Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Water governmentalities: The shaping of hydrosocial territories, water transfers and rural–urban subjects in Latin America
    Hommes, L.M. ; Boelens, R.A. ; Bleeker, S. ; Stoltenborg, D. ; Duarte-Abadia, B. ; Vos, J. - \ 2020
    Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space 3 (2020)2. - ISSN 2514-8486 - p. 399 - 422.
    With increasing water consumption and pollution in cities and expanding urban areas, impacts on rural areas as water extraction and waste disposal zones are intensifying. To unravel these hydro-territorial dynamics, this paper studies the intersecting and overlapping Foucauldian ‘arts of government’ (‘governmentalities’) deployed to convey water from rural to urban areas in three Latin American cities: Lima (Peru), San Luis Potosí (Mexico) and Bucaramanga (Colombia). We examine conventional (cemented) water transfers, broadly promoted payment for ecosystem services schemes and their conjunction, combining scholarship about hydrosocial territories and governmentality. We demonstrate how particular urban-based imaginaries about rural areas, their inhabitants, norms, practices and identities become embedded in governmentality schemes, and how these are justified, materialized and sustained, producing particular entwined rural–urban subjectivities. We explore how these are accepted, negotiated or contested. Our application of the governmentalities framework to analyze the material and socio-political effects of rural–urban water transfers contributes to existing scholarship on the (re)shaping of rural–urban hydrosocial territorialities showing the ‘hidden’ and ‘invisible’ workings of subjectification. It also contributes to the literature on governmentalities by scrutinizing the importance of technology (including physical infrastructure) in creating rural subjects.
    Discard self-sampling of Dutch bottom-trawl fisheries in 2017-2018
    Overzee, Harriet van; Dammers, Michiel ; Bleeker, Katinka - \ 2019
    IJmuiden : Stichting Wageningen Research, Centre for Fisheries Research (CVO) (CVO report 19.024) - 56
    In the European Union the collection and management of fisheries data is regulated through the Data Collection Framework (DCF) of the European Commission (EC). Within this context, Wageningen Marine Research (WMR) coordinates a discards monitoring programme in collaboration with the Dutch demersal fishing industry. A ‘reference fleet’ of vessels of which the owners are willing to participate in a self-sampling programme, was recruited in 2009 and has been extended and updated regularly. Annually approximately 160 trips need to be sampled by the reference fleet. Fishermen within the reference fleet are requested to collect discard samples of two separate hauls according to a definite annual sampling plan. In 2017 these trips were in collaboration with the participating vessels evenly divided over the reference fleet. In order to avoid any potential bias in trip selection and to work conform the statistical sound principles as defined in the DCF recast, from 2018 onwards the trips are randomly divided over the reference fleet and any refusals are recorded. After the discard samples are brought to shore, WMR collects and analyses these samples. This report summarizes data that has been collected within this self-sampling monitoring programme in 2017-2018. In 2017-2018 the reference fleet consisted of 19-20 vessels. In total, 159 and 167 were sampled in 2017 and 2018 respectively. All sampled trips were assigned to their respective metiers post sampling, based on gear type, mesh size and species composition of the catch. Seven different metiers were assigned: beamtrawlers with 70-99 (Eurocutters (i.e. engine power ≤300 hp) and large vessels (i.e. engine power > 300 hp)), 100-119, and ≥120 mm meshes, and otter trawlers with 70-99 mm meshes (targeting Nephrops or Demersal fish) and 100-119 mm meshes. Observed discard patterns are quite similar between all metiers; dab and undersized plaice are the most frequently discarded fish species. The majority of the benthic, non-fish, discards consisted of echinoderms and crustaceans. In order to monitor annual discard percentages, it is essential that the sampled trips follow the distribution of the fleet; a mismatch between sampling and the distribution of the fleet could indicate a possible bias in the discard estimate. The results shows that sampling effort of the most-intensely sampled metiers (i.e. TBB_DEF_70-99) indeed follows the fleet through space and time. However, for the less frequently sampled metiers this not always appears to be the case An important element in the reform of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) is the obligation to land all catches, i.e. a discard ban. Under this landing obligation all discards of quota regulated species have to be landed. For the demersal fisheries the landing obligation has been phased in over a number years. It is clear that as discarding will continue under various forms of exemptions (high survivability, de minimis, prohibited species), a discards monitoring programme remains necessary under the landing obligation. Furthermore, monitoring of BMS needs to be captured in the sampling programme.
    Payment for ecosystem services in Lima’s watersheds: power and imaginaries in an urban-rural hydrosocial territory
    Bleeker, Sonja ; Vos, Jeroen - \ 2019
    Water International 44 (2019)2. - ISSN 0250-8060 - p. 224 - 242.
    hydrosocial territories - Lima - Payment for ecosystem services - power analysis - rural-urban relations

    In Peru, payment for ecosystem services is an increasingly popular mechanism to secure the transfer of water from rural to urban areas. This article analyzes the process of setting up such a scheme in the watersheds of Lima. The concept of hydrosocial territories and a power analysis are used to scrutinize how urban-based imaginaries and top-down approaches result in a disregard of local knowledge, rationalities, history of urban–rural relations and land ownership structures in the highlands. This could result in unintended outcomes of the scheme and in subordinating upstream communities to the city’s needs.

    Viable coxiella burnetii induces differential cytokine responses in chronic Q fever patients compared to Heat-Killed Coxiella burnetii
    Jansen, Anne F.M. ; Dinkla, Annemieke ; Roest, Hendrik Jan ; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P. ; Schoffelen, Teske ; Joosten, Leo A.B. ; Wever, Peter C. ; Deuren, Marcel van; Koets, Ad P. - \ 2018
    Infection and Immunity 86 (2018)10. - ISSN 0019-9567
    Chronic Q fever - Coxiella burnetii - Cytokines - Immune response

    Cytokine responses of chronic Q fever patients to the intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii have mostly been studied using ex vivo stimulation of immune cells with heat-killed C. burnetii due to the extensive measures needed to work with viable biosafety level 3 agents. Whether research with heat-killed C. burnetii can be translated to immune responses to viable C. burnetii is imperative for the interpretation of previous and future studies with heat-killed C. burnetii. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of chronic Q fever patients (n = 10) and healthy controls (n = 10) were stimulated with heat-killed or viable C. burnetii of two strains, Nine Mile and the Dutch outbreak strain 3262, for 24 h, 48 h, and 7 days in the absence or presence of serum containing anti-C. burnetii antibodies. When stimulated with viable C. burnetii, PBMCs of chronic Q fever patients and controls produced fewer proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 [IL-6], tumor necrosis factor alpha, and IL-1β) after 24 h than after stimulation with heat-killed C. burnetii. In the presence of Q fever seronegative serum, IL-10 production was higher after stimulation with viable rather than heat-killed C. burnetii; however, when incubating with anti-C. burnetii antibody serum, the effect on IL-10 production was reduced. Levels of adaptive, merely T-cell-derived cytokine (gamma interferon, IL-17, and IL-22) and CXCL9 production were not different between heat-killed and viable C. burnetii stimulatory conditions. Results from previous and future research with heat-killed C. burnetii should be interpreted with caution for innate cytokines, but heat-killed C. burnetii-induced adaptive cytokine production is representative of stimulation with viable bacteria.

    Thrips advisor : Exploiting thrips-induced defences to combat pests on crops
    Steenbergen, Merel ; Abd-El-Haliem, Ahmed ; Bleeker, Petra ; Dicke, Marcel ; Escobar-Bravo, Rocio ; Cheng, Gang ; Haring, Michel A. ; Kant, Merijn R. ; Kappers, Iris ; Klinkhamer, Peter G.L. ; Leiss, Kirsten A. ; Legarrea, Saioa ; Macel, Mirka ; Mouden, Sanae ; Pieterse, Corné M.J. ; Sarde, Sandeep J. ; Schuurink, Robert C. ; Vos, Martin De; Wees, Saskia C.M. Van; Broekgaarden, Colette - \ 2018
    Journal of Experimental Botany 69 (2018)8. - ISSN 0022-0957 - p. 1837 - 1848.
    Cell-content feeder - effectors - herbivorous insect - phytohormone signalling - plant defence - specialized metabolites - thrips - virus - volatiles

    Plants have developed diverse defence mechanisms to ward off herbivorous pests. However, agriculture still faces estimated crop yield losses ranging from 25% to 40% annually. These losses arise not only because of direct feeding damage, but also because many pests serve as vectors of plant viruses. Herbivorous thrips (Thysanoptera) are important pests of vegetable and ornamental crops worldwide, and encompass virtually all general problems of pests: they are highly polyphagous, hard to control because of their complex lifestyle, and they are vectors of destructive viruses. Currently, control management of thrips mainly relies on the use of chemical pesticides. However, thrips rapidly develop resistance to these pesticides. With the rising demand for more sustainable, safer, and healthier food production systems, we urgently need to pinpoint the gaps in knowledge of plant defences against thrips to enable the future development of novel control methods. In this review, we summarize the current, rather scarce, knowledge of thrips-induced plant responses and the role of phytohormonal signalling and chemical defences in these responses. We describe concrete opportunities for breeding resistance against pests such as thrips as a prototype approach for next-generation resistance breeding.

    Effect of constant digestible protein intake and varying digestible energy levels on energy and protein utilization in Nile tilapia
    Haidar, M.N. ; Bleeker, S. ; Heinsbroek, L.T.N. ; Schrama, J.W. - \ 2018
    Aquaculture 489 (2018). - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 28 - 35.
    Digestible energy - Digestible protein - Energy utilization - Feed evaluation - Protein efficiency - Protein/Energy ratio
    In literature, the variability in the estimated optimal digestible protein to digestible energy ratio (DP/DE) is high. The present study aimed to estimate the optimal DP/DE ratio in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using different criteria (performance, energy and nitrogen balances parameters). Duplicate aquaria were randomly assigned to one of 16 diets. These diets covered a wide range of dietary DP/DE ratio (from 16.7 to 27 g MJ −1 ). DP levels ranged between 36 and 50% and DE levels between 17.5 and 22 MJ kg −1 . Fish were fed restrictively based on a similar digestible protein amount at all 16 diets. Initial fish weight was 6.7 g. Broken line analysis showed that no optimal DP/DE ratio was present for Nile tilapia within the DP/DE ratio range studied. Regression analysis showed that growth declined as DP/DE ratio increased and seemed to level off at high DP/DE ratio (25 g MJ −1 ). FCR ranged between 0.8 and 1.1 and increased linearly with increasing DP/DE ratio. Decreasing the DP/DE ratio resulted in a linear increase in protein efficiency to a highest value of 53%. However, protein efficiency did not show a plateau or a maximum value. Moreover, decreasing the DP/DE ratio resulted in a very high fat content of the fish (over 16%). In conclusion, an optimal DP/DE ratio in Nile tilapia being fed restrictively seems to be absent or to be below 16 g MJ −1 . A maximum protein deposition level is not present in 5–40 g Nile tilapia.
    Cleaning up nitrogen pollution may reduce future carbon sinks
    Gu, Baojing ; Ju, Xiaotang ; Wu, Yiyun ; Erisman, Jan Willem ; Bleeker, Albert ; Reis, Stefan ; Sutton, Mark A. ; Lam, Shu Kee ; Smith, Pete ; Oenema, Oene ; Smith, Rognvald I. ; Lu, Xuehe ; Ye, Xinyue ; Chen, Deli - \ 2018
    Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 48 (2018). - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 56 - 66.
    Carbon sink - Climate change - CO emission - Economic development - Nitrogen deposition - Stoichiometry
    Biosphere carbon sinks are crucial for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration to mitigate global warming, but are substantially affected by the input of reactive nitrogen (Nr). Although the effects of anthropogenic CO2 emission and nitrogen deposition (indicated by Nr emission to atmosphere) on carbon sink have been studied, it is unclear how their ratio (C/N) changes with economic development and how such change alters biosphere carbon sinks. Here, by compiling datasets for 132 countries we find that the C/N ratio continued to increase despite anthropogenic CO2 and Nr emissions to atmosphere both showing an asymmetric para-curve with economic growth. The inflection points of CO2 and Nr emissions are found at around $15,000 gross domestic product per capita worldwide. Economic growth promotes the use of Nr and energy, while at the same time increases their use efficiencies, together resulting in occurrences of inflection points of CO2 and Nr emissions. Nr emissions increase slower but decrease faster than that of CO2 emissions before and after the inflection point, respectively. It implies that there will be relatively more anthropogenic CO2 emission but less N deposition with economic growth. This may limit biosphere carbon sink because of relative shortage of Nr. This finding should be integrated/included in global climate change modelling. Efforts, such as matching N deposition with carbon sequestration on regional scale, to manage CO2 and Nr emissions comprehensively to maintain a balance are critical.
    Data from: Taxonomic and functional turnover are decoupled in European peat bogs
    Robroek, Bjorn J.M. ; Jassey, Vincent E.J. ; Payne, Richard J. ; Martí, Magalí ; Bragazza, Luca ; Bleeker, Albert ; Buttler, Alexandre ; Caporn, Simon J.M. ; Dise, Nancy B. ; Kattge, Jens ; Zajac, Katarzyna ; Svensson, Bo H. ; Ruijven, J. van; Verhoeven, Jos T.A. - \ 2017
    Utrecht University
    community ecology - species diversity - functional diversity - plant functional traits - peatland ecology - environmental gradients - climate change - Andromeda polifolia - Betula nana - Carex pauciflora - Drosera anglica - Drosera rotundifolia - Empetrum nigrum - Rubus chamaemorus - Scheuchzeria palustris - Vaccinium oxycoccus - Vaccinium uliginosum - Vaccinium microcarpon - Calluna vulgaris - Eriophorum angustifolium - Erica tetralix - Molinia caerulea - Narthecium ossifragum - Trichophorum cespitosum - Eriophorum vaginatum - Rhynchospora alba - Sphagnum angustifolium - Sphagnum balticum - Sphagnum fallax - Sphagnum fuscum - Sphagnum majus - Sphagnum rubellum - Sphagnum capillifolium - Sphagnum austinii - Sphagnum cuspidatum - Sphagnum flexuosum - Sphagnum papillosum - Sphagnum magellanicum - Sphagnum pulchrum - Sphagnum tenellum - Dicranales - Hypnales - Bryales - Cladonia spp. - Polytrichales
    In peatland ecosystems, plant communities mediate a globally significant carbon store. The effects of global environmental change on plant assemblages are expected to be a factor in determining how ecosystem functions such as carbon uptake will respond. Using vegetation data from 56 Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs across Europe, we show that in these ecosystems plant species aggregate into two major clusters that are each defined by shared response to environmental conditions. Across environmental gradients, we find significant taxonomic turnover in both clusters. However, functional identity and functional redundancy of the community as a whole remain unchanged. This strongly suggests that in peat bogs, species turnover across environmental gradients is restricted to functionally similar species. Our results demonstrate that plant taxonomic and functional turnover are decoupled, which may allow these peat bogs to maintain ecosystem functioning when subject to future environmental change.
    Evaluatie Meststoffenwet 2016: syntheserapport
    Grinsven, Hans van; Bleeker, Albert ; Sluis, Sietske van der; Schijndel, Marian van; Dam, Jan van; Tiktak, Aaldrik ; Gaalen, Frank van; Uyl, Roos den; Kruitwagen, Sonja ; Beck, Jeannette ; Velthof, Gerard ; Schoumans, Oscar ; Lauwere, Carolien de - \ 2017
    Den Haag : Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving - 191
    Taxonomic and functional turnover are decoupled in European peat bogs
    Robroek, Bjorn J.M. ; Jassey, Vincent E.J. ; Payne, Richard J. ; Martí, Magalí ; Bragazza, Luca ; Bleeker, Albert ; Buttler, Alexandre ; Caporn, Simon J.M. ; Dise, Nancy B. ; Kattge, Jens ; Zajac, Katarzyna ; Svensson, Bo H. ; Ruijven, Jasper van; Verhoeven, Jos T.A. - \ 2017
    Nature Communications 8 (2017). - ISSN 2041-1723 - 9 p.

    In peatland ecosystems, plant communities mediate a globally significant carbon store. The effects of global environmental change on plant assemblages are expected to be a factor in determining how ecosystem functions such as carbon uptake will respond. Using vegetation data from 56 Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs across Europe, we show that in these ecosystems plant species aggregate into two major clusters that are each defined by shared response to environmental conditions. Across environmental gradients, we find significant taxonomic turnover in both clusters. However, functional identity and functional redundancy of the community as a whole remain unchanged. This strongly suggests that in peat bogs, species turnover across environmental gradients is restricted to functionally similar species. Our results demonstrate that plant taxonomic and functional turnover are decoupled, which may allow these peat bogs to maintain ecosystem functioning when subject to future environmental change.

    Overbenutting van de plaatsingsruimte van dierlijke mest in het Zuidelijk Veehouderijgebied : analyse van onzekerheden en mogelijke gevolgen voor de nitraatconcentratie in het bovenste grondwater
    Sluis, Sietske van der; Bruggen, C. van; Luesink, H. ; Schröder, J. ; Verkerk, H. ; Bleeker, A. ; Grinsven, H. van; Kruitwagen, S. - \ 2017
    Den Haag : Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL-publicatie / Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving 2776) - 26
    Het CBS rapporteert jaarlijks in welke mate de wettelijke plaatsingsruimte voor dierlijke mest in de praktijk is benut ( Uit de CBS-cijfers blijkt dat gedurende meerdere jaren in een aantal landbouwgebieden, vooral in Zuid-Nederland, deze benutting van de plaatsingsruimte hoger dan 100 procent is geweest. Als de wettelijke plaatsingsruimte inderdaad is overschreden, dan zal de effectiviteit van het gevoerde meststoffenbeleid lager zijn dan vooraf is ingeschat. Dit zou dan ook één van de verklarende factoren kunnen zijn voor de gemeten overschrijding van het nitraatdoel van 50 milligram per liter voor het bovenste grondwater, zoals vastgelegd in de Europese Nitraatrichtlijn.
    Involvement of matrix metalloproteinases in chronic Q fever
    Jansen, A.F.M. ; Schoffelen, T. ; Textoris, J. ; Mege, J.L. ; Bleeker-Rovers, C.P. ; Roest, H.I.J. ; Wever, P.C. ; Joosten, L.A.B. ; Netea, M.G. ; Vosse, E. van de; Deuren, M. van - \ 2017
    Clinical Microbiology and Infection 23 (2017)7. - ISSN 1198-743X - p. 487.e7 - 487.e13.
    Coxiella burnetii - Chronic Q fever - Matrix metalloproteinases - Pathogenesis - Single nucleotide polymorphism - Transcriptome analysis
    Objectives: Chronic Q fever is a persistent infection with the intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Coxiella burnetii, which can lead to complications of infected aneurysms. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) cleave extracellular matrix and are involved in infections as well as aneurysms. We aimed to study the role of MMPs in the pathogenesis of chronic Q fever. Methods: We investigated gene expression of MMPs through microarray analysis and MMP production with ELISA in C. burnetii-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with chronic Q fever and healthy controls. Twenty single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of MMP and tissue inhibitor of MMP genes were genotyped in 139 patients with chronic Q fever and 220 controls with similar cardiovascular co-morbidity. Additionally, circulating MMPs levels in patients with chronic Q fever were compared with those in cardiovascular controls with and without a history of past Q fever. Results: In healthy controls, the MMP pathway involving four genes (MMP1, MMP7, MMP10, MMP19) was significantly up-regulated in C. burnetii-stimulated but not in Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide -stimulated PBMCs. Coxiella burnetii induced MMP-1 and MMP-9 production in PBMCs of healthy individuals (both p. <. 0.001), individuals with past Q fever (p. <. 0.05, p. <. 0.01, respectively) and of patients with chronic Q fever (both p. <. 0.001). SNPs in MMP7 (rs11568810) (p. <. 0.05) and MMP9 (rs17576) (p. <. 0.05) were more common in patients with chronic Q fever. Circulating MMP-7 serum levels were higher in patients with chronic Q fever (median 33.5 ng/mL, interquartile range 22.3-45.7 ng/mL) than controls (20.6 ng/mL, 15.9-33.8 ng/mL). Conclusion: Coxiella burnetii-induced MMP production may contribute to the development of chronic Q fever.
    Evidence for ontogenetically and morphologically distinct alternative reproductive tactics in the invasive round Goby Neogobius melanostomus
    Bleeker, Katinka ; Jong, Karen De; Kessel, Nils Van; Hinde, Camilla A. ; Nagelkerke, Leopold A.J. - \ 2017
    PLoS ONE 12 (2017)4. - ISSN 1932-6203

    Alternative reproductive tactics are characterized by the occurrence of discrete alternative morphs that differ in behavioural, morphological and physiological traits within the same sex. Although much effort has been made to describe the behaviour, morphology and physiology of such alternative morphs, less effort has been invested investigating how much overlap there is in the characteristics of such morphs in natural populations. We studied random population samples of the invasive Round Goby Neogobius melanostomus from five different localities in the river Rhine system in the Netherlands. We found two morphologically and physiologically distinct male morphs which likely represent alternative reproductive tactics. Almost all mature males under 9.35 cm total length had a gonadosomatic index > 3%, suggestive of a sneaker tactic, while nearly all males above 9.35 cm has a gonadosomatic index of < 3%, suggestive of a parental tactic. Cheek size and eye diameter alone were sufficient to distinguish the two morphs. Gonads had a different relationship with size in the two morphs, indicating separate growth trajectories. The gonad mass of sneaker morphs would be ca. 7.5 times as high as the gonad mass of parental morphs of the same total length after extrapolation. Few (9%) intermediates were found, suggesting that the expression of alternative reproductive tactics is determined before the first breeding season. This contrasts with studies on other goby species, which show evidence of plastic tactics that can be affected by social circumstances. We conclude that it is possible to distinguish two alternative male morphs in the Dutch Round Goby population using morphological measurements alone. Although behavioural observations are needed to provide conclusive evidence, the difference in GSI between these morphs indicates that these morphs reflect alternative reproductive tactics.

    Particle size determines foam stability of casein micelle dispersions
    Chen, Min ; Bleeker, R. ; Sala, G. ; Meinders, M.B.J. ; Valenberg, H.J.F. van; Hooijdonk, A.C.M. van; Linden, E. van der - \ 2016
    International Dairy Journal 56 (2016). - ISSN 0958-6946 - p. 151 - 158.
    The role of interfacial properties and size of casein micelles aggregates on foam stability of casein micelle dispersions (CMDs) was examined. CMDs were prepared by redispersing casein micelles pellets obtained by ultracentrifugation. The size of colloidal particles could be controlled by differences in redispersing
    temperature. CMDs redispersed at 20 C (CMD20 C) and 4 C (CMD4 C) had average particle sizes of around 200 nm (micelles) and 500 nm (micelles and aggregates), respectively. At 3% total protein, the foam half-life, t½, of CMD4 C was significantly higher than that of CMD20 C and skim milk. No correlation
    between foam stability and surface rheological properties or protein composition could be observed. Foam stability was strongly related to the size of colloidal particles present in CMD. This was confirmed by the observation that the foam stability of CMD4 C decreased to that of CMD20 C when the aggregates
    were broken down by homogenisation.
    Towards a common nutrient use efficiency assessment method for livestock supply chains: : a case study of mixed dairy supply chains in western europe
    Uwizeye, U.A. ; Gerber, P.J. ; Schulte, R.P.O. ; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2015
    The comprehensive assessment of efficiency of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) use in livestock supply chains is a key step towards sustainable nutrient management [1]. Previously, we identified supply chain level nutrient use efficiency (life-cycle NUE), as a pertinent indicator to support monitoring of practice changes and benchmarking of livestock supply chains [2]. The quantification of life-cycle NUE [3] requires the computation of NUE at each stage of supply chain, including crop/pasture production, animal production and processing. A ‘perfect’ NUE assessment in crop/pasture production would require measurement of all nutrient flows, including inputs, soil stock changes (SSC), losses and removals in harvested biomass. However, no dataset could be found that includes comprehensive measurement of both SSC and losses. Therefore, existing models commonly estimate the value of these variables by modelling one of these two flows and deriving the other from mass balance. The aim of this study, part of the FAO Livestock Environmental Assessment and Performance (LEAP) partnership, was to assess the extent to which reported life-cycle NUE values depend on such methodological choices. We compared three N accounting approaches: i) a simple input-output approach where SSC is set to equal 0 [4], ii) an approach where N losses are modelled [5] and iii) an approach where SSC is modelled, based on assumptions about NUE values [6]. Additionally, for P-NUE, we explored methodological approaches to account for “sustainable fertility build-up” in P-deficient and optimum soils [7]. We illustrate both these N and P assessments for mixed dairy systems in Western Europe.

    [1] M.A. Sutton, A. Bleeker, C. Howard, M. Bekunda, B. Grizzetti, W. de Vries, et al., Our Nutrient World: the challenge to produce more food and energy with less pollution. Global Overview of Nutrient Management, Sutton, M. A.;Bleeker, A.;Howard, C. M.;Bekunda, M.;Grizzetti, B.;Vries, W. de;Grinsven, H. J. M. van;Abrol, Y. P.;Adhya, T. K.;Billen, G.;Davidson, E. A.;Datta, A.;Diaz, R.;Erisman, J. W.;Liu, X. J.;Oenema, O.;Palm, C.;Raghuram, N.;Reis, S.;Scholz, R. W.;Sims, T.;Westhoek, H.;Zhang, F. S., CEH/UNEP, Edinburgh, UK, 2013.
    [2] P. Gerber, A. Uwizeye, R. Schulte, C. Opio, I. de Boer, Nutrient use efficiency: a valuable approach to benchmark the sustainability of nutrient use in global livestock production?, SI Syst. Dyn. Sustain. 9–10 (2014) 122–130. doi:10.1016/j.cosust.2014.09.007.
    [3] S. Suh, S. Yee, Phosphorus use-efficiency of agriculture and food system in the US, Phosphorus Cycle. 84 (2011) 806–813. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.01.051.
    [4] E. OECD, Gross Nitrogen Balances-Handbook, URL. 20 (2007) 2010.
    [5] G. Velthof, D. Oudendag, H. Witzke, W. Asman, Z. Klimont, O. Oenema, Integrated assessment of nitrogen losses from agriculture in EU-27 using MITERRA-EUROPE, J. Environ. Qual. 38 (2009) 402–417.
    [6] F.Ş. Özbek, A. Leip, Estimating the gross nitrogen budget under soil nitrogen stock changes: A case study for Turkey, Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 205 (2015) 48–56.
    [7] G. Tóth, A. Jones, L. Montanarella, The LUCAS topsoil database and derived information on the regional variability of cropland topsoil properties in the European Union, Environ. Monit. Assess. 185 (2013) 7409–7425. doi:10.1007/s10661-013-3109-3.

    Nile Tilapia and dietary DP/DE ratio: Is there an optimal ratio? (poster)
    Haidar, M. ; Bleeker, S. ; Heinsbroek, L.T.N. ; Schrama, J.W. ; Verreth, J.A.J. - \ 2015
    Nitrogen : too much of a vital resource : Science Brief
    Erisman, J.W. ; Galloway, J.N. ; Dise, N.B. ; Sutton, M.A. ; Bleeker, A. ; Grizzetti, B. ; Leach, A.M. ; Vries, W. de - \ 2015
    Zeist, The Netherlands : WWF Netherlands (WWF science brief NL ) - ISBN 9789074595223 - 27
    stikstofkringloop - waterverontreiniging - eutrofiëring - emissiereductie - broeikasgassen - terrestrische ecosystemen - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - milieubeleid - nitrogen cycle - water pollution - eutrophication - emission reduction - greenhouse gases - terrestrial ecosystems - scientific research - environmental policy
    It is now clear that the nitrogen problem is one of the most pressing environmental issues that we face. But in spite of the enormity of our influence on the N cycle and consequent implications for the environment and for human well-being, there is surprisingly little attention paid to the issue. While biodiversity loss and climate change have spawned huge budgets to create national and multidisciplinary programs, global organizations, political and media attention, the N challenge remains much less apparent in our thinking and actions. This is because we are educated with the important role that N plays with regard to food security. This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of the N challenge, and to provide options for decreasing the negative impacts of excess N.
    Uitvoering meetstrategie duinen. Voortgangsreportage november 2013
    Mouissie, A.M. ; Huiskes, H.P.J. ; Hensen, A. ; Bleeker, A. ; Riksen, M. - \ 2013
    Houten : Grontmij - 21 p.
    Consequences of human modification of the global nitrogen cycle
    Erisman, J.W. ; Galloway, J. ; Seitzinger, S. ; Bleeker, A. ; Dise, N.B. ; Roxana Petrescu, A.M. ; Leach, A.M. ; Vries, W. de - \ 2013
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Biological sciences 368 (2013)1621. - ISSN 0962-8436 - 9 p.
    aquatic ecosystems - reactive nitrogen - climate-change - ozone - pollution - impact - policy - growth - oxide
    The demand for more food is increasing fertilizer and land use, and the demand for more energy is increasing fossil fuel combustion, leading to enhanced losses of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to the environment. Many thresholds for human and ecosystem health have been exceeded owing to Nr pollution, including those for drinking water (nitrates), air quality (smog, particulate matter, ground-level ozone), freshwater eutrophication, biodiversity loss, stratospheric ozone depletion, climate change and coastal ecosystems (dead zones). Each of these environmental effects can be magnified by the ‘nitrogen cascade’: a single atom of Nr can trigger a cascade of negative environmental impacts in sequence. Here, we provide an overview of the impact of Nr on the environment and human health, including an assessment of the magnitude of different environmental problems, and the relative importance of Nr as a contributor to each problem. In some cases, Nr loss to the environment is the key driver of effects (e.g. terrestrial and coastal eutrophication, nitrous oxide emissions), whereas in some other situations nitrogen represents a key contributor exacerbating a wider problem (e.g. freshwater pollution, biodiversity loss). In this way, the central role of nitrogen can remain hidden, even though it actually underpins many trans-boundary pollution problems.
    Our nutrient world. The challenge to produce more food & energy with less pollution
    Sutton, M.A. ; Bleeker, A. ; Howard, C.M. ; Erisman, J.W. ; Abrol, Y.P. ; Bekunda, M. ; Datta, A. ; Davidson, E. ; Vries, W. de; Oenema, O. ; Zhang, F.S. - \ 2013
    Edinburgh : Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (Key messages for Rio+20 ) - 114
    nutrientenbeheer - kringlopen - stikstofkringloop - fosfor - voedselzekerheid - milieubeleid - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - nutrient management - cycling - nitrogen cycle - phosphorus - food security - environmental policy - sustainability
    The message of this overview is that everyone stands to benefit from nutrients and that everyone can make a contribution to promote sustainable production and use of nutrients. Whether we live in a part of the world with too much or too little nutrients, our daily decisions can make a difference. Without swift and collective action, the next generation will inherit a world where many millions may suffer from food insecurity caused by too few nutrients, where the nutrient pollution threats from too much will become more extreme, and where unsustainable use of nutrients will contribute even more to biodiversity loss and accelerating climate change. Conversely with more sustainable management of nutrients, economies can play a role in a transition to a Green Economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication. The Global Overview develops these essential themes, to prepare societies to take the next steps.
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