Staff Publications

Staff Publications

  • external user (warningwarning)
  • Log in as
  • language uk
  • About

    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

    Records 1 - 9 / 9

    • help
    • print

      Print search results

    • export

      Export search results

    Check title to add to marked list
    Risk for animal and human health related to the presence of dioxins and dioxin‐like PCBs in feed and food
    Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl‐Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Fürst, Peter ; Håkansson, Helen ; Halldorsson, Thorhallur ; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine ; Pohjanvirta, Raimo ; Rylander, Lars ; Smith, Andrew ; Loveren, Henk van; Waalkens‐Berendsen, Ine ; Zeilmaker, Marco ; Binaglia, Marco ; Gómez Ruiz, José Ángel ; Horváth, Zsuzsanna ; Christoph, Eugen ; Ciccolallo, Laura ; Ramos Bordajandi, Luisa ; Steinkellner, Hans ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius - \ 2018
    EFSA Journal 16 (2018)11. - ISSN 1831-4732
    The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risks for animal and human health related to the presence of dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and DL‐PCBs in feed and food. The data from experimental animal and epidemiological studies were reviewed and it was decided to base the human risk assessment on effects observed in humans and to use animal data as supportive evidence. The critical effect was on semen quality, following pre‐ and postnatal exposure. The critical study showed a NOAEL of 7.0 pg WHO2005‐TEQ/g fat in blood sampled at age 9 years based on PCDD/F‐TEQs. No association was observed when including DL‐PCB‐TEQs. Using toxicokinetic modelling and taking into account the exposure from breastfeeding and a twofold higher intake during childhood, it was estimated that daily exposure in adolescents and adults should be below 0.25 pg TEQ/kg bw/day. The CONTAM Panel established a TWI of 2 pg TEQ/kg bw/week. With occurrence and consumption data from European countries, the mean and P95 intake of total TEQ by Adolescents, Adults, Elderly and Very Elderly varied between, respectively, 2.1 to 10.5, and 5.3 to 30.4 pg TEQ/kg bw/week, implying a considerable exceedance of the TWI. Toddlers and Other Children showed a higher exposure than older age groups, but this was accounted for when deriving the TWI. Exposure to PCDD/F‐TEQ only was on average 2.4‐ and 2.7‐fold lower for mean and P95 exposure than for total TEQ. PCDD/Fs and DL‐PCBs are transferred to milk and eggs, and accumulate in fatty tissues and liver. Transfer rates and bioconcentration factors were identified for various species. The CONTAM Panel was not able to identify reference values in most farm and companion animals with the exception of NOAELs for mink, chicken and some fish species. The estimated exposure from feed for these species does not imply a risk.
    Update of the risk assessment on 3‐monochloropropane diol and its fatty acid esters
    Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl‐Kraupp, Bettina ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Lampen, Alfonso ; Morris, Ian ; Piersma, Aldert ; Schrenk, Dieter ; Binaglia, Marco ; Levorato, Sara ; Hogstrand, Christer - \ 2018
    EFSA Journal 16 (2018)1. - ISSN 1831-4732
    The CONTAM Panel updated the assessment of the risks for human health related to the presence of 3‐monochloropropane diol (3‐MCPD) and its fatty acid esters in food published in 2016 in view of the scientific divergence identified in the establishment of the tolerable daily intake (TDI) in the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants (FAO/WHO) report published in 2017. In this update, dose–response analysis was performed following the recent EFSA Scientific Committee guidance on the use of benchmark dose (BMD) approach in risk assessment, and a review of available data on developmental and reproduction toxicity was included. The outcome of this review indicates that in rats short‐term exposure to 3‐MCPD above 1 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day can induce reduced sperm motility associated with reduced male fecundity. Decreased sperm count and histopathological changes in the testis and epididymis were observed following longer treatment periods at higher doses. Regarding increased incidence kidney tubular hyperplasia, BMD analysis using model averaging resulted in a BMDL10 of 0.20 mg/kg bw per day in male rats, which was selected as the new Reference Point (RP) for renal effects. For the effects on male fertility, decreased sperm motility was selected as the most sensitive relevant endpoint and a BMDL05 of 0.44 mg/kg bw per day was calculated. The RP for renal effects was considered to derive an updated group TDI of 2 μg/kg bw per day for 3‐MCPD and its fatty acid esters and was considered protective also for effects on male fertility. The established TDI of 2 μg/kg bw per day is not exceeded in the adult population. A slight exceedance of the TDI was observed in the high consumers of the younger age groups and in particular for the scenarios on infants receiving formula only.
    Appropriateness to set a group health‐based guidance value for fumonisins and their modified forms
    Knutsen, Helle-Katrine ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl‐Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Dall'Asta, Chiara ; Gutleb, Arno C. ; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich ; Galli, Corrado ; Metzler, Manfred ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Parent‐Massin, Dominique ; Binaglia, Marco ; Steinkellner, Hans ; Alexander, Jan - \ 2018
    EFSA Journal 16 (2018)2. - ISSN 1831-4732
    The EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) established a tolerable daily intake (TDI) for fumonisin B1 (FB1) of 1.0 μg/kg body weight (bw) per day based on increased incidence of megalocytic hepatocytes found in a chronic study with mice. The CONTAM Panel considered the limited data available on toxicity and mode of action and structural similarities of FB2–6 and found it appropriate to include FB2, FB3 and FB4 in a group TDI with FB1. Modified forms of FBs are phase I and phase II metabolites formed in fungi, infested plants or farm animals. Modified forms also arise from food or feed processing, and include covalent adducts with matrix constituents. Non‐covalently bound forms are not considered as modified forms. Modified forms of FBs identified are hydrolysed FB1–4 (HFB1–4), partially hydrolysed FB1–2 (pHFB1–2), N‐(carboxymethyl)‐FB1–3 (NCM‐FB1–3), N‐(1‐deoxy‐d‐fructos‐1‐yl)‐FB1 (NDF‐FB1), O‐fatty acyl FB1, N‐fatty acyl FB1 and N‐palmitoyl‐HFB1. HFB1, pHFB1, NCM‐FB1 and NDF‐FB1 show a similar toxicological profile but are less potent than FB1. Although in vitro data shows that N‐fatty acyl FBs are more toxic in vitro than FB1, no in vivo data were available for N‐fatty acyl FBs and O‐fatty acyl FBs. The CONTAM Panel concluded that it was not appropriate to include modified FBs in the group TDI for FB1–4. The uncertainty associated with the present assessment is high, but could be reduced provided more data are made available on occurrence, toxicokinetics and toxicity of FB2–6 and modified forms of FB1–4.
    Implementation of PROMETHEUS 4‐step approach for evidence use in EFSA scientific assessments: benefits, issues, needs and solutions
    Aiassa, Elisa ; Martino, Laura ; Barizzone, Fulvio ; Ciccolallo, Laura ; Garcia, Ana ; Georgiadis, Marios ; Guajardo, Irene Muñoz ; Tomcikova, Daniela ; Alexander, Jan ; Calistri, Paolo ; Gundert‐remy, Ursula ; Hart, Andrew David ; Hoogenboom, Ron Laurentius ; Messean, Antoine ; Naska, Androniki ; Navarro, Maria Navajas ; Noerrung, Birgit ; Ockleford, Colin ; Wallace, Robert John ; Younes, Maged ; Abuntori, Blaize ; Alvarez, Fernando ; Aryeetey, Monica ; Baldinelli, Francesca ; Barrucci, Federica ; Bau, Andrea ; Binaglia, Marco ; Broglia, Alessandro ; Castoldi, Anna Federica ; Christoph, Eugen ; Sesmaisons‐Lecarré, Agnes De; Georgiadis, Nikolaos ; Gervelmeyer, Andrea ; Istace, Frederique ; López‐Gálvez, Gloria ; Manini, Paola ; Maurici, Daniela ; Merten, Caroline ; Messens, Winy ; Mosbach‐Schulz, Olaf ; Putzu, Claudio ; Bordajandi, Luisa Ramos ; Smeraldi, Camilla ; Tiramani, Manuela ; Martínez, Silvia Valtueña ; Sybren, Vos ; Hardy, Anthony Richard ; Hugas, Marta ; Kleiner, Juliane ; Seze, Guilhem De - \ 2018
    EFSA Supporting Publications 15 (2018)4. - ISSN 2397-8325
    In 2014, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) started the PROMETHEUS (PROmoting METHods for Evidence Use in Scientific assessments) project to improve further and increase the consistency of the methods it uses in its scientific assessments. The project defined a set of principles for the scientific assessment process and a 4‐step approach (plan/carry out/verify/report) for their fulfilment, which was tested in ten case studies, one from each EFSA panel. The present report describes the benefits, issues, needs and solutions related to the implementation of the 4‐step approach in EFSA, identified in a dedicated workshop in October 2017. The key benefits of the approach, which was deemed applicable to all types of EFSA scientific assessment including assessments of regulated products, are: 1) increased ‘scientific value’ of EFSA outputs, i.e. the extent of impartiality, methodological rigour, transparency and engagement; 2) guarantee of fitness‐for‐purpose, as it implies tailoring the methods to the specificities of each assessment; 3) efficiency gain, since preparing a protocol for the assessment upfront helps more streamlined processes throughout the implementation phase; 4) innovation, as the approach promotes the pioneering practice of ‘planning before doing’ (well established in primary research) for broad scientific assessments in regulatory science; and 5) increased harmonisation and consistency of EFSA assessments. The 4‐step approach was also considered an effective system for detecting additional methodological and/or expertise needs and a useful basis for further defining a quality management system for EFSA's scientific processes. The identified issues and solutions related to the implementation of the approach are: a) lack of engagement and need for effective communication on benefits and added value; b) need for further advances especially in the field of problem formulation/protocol development, evidence appraisal and evidence integration; c) need for specialised expertise in the previous aspects; and specific needs for d) assessments of regulated products and e) outsourced projects.
    Scientific opinion on the evaluation of substances as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils
    Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, L.A.P. ; Nebbia, Carlo ; Oswald, Isabelle ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina ; Grob, Konrad ; Penninks, André ; Binaglia, Marco ; Roldán Torres, Ruth ; Vleminckx, Christiane - \ 2017
    EFSA Journal 15 (2017)1. - ISSN 1831-4732
    Shipping of edible fats and oils into Europe is permitted in bulk tanks, provided that the previous cargo is included in a positive list. The European Commission requested EFSA to evaluate the acceptability as previous cargoes for fats and oils the substances calcium lignosulphonate, methyl acetate, ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) and ammonium sulphate. The evaluation was based on the same criteria as those used for the evaluation of the substances currently on the list in the Annex to Commission Directive 96/3/EC as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils. Methyl acetate and ETBE meet the criteria for acceptability as previous cargoes. Due to uncertainties, mainly with regard to the composition and toxicity of the low molecular mass fraction, and the fact that the toxicological database is limited to the 40–65 grade and does not cover all grades of calcium lignosulphonate shipped as previous cargoes, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) concluded that calcium lignosulphonate does not meet the criteria for acceptability as a previous cargo. Only food-grade ammonium sulphate meets the criteria for acceptability as a previous cargo due to uncertainties about impurities in other (non-food) grades.
    Scientific opinion: Appropriateness to set a group health based guidance value for T2 and HT2 toxin and its modified forms
    Knutsen, Helle-Katrine ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, L.A.P. ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Dall'asta, Chiara ; Gutleb, Arno ; Metzler, Manfred ; Oswald, Isabelle ; Parent-Massin, Dominique ; Binaglia, Marco ; Steinkellner, Hans ; Alexander, Jan - \ 2017
    EFSA Journal 15 (2017)1. - ISSN 1831-4732
    The EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) established a tolerable daily intake (TDI) for T2 and HT2 of 0.02 μg/kg body weight (bw) per day based on a new in vivo subchronic toxicity study in rats that confirmed that immune- and haematotoxicity are the critical effects of T2 and using a reduction in total leucocyte count as the critical endpoint. An acute reference dose (ARfD) of 0.3 μg for T2 and HT2/kg bw was established based on acute emetic events in mink. Modified forms of T2 and HT2 identified are phase I metabolites mainly formed through hydrolytic cleavage of one or more of the three ester groups of T2. Less prominent hydroxylation reactions occur predominantly at the side chain. Phase II metabolism involves conjugation with glucose, modified glucose, sulfate, feruloyl and acetyl groups. The few data on occurrence of modified forms indicate that grain products are their main source. The CONTAM Panel found it appropriate to establish a group TDI and a group ARfD for T2 and HT2 and its modified forms. Potency factors relative to T2 for the modified forms were used to account for differences in acute and chronic toxic potencies. It was assumed that conjugates (phase II metabolites of T2, HT2 and their phase I metabolites), which are not toxic per se, would be cleaved releasing their aglycones. These metabolites were assigned the relative potency factors (RPFs) of their respective aglycones. The RPFs assigned to the modified forms were all either 1 or less than 1. The uncertainties associated with the present assessment are considered as high. Using the established group, ARfD and TDI would overestimate any risk of modified T2 and HT2.
    Scientific opinion: Appropriateness to set a group health based guidance value for nivalenol and its modified forms
    Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, L.A.P. ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Dall'asta, Chiara ; Gutleb, Arno C. ; Metzler, Manfred ; Parent-Massin, Dominique ; Binaglia, Marco ; Steinkellner, Hans ; Alexander, Jan - \ 2017
    EFSA Journal 15 (2017)4. - ISSN 1831-4732
    The EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) reviewed new studies on nivalenol since the previous opinion on nivalenol published in 2013, but as no new relevant data were identified the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for nivalenol (NIV) of 1.2 μg/kg body weight (bw) established on bases of immuno- and haematotoxicity in rats was retained. An acute reference dose (ARfD) of 14 μg/kg bw was established based on acute emetic events in mink. The only phase I metabolite of NIV identified is de-epoxy-nivalenol (DE-NIV) and the only phase II metabolite is nivalenol-3-glucoside (NIV3Glc). DE-NIV is devoid of toxic activity and was thus not further considered. NIV3Glc can occur in cereals amounting up to about 50% of NIV. There are no toxicity data on NIV3Glc, but as it can be assumed that it is hydrolysed to NIV in the intestinal tract it should be included in a group TDI and in a group ARfD with NIV. The uncertainty associated with the present assessment is considered as high and it would rather overestimate than underestimate any risk.
    Scientific opinion: Risks for public health related to the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and TTX analogues in marine bivalves and gastropods
    Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, L.A.P. ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Arnich, Nathalie ; Benford, Diane ; Botana, Luis ; Viviani, Barbara ; Arcella, Davide ; Binaglia, Marco ; Horvath, Zsuzsanna ; Steinkellner, Hans ; Manen, Mathijs Van; Petersen, Annette - \ 2017
    EFSA Journal 15 (2017)4. - ISSN 1831-4732
    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogues are produced by marine bacteria and have been detected in marine bivalves and gastropods from European waters. The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risks to public health related to the presence of TTX and TTX analogues in marine bivalves and gastropods. The Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain reviewed the available literature but did not find support for the minimum lethal dose for humans of 2 mg, mentioned in various reviews. Some human case reports describe serious effects at a dose of 0.2 mg, corresponding to 4 μg/kg body weight (bw). However, the uncertainties on the actual exposure in the studies preclude their use for derivation of an acute reference dose (ARfD). Instead, a group ARfD of 0.25 μg/kg bw, applying to TTX and its analogues, was derived based on a TTX dose of 25 μg/kg bw at which no apathy was observed in an acute oral study with mice, applying a standard uncertainty factor of 100. Estimated relative potencies for analogues are lower than that of TTX but are associated with a high degree of uncertainty. Based on the occurrence data submitted to EFSA and reported consumption days only, average and P95 exposures of 0.00–0.09 and 0.00–0.03 μg/kg bw, respectively, were calculated. Using a large portion size of 400 g bivalves and P95 occurrence levels of TTX, with exception of oysters, the exposure was below the group ARfD in all consumer groups. A concentration below 44 μg TTX equivalents/kg shellfish meat, based on a large portion size of 400 g, was considered not to result in adverse effects in humans. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectroscopy (LC–MS/MS) methods are the most suitable for identification and quantification of TTX and its analogues, with LOQs between 1 and 25 μg/kg.
    Statement: Risks for human health related to the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in honey, tea, herbal infusions and food supplements
    Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, L.A.P. ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Ruiz Gomes, José Angel ; Binaglia, Marco - \ 2017
    EFSA Journal 15 (2017)7. - ISSN 1831-4732
    EFSA was asked by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on the risks for human health related to the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in honey, tea, herbal infusions and food supplements and to identify the PAs of relevance in the aforementioned food commodities and in other feed and food. PAs are a large group of toxins produced by different plant species. In 2011, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) assessed the risks related to the presence of PAs in food and feed. Based on occurrence data limited to honey, the CONTAM Panel concluded that there was a possible health concern for those toddlers and children who are high consumers of honey. A new exposure assessment including new occurrence data was published by EFSA in 2016 and was used to update the risk characterisation. The CONTAM Panel established a new Reference Point of 237 μg/kg body weight per day to assess the carcinogenic risks of PAs, and concluded that there is a possible concern for human health related to the exposure to PAs, in particular for frequent and high consumers of tea and herbal infusions. The Panel noted that consumption of food supplements based on PA-producing plants could result in exposure levels causing acute/short-term toxicity. From the analysis of the available occurrence data, the CONTAM Panel identified a list of 17 PAs of relevance for monitoring in food and feed. The Panel recommended continuing the efforts to monitor the presence of PAs in food and feed, including the development of more sensitive and specific analytical methods. A recommendation was also issued on the generation of data to identify the toxic and carcinogenic potency of the PAs commonly found in food.
    Check title to add to marked list

    Show 20 50 100 records per page

     
    Please log in to use this service. Login as Wageningen University & Research user or guest user in upper right hand corner of this page.