A genomic view of trophic and metabolic diversity in clade-specific Lamellodysidea sponge microbiomes
Podell, Sheila ; Blanton, Jessica M. ; Oliver, Aaron ; Schorn, Michelle A. ; Agarwal, Vinayak ; Biggs, Jason S. ; Moore, Bradley S. ; Allen, Eric E. - \ 2020
Microbiome 8 (2020)1. - ISSN 2049-2618 - 1 p.
Cyanosponge - Hormoscilla - Lamellodysidea - Methylospongia - PBDE - Prochloron - Sponge microbiome
BACKGROUND: Marine sponges and their microbiomes contribute significantly to carbon and nutrient cycling in global reefs, processing and remineralizing dissolved and particulate organic matter. Lamellodysidea herbacea sponges obtain additional energy from abundant photosynthetic Hormoscilla cyanobacterial symbionts, which also produce polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) chemically similar to anthropogenic pollutants of environmental concern. Potential contributions of non-Hormoscilla bacteria to Lamellodysidea microbiome metabolism and the synthesis and degradation of additional secondary metabolites are currently unknown. RESULTS: This study has determined relative abundance, taxonomic novelty, metabolic capacities, and secondary metabolite potential in 21 previously uncharacterized, uncultured Lamellodysidea-associated microbial populations by reconstructing near-complete metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) to complement 16S rRNA gene amplicon studies. Microbial community compositions aligned with sponge host subgroup phylogeny in 16 samples from four host clades collected from multiple sites in Guam over a 3-year period, including representatives of Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Oligoflexia, and Bacteroidetes as well as Cyanobacteria (Hormoscilla). Unexpectedly, microbiomes from one host clade also included Cyanobacteria from the prolific secondary metabolite-producer genus Prochloron, a common tunicate symbiont. Two novel Alphaproteobacteria MAGs encoded pathways diagnostic for methylotrophic metabolism as well as type III secretion systems, and have been provisionally assigned to a new order, designated Candidatus Methylospongiales. MAGs from other taxonomic groups encoded light-driven energy production pathways using not only chlorophyll, but also bacteriochlorophyll and proteorhodopsin. Diverse heterotrophic capabilities favoring aerobic versus anaerobic conditions included pathways for degrading chitin, eukaryotic extracellular matrix polymers, phosphonates, dimethylsulfoniopropionate, trimethylamine, and benzoate. Genetic evidence identified an aerobic catabolic pathway for halogenated aromatics that may enable endogenous PBDEs to be used as a carbon and energy source. CONCLUSIONS: The reconstruction of high-quality MAGs from all microbial taxa comprising greater than 0.1% of the sponge microbiome enabled species-specific assignment of unique metabolic features that could not have been predicted from taxonomic data alone. This information will promote more representative models of marine invertebrate microbiome contributions to host bioenergetics, the identification of potential new sponge parasites and pathogens based on conserved metabolic and physiological markers, and a better understanding of biosynthetic and degradative pathways for secondary metabolites and halogenated compounds in sponge-associated microbiota. Video Abstract.
Exploring the usefulness of scenario archetypes in science-policy processes: Experience across IPBES assessments
Sitas, Nadia ; Harmáčková, Zuzana V. ; Anticamara, Jonathan A. ; Arneth, Almut ; Badola, Ruchi ; Biggs, Reinette ; Blanchard, Ryan ; Brotons, Lluis ; Cantele, Matthew ; Coetzer, Kaera ; Dasgupta, Rajarshi ; Belder, Eefje Den; Ghosh, Sonali ; Guisan, Antoine ; Gundimeda, Haripriya ; Hamann, Maike ; Harrison, Paula A. ; Hashimoto, Shizuka ; Hauck, Jennifer ; Klatt, Brian J. ; Kok, Kasper ; Krug, Rainer M. ; Niamir, Aidin ; O'farrell, Patrick J. ; Okayasu, Sana ; Palomo, Ignacio ; Pereira, Laura M. ; Riordan, Philip ; Santos-Martín, Fernando ; Selomane, Odirilwe ; Shin, Yunne Jai ; Valle, Mireia - \ 2019
Ecology and Society 24 (2019)3. - ISSN 1708-3087
Assessment - Biodiversity - Decision making - Ecosystem services - Futures - Nature - Regional - Scenarios
Scenario analyses have been used in multiple science-policy assessments to better understand complex plausible futures. Scenario archetype approaches are based on the fact that many future scenarios have similar underlying storylines, assumptions, and trends in drivers of change, which allows for grouping of scenarios into typologies, or archetypes, facilitating comparisons between a large range of studies. The use of scenario archetypes in environmental assessments foregrounds important policy questions and can be used to codesign interventions tackling future sustainability issues. Recently, scenario archetypes were used in four regional assessments and one ongoing global assessment within the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). The aim of these assessments was to provide decision makers with policy-relevant knowledge about the state of biodiversity, ecosystems, and the contributions they provide to people. This paper reflects on the usefulness of the scenario archetype approach within science-policy processes, drawing on the experience from the IPBES assessments. Using a thematic analysis of (a) survey data collected from experts involved in the archetype analyses across IPBES assessments, (b) notes from IPBES workshops, and (c) regional assessment chapter texts, we synthesize the benefits, challenges, and frontiers of applying the scenario archetype approach in a science-policy process. Scenario archetypes were perceived to allow syntheses of large amounts of information for scientific, practice-, and policy-related purposes, streamline key messages from multiple scenario studies, and facilitate communication of them to end users. In terms of challenges, they were perceived as subjective in their interpretation, oversimplifying information, having a limited applicability across scales, and concealing contextual information and novel narratives. Finally, our results highlight what methodologies, applications, and frontiers in archetype-based research should be explored in the future. These advances can assist the design of future large-scale sustainability-related assessment processes, aiming to better support decisions and interventions for equitable and sustainable futures.
Land subsidence hazard modeling : Machine learning to identify predictors and the role of human activities
Rahmati, Omid ; Golkarian, Ali ; Biggs, Trent ; Keesstra, Saskia ; Mohammadi, Farnoush ; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis N. - \ 2019
Journal of Environmental Management 236 (2019). - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 466 - 480.
Groundwater overexploitation - Iran - Land use change - Subsidence - Sustainability
Land subsidence caused by land use change and overexploitation of groundwater is an example of mismanagement of natural resources, yet subsidence remains difficult to predict. In this study, the relationship between land subsidence features and geo-environmental factors is investigated by comparing two machine learning algorithms (MLA): maximum entropy (MaxEnt) and genetic algorithm rule-set production (GARP) algorithms in the Kashmar Region, Iran. Land subsidence features (N = 79) were mapped using field surveys. Land use, lithology, the distance from traditional groundwater abstraction systems (Qanats), from afforestation projects, from neighboring faults, and the drawdown of groundwater level (DGL) (1991–2016) were used as predictive variables. Jackknife resampling showed that DGL, distance from afforestation projects, and distance from Qanat systems are major factors influencing land subsidence, with geology and faults being less important. The GARP algorithm outperformed the MaxEnt algorithm for all performance metrics. The performance of both models, as measured by the area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUROC), decreased from 88.9–94.4% to 82.5–90.3% when DGL was excluded as a predictor, though the performance of GARP was still good to excellent even without DGL. MLAs produced maps of subsidence risk with acceptable accuracy, both with and without data on groundwater drawdown, suggesting that MLAs can usefully inform efforts to manage subsidence in data-scarce regions, though the highest accuracy requires data on changes in groundwater level.
Low-Frequency Synonymous Coding Variation in CYP2R1 Has Large Effects on Vitamin D Levels and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis
Manousaki, Despoina ; Dudding, Tom ; Haworth, Simon ; Hsu, Yi Hsiang ; Liu, Ching Ti ; Medina-Gómez, Carolina ; Voortman, Trudy ; Velde, Nathalie Van Der; Melhus, Håkan ; Vandenput, Liesbeth ; Noordam, Raymond ; Forgetta, Vincenzo ; Greenwood, Celia M.T. ; Biggs, Mary L. ; Psaty, Bruce M. ; Rotter, Jerome I. ; Zemel, Babette S. ; Mitchell, Jonathan A. ; Taylor, Bruce ; Lorentzon, Mattias ; Karlsson, Magnus ; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V. ; Tiemeier, Henning ; Campos-Obando, Natalia ; Franco, Oscar H. ; Utterlinden, Andre G. ; Broer, Linda ; Schoor, Natasja M. van; Ham, Annelies C. ; Ikram, Arfan M.A. ; Karasik, David ; Mutsert, Renée De; Rosendaal, Frits R. ; Heijer, Martin den; Wang, Thomas J. ; Lind, Lars ; Orwoll, Eric S. ; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O. ; Michaëlsson, Karl ; Kestenbaum, Bryan ; Ohlsson, Claes ; Mellström, Dan ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. de; Grant, Struan F.A. ; Kiel, Douglas P. ; Zillikens, M.C. ; Rivadeneira, Fernando ; Sawcer, Stephen ; Timpson, Nicholas J. ; Richards, J.B. - \ 2017
American Journal of Human Genetics 101 (2017)2. - ISSN 0002-9297 - p. 227 - 238.
GWAS - Low-frequency genetic variants - Multiple sclerosis - Vitamin D
Vitamin D insufficiency is common, correctable, and influenced by genetic factors, and it has been associated with risk of several diseases. We sought to identify low-frequency genetic variants that strongly increase the risk of vitamin D insufficiency and tested their effect on risk of multiple sclerosis, a disease influenced by low vitamin D concentrations. We used whole-genome sequencing data from 2,619 individuals through the UK10K program and deep-imputation data from 39,655 individuals genotyped genome-wide. Meta-analysis of the summary statistics from 19 cohorts identified in CYP2R1 the low-frequency (minor allele frequency = 2.5%) synonymous coding variant g.14900931G>A (p.Asp120Asp) (rs117913124[A]), which conferred a large effect on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels (-0.43 SD of standardized natural log-transformed 25OHD per A allele; p value = 1.5 × 10-88). The effect on 25OHD was four times larger and independent of the effect of a previously described common variant near CYP2R1. By analyzing 8,711 individuals, we showed that heterozygote carriers of this low-frequency variant have an increased risk of vitamin D insufficiency (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.78-2.78, p = 1.26 × 10-12). Individuals carrying one copy of this variant also had increased odds of multiple sclerosis (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.19-1.64, p = 2.63 × 10-5) in a sample of 5,927 case and 5,599 control subjects. In conclusion, we describe a low-frequency CYP2R1 coding variant that exerts the largest effect upon 25OHD levels identified to date in the general European population and implicates vitamin D in the etiology of multiple sclerosis.
|Systems research in the CGIAR as an arena of struggle : Competing discourses on the embedding of research in development
Leeuwis, C. ; Schut, M. ; Klerkx, L.W.A. - \ 2017
In: Agronomy for Development : The Politics of Knowledge in Agricultural Research / Sumberg, James, Routledge (Pathways to Sustainability ) - ISBN 9781138240315 - p. 59 - 78.
The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) was founded in 1971, and currently operates under the banner of the ‘CGIAR Consortium’ with a membership of 15 Research Centres. Over its lifetime, the CGIAR has been subject to numerous organisational reforms in light of prevailing concerns such as reduced spending by governmental bodies, the wish to improve the efficiency of ‘the System’, and the ambition to be more effective in securing development impact (Anderson 1998; Kassam et al. 2004; McCalla 2014). Moreover, while some centres were established with an explicit systems focus, at various stages in the history of the CGIAR there have been calls for complementing crop- and technology-focussed research with more holistic and systems-oriented perspectives (Biggs et al. 2016). This chapter analyses the most recent experiences with systems research in the context of the latest reform of the CGIAR (see Kamanda 2015), which included the formation of 16 CGIAR Research Programmes (CRPs) that were meant to foster collaboration, reduce competition between the individual Centres, and above all increase development impact. At the same time, the reform is presented as a strategy to strengthen collaboration with partners, and make the Consortium more demand driven, development relevant and accountable. Thus, it resonates with a number of trends in the realm of development-oriented agricultural research that were described in Contested Agronomy (Sumberg and Thompson 2012).
Bright spots: seeds of a good Anthropocene
Bennett, Elena M. ; Solan, Martin ; Biggs, Reinette ; McPhearson, Timon ; Norström, Albert V. ; Olsson, Per ; Pereira, Laura ; Peterson, Garry D. ; Raudsepp-Hearne, Ciara ; Biermann, Frank ; Carpenter, Stephen R. ; Ellis, Erle C. ; Hichert, Tanja ; Galaz, Victor ; Lahsen, Myanna ; Milkoreit, Manjana ; Martin López, Berta ; Nicholas, Kimberly A. ; Preiser, Rika ; Vince, Gaia ; Vervoort, Joost M. ; Xu, Jianchu - \ 2016
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 14 (2016)8. - ISSN 1540-9295 - p. 441 - 448.
The scale, rate, and intensity of humans’ environmental impact has engendered broad discussion about how to find plausible pathways of development that hold the most promise for fostering a better future in the Anthropocene. However, the dominance of dystopian visions of irreversible environmental degradation and societal collapse, along with overly optimistic utopias and business-as-usual scenarios that lack insight and innovation, frustrate progress. Here, we present a novel approach to thinking about the future that builds on experiences drawn from a diversity of practices, worldviews, values, and regions that could accelerate the adoption of pathways to transformative change (change that goes beyond incremental improvements). Using an analysis of 100 initiatives, or “seeds of a good Anthropocene”, we find that emphasizing hopeful elements of existing practice offers the opportunity to: (1) understand the values and features that constitute a good Anthropocene, (2) determine the processes that lead to the emergence and growth of initiatives that fundamentally change human–environmental relationships, and (3) generate creative, bottom-up scenarios that feature well-articulated pathways toward a more positive future.
Synchronous failure : The emerging causal architecture of global crisis
Homer-Dixon, T. ; Walker, B. ; Biggs, R. ; Crepin, A.S. ; Folke, C. ; Lambin, E.F. ; Peterson, G.D. ; Rockstrom, J. ; Scheffer, M. ; Troell, M. - \ 2015
Ecology and Society 20 (2015)3. - ISSN 1708-3087 - 16 p.
Climate change - Conventional oil - Financial system - Global crises - Grain supply - Social-ecological system
Recent global crises reveal an emerging pattern of causation that could increasingly characterize the birth and progress of future global crises. A conceptual framework identifies this pattern’s deep causes, intermediate processes, and ultimate outcomes. The framework shows how multiple stresses can interact within a single social-ecological system to cause a shift in that system’s behavior, how simultaneous shifts of this kind in several largely discrete social-ecological systems can interact to cause a far larger intersystemic crisis, and how such a larger crisis can then rapidly propagate across multiple system boundaries to the global scale. Case studies of the 2008-2009 financial-energy and food-energy crises illustrate the framework. Suggestions are offered for future research to explore further the framework’s propositions. © 2015 by the author(s).
Teaching and learning of interdisciplinary thinking in higher education in engineering
Spelt, E.J.H. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin Mulder; Tiny van Boekel, co-promotor(en): Pieternel Luning. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574779 - 199
hoger onderwijs - denken - interdisciplinair onderzoek - onderwijzen - leren - onderwijsonderzoek - higher education - thinking - interdisciplinary research - teaching - learning - educational research
The present thesis research aim was to gain insight in the pedagogical content knowledge for interdisciplinary thinking to enhance student learning across higher education in engineering. In accordance to Boix Mansilla (2010) and Shulman (1987), pedagogical content knowledge was considered in the present research as an understanding of the unique teaching and learning demands to ensure quality student learning processes. To achieve the aim of gaining insight in these teaching and learning demands, the understanding of design criteria of interdisciplinary learning environments (teaching-focus) and the understanding of interdisciplinary learning process characteristics (learning-focus) were considered as necessary.
Four studies were conducted to investigate the teaching and learning demands that need to be taken into account in order to teach engineering students interdisciplinary thinking with respect to complex problem solving. The first and second studies mainly focused on the teaching using the constructive alignment theory of Biggs and Tang (2011). The first study was a systematic literature review study that has identified five necessary sub-skills of interdisciplinary thinking and 26 typical conditions for enabling the development of interdisciplinary thinking. The second study was a design-based research study in which the identified sub-skills and conditions were used to redesign an existing interdisciplinary course in food quality management. The design-focused evaluation showed that eight design criteria need to be taken into account to improve the quality of interdisciplinary learning environments.
The third and fourth studies mainly focused on student learning of the redesigned course on food quality management, using the learning theory of Illeris (2003). The third study analytically characterized student learning experiences and showed that these experiences can be divided into the content, incentive, and interaction dimensions, and that for each dimension key experiences could be identified. The fourth study analysed student learning in terms of learning challenges, strategies, and outcomes. With respect to the challenges, the results showed that students tend to report more on the content-related and interaction-related challenges than on the incentive-related challenges. Both conducted analyses provided insights on learning process characteristics that need to be taken into account to improve the quality of student interdisciplinary learning.
The major conclusions of the present thesis research is that the identified teaching and learning demands involve an initial basis of the pedagogical content knowledge for interdisciplinary thinking, which needs validation across higher education in engineering. In addition, the present thesis research concludes that the constructive alignment theory of Biggs and Tang and the learning theory of Illeris are indeed suitable to develop pedagogical content knowledge for a particular complex cognitive skill such as IDT. Furthermore, the present research concludes that the research methodology of design-based research is beneficial to jointly investigate design criteria and learning process characteristics.
Biggs, J. B., & Tang, C. (2011). Teaching for quality learning at university (4th ed.). Berkshire: Open University Press.
Boix Mansilla, V. (2010). Learning to synthesize: The development of interdisciplinary understanding. In R. Frodeman, J. T. Klein, & C. Mitcham (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of interdisciplinarity (pp. 288-306). New York: Oxford University Press.
Illeris, K. (2003). Towards a contemporary and comprehensive theory of learning. International Journal of Lifelong education, 22(4), 396-406.
Shulman, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57(1), 1-21.
Planetary boundaries: guiding human development on a changing planet
Steffen, W. ; Richardson, K. ; Rockström, J. ; Cornell, S.E. ; Fetzer, I. ; Bennett, E. ; Biggs, R. ; Vries, W. de - \ 2015
Science 347 (2015)6223. - ISSN 0036-8075
environmental flow requirements - early-warning signals - safe operating space - functional diversity - critical transitions - nutrient limitation - marine-environment - biodiversity loss - climate - water
The planetary boundaries framework defines a safe operating space for humanity based on the intrinsic biophysical processes that regulate the stability of the Earth System. Here, we revise and update the planetary boundaries framework, with a focus on the underpinning biophysical science, based on targeted input from expert research communities and on more general scientific advances over the past 5 years. Several of the boundaries now have a two-tier approach, reflecting the importance of cross-scale interactions and the regional-level heterogeneity of the processes that underpin the boundaries. Two core boundaries—climate change and biosphere integrity—have been identified, each of which has the potential on its own to drive the Earth System into a new state should they be substantially and persistently transgressed.
Interacting Regional-Scale Regime Shifts for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services
Leadley, P. ; Proenca, V. ; Fernandez-Manjarres, J. ; Pereira, H.M. ; Alkemade, J.R.M. ; Biggs, R. ; Bruley, E. ; Cheung, W. ; Cooper, D. ; Figueiredo, J. ; Gilman, E. ; Guenette, S. ; Hurtt, G. ; Mbow, C. ; Oberdorff, T. ; Revenga, C. ; Scharlemann, J.P.W. ; Scholes, R. ; Smith, M.S. ; Sumaila, U.R. ; Walpole, M. - \ 2014
Bioscience 64 (2014)8. - ISSN 0006-3568 - p. 665 - 679.
climate-change - marine biodiversity - ocean acidification - global fisheries - tipping points - amazon basin - land-use - impacts - deforestation - forests
Current trajectories of global change may lead to regime shifts at regional scales, driving coupled human-environment systems to highly degraded states in terms of biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human well-being. For business-as-usual socioeconomic development pathways, regime shifts are projected to occur within the next several decades, to be difficult to reverse, and to have regional- to global-scale impacts on human society. We provide an overview of ecosystem, socioeconomic, and biophysical mechanisms mediating regime shifts and illustrate how these interact at regional scales by aggregation, synergy, and spreading processes. We give detailed examples of interactions for terrestrial ecosystems of central South America and for marine and coastal ecosystems of Southeast Asia. This analysis suggests that degradation of biodiversity and, ecosystem services over the twenty-first century could be far greater than was previously predicted. We identify key policy and management opportunities at regional to global scales to avoid these shifts.
Approaches to defining a planetary boundary for biodiversity
Mace, G.M. ; Reyers, B. ; Alkemade, R. ; Biggs, R. ; Stuart Chapin, F. ; Cornell, S.E. ; Diaz, S. - \ 2014
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 28 (2014). - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 289 - 297.
plant functional traits - global biodiversity - ecosystem services - phylogenetic diversity - tree mortality - tipping points - conservation - extinction - time - biosphere
The idea that there is an identifiable set of boundaries, beyond which anthropogenic change will put the Earth system outside a safe operating space for humanity, is attracting interest in the scientific community and gaining support in the environmental policy world. Rockstrom et al. (2009) identify nine such boundaries and highlight biodiversity loss as being the single boundary where current rates of extinction put the Earth system furthest outside the safe operating space. Here we review the evidence to support a boundary based on extinction rates and identify weaknesses with this metric and its bearing on humanity's needs. While changes to biodiversity are of undisputed importance, we show that both extinction rate and species richness are weak metrics for this purpose, and they do not scale well from local to regional or global levels. We develop alternative approaches to determine biodiversity loss boundaries and extend our analysis to consider large-scale responses in the Earth system that could affect its suitability for complex human societies which in turn are mediated by the biosphere. We suggest three facets of biodiversity on which a boundary could be based: the genetic library of life; functional type diversity; and biome condition and extent. For each of these we explore the science needed to indicate how it might be measured and how changes would affect human societies. In addition to these three facets, we show how biodiversity's role in supporting a safe operating space for humanity may lie primarily in its interactions with other boundaries, suggesting an immediate area of focus for scientists and policymakers.
Toward Principles for Enhancing the Resilience of Ecosystem Services
Biggs, R. ; Schlüter, M. ; Biggs, D. ; Bohensky, E.L. ; BurnSilver, S. ; Cundill, G. ; Dakos, V. ; Daw, T.M. ; Evans, L.S. ; Kotschy, K. ; Leitch, A.M. ; Meek, C. ; Quinlan, A. ; Raudsepp-Hearne, C. ; Robards, M.D. ; Schoon, M.L. ; Schultz, L. ; West, P.C. - \ 2012
Annual Review of Environment and Resources 37 (2012)10. - ISSN 1543-5938 - p. 421 - 448.
social-ecological-systems - complex adaptive systems - natural-resource management - great-barrier-reef - response diversity - protected areas - climate-change - river-basin - coral-reefs - networks
Enhancing the resilience of ecosystem services (ES) that underpin human well-being is critical for meeting current and future societal needs, and requires specific governance and management policies. Using the literature, we identify seven generic policy-relevant principles for enhancing the resilience of desired ES in the face of disturbance and ongoing change in social-ecological systems (SES). These principles are (P1) maintain diversity and redundancy, (P2) manage connectivity, (P3) manage slow variables and feedbacks, (P4) foster an understanding of SES as complex adaptive systems (CAS), (P5) encourage learning and experimentation, (P6) broaden participation, and (P7) promote polycentric governance systems. We briefly define each principle, review how and when it enhances the resilience of ES, and conclude with major research gaps. In practice, the principles often co-occur and are highly interdependent. Key future needs are to better understand these interdependencies and to operationalize and apply the principles in different policy and management contexts
Argumentation-based computer supported collaborative learning (ABCSCL). A synthesis of fifteen years of research
Noroozi, O. ; Weinberger, A. ; Biemans, H.J.A. ; Mulder, M. ; Chizari, M. - \ 2012
Educational Research Review 7 (2012)2. - ISSN 1747-938X - p. 79 - 106.
rhetorical structure-theory - face-to-face - knowledge construction - representational guidance - decision-making - critical discourse - goal instructions - counterargument integration - interactive argumentation - scientific argumentation
Learning to argue is an essential objective in education; and online environments have been found to support the sharing, constructing, and representing of arguments in multiple formats for what has been termed Argumentation-Based Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (ABCSCL). The purpose of this review is to give an overview of research in the field of ABCSCL and to synthesize the findings. For this review, 108 publications (89 empirical studies and 19 conceptual papers) on ABCSCL research dating from 1995 through 2011 were studied to highlight the foci of the past 15 years. Building on Biggs’ (2003) model, the ABCSCL publications were systematically categorized with respect to student prerequisites, learning environment, processes, and outcomes. Based on the quantitative and qualitative findings, this paper concludes that ABCSCL environments should be designed in a systematic way that takes the variety of specific conditions for learning into account. It also offers suggestions for educational practice and future research.
Are We Entering an Era of Concatenated Global Crises?
Biggs, D. ; Biggs, R. ; Dakos, V. ; Scholes, R.J. ; Schoon, M. - \ 2011
Ecology and Society 16 (2011)2. - ISSN 1708-3087
food insecurity - systems - management - australia - indicator - framework - panaceas - disaster - science - impact
An increase in the frequency and intensity of environmental crises associated with accelerating human-induced global change is of substantial concern to policy makers. The potential impacts, especially on the poor, are exacerbated in an increasingly connected world that enables the emergence of crises that are coupled in time and space. We discuss two factors that can interact to contribute to such an increased concatenation of crises: (1) the increasing strength of global vs. local drivers of change, so that changes become increasingly synchronized; and (2) unprecedented potential for the propagation of crises, and an enhanced risk of management interventions in one region becoming drivers elsewhere, because of increased connectivity. We discuss the oil-food-financial crisis of 2007 to 2008 as an example of a concatenated crisis with origin and ultimate impacts in far removed parts of the globe. The potential for a future of concatenated shocks requires adaptations in science and governance including (a) an increased tolerance of uncertainty and surprise, (b) strengthening capacity for early detection and response to shocks, and (c) flexibility in response to enable adaptation and learning.
A new view of sooty blotch and flyspeck
Gleason, M.L. ; Batzer, J.C. ; Sun, G. ; Zhang, R. ; Díaz Arias, M.M. ; Sutton, T.B. ; Crous, P.W. ; Ivanovic, M. ; McManus, P.S. ; Cooley, D.R. ; Mayr, U. ; Weber, R.W.S. ; Yoder, K.S. ; Ponte, E.M. Del; Biggs, A.R. ; Oertel, B. - \ 2011
Plant Disease 95 (2011)4. - ISSN 0191-2917 - p. 368 - 383.
north-carolina - united-states - 1st report - schizothyrium-pomi - gloeodes-pomigena - warning system - apple fruit - fungi - complex - china
Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) fungi colonize the surface wax layer of the fruit of apple, pear, persimmon, banana, orange, papaya, and several other cultivated tree and vine crops. In addition to colonizing cultivated fruit crops, SBFS fungi also grow on the surfaces of stems, twigs, leaves, and fruit of a wide range of wild plants. The disease occurs worldwide in regions with moist growing seasons. SBFS is regarded as a serious disease by fruit growers and plant pathologists because it can cause substantial economic damage. The smudges and stipples of SBFS often result in downgrading of fruit from premium fresh-market grade to processing use. This review describes the major shifts that have occurred during the past decade in understanding the genetic diversity of the SBFS complex, clarifying its biogeography and environmental biology, and developing improved management strategies.
Scenarios for global biodiversity in the 21st century
Pereira, H.M. ; Leadley, P.W. ; Proenca, V. ; Alkemade, J.R.M. ; Scharlemann, J.P.W. ; Fernandez-Manjarres, J.F. ; Araujo, M.B. ; Balvanera, P. ; Biggs, R. ; Cheung, W.W.L. ; Chini, L. ; Cooper, H.D. ; Gilman, E.L. ; Guenette, S. ; Hurtt, G.C. ; Huntington, H.P. ; Mace, G.M. ; Oberdorff, T. ; Revenga, C. ; Rodrigues, P. ; Scholes, R.J. ; Sumaila, U.R. ; Walpole, M. - \ 2010
Science 330 (2010)6010. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 1496 - 1501.
climate-change - land-use - marine ecosystems - changing climate - range shifts - future - models - extinctions - distributions - vulnerability
Quantitative scenarios are coming of age as a tool for evaluating the impact of future socioeconomic development pathways on biodiversity and ecosystem services. We analyze global terrestrial, freshwater, and marine biodiversity scenarios using a range of measures including extinctions, changes in species abundance, habitat loss, and distribution shifts, as well as comparing model projections to observations. Scenarios consistently indicate that biodiversity will continue to decline over the 21st century. However, the range of projected changes is much broader than most studies suggest, partly because there are significant opportunities to intervene through better policies, but also because of large uncertainties in projections
|Exploring future trends in ecosystem services
Zurek, M. ; Biggs, R. ; Raudsepp-Hearne, C. ; Bennett, E. ; Kok, K. ; Velarde, S.J. - \ 2008
In: Ecosystem Services: A guide for decision makers / Ranganathan, J., Raudsepp-Hearne, C., Lucas, N., Irwin, F., Zurek, M., Bennett, K., Ash, N., West, P., Washington : World Resources Institute (WRI) - ISBN 9781569736692 - p. 45 - 53.
|Polymer depletion: Recent progress for polymer/colloid phase diagrams
Fleer, G.J. - \ 2008
In: New Frontiers in Colloid Science. A celebration of the career of Brian Vincent / Prof. Biggs, S., Prof. Cosgrove, T., Dr. Dowding, P., RSC publishers (Special Publications 314) - ISBN 9780854041138 - p. 107 - 122.
Scenarios of biodiversity loss in southern Africa in the 21st century
Biggs, R.H. ; Simons, H. ; Bakkenes, M. ; Scholes, R.J. ; Eickhout, B. ; Vuuren, D. van; Alkemade, R. - \ 2008
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 18 (2008)2. - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 296 - 309.
anthropogenic climate-change - intactness index - global impacts - diversity - vulnerability - model - conservation - ecosystems - management - stability
The rich biodiversity of southern Africa has to date been relatively unimpacted by the activities of modern society, but to what degree will this situation persist into the 21st century? We use a leading global environmental assessment model (IMAGE) to explore future land use and climate change in southern Africa under the scenarios developed by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. We assess the impacts on terrestrial biodiversity using the Biodiversity Intactness Index, which gives the average change in population size relative to the pre-modern state, across all terrestrial species of plants and vertebrates. Over the coming century, we project absolute declines in the average population sizes of these taxa that are two to three times greater than the reductions that have occurred since circa 1700. Our results highlight the immense challenges faced by efforts to reduce rates of biodiversity loss in southern Africa, even under relatively optimistic scenarios. These results stress the urgent need for better aligning biodiversity conservation and development priorities in the region. Furthermore, we suggest that context-sensitive conservation targets that account for the development imperatives in different parts of the region are needed.
Linking Futures across Scales: a Dialog on Multiscale Scenarios
Biggs, R. ; Raudsepp-Hearne, C. ; Atkinson-Palombo, C. ; Bohensky, E. ; Boyd, E. ; Cundill, G. ; Fox, H. ; Ingram, S. ; Kok, K. ; Spehar, S. ; Tengö, M. ; Timmer, D. ; Zurek, M. - \ 2007
Ecology and Society 12 (2007)1. - ISSN 1708-3087 - 16 p.
ecosystem services - ia perspective - global change - europe - conservation - narratives - ecology
Scenario analysis is a useful tool for exploring key uncertainties that may shape the future of social-ecological systems. This paper explores the methods, costs, and benefits of developing and linking scenarios of social-ecological systems across multiple spatial scales. Drawing largely on experiences in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, we suggest that the desired degree of cross-scale linkage depends on the primary aim of the scenario exercise. Loosely linked multiscale scenarios appear more appropriate when the primary aim is to engage in exploratory dialog with stakeholders. Tightly coupled cross-scale scenarios seem to work best when the main objective is to further our understanding of cross-scale interactions or to assess trade-offs between scales. The main disadvantages of tightly coupled cross-scale scenarios are that their development requires substantial time and financial resources, and that they often suffer loss of credibility at one or more scales. The reasons for developing multiscale scenarios and the expectations associated with doing so therefore need to be carefully evaluated when choosing the desired degree of cross-scale linkage in a particular scenario exercise.