Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Energy and amino acid requirements of gestating and lactating sows
Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Bikker, P. - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research report 1190) - 47
In the Netherlands, energy and amino acid recommendations for pigs are published by the Centraal Veevoederbureau (CVB, Central Bureau for Livestock Feeding). The CVB recommendations for sows, have not been updated since 1995. Because the litter size and milk production of the sows have increased in the last 20 years and sows have become heavier and have less backfat, the energy and amino acid recommendations from 1995 had to be updated. The updated energy and amino acid recommendations for parity 1 to 5 gestating and lactating sows are presented in this report.
Impact of food odors signaling specific taste qualities and macronutrient content on saliva secretion and composition
Morquecho-Campos, Paulina ; Bikker, Floris J. ; Nazmi, Kamran ; Graaf, Kees de; Laine, Marja L. ; Boesveldt, S. - \ 2019
Appetite 143 (2019). - ISSN 0195-6663
Cephalic phase response - Olfaction - Salivary protein - Salivation - Smell

Olfactory food cues can induce appetite for similar food products in humans. Odors may thus signal essential information about a foods’ composition such as taste or even macronutrient content and may stimulate specific physiological responses in anticipation of food intake. Several studies have shown that sensory food cues could stimulate saliva secretion. However, potential differences between food odors in their effect on saliva secretion, or the effects of olfactory stimulation on changes in saliva composition remain to be elucidated. To gain more insight, we conducted two studies to determine the influence of various odors, representing different taste qualities (study 1) and macronutrients (study 2), on salivary biomarkers. In study 1, 36 participants were randomly exposed to no-odor, non-food, and odors signaling sweet, savory, and sour taste. In study 2, 60 participants were randomly exposed to no-odor, non-food, and odors signaling carbohydrates, protein, fat, and low-calorie food. For each condition, whole-mouth saliva was collected and saliva secretion rate determined. Furthermore, we determined mouth-watering perception (subjective salivation), visco-elasticity (study 1 only), mucin concentration, α-amylase and lingual lipase activity (study 2 only). For both studies, linear mixed model analyses showed that saliva secretion rate significantly increased by food odor exposure compared to no-odor and non-food conditions. However, no changes in salivary composition were observed. These findings indicate that food odors play a crucial role in anticipatory saliva responses and can thereby affect subsequent eating behavior.

Effect of partially replacement of soybean meal by processed animal proteins on performance results, intestinal health, litter quality, footpad lesions and bone quality of male broilers
Krimpen, M.M. van; Bikker, P. ; Harn, J. van - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1184) - 35
This report presents the methods and results of a study, conducted by Wageningen Livestock Research at the request of EFPRA, in which the effect of partially replacement of soybean meal by two different processed animal proteins (PAPs) of pig origin on performance results, intestinal health, litter quality, footpad lesions and bone quality in broilers chickens from 0 – 42 days was evaluated. The two PAPs differ from each other in processing method. From this study it was concluded that it is possible to replace a part of the dietary soybean meal by processed proteins from pig origin, while maintaining performance results, litter quality, footpad health, gait, intestinal health and bone quality.
Application of pesticide Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 to animal feed materials
Meijer, N.P. ; Adamse, P. ; Egmond, H.J. van; Bikker, P. - \ 2018
Low phosphorous diets in gestation and lactation stimulate calcium absorption in sows and reduce calcium and phosphorous absorption in offspring
Bikker, P. ; Liesegang, A. ; Baal, J. van - \ 2018
Both dietary copper(I)oxide and copper sulphate stimulate growth performance in pigs but differentially affect copper absorption and metal transporter genes
Bikker, P. ; Durosoy, S. ; Romeo, A. ; Baal, J. van - \ 2018
Differential effects of dietary copper sulphate and copper(I)oxide on gut microbiota of weaned piglets
Sinche Ambrosio, Carmen ; Smidt, H. ; Baal, J. van; Romeo, A. ; Bikker, P. - \ 2018
Methodebeschrijving voor de controle van het koper- en zinkgehalte in rantsoenen voor vleeskuikens op basis van strooiselmest
Harn, J. van; Bikker, P. - \ 2018
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen University & Research (RIKILT-rapport 2018.006) - 43
Plasma in diets for weaned pigs
Bikker, P. ; Verheijen, R.J.G.A. ; Binnendijk, G.P. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research report 1122) - 30
Colors of attraction: Modeling insect flight to light behavior
Donners, Maurice ; Grunsven, R.H.A. van; Groenendijk, D. ; Langevelde, F. van; Bikker, J. ; Longcore, Travis ; Veenendaal, E.M. - \ 2018
Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological and Integrative Physiology 329 (2018)8-9. - ISSN 2471-5638 - p. 434 - 440.
Light sources attract nocturnal flying insects, but some lamps attract more insects than others. The relation between the properties of a light source and the number of attracted insects is, however, poorly understood. We developed a model to quantify the attractiveness of light sources based on the spectral output. This model is fitted using data from field experiments that compare a large number of different light sources. We validated this model using two additional datasets, one for all insects and one excluding the numerous Diptera. Our model facilitates the development and application of light sources that attract fewer insects without the need for extensive field tests and it can be used to correct for spectral composition when formulating hypotheses on the ecological impact of artificial light. In addition, we present a tool allowing the conversion of the spectral output of light sources to their relative insect attraction based on this model.
Amino acid requirement of growing and finishing pigs
Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. ; Bikker, P. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research report 1101) - 34
In the Netherlands, AA recommendations for pigs are published by the Centraal Veevoederbureau (CVB, Central Bureau for Livestock Feeding). The CVB recommendations, however, have not been updated since 1996. Because the genetic capacity and therefore daily gain and feed conversion ratio
of the growing and finishing pigs have been improved in the last 20 years and will probably further improve in the next years, the amino acid recommendations from 1996 had to be updated. The updated AA requirements in starter, grower and finisher diets for the current and future growing and finishing pigs (boars, gilts and barrows) are presented in this report.
Effect of dietary Ca to P ratio and particle size of limestone on growth performance and digesta pH in different intestinal segments in broilers
Hu, Yixin ; Bikker, P. ; Duijster, M. ; Baal, J. van; Hendriks, W.H. ; Krimpen, M.M. van - \ 2018
Long-term impact of zinc supplementation in sows : Impact on zinc status biomarkers and performance
Riet, Miriam M.J. Van; Bos, Emilie Julie ; Ampe, Bart ; Bikker, Paul ; Vanhauteghem, Donna ; Bockstaele, Filip Van; Cornillie, Pieter ; Broeck, Wim Van Den; Laing, Gijs Du; Maes, Dominiek ; Tuyttens, Frank A.M. ; Janssens, Geert P.J. ; Millet, Sam - \ 2018
Journal of Swine Health and Production 26 (2018)2. - ISSN 1537-209X - p. 79 - 94.
Dietary zinc concentration - Performance - Rubber top layer flooring - Swine - Zinc status biomarkers
Objectives: To evaluate the long-term impact of zinc (Zn) supplementation on performance and Zn status biomarkers in sows and on whether this possible impact depends on housing conditions. Materials and methods: Six groups of sows were allotted to group housing on two different floor types during gestation. Within each group, sows were randomly allocated to one of three diets varying in the amount of Zn supplemented (0, 50, or 100 mg added Zn per kg diet; 50% ZnO: 50% organic Zn) to a basal diet containing 46.6 and 128.9 mg Zn per kg during gestation and lactation, respectively. Blood was collected at days 0, 50, 108, and 143 of every cycle and analyzed for plasma Zn and copper and serum metallothionein (MT) concentrations. After slaughter, mineral concentrations of metacarpals, liver, and abaxial horn wall were determined. Results: Dietary Zn supplementation beyond basal dietary Zn concentrations did not influence serum MT concentrations (P = .77) and Zn concentrations in blood plasma (P = .13), liver (P = .54), bone (P = .26), and horn wall (P = .39). The 100-mg Zn per kg supplemented sows had lower bodyweight, body condition score, and backfat thickness (P < .001). The lack of impact of Zn supplementation may have been (partly) attributed to the unexpected high supply of Zn through premix in the lactation diet. Implications: Under these study conditions, commercially grown sows might not need Zn supplementation during gestation when their basal diet contains Zn with phytase.
Fosforverteringscoëfficienten grondstoffen
Mens, A.J.W. ; Jonge, L.H. de; Wikselaar, P.G. van; Bikker, P. ; Krimpen, M.M. van - \ 2018
V-focus 15 (2018)1. - ISSN 1574-1575 - 4 p.
In een onderzoek naar de voederwaarde en diervoedergrondstoffen, uitgevoerd door Wageningen Livestock Research in samenwerkin met Schothorst Feed Research, zijn een grote verschillen in verteerbaarheid van nutriënten gevonden tussen biologisch gehouden varkens te verbeteren kan intrinsiek fytase uit tarwe en tarwegries een uitkomst bieden.
Plant-eigen fytase benutten : Betere fosforbenutting in biologische veehouderij
Mens, A.J.W. ; Krimpen, M.M. van; Bikker, P. ; Wikselaar, P.G. van; Jonge, L.H. de - \ 2018
De Molenaar 121 (2018)1. - ISSN 0165-4284 - p. 20 - 21.
Het benutten van de plant-eigen fytaseactiviteit kan bijdragen aan het verhogen van de fosforbenutting van biologisch gehouden varkens en kippen. Door verschillen grondstoffen te combineren, kan de beschikbaarheid in biologische diervoeders sterk verbeteren.
Long-term impact of zinc supplementation in sows : Impact on claw quality
Riet, Miriam M.J. Van; Bos, Emilie Julie ; Ampe, Bart ; Bikker, Paul ; Vanhauteghem, Donna ; Bockstaele, Filip Van; Cornillie, Pieter ; Broeck, Wim Van Den; Laing, Gijs Du; Maes, Dominiek ; Tuyttens, Frank A.M. ; Janssens, Geert P.J. ; Millet, Sam - \ 2018
Journal of Swine Health and Production 26 (2018)1. - ISSN 1537-209X - p. 10 - 24.
Claw conformation - Claw lesion - Dietary zinc concentration - Rubber top layer - Swine
Objectives: To evaluate the long-term impact of zinc (Zn) supplementation on claw lesions, claw conformation, and histological and mechanical claw characteristics of sows housed in groups on rubber top layer or concrete floors during gestation. Materials and methods: Six groups of 21 ± 4 sows were allotted to group housing on different floor types for 80 days during gestation. Within each group, sows were randomly allocated to one of three diets supplementing a basal diet (46.6 and 128.9 mg Zn per kg during gestation and lactation, respectively) with 0, 50, or 100 mg Zn per kg. Claw lesion scoring, claw conformation, and horn growth and wear measurements were performed at days 50 and 140 of every cycle. Histological and mechanical characteristics were evaluated on claw samples of 36 sows after slaughter. Results: Dietary Zn supplementation affected heel horn erosion score (P = .01): sows supplemented with100 mg Zn per kg diet had better scores. Distances between dermal papillae of the sagittal heel horn were larger (P = .004). Heel height was lower for sows supplemented with 0 and 100 mg Zn per kg than for 50 mg per kg (P = .01). Horn growth and wear were lower for sows housed on rubber at day 50 (P < .001, both variables), but not at day 140. Dermal papillae distance was shorter for sows on rubber (P = .04). Implications: Unlike floor type and phase within the reproductive cycle, and under the conditions of this study, dietary zinc supplementation minimally influences claw quality.
Surveying selected European feed and livestock production chains for features enabling the case-specific post-market monitoring of livestock for intake and potential health impacts of animal feeds derived from genetically modified crops
Kleter, Gijs ; McFarland, Sarah ; Bach, Alex ; Bernabucci, Umberto ; Bikker, Paul ; Busani, Luca ; Kok, Esther ; Kostov, Kaloyan ; Nadal, Anna ; Pla, Maria ; Ronchi, Bruno ; Terre, Marta ; Einspanier, Ralf - \ 2018
Food and Chemical Toxicology 117 (2018). - ISSN 0278-6915 - p. 66 - 78.
Feed production chain - Genetically modified crops - Livestock - Post-market monitoring - Regulation - Traceability
This review, which has been prepared within the frame of the European Union (EU)-funded project MARLON, surveys the organisation and characteristics of specific livestock and feed production chains (conventional, organic, GM-free) within the EU, with an emphasis on controls, regulations, traceability, and common production practices. Furthermore, an overview of the origin of animal feed used in the EU as well as an examination of the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in feed is provided. From the data, it shows that livestock is traceable at the herd or individual level, depending on the species. Husbandry practices can vary widely according to geography and animal species, whilst controls and checks are in place for notifiable diseases and general health symptoms (such as mortality, disease, productive performance). For feeds, it would be possible only to make coarse estimates, at best, for the amount of GM feed ingredients that an animal is exposed to. Labeling requirements are apparently correctly followed. Provided that confounding factors are taken into account, practices such as organic agriculture that explicitly involve the use of non-GM feeds could be used for comparison to those involving the use of GM feed.
Case studies on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) : Potential risk scenarios and associated health indicators
Santis, Barbara De; Stockhofe, Norbert ; Wal, Jean Michel ; Weesendorp, Eefke ; Lallès, Jean Paul ; Dijk, Jeroen van; Kok, Esther ; Giacomo, Marzia De; Einspanier, Ralf ; Onori, Roberta ; Brera, Carlo ; Bikker, Paul ; Meulen, Jan van der; Kleter, Gijs - \ 2018
Food and Chemical Toxicology 117 (2018). - ISSN 0278-6915 - p. 36 - 65.
Allergenicity - Genetically modified -feed - Health indicators - Horizontal gene transfer - Mycotoxin-reduction - Nutritionally altered geneticalli modified crops
Within the frame of the EU-funded MARLON project, background data were reviewed to explore the possibility of measuring health indicators during post-market monitoring for potential effects of feeds, particularly genetically modified (GM) feeds, on livestock animal health, if applicable. Four case studies (CSs) of potential health effects on livestock were framed and the current knowledge of a possible effect of GM feed was reviewed. Concerning allergenicity (CS-1), there are no case-reports of allergic reactions or immunotoxic effects resulting from GM feed consumption as compared with non-GM feed. The likelihood of horizontal gene transfer (HGT; CS-2) of GMO-related DNA to different species is not different from that for other DNA and is unlikely to raise health concerns. Concerning mycotoxins (CS-3), insect-resistant GM maize may reduce fumonisins contamination as a health benefit, yet other Fusarium toxins and aflatoxins show inconclusive results. For nutritionally altered crops (CS-4), the genetic modifications applied lead to compositional changes which require special considerations of their nutritional impacts.No health indicators were thus identified except for possible beneficial impacts of reduced mycotoxins and nutritional enhancement. More generally, veterinary health data should ideally be linked with animal exposure information so as to be able to establish cause-effect relationships.
Attributional versus consequential life cycle assessment and feed optimization : alternative protein sources in pig diets
Zanten, Hannah H.E. van; Bikker, Paul ; Meerburg, Bastiaan G. ; Boer, Imke J.M. de - \ 2018
The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 23 (2018)1. - ISSN 0948-3349 - p. 1 - 11.
Attributional LCA - Consequential life cycle assessment - Feed optimization - Insects - Pigs - Rapeseed meal - Soybean meal

Purpose: Feed production is responsible for the majority of the environmental impact of livestock production, especially for monogastric animals, such as pigs. Some feeding strategies demonstrated that replacing one ingredient with a high impact, e.g. soybean meal (SBM), with an alternative protein source, e.g. locally produced peas or rapeseed meal, has potential to reduce the environmental impact. These studies, however, used an attributional life cycle assessment (ALCA), which solely addresses the direct environmental impact of a product. A replacement of SBM with alternative protein sources, however, can also have indirect environmental consequences, which might change environmental benefits of using alternative protein sources. This study aims to explore differences in results when performing an ALCA and a CLCA to reduce the environmental impact of pig production. We illustrated this for two case studies: replacing SBM with rapeseed meal (RSM), and replacing SBM with waste-fed larvae meal in diets of finishing-pigs. Methods: We used an ALCA and CLCA to assess global warming potential (GWP), energy use (EU) and land use (LU) of replacing SBM with RSM and waste-fed larvae meal, for finishing-pigs. The functional unit was 1 kg of body weight gain. Results and discussion: Based on an ALCA, replacing SBM with RSM showed that GWP (3%) and EU (1%) were not changed, but LU was decreased (14%). ALCA results for replacing SBM with waste-fed larvae meal showed that EU did not change (1%), but GWP (10%) and LU (56%) were decreased. Based on a CLCA, replacing SBM with RSM showed an increased GWP (15%), EU (12%) and LU (10%). Replacing SBM with waste-fed larvae meal showed an increased GWP (60%) and EU (89%), but LU (70%) was decreased. Furthermore, the results of the sensitivity analysis showed that assumptions required to perform a CLCA, such as definition of the marginal product, have a large impact on final results but did not affect the final conclusions. Conclusions: The CLCA results seem to contradict the ALCA results. CLCA results for both case studies showed that using co-products and waste-fed larvae meal currently not reduces the net environmental impact of pork production. This would have been overlooked when results were only based on ALCA. To gain insight into the environmental impact of feed, animal nutritionists can use an ALCA. If policy makers or the feed industry, however, want to assess the net environmental impact of a potential feeding strategy, it is recommended to perform a CLCA. Feed and food markets are, however, highly dynamic. Pig feed optimization is based on least cost optimization and a wide range of ingredients are available; diet compositions can, therefore, change easily, resulting in different environmental impacts. Ideally, therefore, a CLCA should include a sensitivity analysis (e.g. different feed prices or different marginal products) to provide a range of possible outcomes to make the results more robust.

PAS Aanvullende reservemaatregelen Landbouw: uitwerking van een quick scan
Groenestein, K. ; Bikker, P. ; Bruggen, C. van; Ellen, H. ; Harn, J. van; Huijsmans, J. ; Ogink, N. ; Şebek, L. ; Vermeij, I. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1145) - 53
In many Natura 2000 area’s, the nitrogen deposition is higher than wished for. This led to a deadlock in economic development of, among others, livestock husbandry. The interdepartmental program ‘Programma Aanpak Stikstof’ (PAS), is meant to overcome the standstill of grants of permits to produce, while in term preservation goals of nature area’s can be achieved. For the three sector groups Traffic and Transportation, Industry and Energy, and Agriculture source measures are inventoried to deal with the bottlenecks. By order of the Ministry of Economic Affairs this report presents the inventory of measures for agriculture.
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