Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Rurality and multi-level governance : Marginal rural areas inciting community governance
Bock, Bettina B. - \ 2019
In: The Routledge Companion to Rural Planning Taylor and Francis Inc. - ISBN 9781138104051 - p. 103 - 113.
In the late 1990s, the shift of power from government to governance was a critical subject of academic debate. In the rural context, studies focused on the role of governance in endogenous models of development. The discussion centred on the opportunities for development from bottom-up and based on local resources, the danger of elite groups’ dominance and the legitimacy of rural governance within a representative democracy society. Changes in the governing of rural areas have continued ever since and proceeded in the same direction. They reflect the continuous withdrawal of the state from public tasks in the aftermath of the financial crisis and as part of welfare state reforms. Lack of public funds is one driver of this development, yet this is – again – presented as an opportunity for citizen empowerment. Marginal rural areas are affected in a particular way; because of the diminishing support from central governments, active citizens play an increasingly important role in maintaining vital services. In a way they may, hence, be considered as natural laboratories for testing and understanding the opportunities and limits of multilevel governance. This chapter looks into the development of thought about rural governance in relation to rural development. In sketches how research and theory developed since the 1990s, appointing and discussing the most important strands of thought in rural governance literature. It then focuses on current research in marginal rural areas where we see a broad spectrum of multilevel governance mechanisms, before the conclusions regarding the characteristics of current multi-level governance, its functioning and its results.
The social influence of investment decisions : A game about the Dutch pork sector
Ambrosius, Floor H.W. ; Hofstede, Gert Jan ; Bokkers, Eddie A.M. ; Bock, Bettina B. ; Beulens, Adrie J.M. - \ 2019
Livestock Science 220 (2019). - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 111 - 122.
Farmer decision-making - Innovation diffusion - Opinion leadership - Role-playing games - Simulation games - Social influence

Policy makers and researchers foresee four investment strategies for conventional pig farmers in contested pork production regions: (1) continue with a cost-price reduction strategy through modernisation and scale enlargement; (2) convert to an intermediate market segment with higher requirements as to animal welfare and environment than conventional; (3) convert to a niche market segment with higher requirements as to animal welfare and environment than intermediate; or (4) quit farming. For policy makers, it is interesting to gain insight in intensive livestock farmer's perceptions regarding these investments and in processes of social interaction that influence farmer decision-making and the potential diffusion of investment strategies over time (Edwards-Jones, 2006). The aim of this explorative study is to analyse the effect of social interaction on diffusion of investment strategies in capital-intensive livestock production systems with groups of Dutch pig farmers, using a simulation game. The game is designed in such a way that contextual factors do not provide a limiting factor. Furthermore, the game is constructed to stimulate interaction and to trigger imagination of participants. Our main research questions for the analysis of the results of the game sessions were: (1) ‘what are differences in diffusion of investment strategies between sessions?’ and (2) ‘to what extent does social interaction affect diffusion of investment strategies?’ A total of seven sessions were played, with 4–8 pig farmers and/or participants who were affiliated to the sector as advisor or successor. All game sessions were video- and voice- recorded, and interaction between participants was transcribed per game session. First, differences in diffusion of investment strategies between sessions were explored. Second, the causes for differences in diffusion between sessions were explored, by looking at the type of investment strategy, communication between participants, and processes of influence. Special attention was given to the influence of opinion leadership. The results of this research show that (1) only investment strategies with a financial benefit did, under influence of social interaction, result in high adoption; (2) for high adoption to occur, communication between participants was necessary; (3) opinion leaders played an essential role in high adoption of investment strategies; and (4) there was a common understanding among participants that favoured scale enlargement. The gaming methodology triggered participants to communicate their tacit knowledge, i.e. assessment criteria that are important in real-life investment decisions, and to experiment with investment strategies.

A model integrating social-cultural concepts of nature into frameworks of interaction between social and natural systems
Muhar, Andreas ; Raymond, Christopher M. ; Born, Riyan J.G. van den; Bauer, Nicole ; Böck, Kerstin ; Braito, Michael ; Buijs, Arjen ; Flint, Courtney ; Groot, Wouter T. de; Ives, Christopher D. ; Mitrofanenko, Tamara ; Plieninger, Tobias ; Tucker, Catherine ; Riper, Carena J. van - \ 2018
Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 61 (2018)5-6. - ISSN 0964-0568 - p. 756 - 777.
environmental behaviour - governance - human-nature relationship - social-ecological system

Existing frameworks for analysing interactions between social and natural systems (e.g. Social-Ecological Systems framework, Ecosystem Services concept) do not sufficiently consider and operationalize the dynamic interactions between people's values, attitudes and understandings of the human-nature relationship at both individual and collective levels. We highlight the relevance of individual and collective understandings of the human-nature relationship as influencing factors for environmental behaviour, which may be reflected in natural resource management conflicts, and review the diversity of existing social-cultural concepts, frameworks and associated research methods. Particular emphasis is given to the context-sensitivity of social-cultural concepts in decision-making. These aspects are translated into a conceptual model aiming not to replace but to expand and enhance existing frameworks. Integrating this model into existing frameworks provides a tool for the exploration of how social-cultural concepts of nature interact with existing contexts to influence governance of social-ecological systems.

Rural Futures : Inclusive rural development in times of urbanisation
Bock, Bettina B. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - ISBN 9789463435550 - 24
Leefbaarheidsinitiatieven op het platteland : analyse van eigenheid en eigenaarschap
Bock, Bettina ; During, Roel ; Dam, Rosalie van; Donders, Josine ; Kruit, Jeroen ; Pleijte, Marcel ; Witte, David de - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 89
In onze dorpen is het heel gewoon: inwoners steken de handen uit de
mouwen. Met grote en kleine initiatieven zorgen ze ervoor dat hun dorp
vitaal en leefbaar blijft. Dat is altijd al zo geweest. Dorpen hebben hun
eigen feesten en evenementen. Buren zorgen voor buren. Zo doen we dat.
Sinds onze koning het begrip participatiesamenleving introduceerde,
is er veel aandacht voor het enorme zelforganiserende vermogen in de
dorpen. En hoe gewoon wij dat vermogen ook vinden, het is tegelijkertijd
ontzettend bijzonder. Want mensen komen en gaan, initiatieven in
dorpen blijven. Hoe kan dat?
Dit jaar viert de P10 haar 10-jarig bestaan. Net als vijf jaar geleden lieten
we een onderzoek doen. Dit keer stonden bewonersinitiatieven en de
leefbaarheid in dorpen centraal, de grote gemene deler in de P10. We
vroegen ons af wat bewoners beweegt en hoe zij naar hun leefbaarheid
kijken. En we probeerden te achterhalen hoe wij als P10 het zelforganiserend
vermogen kunnen stimuleren en benutten in ons streven naar een
vitaal platteland.
“‘There is dignity only with livestock’: Land grabbing and the changing social practices of pastoralist women in Gujarat, India”
Duncan, J.A.B. ; Agarwal, Monika - \ 2017
In: Cosmopolitan rural gender relations / Bock, Bettina, Shorthall , Sally, Boston : CABI - p. 52 - 75.
Publish or perish - what to do and not to do as a young scholar
Bock, Bettina - \ 2017
PhD event
Diversity at Life Science universities
Bock, Bettina - \ 2017
diversity - Higher education - inclusion
Rural marginalisation and the need for social innovation and nexogenous development
Bock, Bettina - \ 2017
rural development - inclusive development
Effect of processing intensity on immunologically active bovine milk serum proteins
Brick, Tabea ; Ege, Markus ; Boeren, Sjef ; Böck, Andreas ; Mutius, Erika Von; Vervoort, Jacques ; Hettinga, Kasper - \ 2017
Nutrients 9 (2017)9. - ISSN 2072-6643 - p. 1 - 14.
Heat stability - Immune-active proteins - Milk serum proteins - Proteomics
Consumption of raw cow’s milk instead of industrially processed milk has been reported to protect children from developing asthma, allergies, and respiratory infections. Several heat-sensitive milk serum proteins have been implied in this effect though unbiased assessment of milk proteins in general is missing. The aim of this study was to compare the native milk serum proteome between raw cow’s milk and various industrially applied processing methods, i.e.; homogenization, fat separation, pasteurization, ultra-heat treatment (UHT), treatment for extended shelf-life (ESL), and conventional boiling. Each processing method was applied to the same three pools of raw milk. Levels of detectable proteins were quantified by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry following filter aided sample preparation. In total, 364 milk serum proteins were identified. The 140 proteins detectable in 66% of all samples were entered in a hierarchical cluster analysis. The resulting proteomics pattern separated mainly as high (boiling, UHT, ESL) versus no/low heat treatment (raw, skimmed, pasteurized). Comparing these two groups revealed 23 individual proteins significantly reduced by heating, e.g.; lactoferrin (log2-fold change =-0.37, p = 0.004), lactoperoxidase (log2-fold change =-0.33, p = 0.001), and lactadherin (log2-fold change =-0.22, p = 0.020). The abundance of these heat sensitive proteins found in higher quantity in native cow’s milk compared to heat treated milk, renders them potential candidates for protection from asthma, allergies, and respiratory infections.
Gender and food practices - from seed to waste, an introduction
Bock, B.B. ; Duncan, J.A.B. - \ 2017
In: 2016 Yearbook of Women's History / Bock, Bettina, Duncan, Jessica, Uitgeverij Verloren - ISBN 9789087046262 - p. 1 - 14.
In nearly all societies gender has been, and continues to be, central in defining roles and responsibilities related to the production, manufacturing, provisioning, eating, and disposal of food. The 2016 Yearbook of Women’s History presents a collection of new contributions that look into the diversity of these gendered food-related practices to uncover new insights into the shifting relations of gender across food systems. Authors explore changing understandings and boundaries of food-related activities at the intersection of food and gender, across time and space. Look out for intriguing contributions that range from insights into the lives of market women in late medieval food trades in the Low Countries, the practices of activist women in the garbage movement of prewar Tokyo, the way grain storage technologies affect women in Zimbabwe, through to the impact of healthy eating blogs in the digital age.
Gender and mobility
Bock, B.B. - \ 2017
In: Gender and rural globalisation / Bock, Bettina Barbara, Shortall, Sally, CABI International - ISBN 9781780646251 - p. 8 - 18.
This chapter provides a brief overview of the development of the field of gender and migration and mobility. It then focuses, in particular, on research on mobility and migration in the rural context and the research questions that have gained the most attention in recent years. The chapter closes with an introduction to contributing chapters on the theme of gender and mobility.
Gender and international development
Bock, B.B. ; Burg, M.P.M. van der - \ 2017
In: Gender and rural globalisation / Bock, Bettina Barbara, Shortall, Sally, CABI International - ISBN 9781780646251 - p. 245 - 252.
Gender and rural globalisation: : an introduction to international perspecties on gender and rural development
Bock, B.B. ; Shortall, Sally - \ 2017
In: Gender and rural globalization / Bock, B., Shortall, S., CABI International - ISBN 9781780646251
This book explores how rural gender relations are changing in a globalizing world. It integrates experiences across the globe through the discussion of four key themes in rural gender research: agriculture, international development, gender identities and mobility. The first section (chapters 2-6) examines how mobility affects men and women in rural areas. It explores gender differences in mobility patterns and analyses how mobility affects rural gender identities and relations. The second section (chapters 7-11) focuses on agricultural change, the response of individuals within farm households and the implications for gender relations in rural areas. The third section (chapters 12-17) focuses on the construction of identities and the changes occurring in the definition of rural femininity and masculinity as a result of rural transformations. The fourth section (chapters 18-23) examines the role of international development policies in advancing women's well-being in the less developed parts of the world and some of the unintended consequences of such interventions. The contributors to this book present empirical work from the global North and South.
Conclusions - future directions
Shortall, Sally ; Bock, B.B. - \ 2017
In: Gender and rural globalization / Bock, B., Shortall, S., CABI International - ISBN 9781780646251 - p. 337 - 341.
This concluding chapter reflects on the key issues that need to be addressed in rural gender studies. It focuses particularly on two key issues for future consideration: (1) greater reflexivity about gender research in rural studies and how gender is represented in professional rural academia; and (2) comparative research that allows us to grasp the increasing global interconnectedness of gender relations across rural and urban places and across and within the global North and South that results from the globalization of society and social relations in general.
Gender, migration and rural livelihoods in Uzbekistan in times of change
Nizamedinkhodjayeva, N. ; Bock, B.B. ; Mollinga, P.P. - \ 2017
In: Gender and rural globalization / Bock, Bettina Barbara, Shortall, Sally, CABI International - ISBN 9781780646251 - p. 34 - 51.
This chapter discusses how labour migration in rural Uzbekistan, which increased enormously in the aftermath of its independence, affects the livelihood of those who stay behind and how the importance of the economic contribution of labour migrants impacts on household relations in terms of gender and generation.
The role of gender indicators in rural development programmes
Centrone, Alice ; Bock, B.B. ; Masso, A. ; Calvo, A. - \ 2017
In: Gender and rural globalization / Bock, Bettina Barbara, Shortall, Sally, CABI International - ISBN 9781780646251 - p. 304 - 321.
This chapter discusses the importance of gender indicators based on experiences in three rural regions in Senegal, an area in which the authors developed multidimensional gender indicators to support practitioners, particularly small and local actors, in project management issues and to inform policy makers. The investigated regional indicators enable an explicit understanding of how and how much the sample regions differ from each other, particularly in terms of nutrition, empowerment and access to resources.
Guest professor at the Food and Society Group, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development
Bock, Bettina - \ 2017
kloof en krimp, het belang van balans
Bock, Bettina - \ 2017
Leegte en ruimte : Over bevolkingsdaling en leefbaarheid in Noord Nederland, Groningen
Bock, B.B. - \ 2016
Groningen : Rijksuniversiteit Groningen - 20 p.
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