Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Mild maternal hyperglycemia in INSC93S transgenic pigs causes impaired glucose tolerance and metabolic alterations in neonatal offspring
Renner, Simone ; Martins, Ana Sofia ; Streckel, Elisabeth ; Braun-Reichhart, Christina ; Backman, Mattias ; Prehn, Cornelia ; Klymiuk, Nikolai ; Bähr, Andrea ; Blutke, Andreas ; Landbrecht-Schessl, Christina ; Wünsch, Annegret ; Kessler, Barbara ; Kurome, Mayuko ; Hinrichs, Arne ; Koopmans, Sietse Jan ; Krebs, Stefan ; Kemter, Elisabeth ; Rathkolb, Birgit ; Nagashima, Hiroshi ; Blum, Helmut ; Ritzmann, Mathias ; Wanke, Rüdiger ; Aigner, Bernhard ; Adamski, Jerzy ; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin ; Wolf, Eckhard - \ 2019
Disease Models & Mechanisms 12 (2019)8. - ISSN 1754-8411
Developmental programming - Maternal diabetes - Metabolomics - Pig - Transgenic

Alongside the obesity epidemic, the prevalence of maternal diabetes is rising worldwide, and adverse effects on fetal development and metabolic disturbances in the offspring's later life have been described. To clarify whether metabolic programming effects are due to mild maternal hyperglycemia without confounding obesity, we investigated wild-type offspring of INSC93S transgenic pigs, which are a novel genetically modified large-animal model expressing mutant insulin (INS) C93S in pancreatic β-cells. This mutation results in impaired glucose tolerance, mild fasting hyperglycemia and insulin resistance during late pregnancy. Compared with offspring from wild-type sows, piglets from hyperglycemic mothers showed impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance: +3-fold in males; +4.4-fold in females) prior to colostrum uptake. Targeted metabolomics in the fasting and insulin-stimulated state revealed distinct alterations in the plasma metabolic profile of piglets from hyperglycemic mothers. They showed increased levels of acylcarnitines, gluconeogenic precursors such as alanine, phospholipids (in particular lyso-phosphatidylcholines) and α-aminoadipic acid, a potential biomarker for type 2 diabetes. These observations indicate that mild gestational hyperglycemia can cause impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and associated metabolic alterations in neonatal offspring of a large-animal model born at a developmental maturation status comparable to human babies.

Sea ice biology and biogeochemistry
Peeken, I. ; Castellani, Giula ; Flores, Hauke ; Ehrlich, Julia ; Lange, Benjamin ; Schaafsma, F.L. ; Gradinger, Rolf ; Hassett, Brandon ; Kunisch, Erin ; Damm, Ellen ; Verdugo, Josefa ; Kohlbach, Doreen ; Graeve, Martin ; Blum, Bodil - \ 2018
In: The expeditions PS106/1 and 2 of the research vessel Polarstern to the Arctic Ocean in 2017 / Macke, Andreas, Flores, Hauke, Helmholtz : AWI Alfred-Wegener-Institut (Berichte zur Polar-und Meeresforschung ) - p. 99 - 119.
Changes in soil organic carbon stocks by urbanization
Vasenev, V.I. ; Stoorvogel, J.J. ; Dolgikh, A.V. ; Ananyeva, N.D. ; Ivashchenko, K.V. ; Valentini, R. - \ 2017
In: Urban Soils / Lal, R., Stewart, B.A., Boca Raton : CRC Press - ISBN 9781498770095 - p. 61 - 92.

Soils accumulate about 1500-2000 Pg (1015 g) C, providing the largest stock in terrestrial ecosystems (Swift, 2001; Janzen, 2004). Historically, soil organic carbon (SOC) is a widely accepted indicator of soil quality. For example, SOC depletion is used as a basic indicator of soil degradation (Nortcliff, 2002; Bastida et al., 2008). The shift in recent decades from traditional agricultural attitudes of soil as a substrate for food production to its role in essential ecological processes and functions highlighted the importance of soil carbon stocks and fluxes (Bolin et al., 1979; Kovda and Rozanov, 1988). Carbon 62sequestration, for example, is an important process to mitigate climate change (IPCC, 2001; Lal, 2004; Janzen, 2004), whereas soil respiration is the largest biogeochemical carbon efflux into the atmosphere, contributing to climate change (Raich et al., 2002; Schulze, 2006). Soil microbial carbon indicates the soil’s performance as a habitat for microorganisms. Soil microbial communities contribute to biodiversity and gene reservoirs (Andrews et al., 2004; Blum, 2005; Dobrovolsky and Nikitin, 2012). The relation between soil microbial carbon and microbial respiration defines the microbial metabolic coefficient, which is widely accepted as a relevant indicator of the state of microbial soil communities and ecosystem disturbance (Anderson and Domsch, 1985; Dilly et al., 2003; Bastida et al., 2006). Many studies classifying and assessing soil functions acknowledge the role of SOC (e.g., BBodSchG, 1998; Karlen et al., 2003; Andrews et al., 2004; Blum, 2005; Dobrovolsky and Nikitin, 2012; Table 3.1). Although reviewed approaches to classify soil functions differ in terms of definitions and labels of each function, their total number, and the classification’s major purpose, they all consider SOC as an important parameter: up to two thirds of the soil functions are directly or indirectly related to SOC stocks. The recently emerged concept of ecosystem services (ESs; MA, 2003) expands the analysis of environmental properties, processes, and functions with human economic benefits (de Groot, 1992; Costanza et al., 1997). Although soil services are considered part of ESs (Breure et al., 2012), SOC directly or indirectly affects many specific ESs, including soil fertility maintenance, food production, and climate regulation (MA, 2003; TEEB, 2010). Currently, most of the carbon assessments focus on natural (forest/meadows) and agricultural ecosystems (e.g., Islam and Weil, 2000; Valentini et al., 2000; Hamilton et al., 2002; Cruvinel et al., 2011; Fromin et al., 2012). Much less, however, is known about the effect of urbanization on soil carbon stocks and fluxes.

The effect of arginine supplementation and milk allowance on small intestinal development in pre-weaning calves
Keulen, P. van; Welboren, A.C. ; Khan, M.A. ; Knol, F.W. ; Dijkstra, J. ; McCoard, S.A. - \ 2017
Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production 77 (2017). - ISSN 0370-2731 - p. 88 - 90.
The gastrointestinal tract is an organ system crucial in feed digestion, nutrient absorption and protection against external pathogens. In this respect, changes in the structure of the small intestine in pre-ruminant calves are particularly important because it is the primary site of digestion and absorption (Blum 2006). Understanding factors that influence intestinal development is essential to inform calf feeding practices to optimise growth performance and health. Increasing milk allowance increases calf growth, but suppresses solid feed intake before weaning and, therefore, delays rumen development (Khan et al. 2011). In comparison to the rumen, development of the small intestine has received little attention in calf nutrition (Steele et al. 2016) and the effect of increased milk intake on small intestine development in calves is largely unknown (Khan et al. 2016).
Soil aggregation and soil organic matter in conventionally and organically farmed Austrian Chernozems
Sandén, Taru ; Lair, Georg J. ; Leeuwen, Jeroen P. Van; Gísladóttir, Guorún ; Bloem, Jaap ; Ragnarsdóttir, Kristín Vala ; Steffens, Markus ; Blum, Winfried E.H. - \ 2017
Bodenkultur 68 (2017)1. - ISSN 0006-5471 - p. 41 - 55.
Aggregate hierarchy - Aggregate stability - Organic matter dynamics - Particulate organic matter (POM) - Solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy
In order to study the soil aggregate distributions and soil organic matter (SOM), we sampled top- and subsoils in four intensively farmed croplands (two organic (Org-OB and Org-LA), and two conventional (Con-OB and Con-LA)) on Haplic Chernozems located in Marchfeld in the east of Vienna (Austria). Soil structure and SOM quantity, quality and distribution between free and occluded particulate organic matter and aggregate size fractions (<20 μm, 20-250 μm, 250-5000 μm) were studied by following a density fractionation procedure with low-energy ultrasound treatment. Te relation of the soil physicochemical (e.g., particle size distribution, pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen) and biological properties (e.g., fungal biomass, active fungi) with stable soil aggregate size fractions and SOM was studied. Te mean weight diameter (MWD) showed no significant difference between all studied sites and was between 3.8 mm and 10.0 mm in topsoils and between 6.7 mm and 11.9 mm in subsoils. In topsoils, the contents of calcium-acetate-lactate (CAL)-extractable P, active fungal biomass, dithionite-extractable Fe and sand were significantly positively correlated with the amount of the macroaggregates and with the MWD. We observed that most soil organic carbon, depending on soil texture, was stored in the microaggregate size classes <20 μm and 20-250 μm.
Global phylogeoraphy of Rattus norvegicus
Puckett, Emily E. ; Park, Jane ; Combs, Matthew ; Blum, Michael J. ; Bryant, Juliet E. ; Caccone, Adalgisa ; Costa, Federico ; Deinum, E.E. - \ 2017
Rattus norvegicus - PRJNA344413 - SRP090424
We investigated the global phylogeography of the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) to understand routes of range expansion and population structure.
Soil Functions in Earth's Critical Zone : Key Results and Conclusions
Banwart, S.A. ; Bernasconi, S.M. ; Blum, W.E.H. ; Souza, D.M. de; Chabaux, F. ; Duffy, C. ; Kercheva, M. ; Krám, P. ; Lair, G.J. ; Lundin, L. ; Menon, M. ; Nikolaidis, N. ; Novak, M. ; Panagos, P. ; Ragnarsdottir, K.V. ; Robinson, D.A. ; Rousseva, S. ; Ruiter, P. de; Gaans, P. van; Weng, L. ; White, T. ; Zhang, B. - \ 2017
Advances in Agronomy 142 (2017). - ISSN 0065-2113 - p. 1 - 27.
Critical zone - Ecosystem services - Soil - Soil functions - Water
This chapter summarizes the methods, results, and conclusions of a 5-year research project (SoilTrEC: Soil Transformations in European Catchments) on experimentation, process modeling, and computational simulation of soil functions and soil threats across a network of European, Chinese, and United States Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs). The study focused on the soil functions of biomass production, carbon storage, water storage and transmission, water filtration, transformation of nutrients, and maintaining habitat and genetic diversity.The principal results demonstrate that soil functions can be quantified as biophysical flows and transformations of material and energy. The functions can be simulated with mathematical models of soil processes within the soil profile and at the critical zone interfaces with vegetation and atmosphere, surface waters and the below-ground vadose zone and groundwater. A new dynamic model for soil structure development, together with data sets from the CZOs, demonstrate both seasonal fluctuations in soil structure dynamics related to vegetation dynamics and soil carbon inputs, and long-term trends (decadal) in soil carbon storage and soil structure development.Cross-site comparison for 20 soil profiles at seven field sites with variation in soil type, lithology, land cover, land use, and climate demonstrate that sites can be classified, using model parameter values for soil aggregation processes together with climatic conditions and soil physical properties, along a trajectory of soil structure development from incipient soil formation through productive land use to overly intensive land use with soil degradation.A new modeling code, the Integrated Critical Zone model, was applied with parameter sets developed from the CZO site data to simulate the biophysical flows and transformations that quantify multiple soil functions. Process simulations coupled the new model for soil structure dynamics with existing modeling approaches for soil carbon dynamics, nutrient transformations, vegetation dynamics, hydrological flow and transport, and geochemical equilibria and mineral weathering reactions. Successful calibration, testing, and application of the model with data sets from horticulture plot manipulation experiments demonstrate the potential to apply modeling and simulation to the scoping and design of new practices and policy options to enhance soil functions and reduce soil threats worldwide.
Trends in approval times for genetically engineered crops in the United States and the European Unio
Smart, Richard D. ; Blum, Matthias ; Wesseler, J.H.H. - \ 2017
Journal of Agricultural Economics 68 (2017)1. - ISSN 0021-857X - p. 182 - 198.
Authorisation - EU - GE - genetically modified organism (GMO) - regulatory oversight - transgenic - US
Genetically engineered (GE) crops are subject to regulatory oversight to Ensure their safety for humans and the environment. Their approval in the European Union (EU) starts with an application in a given Member State followed by a scientific risk assessment, and ends with a political decision-making step (risk management). Int he United States (US) approval begins with a scientific (field trial) step and ends with a 'bureaucratic' decision-making step. We investigate trends for the time taken for these steps and the overall time taken for approving GE crops in the US and the EU. Our resulst show that from 1996-2015 the overall time trend for aproval in the EU cereased thd then flattened off, with an overall mean completion-time of 1,763 days. In the US in 1998 there was a break in the trend of the overall approval time. Initially, from 1988 until 1997 the trend decreased with a mean approval time of 1,321 days; from 1998-2015, the trend almost stagnated with amean approval time of 2,467 days.
Data from: Global population divergence and admixture of the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus)
Puckett, Emily E. ; Park, Jane ; Combs, Matthew ; Blum, Michael J. ; Bryant, Juliet E. ; Caccone, Adalgisa ; Costa, Federico ; Deinum, E.E. - \ 2016
commensal - invasive species - population genomics - cityscapes - phylogeography - RAD-seq - Rattus norvegicus - Rattus rattus
Native to China and Mongolia, the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) now enjoys a worldwide distribution. While black rats and the house mouse tracked the regional development of human agricultural settlements, brown rats did not appear in Europe until the 1500s, suggesting their range expansion was a response to relatively recent increases in global trade. We inferred the global phylogeography of brown rats using 32 k SNPs, and detected 13 evolutionary clusters within five expansion routes. One cluster arose following a southward expansion into Southeast Asia. Three additional clusters arose from two independent eastward expansions: one expansion from Russia to the Aleutian Archipelago, and a second to western North America. Westward expansion resulted in the colonization of Europe from which subsequent rapid colonization of Africa, the Americas and Australasia occurred, and multiple evolutionary clusters were detected. An astonishing degree of fine-grained clustering between and within sampling sites underscored the extent to which urban heterogeneity shaped genetic structure of commensal rodents. Surprisingly, few individuals were recent migrants, suggesting that recruitment into established populations is limited. Understanding the global population structure of R. norvegicus offers novel perspectives on the forces driving the spread of zoonotic disease, and aids in development of rat eradication programmes.
Global population divergence and admixture of the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus)
Puckett, Emily E. ; Park, Jane ; Combs, Matthew ; Blum, Michael J. ; Bryant, Juliet E. ; Caccone, Adalgisa ; Costa, Federico ; Deinum, Eva E. ; Esther, Alexandra ; Himsworth, Chelsea G. ; Keightley, Peter D. ; Ko, Albert ; Lundkvist, Åke ; McElhinney, Lorraine M. ; Morand, Serge ; Robins, Judith ; Russell, James ; Strand, Tanja M. ; Suarez, Olga ; Yon, Lisa ; Munshi-South, Jason - \ 2016
Proceedings of the Royal Society. B: Biological Sciences 283 (2016)1841. - ISSN 0962-8452 - 9 p.
Cityscapes - Commensal - Invasive species - Phylogeography - Population genomics - RAD-Seq

Native to China and Mongolia, the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) now enjoys a worldwide distribution. While black rats and the house mouse tracked the regional development of human agricultural settlements, brown rats did not appear in Europe until the 1500s, suggesting their range expansion was a response to relatively recent increases in global trade. We inferred the global phylogeography of brown rats using 32 k SNPs, and detected 13 evolutionary clusters within five expansion routes. One cluster arose following a southward expansion into Southeast Asia. Three additional clusters arose from two independent eastward expansions: one expansion from Russia to the Aleutian Archipelago, and a second to western North America. Westward expansion resulted in the colonization of Europe from which subsequent rapid colonization of Africa, the Americas and Australasia occurred, and multiple evolutionary clusters were detected. An astonishing degree of fine-grained clustering between and within sampling sites underscored the extent to which urban heterogeneity shaped genetic structure of commensal rodents. Surprisingly, few individuals were recent migrants, suggesting that recruitment into established populations is limited. Understanding the global population structure of R. norvegicus offers novel perspectives on the forces driving the spread of zoonotic disease, and aids in development of rat eradication programmes.

Sediment provenance, soil development, and carbon content in fluvial and manmade terraces at Koiliaris River Critical Zone Observatory
Moraetis, Daniel ; Paranychianakis, Nikolaos V. ; Nikolaidis, N.P. ; Banwart, S.A. ; Rousseva, S. ; Kercheva, M. ; Nenov, Martin ; Shishkov, T. ; Ruiter, P.C. de; Bloem, J. ; Blum, W.E.H. ; Lair, G.J. ; Gaans, Pauline van; Verheul, M. - \ 2015
Journal of Soils and Sediments 15 (2015)2. - ISSN 1439-0108 - p. 347 - 364.
The purpose of this study was the investigation of sediment provenance and soil formation processes within a Mediterranean watershed (Koiliaris CZO in Greece) with particular emphasis on natural and manmade terraces. Material and methods Five sites (K1–K5) were excavated and analyzed for their pedology (profile description), geochemistry [including rare earth elements (REEs) and other trace elements], texture, and mineralogy along with chronological analysis (optical luminescence dating). The selected sites have the common characteristic of being flat terraces while the sites differed with regard to bedrock lithology, elevation, and land use. Results and discussion Three characteristic processes of soil genesis were identified: (1) sediments transportation from outcrops of metamorphic rocks and sedimentation at the fluvial sites (K1–K2), (2) in situ soil development in manmade terraces (K3, K4), and (3) strong eolian input and/or material transported by gravity from upslope at the mountainous site (K5). REE patterns verified the soil genesis processes while they revealed also soil development processes such as (a) calcite deposition (K1), (b) clay illuviation and strong weathering (K4), and (c) possibly fast oxidation/precipitation processes (K3). Carbon sequestration throughout the soil profile was high at manmade terraces at higher elevation compared to fluvial environments due to both climatic effects and possibly intensive anthropogenic impact. Conclusions Soils at Koiliaris CZO were rather young soils with limited evolution. The different soil age, land use, and climatic effect induced various soil genesis and soil development processes. The manmade terraces at higher elevation have much higher carbon sequestration compared to the anthropogenic impacted fluvial areas.
EU member states' voting for authorizing genetically engineered crops : A regulatory gridlock
Smart, Richard D. ; Blum, Matthias ; Wesseler, Justus - \ 2015
German Journal of Agricultural Economics 64 (2015)4. - ISSN 0002-1121 - p. 244 - 262.
Appeal Committee - Approval process - Authorization - Council - GE - Genetically modified organism (GMO) - Opt-out - Political economy - Qualified majority vote - Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health - Voting behaviour

Several authors suggest a gridlock of the European Union's (EU's) approval process for genetically engineered (GE) crops. We analyse the voting behaviour of EU Member States (MSs) for voting results from 2003 to 2015 on the approval of GE crops to test for a gridlock; no reliable data are available pre-2003 - a time which included the EU's moratorium on GE crops. After the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has given a favourable opinion on the safety of a GE crop, the Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health (SCFCAH) votes on the application. If the SCFCAH reaches no decision, the Appeal Committee (AC) (pre the Treaty of Lisbon: the Council) votes on the application; if no decision is reached here, the final decision is left to the European Commission. All EU Member States (MSs) are represented on both committees; decisions are made by a qualified majority (QM) voting system, the rules of which have changed over time. Our data include 50 events; and 61 ballots at the SCFCAH and 57 ballots at the Council/AC. A QM has been achieved once only at the SCFCAH, but never at Council. At Council/AC level, Austria and Croatia have consistently voted against an approval, while The Netherlands has always supported approvals. All other MSs showed differences in their voting decisions at the SCFCAH and Council/AC level at least once. MS-fixed-effects are the major factors explaining the voting results supporting the gridlock hypothesis, while crop characteristics and crop use play no apparent role in MSs' voting behaviour. We maintain that a QM is unlikely following the latest directive for MSs to 'opt-out' on GE crop cultivation in their territories.

Aggregation and organic matter in subarctic Andosols under different grassland management
Lehtinen, T. ; Gisladottir, G. ; Lair, G.J. ; Leeuwen, J.P. van; Blum, W.E.H. ; Bloem, J. ; Steffens, M. ; Ragnarsdottir, K.V. - \ 2015
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section B-Soil and Plant Science 65 (2015)3. - ISSN 0906-4710 - p. 246 - 263.
c-13 nmr-spectroscopy - soil microbial biomass - mediterranean conditions - structural stability - cultivated soils - farming systems - volcanic soils - carbon stocks - land-use - tillage
Quantity and quality of soil organic matter (SOM) affect physical, chemical, and biological soil properties, and are pivotal to productive and healthy grasslands. Thus, we analyzed the distribution of soil aggregates and assessed quality, quantity, and distribution of SOM in two unimproved and improved (two organic and two conventional) grasslands in subarctic Iceland, in Haplic and Histic Andosols. We also evaluated principal physicochemical and biological soil properties, which influence soil aggregation and SOM dynamics. Macroaggregates (>250 µm) in topsoils were most prominent in unimproved (62–77%) and organically (58–69%) managed sites, whereas 20–250 µm aggregates were the most prominent in conventionally managed sites (51–53%). Macroaggregate stability in topsoils, measured as mean weight diameter, was approximately twice as high in organically managed (12–20 mm) compared with the conventionally managed (5–8 mm) sites, possibly due to higher organic inputs (e.g., manure, compost, and cattle urine). In unimproved grasslands and one organic site, macroaggregates contributed between 40% and 70% of soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen to bulk soil, whereas in high SOM concentration sites free particulate organic matter contributed up to 70% of the SOC and nitrogen to bulk soil. Aggregate hierarchy in Haplic Andosols was confirmed by different stabilizing mechanisms of micro- and macroaggregates, however, somewhat diminished by oxides (pyrophosphate-, oxalate-, and dithionite-extractable Fe, Al, and Mn) acting as binding agents for macroaggregates. In Histic Andosols, no aggregate hierarchy was observed. The higher macroaggregate stability in organic farming practice compared with conventional farming is of interest due to the importance of macroaggregates in protecting SOM and soils from erosion, which is a prerequisite for soil functions in grasslands that are envisaged for food production in the future.
EU member states' voting behaviour on GE crop approvals
Smart, R. ; Blum, M. ; Wesseler, J.H.H. - \ 2014
In: Book of Abstracts 18th ICABR Conference - Bioeconomy and Development. - AATF - p. 21 - 21.
After the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has given a favourable scientific opinion on the approval of a genetically engineered crop, the Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health (SCFCAH) votes on the application. If SCFCAH reaches no decision, the Appeal Committee (AC) (pre the Treaty of Lisbon: the Council) votes on the application; both committees have never reached a decision either in favour of, or against any application. The final decision is left to the European Commission. All EU Member States (MSs) are represented on both committees; decisions are made by a qualified majority vote (QMV), the rules of which have changed over time. We analyse the voting behaviour of EU MSs over time for results collected since 2003. The data include 37 events, and 51 decisions by SCFCAH and 43 decisions by the Council / AC. Neither at SCFCAH nor Council / AC level has a QMV ever been achieved. At Council / AC level, Austria and The Netherlands have consistently voted against and in favour of an approval, respectively. Other MSs show changes in voting behaviour with respect to the event both at SCFCAH and Council / AC. All MSs showed differences in their voting decisions at SCFCAH and Council / AC level at least once. The paper further analyses the likelihood of a QMV (for / against) of an approval, the minimum number of MSs needed for such a result, and discusses the likelihood of this happening in the near future.
Farming effects on soil organic matter and aggregate stability of Icelandic Brown and Histic Andosols
Lehtinen, T. ; Gisladottir, G. ; Lair, G.J. ; Leeuwen, J. van; Blum, W.E.H. ; Bloem, J. ; Ragnarsdottir, K.V. - \ 2013
In: Proceedings of the Soil Carbon Sequestration for climate, food security and ecosystem services, May 26-29, 2013, Reykjavik, Iceland. - Reykjavik : Soil Conservation Service of Iceland & Agricultural University of Iceland - p. 32 - 32.
Response of soil properties to different farming practices - case studies in Iceland and Austria
Lehtinen, T. ; Lair, G.J. ; Gisladottir, G. ; Bloem, J. ; Leeuwen, J. van; Ragnarsdottir, K.V. ; Blum, W. - \ 2012
In: Proceedings of the 4th International Congress EUROSOIL, July 2-6, 2012, Bari, Italy. - European Confederation of Soil Science Societies - p. 2661 - 2661.
Arable land covers approximately one fourth of the global land area, but only half of it can be used efficiently for cultivation to feed the growing population. Modern agriculture has developed highly productive food and biomass-producing systems based on industrial principles, which has lead to a considerable environmental burden. Organic agriculture has expanded as a movement towards more sustainable food production, which aims to maintain the key functions and ecosystems services of soils. At present, approximately 0.7% of global and 4% of European agricultural lands are managed organically (Willer and Youssefi, 2007). Soil organic matter (SOM) and its turnover play a pivotal role in the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and in the response of terrestrial carbon to future climate scenarios. Its fate and dynamics are mainly governed and understood by its properties and physiology of the soil organisms (von Lützow and Kögel-Knabler, 2009). A key to understand and define a sustainable agricultural soil system is to quantify the impact of different land use on soil structure and biogeochemistry, with emphasis on nutrient turnover. The goal of our future research is to evaluate SOM pools in different soil aggregate sizes under different farming systems (organic vs. conventional) and link them to soil biodiversity. Soils were selected along cultivation age gradients under subarctic (Iceland, Andosols) and continental climate (Austria, Chernozems). The further outcome of this research is to identify quantifiable natural indicators for farm sustainability assessments. Gained data will also be linked to energy balance and food productivity in order to get more insights in benefits of different farming practices.
Impact of time and land use on carbon accumulation and structure formation in soils
Lair, G.J. ; Lehtinen, T. ; Djukic, I. ; Schiefer, J. ; Bloem, J. ; Blum, W. - \ 2012
In: Proceedings of the 4th International Congress EUROSOIL, July 2-16, 2012, Bari, Italy. - European Confederation of Soil Science Societies - p. 778 - 778.
Characterization of european critical zone observatories at soil profile scale - an overview
Rousseva, S. ; Blum, W. ; Kercheva, M. ; Lair, G.J. ; Regelink, I.C. ; Gaans, P. van; Shishkov, T. ; Ilieva, R. ; Bloem, J. ; Leeuwen, J. van - \ 2012
In: Proceedings of the 4th International Congress EUROSOIL, July 2-16, 2012, Bari, Italy. - European Confederation of Soil Science Societies - p. 777 - 777.
Pleiotropic effects of polymorphism of the gene diacylglycerol-O-transferase 1 (DGAT1) in the mammary gland tissue of dairy cows
Mach Casellas, N. ; Blum, Y. ; Bannink, A. ; Causeur, D. ; Houee-Bigot, M. ; Lagarrigue, S. ; Smits, M.A. - \ 2012
Journal of Dairy Science 95 (2012)9. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 4989 - 5000.
milk-production - germplasm collections - cattle breeds - factor model - fatty-acids - r-package - expression - traits - french - nucleotide
Microarray analysis was used to identify genes whose expression in the mammary gland of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows was affected by the nonconservative Ala to Lys amino acid substitution at position 232 in exon VIII of the diacylglycerol-O-transferase 1 (DGAT1) gene. Mammary gland biopsies of 9 homozygous Ala cows, 13 heterozygous cows (Ala/Lys), and 4 homozygous Lys cows in midlactation were taken. Microarray ANOVA and factor analysis for multiple testing methods were used as statistical methods to associate the expression level of the genes present on Affymetrix bovine genome arrays (Affymetrix Inc., Santa Clara, CA) with the DGAT1 gene polymorphism. The data was also analyzed at the level of functional modules by gene set enrichment analysis. In this small-scale experimental setting, DGAT1 gene polymorphism did not modify milk yield and composition significantly, although expected changes occurred in the yields of C14:0, cis-9 C16:1, and long-chain fatty acids. Diacylglycerol-O-transferase 1 gene polymorphism affected the expression of 30 annotated genes related to cell growth, proliferation, and development, remodeling of the tissue, cell signaling and immune system response. Furthermore, the main affected functional modules were related to energy metabolism (lipid biosynthesis, oxidative phosphorylation, electron transport chain, citrate cycle, and propanoate metabolism), protein degradation (proteosome-ubiquitin pathways), and the immune system. We hypothesize that the observed differences in transcriptional activity reflect counter mechanisms of mammary gland tissue to respond to changes in milk fatty acid concentration or composition, or both
Soil processes and functions in critical zone observatories: hypotheses and experimental design
Banwart, S. ; Bernasconi, S.M. ; Bloem, J. ; Blum, W. ; Ruiter, P.C. de; Gaans, P. van; Riemsdijk, W.H. van - \ 2011
Vadose Zone Journal 10 (2011)3. - ISSN 1539-1663 - p. 974 - 987.
solid-solution interface - physical quality - organic-matter - water-quality - river-basin - adsorption - catchments - (hydr)oxides - ecosystems - deposition
European Union policy on soil threats and soil protection has prioritized new research to address global soil threats. This research draws on the methodology of Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs) to focus a critical mass of international, multidisciplinary expertise at specific field sites. These CZOs were selected as part of an experimental design to study soil processes and ecosystem function along a hypothesized soil life cycle—from incipient soil formation where new parent material is being deposited, to highly degraded soils that have experienced millennia of intensive land use. Further CZOs have been selected to broaden the range of soil environments and data sets to test soil process models that represent the stages of the soil life cycle. The scientific methodology for this research focuses on the central role of soil structure and soil aggregate formation and stability in soil processes. Research methods include detailed analysis and mathematical modeling of soil properties related to aggregate formation and their relation to key processes of reactive transport, nutrient transformation, and C and food web dynamics in soil ecosystems. Within this program of research, quantification of soil processes across an international network of CZOs is focused on understanding soil ecosystem services including their quantitative monetary valuation within the soil life cycle. Further experimental design at the global scale is enabled by this type of international CZO network. One example is a proposed experiment to study soil ecosystem services along planetary-scale environmental gradients. This would allow scientists to gain insight into the responses of soil processes to increasing human pressures on Earth's critical zone that arise through rapidly changing land use and climate.
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