increase in nitrogen availability plays an important role in the ongoing pollinator decline. Consequently, species tolerances to soil nitrogen levels should be considered across all trophic levels in management plans that aim to halt biodiversity loss and enhance ecosystems services worldwide.

    Overzichtskaart Bijeninitiatieven
    Knoben, Nieke ; Zelfde, M. van 't; Biesmeijer, Koos ; Groot, G.A. de - \ 2018
    EIS
    Wilde bijen en zweefvliegen per landschapstype
    Ozinga, Wim A. ; Scheper, Jeroen A. ; Groot, Arjen de; Reemer, Menno ; Raemakers, Ivo ; Dooremalen, Coby van; Biesmeijer, Koos ; Kleijn, David - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2920) - 57
    Bij de bestuiving van veel voedselgewassen en wilde planten spelen bloembezoekende insecten een essentiële rol. Het gaat dan niet alleen over honingbijen, maar over een breed spectrum van soorten wilde bijen en zweefvliegen. Er zijn sterke aanwijzingen dat de laatste decennia zowel de aantallen als de soortendiversiteit van bestuivers sterk achteruit zijn gegaan. Via de Nationale Bijenstrategie werken het ministerie van LNV en meer dan vijftig maatschappelijke partners samen om bestuivers en bestuivingsdiensten in ons land te behouden en bevorderen. Dit is in de praktijk lastig, omdat in Nederland honderden soorten bijen en zweefvliegen voorkomen met elk hun specifieke wensen ten aanzien van hun leefgebied en omdat in verschillende landschapstypen verschillende soorten voorkomen. Maatwerk is dus geboden. In dit rapport wordt het voorkomen van bijen en zweefvliegen in verschillende landschapstypen in beeld gebracht. Doel van deze informatie is om snel inzicht te kunnen krijgen in de relevante soorten bestuivers die zouden kunnen voorkomen in een bepaalde regio, om vervolgens gerichte maatregelen te kunnen nemen die aansluiten bij de eisen die deze soorten aan hun omgeving stellen. Bij de interpretatie van het belang van de landschapstypen voor bestuivende insecten is onderscheid gemaakt tussen bedreigde soorten en soorten die in potentie een belangrijke rol kunnen spelen bij de bestuiving van landbouwgewassen.
    Data from: Scaling up effects of measures mitigating pollinator loss from local- to landscape-level population responses
    Kleijn, D. ; Linders, Theo E.W. ; Stip, Anthonie ; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C. ; Wäckers, Felix L. ; Bukovinszki, T. - \ 2018
    Wageningen University & Research
    1. Declining pollinator populations have caused concern about consequences for food production, and have initiated an increasing number of initiatives that aim to mitigate pollinator loss through enhancement of floral resources. Studies evaluating effects of mitigation measures generally demonstrate positive responses of pollinators to floral resource enhancement. However, it remains unclear whether this represents landscape-level population effects or results from a spatial redistribution of individuals from otherwise unaffected populations. 2. Here we present a method for estimating landscape-level population effects using data from commonly used standardized pollinator transect surveys. The approach links local density responses of pollinators in both mitigation sites and surrounding landscape elements to the area these habitats occupy in mitigation landscapes as well as control landscapes to obtain landscape-level population estimates. 3. We demonstrate the method using data from a two-year study examining the effects of experimental wildflower enhancements on wild bumble bees and solitary bees in Dutch agricultural landscapes. The results show that conclusions based on local responses may differ significantly from those based on landscape-level responses. 4. Wildflower enhancements significantly enhanced landscape-level abundance of both bumble bees and solitary bees. Bumble bees showed a pronounced positive local density response in mitigation sites and the surrounding landscape that was in line with significant landscape-level increases in abundance. However, solitary bees showed no local response to mitigation sites, and the landscape-level increases in abundance only became apparent when the area of bee habitat was taken into account. 5. Incorporating the area of both newly created and pre-existing pollinator habitats into effect estimates accounts for density-dependent processes such as dilution, spill-over and local concentration of individuals. It therefore results in more reliable estimates of the response to mitigation measures of pollinators, as well as other mobile arthropod groups that are often being surveyed using transect surveys.
    Scaling up effects of measures mitigating pollinator loss from local- to landscape-level population responses
    Kleijn, David ; Linders, Theo E.W. ; Stip, Anthonie ; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C. ; Wäckers, Felix L. ; Bukovinszky, Tibor - \ 2018
    Methods in Ecology and Evolution 9 (2018)7. - ISSN 2041-210X - p. 1727 - 1738.
    Agri-environment schemes - Bee abundance - Floral resources - Spatial scale - Transect surveys - Wildflower strips

    Declining pollinator populations have caused concern about consequences for food production, and have initiated an increasing number of initiatives that aim to mitigate pollinator loss through enhancement of floral resources. Studies evaluating effects of mitigation measures generally demonstrate positive responses of pollinators to floral resource enhancement. However, it remains unclear whether this represents landscape-level population effects or results from a spatial redistribution of individuals from otherwise unaffected populations. Here, we present a method for estimating landscape-level population effects using data from commonly used standardized pollinator transect surveys. The approach links local density responses of pollinators in both mitigation sites and surrounding landscape elements to the area these habitats occupy in mitigation landscapes as well as control landscapes to obtain landscape-level population estimates. We demonstrate the method using data from a 2-year study examining the effects of experimental wildflower enhancements on wild bumblebees and solitary bees in Dutch agricultural landscapes. The results show that conclusions based on local responses may differ significantly from those based on landscape-level responses. Wildflower enhancements significantly enhanced landscape-level abundance of both bumblebees and solitary bees. Bumblebees showed a pronounced positive local density response in mitigation sites and the surrounding landscape that was in line with significant landscape-level increases in abundance. However, solitary bees showed no local response to mitigation sites, and the landscape-level increases in abundance only became apparent when the area of bee habitat was taken into account. Incorporating the area of both newly created and pre-existing pollinator habitats into effect estimates accounts for density-dependent processes such as dilution, spillover and local concentration of individuals. It, therefore, results in more reliable estimates of the response to mitigation measures of pollinators, as well as other mobile arthropod groups that are often being surveyed using transect surveys.

    Bee conservation : Inclusive solutions
    Kleijn, David ; Biesmeijer, Koos ; Dupont, Yoko L. ; Nielsen, Anders ; Potts, Simon G. ; Settele, Josef - \ 2018
    Science 360 (2018)6387. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 389 - 390.
    Obese Bijen?
    Blacquiere, T. - \ 2017
    Nieuwsbrief van bijen@wur (2017)35.
    "Honingbijen zijn veelvraten." citeerde Trouw vorig jaar professor Koos Biesmeijer van Naturalis, "ze stropen alles af." Of dit waar is of niet, obees zullen ze er in ieder geval niet van worden. Honingbijen slaan de geoogste nectar als voorraad op in hun 'voorraadkast' in hun nest, niet in vetweefsel in het lichaam.
    Report Honeybee Surveillance Program the Netherlands 2016 - 2017
    Biesmeijer, Koos ; Steen, J.J.M. van der - \ 2017
    Leiden : Naturalis - 50
    Exploring the relationships between landscape complexity, wild bee species richness and reproduction, and pollination services along a complexity gradient in the Netherlands
    Bukovinszki, Tibor ; Verheijen, Joke ; Zwerver, S. ; Klop, Esther ; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C. ; Wäckers, Felix L. ; Prins, Herbert H.T. ; Kleijn, David - \ 2017
    Biological Conservation 214 (2017). - ISSN 0006-3207 - p. 312 - 319.
    Abundance - Floral resources - Landscape intensification - Pollination - Reproduction - Wild bees

    Pollinator communities exhibit variable responses to changing landscape composition. A general expectation is that a decreasing cover of semi-natural habitats negatively affects pollinator reproduction, population size and pollination services, but few studies have investigated the simultaneous effects of landscape complexity on different aspects of pollinator communities and functioning. In 20 agricultural landscape plots the size of an average Dutch farm, we studied how changing landscape complexity affected wild bee abundance, species richness and reproduction. To measure pollination, we placed potted strawberry plants as phytometers in landscapes. Landscape complexity was characterized as the area of semi-natural habitats. In addition, we estimated floral resource abundance in each landscape plot. We expected that i) bee species richness, reproduction and pollination would be positively related to area of semi-natural habitats and flower abundance, and that ii) species richness and reproduction would be positively related to pollination. An increase in semi-natural habitats in landscapes increased both the abundance of cavity-nesting bees colonizing trap nests, and the growth rates of experimental Bombus terrestris L. colonies, but not the species richness of wild bees measured by pan traps. There was only a tendency for higher pollination levels of strawberry plants with higher cover of semi-natural habitats. There was no relationship between species richness and bee reproduction in a landscape and the pollination services. Estimated flower abundance in landscape had a positive effect on bumblebee colony growth only and not on the other variables. Our results suggest that, by improving habitat quality on their farms through establishing more semi-natural habitats or enhancing the flower availability in semi-natural habitats, farmers can promote reproduction of a number of functionally important bee species and the pollination services they provide. Bee species richness, however, seems to be more difficult to enhance and requires more than just creating more of the same type of habitats or flowers.

    Natuur als Partner : Basiskwaliteit biodiversiteit als verzekering voor een duurzame toekomst
    Vos, C.C. ; Opdam, P.F.M. ; Biesmeijer, Koos ; Grashof-Bokdam, C.J. ; Steingröver, E.G. ; Loos, F. - \ 2017
    Groene Cirkels - 33
    Butterflies show different functional and species diversity in relationship to vegetation structure and land use
    Aguirre-Gutiérrez, Jesús ; Wallis de Vries, Michiel ; Marshall, Leon ; Zelfde, Maarten van 't; Villalobos-Arámbula, Alma R. ; Boekelo, Bastiaen ; Bartholomeus, Harm ; Franzén, Markus ; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C. - \ 2017
    Global Ecology and Biogeography 26 (2017)10. - ISSN 1466-822X - p. 1126 - 1137.

    Aim

    Biodiversity is rapidly disappearing at local and global scales also affecting the functional diversity of ecosystems. We aimed to assess whether functional diversity was correlated with species diversity and whether both were affected by similar land use and vegetation structure drivers. Better understanding of these relationships will allow us to improve our predictions regarding the effects of future changes in land use on ecosystem functions and services.


    Location

    The Netherlands.


    Methods

    We compiled a dataset of c. 3 million observations of 66 out of 106 known Dutch butterfly species collected across 6,075 sampling locations during a period of 7 years, together with very high-resolution maps of land use and countrywide vegetation structure data. Using a mixed-effects modelling framework, we investigated the relationship between functional and species diversity and their main land use and vegetation structure drivers.


    Results

    We found that high species diversity does not translate into high functional diversity, as shown by their different spatial distribution patterns in the landscape. Functional and species diversity are mainly driven by different sets of structural and land use parameters (especially average vegetation height, amount of vegetation between 0.5 and 2 m, natural grassland, sandy soils vegetation, marsh vegetation and urban areas). We showed that it is a combination of both vegetation structural characteristics and land use variables that defines functional and species diversity.


    Main conclusions

    Functional diversity and species diversity of butterflies are not consistently correlated and must therefore be treated separately. High functional diversity levels occurred even in areas with low species diversity. Thus, conservation actions may differ depending on whether the focus is on conservation of high functional diversity or high species diversity. A more integrative analysis of biodiversity at both species and trait levels is needed to infer the full effects of environmental change on ecosystem functioning.
    Historical changes in the importance of climate and land use as determinants of Dutch pollinator distributions
    Aguirre-Gutiérrez, Jesús ; Kissling, W.D. ; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C. ; Wallis de Vries, Michiel ; Reemer, Menno ; Carvalheiro, Luísa G. - \ 2017
    Journal of Biogeography 44 (2017)3. - ISSN 0305-0270 - p. 696 - 707.
    biodiversity change - climate change - ecological niche models - environmental variable importance - global warming - habitat fragmentation - habitat loss - species distribution models
    Aim: Species distribution models are often used to project species distributions to different environmental conditions. However, most models do not consider whether the importance of abiotic factors may change over time. If they change, this has implications for the assessment of how abiotic changes affect species distributions. Here, we use spatially explicit historical data on species occurrences, climate and land use to test whether the importance of different climatic and land-use drivers as determinants of species distributions has remained constant over a period of > 60 years (1951–2014). Location: The Netherlands. Methods: Using species distribution models and a comprehensive country-wide dataset at 5 × 5 km resolution, we modelled the distribution of a total of 398 pollinator species (bees, butterflies and hoverflies) for three periods (1951–1970, 1971–1990 and 1998–2014). We then evaluated whether the importance of variables related to climate (precipitation, temperature) and land use (landscape composition and habitat fragmentation) in determining pollinator distributions has changed over time. Results: Variables related to landscape composition were highly important in determining pollinator distributions in all periods. Precipitation was generally less important than temperature, and habitat fragmentation less than landscape composition. Land-use variables remained equally important across time for all pollinator groups, except for bees where the importance of habitat fragmentation decreased significantly over time. Among climate variables, the importance of precipitation did not change across time for any pollinator group. However, the importance of temperature increased significantly in recent times for bees and hoverflies. Main conclusions: Determinants of species distributions can change in their importance over time when changes in the magnitude and range of environmental conditions occur. Given future temperature rises, our results imply that species distribution models calibrated with current climatic conditions may not adequately predict the future importance of environmental factors in driving species distributions.
    Effects of pollen species composition on the foraging behaviour and offspring performance of the mason bee Osmia bicornis (L.)
    Bukovinszki, Tibor ; Rikken, IJsbrand ; Evers, Sanne ; Wäckers, Felix L. ; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C. ; Prins, Herbert H.T. ; Kleijn, David - \ 2017
    Basic and Applied Ecology 18 (2017). - ISSN 1439-1791 - p. 21 - 30.
    Brassica pollen - Floral resource - Food quality - Foraging behaviour - Offspring performance - Osmia bicornis

    The effects of floral species composition on offspring performance of solitary bees are rarely studied under conditions where foraging behaviour of mothers is allowed to play a role. In a semi-field experiment, we restricted foraging choices of the polylectic mason bee . Osmia bicornis L. to flower species belonging to plant families presumably used to different extent: . Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae), . Centaurea cyanus L. (Asteraceae) and . Brassica napus L. (Brassicaceae). We quantified the foraging behaviour and brood cell production by mother bees, and compared the quality of offspring in pure and mixed flower species stands. Offspring survival in pure stands was expected to reflect the mothers' foraging preferences in the mixed stand. Pure stands of . B. napus supported highest offspring survival, body mass and fraction of females produced. Offspring survival on . C. cyanus and . B. officinalis was very low. Larval mortality occurred earlier in brood cells provided with . B. officinalis pollen than in brood cells provided with . C. cyanus pollen suggesting different effects of pollen quality on early larval and later development. The time spent on different foraging activities correlated with lifetime reproductive output. However, in mixed stands, the proportion of time the bees were foraging on the different flower species did not differ significantly. Foraging behaviour may therefore not generally be a good proxy for the quality of floral resources for offspring production. Our results suggest that resources collected from one plant species may influence the usefulness of resources from another plant species. Bees may therefore overcome potentially deleterious effects of the suboptimal resources by mixing low- and high-quality resources. This may help generalist bees, such as . O. bicornis, to cope with an unpredictable environment. Die Effekte der Artenzusammensetzung von blühenden Pflanzen auf das Gedeihen der Nachkommen von solitären Bienen werden selten unter Bedingungen untersucht, die zulassen, dass das Sammelverhalten der Mütter eine Rolle spielt. In einem Semi-Freilandexperiment, beschränkten wir die Sammeloptionen der polylektischen Mauerbiene . Osmia bicornis L. auf Blütenarten aus vermutlich unterschiedlich stark genutzten Familien: . Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae), . Centaurea cyanus L. (Asteraceae) und . Brassica napus L. (Brassicaceae). Wir bestimmten das Sammelverhalten und die Brutzellenproduktion von Bienenweibchen und verglichen die Qualität der Nachkommen bei reinem und gemischtem Blütenangebot. Die Überlebensrate der Nachkommen bei Angebot von nur einer Blütenart sollte die Präferenz der Mütter in gemischten Blütenbeständen wiederspiegeln. Reine Bestände von . B. napus ergaben die höchste Überlebensrate, Körpermasse und den höchsten Weibchenanteil bei den Nachkommen. Bei . C. cyanus und . B. officinalis war die Überlebensrate sehr gering. Die Larvensterblichkeit setzte in mit . B. officinalis verproviantierten Brutzellen früher ein als in Brutzellen mit . C. cyanus als Proviant. Somit sollte es unterschiedliche Effekte der Pollenqualität auf die frühe larvale und die spätere Entwicklung geben. Die für die verschiedenen Sammelaktivitäten aufgewendete Zeit korrelierte mit der Gesamtproduktion an Nachkommen einer Mutterbiene. Indessen unterschieden sich die Zeitanteile, die bei gemischtem Angebot mit dem Sammeln an unterschiedlichen Blütenarten verbracht wurden, nicht signifikant voneinander. Das Sammelverhalten könnte deshalb kein guter Indikator für die Qualität von Blütenressourcen für die Produktion von Nachkommen sein. Unsere Ergebnisse legen nahe, dass Ressourcen, die von einer Pflanzenart gesammelt wurden, den Nutzen der Ressourcen von einer anderen Art beeinflussen könnten. Die Bienen könnten somit mögliche abträgliche Effekte einer suboptimalen Ressource durch das Mischen von qualitativ hoch- und minderwertigen Ressourcen kompensieren. Dies könnte Generalisten wie der Mauerbiene . O. bicornis helfen, mit einer nicht vorhersagbaren Umwelt zurechtzukommen.

    Gebruiker samenvatting en leeswijzer van “Report Honeybee Surveillance Program the Netherlands, 2015 – 2016”
    Steen, J.J.M. van der; Knoben, Nieke ; Biesmeijer, K. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Bijen@wur - 3
    Report Honeybee Surveillance Program the Netherlands
    Biesmeijer, Koos ; Steen, J.J.M. van der - \ 2016
    Leiden : Naturalis - 35
    Functional traits help to explain half-century long shifts in pollinator distributions
    Aguirre-Gutiérrez, Jesús ; Kissling, W.D. ; Carvalheiro, Luísa G. ; WallisDevries, Michiel F. ; Franzén, Markus ; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C. - \ 2016
    Scientific Reports 6 (2016). - ISSN 2045-2322

    Changes in climate and land use can have important impacts on biodiversity. Species respond to such environmental modifications by adapting to new conditions or by shifting their geographic distributions towards more suitable areas. The latter might be constrained by species' functional traits that influence their ability to move, reproduce or establish. Here, we show that functional traits related to dispersal, reproduction, habitat use and diet have influenced how three pollinator groups (bees, butterflies and hoverflies) responded to changes in climate and land-use in the Netherlands since 1950. Across the three pollinator groups, we found pronounced areal range expansions (>53%) and modelled range shifts towards the north (all taxa: 17-22 km), west (bees: 14 km) and east (butterflies: 11 km). The importance of specific functional traits for explaining distributional changes varied among pollinator groups. Larval diet preferences (i.e. carnivorous vs. herbivorous/detritivorous and nitrogen values of host plants, respectively) were important for hoverflies and butterflies, adult body size for hoverflies, and flight period length for all groups. Moreover, interactions among multiple traits were important to explain species' geographic range shifts, suggesting that taxon-specific multi-trait analyses are needed to predict how global change will affect biodiversity and ecosystem services.!

    Meer bloemen, meer bijen in agrarische landschappen?
    Bukovinszki, T. ; Biesmeijer, J.C. ; Wäckers, F.L. ; Prins, H.H.T. ; Kleijn, D. - \ 2016
    Landschap : tijdschrift voor landschapsecologie en milieukunde 33 (2016)1. - ISSN 0169-6300 - p. 37 - 40.
    cultuurlandschap - functionele biodiversiteit - wilde bijenvolken - apidae - bombus - bloemen - bijenstanden - bestuiving - veldproeven - cultural landscape - functional biodiversity - wild honey bee colonies - apidae - bombus - flowers - apiaries - pollination - field tests
    In moderne cultuurlandschappen wordt het voor wilde bijen steeds moeilijker om de benodigde hulpbronnen, zoals bloemen en nestgelegenheid te bemachtigen. Wij willen nagaan of de aanleg van meerjarige bloemenvelden de achteruitgang van wilde bijen in deze landschappen kan tegengaan. De resultaten laten zien dat het verhogen van het aanbod van bloemen kan leiden tot een soortenrijkere gemeenschap van wilde bestuivers, niet alleen in de bloemenvelden zelf maar ook in het omliggende landschap.
    De bijdrage van (wilde) bestuivers aan een hoogwaardige teelt van peren en aardbeien : nieuwe kwantitative inzichten in de diensten geleverd door bestuivende insecten aan de fruitteeltsector in Nederland
    Groot, G.A. de; Knoben, Nieke ; Kats, R.J.M. van; Dimmers, W.J. ; Zelfde, M. van 't; Reemer, M. ; Biesmeijer, Koos ; Kleijn, D. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2716) - 67
    pyrus communis - peren - fragaria ananassa - aardbeien - bestuiving - bestuivers (dieren) - apidae - honingbijen - bombus - syrphidae - wilde bijenvolken - nederland - pyrus communis - pears - fragaria ananassa - strawberries - pollination - pollinators - apidae - honey bees - bombus - syrphidae - wild honey bee colonies - netherlands
    Status and trends of European pollinators. Key findings of the STEP project
    Potts, S. ; Biesmeijer, K. ; Bommarco, R. ; Kleijn, D. ; Scheper, J.A. - \ 2015
    Sofia, Bulgaria : Pensoft Publishers - ISBN 9789546427625 - 72
    Natural Capital, and the ecosystem services derived from it, are essential to human well-be-
    ing and economic prosperity. Indeed, nature inspires and provides many solutions that can
    help us tackle some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For example, pollinators
    matter because a majority of European crops depend or benet from insect pollination.
    Another example is the contribution of pollinators to preserving cherished natural and
    cultural landscapes through wildower pollination.
    However, due to a cocktail mix of drivers of change, pollinator species are disappearing and
    pollinator populations are declining. ese losses accentuate several of our societal chal-
    lenges, including food security and ecosystem degradation. Hence, building knowledge on
    the causes behind pollinator decline, and the eects of pollinator decline on other species
    and ecosystems is essential. e STEP project has contributed signicantly within this eld,
    with a particular focus on the status and drivers behind trends in European pollinators.
    Furthermore, research into the dierent solutions for maintaining or enhancing pollinator
    populations is crucial. ese activities enrich the knowledge base on Nature-based solu-
    tions, solutions that are inspired by or supported by nature and address societal challenges
    while maintaining or enhancing our natural capital. Overall, research and innovation ac-
    tions such as those successfully supported by the STEP project, contribute to greening the
    economy and making development sustainable.
    Rapport Honingbijen : Surveillance Programma 2014
    Biesmeijer, K. ; Groot, G.A. de; Rijk, T.C. de; Steen, J.J.M. van der - \ 2015
    Leiden : Naturalis Biodiversity Center - 16
    apidae - honingbijen - bijenhouderij - diergezondheid - bijenziekten - bijensterfte - varroa - overheidsbeleid - landbouwkundig onderzoek - nederland - pesticiden - milieufactoren - apidae - honey bees - beekeeping - animal health - bee diseases - bee mortality - varroa - government policy - agricultural research - netherlands - pesticides - environmental factors
    Naar aanleiding van het door staatssecretaris Sharon Dijksma geïnitieerde brede-maatschappelijke overleg over de gezondheid van bijen zijn verschillende partijen in actie gekomen en is er een gezamenlijke agenda vastgesteld. Topprioriteit kreeg het vaststellen van de oorzaken voor de sterfte van honingbijenvolken in Nederland. Het ministerie van Economische Zaken (EZ) heeft vervolgens opdracht gegeven aan een consortium onder leiding van Prof. Dr. Koos Biesmeijer van Naturalis Biodiversity Center en de Universiteit van Amsterdam om dit consortium te leiden en vorm te geven. De hoofdfinancier is EZ (51%) met Nefyto als co-financier (49%), het totale budget bedraagt maximaal 1.2 miljoen euro en het project zal lopen van 2014 tot 2018. Hoofddoel: Vaststellen van de status van de gezondheid van honingbijen in Nederland en het in kaart brengen van de risicofactoren die correleren met de wintersterfte van volken, waaronder blootstelling aan gewasbeschermings-middelen, bijenziekten, voedselaanbod, landschap en milieu, en de imkerpraktijk.
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